Universalism普遍主义

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Universalism is the theological doctrine that all souls will ultimately be saved and that there are no torments of hell. Universalism has been asserted at various times in different contexts throughout the history of the Christian church, as for example by Origen in the 3d century.普遍主义是神学教义,所有的灵魂最终将被保存,而且没有痛苦的地狱。普遍已经断言基督教教会在各个历史时期各地在不同情况下,为奥利例如在3D的世纪。

As an organized religious movement, however, universalism dates from the late 1700s in America, where its early leaders were Hosea Ballou, John Murray, and Elhanan Winchester.作为一项有组织的宗教运动,但是,埃尔赫南温彻斯特普遍性默里和日期从1700年代后期在美国,在那里它的早期领导人何西阿巴罗,约翰。 As a form of religious liberalism, it has had close contacts with Unitarianism throughout its history.作为一个自由主义形式的宗教,它有其历史的单一制整个密切联系。The Universalist Church of America and the American Unitarian Association merged in 1961 to form a single denomination - the Unitarian Universalist Association - which currently has about 173,000 members.美利坚世界主义教会和美国的UU协会于1961年合并,组成一个单一的面额-统一世界主义协会-目前有大约173,000个成员。

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E Casara, ed., Universalism in America (1984).é Casara,教育署。,在美国普遍主义(1984年)。


Universalism普遍主义

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Universalism is a belief which affirms that in the fullness of time all souls will be released from the penalties of sin and restored to God. Historically known as apokatastasis, final salvation denies the biblical doctrine of eternal punishment and is based on a faculty reading of Acts 3:21; Rom.普遍主义是一种信念,确认,在全部的时间都充满神的灵魂将被释放的刑罚从罪恶和恢复。历史apokatastasis称为,最终拯救否认永恒的惩罚是圣经的教义和行为的基础上读一系3:21;光盘。 5:18 - 19; Eph.5:18 - 19;弗。1:9 - 10; 1 Cor.1:9 - 10,1肺心病。15:22; and other passages. 15:22;和其他通道。Belief in universal salvation is at least as old as Christianity itself and may be associated with early Gnostic teachers.在普遍信仰得救是至少本身一样古老的基督教和相关教师可能早期诺斯底。The first clearly universalist writings, however, date from the Greek church fathers, most notably Clement of Alexandria, his student Origen, and Gregory of Nyssa.第一次明确普遍性的著作,但是,日期从希腊教会的父亲,最显着的克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,他的学生渊源,并尼萨格雷戈里。 Of these, the teachings of Origen, who believed that even the devil might eventually be saved, were the most influential.其中,被保存的教义的渊源,谁相信即使是魔鬼,最终可能,是最有影响力的。Numerous supporters of final salvation were to be found in the postapostolic church, although it was strongly opposed by Augustine of Hippo.最终拯救了无数的支持者将在postapostolic教堂发现,虽然它强烈反对由奥古斯丁的河马。Origen's theology was at length declared heretical at the fifth ecumenical council in 553.奥利的神学长度在申报邪教553年的第五次大公会议。

In Western Europe universalism almost completely disappeared during the Middle Ages, save for the Irish scholar John Scotus Erigena and some of the lesser - known mystics.在西欧普遍主义几乎完全消失在中世纪,除爱尔兰和学者约翰司各脱埃里杰纳小一些-著名的神秘主义者。Following Augustine, the Protestant Reformers Luther and Calvin also rejected final salvation.继奥古斯丁,路德和加尔文的新教改革者也拒绝最后的拯救。Some spiritualist and Anabaptist writers of the Radical Reformation, however, revived the doctrine.一些巫师和激进改革的再洗礼派作家,但是,复活的教义。In the sixteenth century it was embraced by the south German scholar Hans Denck and spread through his convent Hans Hut.在16世纪,它是由南方蔓延接受德国学者汉斯Denck,并通过他的修道院汉斯必胜客。The impact of Denck's universalism for the wider Anabaptist movement has probably been overemphasized.这一运动的影响Denck的普遍性为更广泛的再洗礼派有可能被过分强调。Mennonites and Hutterites, for example, have largely rejected a belief in the restoration of all things.门诺派和哈特莱特,例如,基本上拒绝了所有事情的信念恢复。

