Wesley (family)韦斯利

John Wesley约翰卫斯理

General Information一般信息

The Wesley family was made famous by the two brothers, John and Charles, who worked together in the rise of Methodism in the British Isles during the 18th century.在韦斯利家庭写了著名的两兄弟,约翰和查尔斯,谁曾一起在世纪英国循道的兴起在艾尔斯在第18位。They were among the ten children surviving infancy born to Samuel Wesley (1662 - 1735), Anglican rector of Epworth, Lincolnshire, and Susanna Annesley Wesley, daughter of Samuel Annesley, a dissenting minister.他们之间的一个不同的部长,10个孩子出生的婴儿存活塞缪尔韦斯利(塞缪尔安尼斯利1662 - 1735),英国圣公会牧师的爱华,林肯郡的,和苏珊娜安尼斯利韦斯利,女儿。

John Wesley, b.约翰卫斯理湾June 28, 1703, d.1703年6月28日,四Mar. 2, 1791, was the principal founder of the Methodist movement.1791年3月2日,是循道卫理运动的主要创始人。His mother was important in his emotional and educational development.他的母亲在他的情绪很重要,教育的发展。The rescue of little "Jackie" from the burning rectory ("a brand plucked from the burning") has become legendary.传说中的拯救小“成龙”从燃烧雷克特里(从摘下“品牌燃烧”)已成为。John's education continued at Charterhouse School and at Oxford, where he studied at Christ Church and was elected (1726) fellow of Lincoln College.约翰的教育继续在学校和牛津景,在那里他就读于基督教会,并当选(1726)的林肯学院的研究员。He was ordained in 1728.他在1728年被祝圣。

After a brief absence (1727 - 29) to help his father at Epworth, John returned to Oxford to discover that his brother Charles had founded a Holy Club composed of young men interested in spiritual growth.经过短暂的情况下(1727年至1729年),以帮助他的父亲于爱华,回牛津约翰发现,他的弟弟查尔斯创办了一个神圣的俱乐部组成的精神成长有兴趣的年轻人。 John quickly became a leading participant of this group, which was dubbed the Methodists.约翰很快成为一个主要参与者的卫这个小组,这被称为。His Oxford days introduced him not only to the rich tradition of classical literature and philosophy but also to spiritual classics like Thomas a Kempis's Imitation of Christ, Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Dying, and William Law's Serious Call.他牛津的日子,实施不仅对他的神圣传统,丰富的古典文学和哲学,但杰里米泰勒还基督精神,经典,像托马斯肯皮斯的模仿生死,和威廉法的严重呼叫。

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In 1735 both Wesleys accompanied James Oglethorpe to the new colony of Georgia, where John's attempts to apply his then high - church views aroused hostility.在1735年都韦斯利斯陪同詹姆斯奥格尔索普引起敌意的新殖民地的格鲁吉亚,在那里约翰试图运用他当时的高意见-教堂。 Discouraged, he returned (1737) to England; he was rescued from this discouragement by the influence of the Moravian preacher Peter Boehler.泄气,他返回(1737年)到英国,他被救出这个沮丧的伯勒尔影响的摩拉维亚传教士彼得。At a small religious meeting in Aldersgate Street, London, on May 24, 1738, John Wesley had an experience in which his "heart was strangely warmed."在伦敦一家小,宗教会议奥尔德斯盖特街,于1738年5月24日,约翰卫斯理有一个温暖的经验,他的“心是很奇怪。”

After this spiritual conversion, which centered on the realization of salvation by faith in Christ alone, he devoted his life to evangelism.在此之后的精神转换,这救恩围绕在实现由单信基督,他毕生致力于福音。Beginning in 1739 he established Methodist societies throughout the country.开始于1739年,他建立了全国各地循道卫理社会。He traveled and preached constantly, especially in the London - Bristol - Newcastle triangle, with frequent forays into Wales, Ireland, and Scotland.他不断地旅行,宣扬,尤其是在伦敦-布里斯托尔-纽卡斯尔三角形,与苏格兰和威尔士频繁先遣部队进入爱尔兰。He encountered much opposition and persecution, which later subsided.他遇到很多反对和迫害,后来平息。

Late in life Wesley married Mary Vazeille, a widow.晚年韦斯利玛丽瓦泽耶结婚,一个寡妇。He continued throughout his life a regimen of personal discipline and ordered living.他继续在他的生活纪律方案的个人和有序的生活。He died at 88, still preaching, still traveling, and still a clergyman of the Church of England.他死在88,仍然说教,仍旅行,仍然是英国牧师的教会。In 1784, however, he had given the Methodist societies a legal constitution, and in the same year he ordained Thomas Coke for ministry in the United States; this action signaled an independent course for Methodism. 1784年,然而,他给了循道卫理社会法律的宪法,并在同一年,他受戒美国托马斯焦炭部,这标志着一个行动循道独立的过程。

