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Utopianism is the ideal of a perfect, present, earthly society, organic, harmonious, virtuous, satisfying, has a lengthy history.乌托邦主义是一个完美的理想,现在,尘世社会,有机,和谐,良性,满足,有一个漫长的历史。As far as Christianity is concerned, where it has been conceived of as realizable at all, it has been only in the microcosm.至于基督教而言,它已变现设想为所有,但至今只有在一个缩影。Where these tiny minorities have been sanctioned, it has stemmed from the conviction that the Holy Spirit can so bring the life of the heavenly community into this age that, with the response of a few heroic souls, something more approaching the society of the eternal state can be realized than the church has hitherto exhibited.如果这些微小的少数人已受到制裁,它源于信念,圣灵可以带来如此的年龄天上到这个社区的生活,随着灵魂的反应少数英雄,更多的东西接近国家社会的永恒可以实现比教会迄今展出。

These are eschatological communities, with special relation of their hope.这是末世的社区,他们希望的特殊关系。Morally the Spirit gives particular grace to forget self and share both possessions and one's inmost spirit. The Spirit present in such measure also bestows his gifts, so that a charismatic community emerges.道义上的精神给予特别宽限期,忘记自我,分享双方的财产和一个人的内心深处的精神。精神等措施,在目前还赋予他的礼物,使社会出现一个有魅力的。 In the dynamic phase of these communities there is frequently also an apocalytic element.在动态阶段这些社区有经常也是apocalytic元素。Such pouring out of the Spirit is the brief latter - rain manifestation indicating the imminence of the return of Jesus Christ and the ushering in of the supramundane community, either celestital or millennial.这种浇注出来的精神是短暂后者-雨的表现,说明迫切基督耶稣的回报和迎来了社会的超尘脱俗,无论是celestital或千年。

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Abilities and skills are also given.能力和技能,并给出。In its totality the Christian utopian community is filled with worship, and with joy that it is uniquely the dwelling place of God by the Spirit.在其整体的基督教乌托邦式的社会充满了崇拜,并与喜悦,这是唯一的神的精神所居住的地方。

In the Early and Medieval Church在早期和中世纪教堂

Monasticism has been the supreme form of Christian utopianism.修道一直是最高形式的基督教乌托邦。In the cloister the graces of poverty, confession, obedience, and peace are implemented.在实施回廊,贫困的青睐,供认服从,和平的。Charismatic activity has varied greatly over the centuries, but even at its most minimal the abbot or abbess occupied a quasi - prophetic role. And there have always been those like Joachim of Fiore, in his twelfth century Sicilian cloister, who have regarded monasticism as a sign of that soon - coming age when the whole world would be a monastery.有魅力的活动有很大的差别在过去几个世纪,但即使在其最起码的住持或住持占领一个准-先知的角色。还有一直被认为是一个谁修道都把那些像约阿希姆的菲奥雷,在他的12世纪,西西里回廊迹象,很快-未来的时代,整个世界将是一个修道院。 So monasteries have been a window into and a preparation for heaven.因此,寺庙已成为一个窗口和一个天堂准备。As Roman Catholic monasteries have been in relationship with ecclesiastical authority, a balance has been given that has allowed this form of utopianism to survive and thrive through the centuries.由于罗马天主教修道院被教会的权力与关系,平衡已获准,使得这种乌托邦形式的生存和繁衍了几百年。In the Middle Ages there were many utopian groups influenced by monasticism, but their apocalypticism frequently drove them to dissent, which tended to mark the end of the road in a closed society.在中世纪,有许多乌托邦式的修道分组的影响,但他们的大卫教派经常将他们持不同政见,这往往标志着一个社会的道路封闭,最终也是要。

