Zionism犹太复国主义

General Information一般信息

A Jewish nationalist movement, Zionism was responsible for establishing the modern state of Israel as the Jewish homeland. Although generally attributed to Theodor Herzl and other 19th century groups, Zionism dates back to the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora, the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century BC.一个犹太人的民族主义运动,犹太复国主义祖国负责的犹太以色列作为建立现代国家。虽然一般归因于西奥多赫茨尔和其他19世纪的群体,犹太复国主义追溯到散居的犹太人开始,6世纪巴比伦的流亡公元前。 The Lamentations of Jeremiah and Psalm 137 speak of the exiled Jews' longing for Zion (Jerusalem).耶利米哀歌的诗篇137和发言的流亡犹太人锡安渴望(耶路撒冷)。

Jewish history during the Diaspora was marked by the appearance of a succession of pseudo messiahs - among them Sabbatai Zevi - who claimed that they would return the Jews to Zion.散居犹太人的历史时期的特点是假的外观继承救星-其中Sabbatai赛维-谁声称,他们将返回犹太人锡安。 Equally unsuccessful was the scheme of the Italian Nasi family, which obtained a permit from the Turks to establish a Jewish community in Galilee in the late 16th century.同样是不成功的家庭计划在意大利纳思,其中土耳其人取得许可证从16世纪后期建立一个犹太人社区在加利利的。

Until 1791 and the Jewish emancipation during the French Revolution, Jews lacked the mobility essential to the success of Zionism.直到1791年解放的犹太人在法国大革命期间,犹太人缺乏流动性至关重要的犹太复国主义的成功。In the 19th century, however, rising national sentiment in Europe inspired Moses Hess, David Luzatto, Leo Pinsker, Zvi Kalischer, and Yehudah Alkalai to attempt to raise the national consciousness of ghetto Jewry.在19世纪,但是,民族情绪上升,欧洲赫斯启发摩西,大卫Luzatto,利奥平斯克,兹维卡利舍,与Yehudah阿尔卡莱试图提高贫民区犹太人的民族意识。 Financial assistance came from philanthropists Moses Montefiore, Edmond de Rothschild, and Maurice de Hirsch, and various programs for the return of Jews to the Middle East were implemented.实施财政援助来自慈善家摩西蒙特菲奥里,爱德蒙得洛希尔,和莫里斯•赫希,中东和各种方案的犹太人返回到东都。

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Not until 1897, however, with Herzl's World Zionist Congress at Basel, Switzerland, was an effective worldwide political movement created.直到1897年,但是,犹太复国主义代表大会在瑞士巴塞尔与赫茨尔的世界,是一个有效的全球政治运动的创建。Despite opposition from fundamentalist and assimilationist Jews and internal divisions (at the 1905 Congress one group withdrew when the majority of delegates rejected a British proposal for establishing a Jewish homeland in Uganda), the Zionist organization gathered strength.尽管(反对原教旨主义和同化的犹太人从内部分歧,并在1905年国会一组撤回时,多数代表拒绝了英国的建议在乌干达建立犹太人家园),犹太复国主义组织的聚集力量。 Eventually it secured approval for its program of establishing a homeland in Palestine from the British government (with the Balfour Declaration, 1917) and the League of Nations (with the creation of a mandate for Palestine in 1922).它最终获得批准,其1917年的方案,贝尔福宣言建立在与巴勒斯坦的家园从英国政府()和授权,1922年巴勒斯坦在阿拉伯联盟的国家的(与创作)。 During the period of the mandate, which was held by Britain, increasing violence occurred between the Jewish settlers and the Arabs in Palestine.在英国期间的任务,即通过举行,越来越多的暴力的犹太定居者之间发生和阿拉伯人在巴勒斯坦。Finally, the United Nations voted in November 1947 to partition Palestine, and the State of Israel was proclaimed on May 14, 1948.最后,联合国1947年11月投了巴勒斯坦分治和以色列国是1948年5月14日宣布,。

Saul S Friedman扫罗S弗里德曼

Bibliography 书目
B Halpern, The Idea of the Jewish State (1969); W Laqueur, A History of Zionism (1972); M Selzer, ed., Zionism Reconsidered: The Rejection of Jewish Normalcy (1970); D Vital, Origins of Zionism (1975).乙哈珀恩的)观念的犹太国(1969年,W Laqueur,一个犹太复国主义的历史(1972年),间塞尔泽,编辑。,犹太复国主义的再思考:该)排斥犹太人的常态(1970年; Ð生命,犹太复国主义的起源(1975年)。