Charles Wesley, b.查尔斯韦斯利湾Dec. 18, 1707, d. 1707年12月18日,四Mar. 29, 1788, was perhaps England's greatest hymn writer. 1788年3月29日,也许是英格兰最伟大的圣诗作家。Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1735 and went to Georgia as Oglethorpe's secretary. He returned a year earlier than John.在牛津大学受过教育,他在1735年被祝圣,前往的秘书向格鲁吉亚奥格尔索普。又回到去年同期比约恩。After a religious experience similar to John's, he continued for many years in close association with the Methodist movement.当一个宗教的经验类似约翰的,他继续为循道卫理运动的许多年中与密切的关联。After 1756, however, he left the itinerant ministry and settled first in Bristol and later in London. 1756年后,但是,他离开了流动部和解决布里斯托尔第一,后来在伦敦。He wrote more than 5,000 hymns, among them "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing" and "Love Divine, All Loves Excelling."他写神,所有的爱中脱颖而出,5000多首赞美诗,其中包括:“听,唱的天使”和“爱。”

Frederick A Norwood冯检基甲诺伍德

Bibliography 书目
S Ayling, John Wesley (1979); F Baker, ed., The Works of John Wesley (1975); VHH Green, John Wesley (1964); AC Outler, ed., John Wesley (1964); J Pudney, John Wesley and His World (1978); KE Rowe, ed., The Place of Wesley in the Christian Tradition (1976); R Tuttle, John Wesley: His Life and Theology (1978). S艾林,约翰卫斯理(1979),女贝克,编辑。,该)工程约翰卫斯理(1975年绿色卤代烃,约翰卫斯理(1964年);交流奥特勒,编辑。约翰卫斯理(1964年); J普德尼,约翰卫斯理和他的世界(1978年);柯罗,编辑。,在(1976年)地点韦斯利在基督教传统与r塔特尔,约翰卫斯理:他的生命与神学(1978年)。


John Wesley (1703-1791)约翰卫斯理(1703年至1791年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

John Wesley was the primary figure in the eighteenth century Evangelical Revival and founder of Methodism.约翰卫斯理是循道小学数字在18世纪的复兴和基督教的创始人。Wesley was born in Epworth, England, to Samuel and Susanna Wesley, one of nineteen children.韦斯利出生于爱华,英国,撒母耳和苏珊娜韦斯利,一个孩子的19岁。Although both his grandfathers distinguished themselves as Puritan Nonconformists, his parents returned to the Church of England, where his father for most of his ministry held the livings of Epworth (1697- 1735) and Wroot (1725-35).虽然这两个杰出的新教徒,他的祖父自己是清教徒,他的父母返回)教会的英格兰,在那里他的父亲,他最部召开的利文斯爱华(1697年至1735年)和罗特(1725年至1735年。 Wesley spent his early years under the careful direction of his remarkable mother, who sought to instill in him a sense of vital piety leading to a wholehearted devotion to God.韦斯利度过了他早年在神仔细方向的杰出母亲,谁试图灌输一个观念在他的重要虔诚导致全心全意奉献。

Life生活

Wesley was educated at Charterhouse, a school for boys in London, and then Christ Church, Oxford, where he received the BA degree in 1724 and the MA degree in 1727.韦斯利曾就读于景,一个男孩在伦敦的学校,然后基督的教会,牛津大学,在那里他于1727年获得学士学位的本科学历在1724年和硕士。 Although a serious student in both logic and religion, Wesley was not to experience his "religious" conversion until 1725.虽然严重的学生和宗教这两个逻辑,韦斯利没有经历宗教“转化,直到1725年他的”。He was then confronted with what to do with the rest of his life.他当时面临着如何处理他的余生。He decided (through the influence of his mother, a religious friend, and the reading of Jeremy Taylor and Thomas a Kempis) to make religion the "business of his life."他决定(通过肯皮斯影响他的母亲,一个宗教的朋友和阅读的杰里米泰勒和托马斯),使他的宗教生活“的业务。”He was ordained deacon (1725), elected to a fellowship at Lincoln College, Oxford (1726), and served as his father's curate at Wroot (1727-29).他被祝圣执事(1725),当选为1)金在林肯学院,牛津大学(1726年,并担任他的父亲罗特的牧师在(1727年至1729年)。 He then returned to Oxford and became the leader of a small band of students organized earlier by his younger brother, Charles.然后,他回到牛津大学和成为领导人查尔斯的弟弟,一个年轻的小乐队的学生,他较早前举办。This band, dubbed the "Holy Club," would later be called "Methodist" for their prescribed method of studying the Bible and for their rigid self-denial which included many works of charity.这个乐队,被称为“圣会”,后来被称为“卫”为他们的慈善机构规定的方法研究圣经和他们严格的自我否定,其中包括许多作品。 During this period (1729-35) both John and Charles fell under the influence of the nonjuror and mystic William Law.在此期间(1729至1735年)都约翰和查尔斯下跌的影响下,法律和神秘的nonjuror威廉。Although Wesley confessed that he did not at that time understand justification by faith (seeking instead justification by his own works-righteousness), it was during this period that he formulated his views on Christian perfection, the hallmark of Methodism.虽然韦斯利承认,他不明白当时的信念理由,由(寻求自以为是的理由,而不是由他自己的作品),它的完善是在这一时期,基督教的意见,他提出了著名的卫理公会的标志。