In America universalism developed out of roots from both radical German pietism and the English evangelical revival.在美国,英国福音复兴普遍性开发出根从德国虔诚主义和激进的。The pietist influence was strongly shaped by the mystic Jakob Boehme.虔信的影响形成了强烈的神秘雅各布博梅。Several noted radical pietists such as Johann Wilhelm Peterson (1649 - 1727) and Ernst Christoph Hochmann (1670 - 1721) were Boehmist in their development of final restoration, which became one of the most distinguishing characteristics of radical pietist theology.一些国家指出1721年)等激进的虔诚主义者约翰威廉彼得森(1649年至1727年)和克里斯托夫奥奇曼恩斯特(1670年-被神学Boehmist虔信在其发展的最终恢复,而成为一个激进的最显着特点。 This type of universalism was brought to the colonies by the physician George DeBenneville (1703 - 1793) and, to a lesser extent, by the German Baptist Brethren.这种类型的普遍主义被带到了殖民地的医生乔治DeBenneville(1703年至1793年),并在较小程度上弟兄们,由德国浸信会。 DeBenneville, who had close contacts with Hochmann, is widely regarded as the father of American universalism. DeBenneville,谁曾与奥奇曼密切接触,被广泛认为是美国的父亲的普遍性。As a separatist he preached frequently, but neither belonged to nor founded any church.由于他鼓吹分裂频繁,但不属于任何教会,也不成立。As with most radical pietists, universalism was an implicit but not central focus of his faith.如同最激进的虔诚主义,普遍主义是一个隐含的,但不是他的信仰的中心焦点。

Universalism which was explicit and the center of doctrine emerged out of Calvinism in England.这是明确的和普遍的理论中心出现了在英格兰的加尔文主义。Several sects which embraced final salvation developed out of seventeenth century Puritanism, among them the Philadelphians, founded by Jane Lead.简铅几个教派的拥抱最后拯救17世纪发展出来的清教,其中包括由Philadelphians,创立。It was not, however, until a century later, when James Relly broke with the Wesley - Whitefield revival, that an organized universalist movement appeared.这是没有,不过,直到一个世纪之后,当詹姆斯Relly打破了韦斯利- Whitefield的复兴,一个有组织的普遍性运动出现了。His Union (1759) rejected Calvinism and argued that all souls are in union with Christ.他的联盟(1759)拒绝加尔文主义,并认为所有的灵魂都在与基督联合。Christ's sacrificial punishment and death therefore brought salvation to all, not merely an elect few.基督的牺牲和死亡的惩罚,因此带来了拯救一切,不仅是选出几个。One of Relly's converts was John Murray, another Methodist preacher, who was excommunicated for his universalist views.转换一个Relly的是约翰默里,另一卫布道者,谁是他的意见,绝罚普遍性。While Murray believed that all souls were corrupted with original sin, his view of universalism was based on Christ as the head of the human family.默里认为,虽然所有的灵魂都与原损坏罪,鉴于其普遍性是基于基督为一家之主的人。Just as all men had participated in Adam's sin, so through Christ's sacrifice all would receive salvation.正如所有的人参加了亚当的罪,因此通过基督的牺牲将得到拯救。

Murray arrived in New England in 1770 and organized the first Universalist congregation at Gloucester, Massachusetts, in 1779. A General Convention was formed a few years later.穆雷抵达新英格兰在1770年和1779年举办的世界主义聚集在格洛斯特,马萨诸塞州,第一。阿总公约成立几年后。Organized Universalism thus became primarily an American phenomenon.从而成为有组织普遍现象,主要是美国。

Meanwhile similar ideas were emerging elsewhere.同时在其他地方正在出现类似的想法。Certain liberal Congregationalist clergy such as Jonathan Mayhew and Charles Chauncy helped to prepare the foundation for the spread of universalism.某些自由派查尔斯昌公理神职人员,如乔纳森梅休并帮助准备普遍性为基础的蔓延。The latter's Salvation of All Men (1784) completely rejected a "limited" atonement view.后者的拯救一切人(1784年)完全拒绝了“有限的”赎罪的看法。The former Baptist Elhanan Winchester founded a Universalist congregation in Philadelphia in 1781 and developed a compelling restorationist position in his Dialogues on the Universal Restoration (1788).前者浸会埃尔赫南温彻斯特成立于1781年在费城聚集世界主义,并制定了一个引人注目的1788年)复辟恢复(位置在他的对话上通用。 Winchester, an Arminian, argued that future punishment is measured for each sin and results ultimately in the eternal happiness of all souls.温切斯特,一的arminian,认为未来的惩罚结果来衡量每个罪,并最终在所有的灵魂永恒的快乐。