In the Reformation在改革中

At the time of the Reformation the magisterial Protestants, in their reaction, often possessed only a moderate expectation of what the Spirit could accomplish in believers individually or corporately.在新教徒的改革时间的威严,在他们的反应,往往只拥有一个或公司适度的期望什么精神可以完成在信徒个人。 The keynote of "O wretched man that I am," even if it should continually impel to Christ, did not radiate great anticipation, while the whole matter of the charismatic was virtually banished.在上午的主题演讲“啊,我可怜的人,”即使它要不断促使基督,没有辐射极大的期望,而整个事项的魅力几乎被流放。 As a result it was quite consistent that monasticism should be dissolved, along with any other form of utopianism.因此,它是相当一致认为修道应解散,以及任何其他形式的乌托邦。

Anabaptists, on the other hand, gave more indication of continuing emphases of piety which comported well with monasticism. Anabaptists的,另一方面,重点说明了更虔诚的态度依旧是持续良好,修道。This was particularly true of the Hutterites, whose communitarian structures in Moravia exhibited a family - oriented Protestant monasticism, and have continued to do so to this day on the American plains and the Canadian prairies.这一点尤其修道真正的哈特莱特,其在社群结构摩拉维亚展示一个家庭-面向新教,并继续这样做的这一天在美国和加拿大平原草原。

As the Reformation proceeded, Calvinism embodied some of the Anabaptist concern for a disciplined life, and this came to particular expression in the English Puritans.随着改革的进行,加尔文体现生活中的一些有纪律的再洗礼派的关注,这在英国清教徒来到特定的表达。Their intense concern with sanctification began to create a desire in some quarters for a life akin to perfection.他们的强烈关注与成圣开始创建一个类似于一个完美的生活在某些方面的愿望。Not finding these aspirations met in mainstream Protestantism, the left wing of Puritanism, during the Cromwellian interregnum, displayed a lush spiritual vegetation of utopianism.没有找到克伦威尔空位满足这些愿望在主流新教的左,右翼清教,在展出了植被茂盛的乌托邦精神。Perhaps the Quakers were the most moderate, believing only that means of grace and official ecclesiastical ministries were no longer necessary for those who possessed the Spirit in such immediacy and fullness.也许谊是最温和的,认为只是手段部委和官方教会的恩典,没有必要再为那些谁丰满直接,拥有这样的精神。There were also primitivists who believed that in their age of the Spirit the restrictions of private property could no longer apply, and in addition to apocalyptic Fifth Monarchy men there were antinomian Ranters, who interpreted their lack of conscience over sexual irregularities as a certain sign that they had been lifted far beyond mundane restriction into a new realm of liberty in the Spirit.也有primitivists谁相信,在他们的精神年龄的限制,私人财产可能不再适用,除了世界末日第五君主立宪制的男子有antinomian Ranters,谁解释为某种标志性的违规行为缺乏良知的多他们已经解除远远超出了世俗的限制到一个新的精神境界的自由研究。

How desperately a Protestant pope was needed in such a situation. But failing such a provision, the antics in these purported vestibules of heaven did little to convince Englishmen, unspiritual or simply less spiritual, that utopianism was a desirable option. Yet in spite of this reaction the longing for heaven on earth could not be entirely quenched.如何拼命新教教皇是必要的,这样的情况。但是没有这样的规定,天上的这些在当时看来是有点滑稽动作门廊说服英国人,非精神的或者只是较少的精神,即乌托邦是一个理想的选择。然而,尽管在这反应对地球的渴望天上不能完全熄灭。

In Modern Times近代

The search for utopias in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries had many stimuli.在19世纪搜索为乌托邦在18世纪末,有过不少的刺激。The eighteenth century was an age of optimism; among the figures of the Enlightenment there were advocates of human perfection, and John Wesley reached back behind the Reformation and sought to rehabilitate moral perfection in his teaching on perfect love. 18世纪是一个乐观的时代;启蒙运动之间的数字,有完善的倡导者人力,和约翰卫斯理达成后面的改革,并设法恢复道德完善的完美的爱在他的教学。And of course he had Holiness descendants who believed in the ontological eradication of evil in those redeemed and sanctified.当然,他圣洁的后裔谁相信赎回和圣洁的本体论消灭这些邪恶。In such a setting Shakers and the Oneida community were only the tip of the utopian iceberg.在这样的环境热点和奥奈达社会只是冰山一角的空想。