In 1735 (Wesley's Journal begins at this point and continues until shortly before his death) Wesley went to Georgia as a missionary to the Indians. 1735年(韦斯利的杂志开始了这一点,继续,直到他去世前不久)韦斯利去的印度人前往格鲁吉亚作为一个传教士。Although the Indians eluded him, he did serve as priest to the Georgia settlers under General James Oglethorpe.虽然印第安人躲避他,他却定居作为神父到格鲁吉亚根据一般詹姆斯奥格尔索普。During a storm in crossing Wesley was deeply impressed with a group of Moravians on board ship.韦斯利风暴期间跨越了深刻的印象船舶与船上组摩拉维亚上。Their faith in the face of death (the fear of dying was constantly with Wesley since his youth) predisposed disastrous experience in Georgia, he returned to England (1738) and met the Moravian Peter Bohler, who exhorted him to trust Christ alone for salvation.他们在死亡的信念面对死亡(不断的恐惧是因为他与韦斯利青年)倾向于在格鲁吉亚灾难性的经验,他回到英格兰(1738),并会见了彼得伯勒尔的摩拉维亚,谁劝他要相信基督的救恩单。 What had earlier been merely a religious conversion now became an "evangelical" conversion.什么早先只是一个宗教的转换现在成了一个“福音”的转换。At a Moravian band meeting on Aldersgate Street (May 24, 1738), as he listened to a reading from Luther's preface to his commentary on Romans, Wesley felt his "heart strangely warmed."在24日会议上,带1738摩拉维亚奥尔德斯盖特街(5月),因为他听一个序言阅读从路德的罗马人对他的评注,韦斯利觉得他的“暖心奇怪。” Although scholars disagree as to the exact nature of this experience, nothing in Wesley was left untouched by his newfound faith.虽然学者们不同意在这方面的经验,以确切性质,韦斯利没有在剩下的信心没有受到他的新发现。After a short journey to Germany to visit the Moravian settlement of Herrnhut, he returned to England and with George Whitefield, a former member of the Holy Club, began preaching salvation by faith.经过短暂的旅程到德国访问的Herrnhut摩拉维亚的解决,他回到英格兰和乔治Whitefield的,一个神圣的俱乐部的前成员,开始宣扬信仰得救了。 This "new doctrine" was considered redundant by the sacramentalists in the Established Church, who thought people sufficiently saved by virtue of their infant baptism.这个“新学说”被认为多余的婴儿洗礼sacramentalists在成立教会,谁认为他们的人民充分节省的美德。 The established churches soon closed their doors to their preaching.所建立的教会很快关闭了大门,他们的说教。The Methodists (a name which carried over from their Oxford days) began preaching in the open air.在卫理公会(1天以上的名字,他们进行的牛津大学)开始在公开鼓吹空气。

In 1739 Wesley followed Whitefield to Bristol, where a revival broke out among the miners of Kingswood.韦斯利在1739年之后怀特菲尔德到布里斯托尔,其中嘉湖爆发出复苏之间的矿工。At that point Wesley's true genius surfaced through his ability to organize new converts into Methodist "societies" and "bands" which sustained both them and the revival.在这一点上韦斯利的真正的天才出现复苏,通过他的能力转化为组织新的循道卫理“社会”和“带”的同时他们和持续。 The revival continued under Wesley's direct leadership for over fifty years.韦斯利下继续复苏的直接领导下超过50年。He traveled some 250,000 miles throughout England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, preaching some 40,000 sermons.他旅行,和爱尔兰的一些二五零零零零英里整个英格兰,苏格兰,威尔士,约40,000说教说教。His influence also extended to America as he (after considerable reluctance) ordained several of his preachers for the work there, which was officially organized in 1784.他的影响还扩展到美国,因为他(在相当不愿意)受戒几个传教士的工作,他因为在那里,这是1784年正式举办的研究。Wesley literally established "the world as his parish" in order to spread "scripture holiness throughout the land."韦斯利从字面上建立了“堂”作为他的世界,以传播“圣经圣洁整个土地。”He remained fearlessly loyal to the Established Church all his life. Methodism in England did not become a separate denomination until after his death.他依然无所畏惧忠于成立教会他所有的生命。英国循道公会在没有成为一个独立的教派,直到他去世后。