Although DeBenneville, Murray, and Winchester approached universalism from different theological positions, all were restorationists in that they denied eternal punishment in hell. Otherwise eighteenth century universalism was a diverse and noncoherent movement.虽然DeBenneville,穆雷,和温彻斯特接触来自不同的神学立场普遍性,都是在他们的复辟否认在地狱里永远的惩罚。普遍性,否则18世纪是一个多元化和非相干运动。 A loosely agreed - upon statement of faith, the Winchester Profession (adopted at Winchester, New Hampshire), was drawn up in 1803.一个松散的同意信仰-的发言后,温彻斯特专业(新罕布什尔州通过的温切斯特,新),是1803年制定了研究。Doctrinal statements were also formulated in 1899 and 1935.教义声明还制定了1899年和1935年。

Hosea Ballou, another former Baptist, proved to be the dominant theological spokesman for the movement in the early nineteenth century.何西阿巴罗,另一名前浸信会,被证明是19世纪占主导地位的神学发言人早期运动在。His Treatise on the Atonement (1805) posited a "moral" view of Christ's sacrifice rather than the "legal" or substitutionary position of Relly and Murray.他的论文在赎罪(1805)假定一个“道义”牺牲的基督,而不是“法律”或替代性的地位和穆雷的Relly。Christ suffered on behalf of mankind but not in their place.基督对人类遭受的代表而不是在自己的位置。Christ's death demonstrated God's unchangeable loving concern for the restoration of the soul from sin.基督的死亡证明上帝的不变的灵魂从罪恶的关爱的恢复。Ballou also taught what opponents called a "death and glory" view that death brings the unregenerate soul to repentance.巴罗还教什么对手称为“死亡与荣耀”认为,死亡带来的顽固不化的灵魂悔改。Because of his stress on reason and his rejection of miracles, the Trinity, and the deity of Christ, Ballou moved the Universalists closer to Unitarianism.由于他强调理性和拒绝他的神迹,三位一体,基督和神的,巴罗提出宗教学院接近单一制。His "no hell" theology struck most orthodox Christians, however, as one that would lead to immorality.他的“没有地狱”最正统基督教神学袭击,但是,作为一个会导致不道德行为。

Nineteenth century universalism took on the familiar characteristics of an American denomination.19世纪发生在美国的普遍性面额熟悉的特征。It grew steadily in several midwestern and New England states, and in frontier and rural areas it assumed a more evangelical posture than has commonly been recognized. Several periodicals were started and state or regional associations formed.它在几个中西部的稳步增长和新英格兰州,并在边境和农村地区,承担了更多的福音姿态比人们公认的。一些期刊已经开始,国家或区域协会组成。 Tufts College (1852) and a theological school (1869) at Medford, Massachusetts, became the leading educational institutions. Controversy over the future punishment question led to the formation of a minority restorationist faction in 1831.塔夫茨大学(1852年)和神学院(1869年)在梅德福,马萨诸塞州,成为领先的教育机构。论战未来处罚问题导致了1831年形成一个派系在少数复辟。 This was dissolved in 1841, however, as most universalists placed less and less emphasis on the earlier doctrine of apokatastasis.这是在1841年解散,但是,由于大部分宗教学院放在早期学说apokatastasis越来越少的重点。

Twentieth century universalism, now clearly a liberal faith, was largely shaped by the theologian Clarence Skinner.20世纪的普遍性,现在显然是一个开放的信心,在很大程度上是由神学家克拉伦斯形成斯金纳。 A wider conception of universalism was articulated which rejected the deity of Jesus and which sought to explore the "universal" bases of all religions.更广泛的普遍性概念是阐明驳回了耶稣神性的,也是旨在探讨“通用”的所有宗教基地。Accordingly, closer ties were sought with the major world non - Christian and native American religions.因此,寻求更密切的关系是世界主要非-基督教和美洲土著宗教。Universalists continue to stress such beliefs as the dignity and brotherhood of mankind, tolerance of diversity, and the reasonableness of moral actions.宗教学院继续强调信仰的多样性等为兄弟人类尊严和宽容,以及合理的道德的行动。Because of the close kinship which many universalists felt toward Unitarians, there had always been a close cooperation between the two groups.由于亲缘关系较近的许多宗教学院论派认为对,但一直是两个团体之间的密切合作。This cooperation led to a formal merger and the organization of the Unitarian Universalist Association in 1961, having a combined membership of 70,500 in nearly four hundred congregations.这种合作导致了1961年正式合并,并组织了统一世界主义协会,已在近4百众合成员的70,500。