The Shakers, remembered best for their artifacts and tranquility, were so filled with the Spirit that there was neither marrying nor giving in marriage and there was open confession of sin, community of possessions, pacifism, equality of the sexes, and consecrated work.该热点,记得最适合自己的文物与安宁,是如此充满了精神,有没有结婚,也不让在婚姻,并有公开忏悔的罪恶,两性社会的财产,和平主义的,平等的和神圣的工作。 Their utopianism was also charismatic, with their dancing in the Spirit and the founder, Ann Lee, being such a unique prophet of God that she was actually the incarnation of the feminine side of deity.他们的乌托邦也有魅力,他们的神舞的精神和创始人,安李,是这样一个独特的先知上帝,她实际上是女性的化身端的。In upstate New York was the Oneida community, directed by the Andover Seminary graduate John Humphrey Noyes.在纽约州北部是奥奈达社区,指示由神学院毕业的约翰汉弗莱安多弗诺伊斯。Led by the apparent success of revivalism and Christian social reform, Noyes founded a community in which the Spirit's gift of love was so all - encompassing that it had to be expressed among all, even sexually.改革领导的基督教社会的复兴和明显的成功,诺伊斯成立一个社区中,圣灵的爱的礼物,是让所有-包括它已成为中均表示,即使性。 Though this expression was restricted and regimented, it did not require many such instances to bring utopianism into disrepute.虽然这表达受到限制,刻板的,它并不需要很多这样的事例,使蒙羞乌托邦成。And there it languished for many years.就这样被搁置了多年。

During the first two thirds of the twentieth century one of the few new and viable Christian utopian communities was the Bruderhof, which patterned much of its life after the Hutterites.在最初的两个社区的三分之二在20世纪的一个乌托邦式的一些新的和可行的基督教是Bruderhof,这图案哈特莱特生活后,它的不少。 Then came the social upheaval of the late 1960s and early 70s and the emergence of the Jesus Movement.接下来是耶稣运动的社会动荡的60年代末和70年代初出现的和的。Communitarian experiments multiplied.社群实验成倍增加。some simply existed as centers of nurture, but others shared something of the dreams of Christian utopianism.有的干脆作为培育中心的存在,但其他人共享的东西的基督教乌托邦的梦想。A few, picking up the ideology of Latter Rain Pentecostalism, believed that this was the age of the manifestation of the sons of God, and that they were uniquely in the forefront of the new and glorious end - time humanity.有几个,拿起五旬节思想后期雨,相信这是上帝的时代之子的表现,以及他们独特的前列,最终在新的辉煌-人类的时间。 Most of these communities lacked a counterbalance and quickly vanished from the scene.这些社区大多缺乏制衡,并迅速从现场消失。

But the utopian Christian continues to express his challenge: there is more, much more, of the life of God that is to be unleashed on earth.但乌托邦基督教继续对他的挑战:有更多,更大地,神的生命就是在被释放。

IS Rennie雷尼的IS
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
L Bouyer, A History of Christian Spirituality; N Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium; EL Tuveson, Millennium and Utopia; W Cross, The Burned - Over District; D Hayden, Seven American Utopias; B Zablocki, The Joyful Community; C Wiesbrod, The Boundaries of Utopia.升bouyer,一个历史的基督教灵性; ñ科恩,千年的追寻;发光图文森,千年和乌托邦; W交叉,烧伤-超过区; Ð海登,七美国的乌托邦;乙扎布洛茨基,欢乐的共同体; ç Wiesbrod ,乌托邦的边界。

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