Theology神学

Although Wesley was not a systematic theologian, his theology can be described with reasonable clarity from the study of his published sermons, tracts, treatises, and correspondence.虽然韦斯利不是一个系统的神学家,他的神学,或许可以用,论文合理清晰大片从研究其出版的说教,和信件。 In essence, Wesley's theology, so akin to the Reformation, affirms God's sovereign will to reverse our "sinful, devilish nature," by the work of his Holy Spirit, a process he called prevenient, justifying, and sanctifying grace (grace being nearly synonymous with the work of the Holy Spirit).从本质上讲,韦斯利的神学,所以类似的改革,肯定神的主权将扭转我们的“罪恶,魔鬼的性质,”由辩护工作,他的圣灵,一个过程中,他呼吁前的,和神圣的宽限期(宽限期是近代名词与圣灵的工作)。

Prevenient or preventing grace for Wesley describes the universal work of the Holy Spirit in the hearts and lives of people between conception and conversion.前的宽限期或防止韦斯利为描述生命和人民之间的转换概念的普及工作和圣灵的心在。Original sin, according to Wesley, makes it necessary for the Holy Spirit to initiate the relationship between God and people.原罪,根据韦斯利,使神圣的精神需要之间的关系展开神和人。Bound by sin and death, people experience the gentle wooing of the Holy Spirit, which prevents them from moving so far from "the way" that when they finally understand the claims of the gospel upon their lives, he guarantees their freedom to say yes.由罪恶和死亡的束缚,人们体验到他们的生命温柔讨好的圣灵,这样可防止从“他们从移动,到目前为止,”当他们的索赔后,终于明白了福音,他保证说是他们的自由。 This doctrine constitutes the heart of Wesley's Arminianism.这一学说构成了亚米纽斯主义心脏韦斯利的。

Justifying grace describes the work of the Holy Spirit at the moment of conversion in the lives of those who say yes to the call of prevenient grace by placing their faith and trust in Jesus Christ. Wesley understood such conversion as two phases of one experience.有理由相信韦斯利在宽限期介绍耶稣基督。圣灵的工作的精神信仰,并在转换前的时刻,他们的宽限期,放置在生活的那些谁的电话说是这样理解的一个经验转化为两个阶段。 The first phase, justification, includes the Spirit attributing or imputing to the believer the righteousness of Jesus Christ.第一阶段,理由,包括精神归属或她指的基督信徒对耶稣的义。The second phase, the new birth, includes the Spirit launching the process of sanctification or imparted righteousness.第二阶段,新的诞生,包括精神发射过程中的义成圣或传授。These two phases identify, in part, the Wesleyan distinctive.这两个阶段确定的一部分,在中,卫斯理大学的特色。Here he combines the "faith alone" so prevalent in the Protestant Reformation (Wesley insisted that he and Calvin were but a hair's breadth apart on justification) with the passion for holiness so prevalent in the Catholic Counter-Reformation.在这里,他结合了“信仰单”(卫斯理如此普遍在新教改革坚持认为,他和卡尔文人,但头发的广度上的理由之外改革)与-柜台圣洁的热情如此盛行,在天主教。

Sanctifying grace described the work of the Holy Spirit in the lives of believers between conversion and death.圣洁优雅描述死亡信徒之间的转换工作和生活中的圣灵。Faith in Christ saves us from hell and sin for heaven and good works.基督信仰的作品保存好,我们从罪恶的地狱和天堂。Imputed righteousness, according to Wesley, entitles one to heaven; imparted righteousness qualifies one for heaven.估算义,根据韦斯利,有权一天堂;传授义资格天堂之一。It is here that Wesley goes to great lengths to describe his views on Christian perfection.正是在这里,韦斯利去很大的篇幅描述基督教完善了自己的意见。