Clearly, however, many who have professed a belief in final salvation have remained outside the Unitarian Universalist tradition.但是很显然,许多谁已经公开声称得救的信念,最终都留在门外统一世界的传统。In the twentieth century universalism (apokatastasis) has been associated with the neo - orthodox theology as shaped by the Swiss theologian Karl Barth.在20世纪的普遍性(apokatastasis)已与相关新-正统神学的巴特形由瑞士神学家卡尔。Although he did not teach final salvation directly, certain passages of his massive Church Dogmatics stress the irresistible universal triumph of God's grace.虽然他没有直接教的最后救赎,教会教义学的某些段落,他强调,大规模神的恩典不可抗拒的普遍胜利。Barth was led in this direction by the doctrine of double predestination.巴特率领的朝这个方向宿命学说的两倍。In Christ, the representative of all men, adoption and reprobation merge.在基督里,代表所有的男人,通过合并和非难。There are not two groups, one saved and the other damned.有没有两个组,一个是保存和其他该死。Mortal man may still be a sinner, but the election of Christ demands a final judgment of salvation.凡人可能仍然是一个罪人,但基督选举需要一个拯救的最后判决。Other neo - orthodox writers have suggested that divine punishment is a purifying or disguised form of God's love, which results ultimately in restoration.其他新-正统作家们认为处罚是一项神圣的结果最终净化或变相恢复上帝的爱,这。

Some from a more conservative Protestant tradition have also defended a universalist view.从传统的一些较为保守的新教也捍卫了一种普遍的看法。One position is that a "Hades Gospel" gives a second chance for those who did not have an opportunity to confess Christ in the world.一个立场是,“地狱的福音”给出了一个世界第二的机会为那些谁没有机会在承认基督。Another approach has been articulated by Neal Punt in Unconditional Good News (1980).另一种做法已被阐明的尼尔蓬特在无条件的好消息(1980年)。Punt reverses the traditional Calvinist view that all are lost except those whom the Bible indicates are among the elect.蓬特颠倒了传统的加尔文主义认为,所有的人,除非是那些失去了圣经表明属于选举。His "biblical universalism" counters that all are saved in Christ except those whom the Bible directly declares are lost.他的“圣经普遍性”失去的柜台,所有在基督保存,除非那些人的圣经直接声明。Clearly universalism, in a variety of forms, continues to have appeal for contemporary faith, in both liberal and conservative circles.显然普遍性,在形式多样的,有信心继续呼吁当代保守派,自由派和圆形两种。

DB Eller数据库埃勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
JH Allen and R Eddy, History of the Unitarians and the Universalists in the United States; H Ballou, Ancient History of Universalism; AD Bell, The Life and Times of Dr. George DeBenneville, 1703 - 1793; R Eddy, Universalism in America, a History; T Engelder, "The Hades Gospel" and "The Argument in Support of the Hades Gospel," CTM 16; RE Miller, The Larger Hope; WO Pachull, Mysticism and Early South German - Austrian Anabaptist Movement, 1525 - 1531; CR Skinner and AS Cole, Hell's Ramparts Fell: The Life of John Murray; CR Skinner, A Religion for Greatness and The Social Implications of Universalism; T Whittmore, The Modern History of Universalism; GH Williams, American Universalism. JH艾伦和R涡,史论派和DeBenneville的宗教学院在美国; Ĥ古代史巴罗,普遍主义;公元贝尔,乔治的生活和时代的博士1703年至1793年与r埃迪,普遍在美国, 1历史; Ŧ恩格尔德,“福音的地狱”和“地狱之争在福音的支持,”澳门电讯16;稀土米勒,较大的希望,和安Pachull,神秘主义和早期南德国-奥地利再洗礼派运动,1525年至1531年;华润斯金纳和AS科尔,地狱的城墙下跌:墨累生命约翰;华润斯金纳,一个伟大的宗教的和普遍的社会意义和t惠特莫尔,现代历史的普遍主义;生长激素威廉姆斯,美国普遍。


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