The process of sanctification or perfection culminates in an experience of "pure love" as one progresses to the place where love becomes devoid of self-interest.在成圣过程中达到高潮或完善以爱情变得毫无兴趣的自我体验“纯粹的爱”作为一个进步的地方。This second work of grace is described as the one purpose of all religion.这是第二次工作的宽限期形容为所有宗教的目的之一。If one is not perfected in love, one is not "ripe for glory."如果一个人不爱在完善,一个是不是“成熟的荣耀。”It is important, however, to note that this perfection was not static but dynamic, always improvable.它是重要的,但是,注意,这不是静态的完美,而是动态的,总是有待改进。Neither was it angelic or Adamic.它也不是天使还是亚当。Adam's perfection was objective and absolute, while Wesley's perfection was subjective and relative, involving, for the most part, intention and motive.亚当的完善是客观的,绝对的,而韦斯利的完善是主观的,相对的,涉及的一部分,在大多数情况,意图和动机。

Although Wesley talks about an instantaneous experience called "entire sanctification" subsequent to justification, his major emphasis was the continuous process of going on to perfection.尽管对理由韦斯利谈到以后的瞬间体验所谓的“整个成圣”,他的主要重点是要不断完善过程中进行。Perhaps first learned from the early church fathers like Macarius and Ephraem Syrus, this emphasis upon continuous process was enforced by Wesley to prevent the horrible expectation of backsliding.也许第一个进程时强调不断吸取了早期教会的父亲一样,这米加利阿斯塞拉斯E,由韦斯利开始执行,以防止倒退可怕的期望。 Wesley soon learned that the only way to keep Methodists alive was to keep them moving.韦斯利很快了解到,唯一的方式保持卫活着是为了让他们感动。This same concept of continuous process was later polished by the influence of mystics like Francois Fenelon, whose phrase moi progressus ad infinitum (my progress is without end) greatly impressed Wesley and became a major tool for the perpetuation of the Evangelical Revival.这种连续的过程相同的概念,后来被打磨的神秘主义复兴的影响福音像弗朗索瓦芬尔隆,其广告语教学语言progressus无限(我的进步是没有尽头)深受感动韦斯利和成为一个长期存在的主要工具。 The watchword for the revival became: "Go on to perfection: otherwise you cannot keep what you have."复苏的口号变成了:“去到完美:否则,你不能让你有什么。”

Prevenient grace, therefore, is a process. Justifying grace is instantaneous. 前的宽限期,因此,这是一个过程。法理的恩典是瞬间完成的。Sanctifying grace is both a process and instantaneous. Although Wesley's theology went through some subtle shifts later in life (for example, he placed more and more emphasis on good works as the inevitable fruit of saving faith), this is fairly representative of Wesley's theology throughout.圣洁的宽限期,既是一个过程,瞬间完成。虽然韦斯利的神学生活了变化之后,透过一些微妙的(例如,他把更多的信心重视节约的良好不可避免的果实工程的),这是相当神学代表韦斯利的整个。 Generally speaking, Wesley was a practical theologian.一般而言,韦斯利是一个实际的神学家。In a very practical way his theology was geared primarily to his own needs and to the needs of those given into his care.在一个非常实际的方法是他的神学主要是面向自己的需要,并给予他照顾到需要的人。

RG Tuttle, Jr塔特尔的RG,小
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
Wesley, Journal, ed.韦斯利,杂志,教育署。N. Curnock, 8 vols.; Letters, ed. J.注Curnock,8卷。;通讯,教育署。j的Telford, 8 vols.; Standard Sermons, ed.德福,8卷。;标准布道,教育署。EH Sugden, 2 vols.; Works, ed.高血压萨格登,2册。;工程,教育署。T. Jackson, 14 vols; WR Cannon, The Theology of John Wesley; ML Edwards, John Wesley and the Eighteenth Century; VHH Green, The Young Mr. Wesley; H. Lindstrom, Wesley and Sanctification; AC Outler, ed., John Wesley; M. Piette, John Wesley in the Evolution of Protestant Discipline; RG Tuttle, John Wesley, His Life and Theology; L. Tyerman, The Life and Times of The Reverend John Wesley, 3 vols.; CW Williams, John Wesley's Theology Today.杰克逊吨,14卷,西铁炮,约翰卫斯理神学;毫升爱德华兹,约翰卫斯理和18世纪;卤代烃绿色,杨蔚先生阁下,林德斯特罗姆,韦斯利和成圣;交流奥特勒,教育署。约翰韦斯利的M.皮特,约翰卫斯理在新教学科的演变;的RG塔特尔,约翰卫斯理,他的生活和神学;属泰尔曼,第一卷和第二卷的生活和时代的牧师约翰卫斯理,3。;连续威廉姆斯,约翰卫斯理的神学今天。


Also, see:此外,见:
Wesleyan Tradition卫斯理传统

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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