Zionism犹太复国主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

This term refers to the philosophy of the Jewish people's restoration to "Zion," which early in Jewish history was identified with Jerusalem.这个术语指的是恢复哲学的犹太人民的,以“锡安”,这早在犹太人的历史是耶路撒冷的认同。After the Roman expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem in AD 135 this "Zion" idea was never divorced from Jewish thinking, and Jewish prayers (both individual and corporate) emphasized the desire to return to their homeland.仪式结束后,耶路撒冷驱逐犹太人从罗马在公元135本“锡安”的想法从来没有脱离犹太思想,公司)犹太祈祷(包括个人,并强调愿意返回自己的家园。 The religious Jew dreamed of an end period of ultimate release from his dispersion among the nations and a return to the land of promise.犹太人的宗教梦想一个承诺期结束的土地,以最终释放他的分散返回一个国家之间的和。A handful of Jews had always remained in Palestine, and their numbers were augmented by refugees of the Spanish Inquisition in 1492. Nevertheless, to many Jews the notion of a physical return to Palestine seemed an illusive, if not impossible, dream.阿少数犹太人一直留在巴勒斯坦,他们的人数分别由西班牙宗教裁判所增强难民的1492年。然而,许多犹太人在巴勒斯坦的一个物理概念回归似乎是虚幻,如果不是不可能的,梦想。

During the nineteenth century the rise of Hebrew literature, Jewish nationalism, and most importantly a fresh outbreak of anti - Semitism stimulated groups such as Hoveve Zion ("Lovers of Zion") to raise money to send Jewish settlers to Palestine.在19世纪的希伯来文学的反犹太主义的兴起,犹太人的民族主义,最重要的一个新的爆发反-刺激锡安群体,如Hoveve锡安(有关“恋人”),以筹集资金,以向巴勒斯坦派遣犹太定居者。 Pogroms in czarist Russia after 1881 resulted in thousands of panic - stricken refugees who realized that Palestine was their safest place of refuge. Agricultural settlements were also sponsored by benefactors such as Baron Edmond de Rothschild.俄国沙皇迫害在1881年后在恐慌导致成千上万-罗斯柴尔德受灾难民谁知道,巴勒斯坦是他们的最安全的地方避难爱德蒙。农业定居点也赞助了恩人,如男爵。

Premodern Zionism emphasized a religious motive and quiet territorial settlement.前现代犹太复国主义强调了宗教的动机和安静的领土解决办法。With the publication of Der Judenstaat ("The Jewish State") by Theodor Herzl in 1896, however, political Zionism was born and with it the modern conception of Zionism.随着赫茨尔出版明镜犹太国(“犹太国”)于1896年由西奥多然而,政治犹太复国主义是与它的诞生和犹太复国主义的现代观念。 A new era in Jewish history unfolded when Herzl, an Austrian journalist, changed from an advocate of Jewish assimilation to a belief that anti - Semitism was inevitable as long as the majority of Jewish people lived outside their homeland.一个犹太人的历史新时代,展现在赫茨尔,奥地利记者,从犹太人的同化改变主张,以一种信念,反-反犹太主义是不可避免的,只要在祖国以外的大多数居住的犹太人民。 He expounded political, economic, and technical efforts that he believed were necessary to create a functioning Jewish state.他阐述了政治,经济和技术的努力,他认为有必要建立一个有效的犹太国家。The first Zionist Congress met in 1897, and over two hundred delegates from all over the world adopted the Basel Program.第一次会见了犹太复国主义代表大会于1897年,超过200的代表来自世界各地所采用的巴塞尔计划。This stressed that Zionism sought to create a legal home in Palestine for the Jewish people and would promote settlement, create worldwide organizations to bind Jews together, strengthen Jewish national consciousness, and obtain consent of the governments of the world.这强调,犹太复国主义试图建立巴勒斯坦犹太人民对法律的家中,并促进和解,创造世界性的组织结合在一起的犹太人,犹太人的民族意识增强,并获得世界的同意,该国政府。

Herzl's thinking was purely secular; in fact, he was an agnostic. The majority of his followers, however, were Orthodox southeastern Europeans, and while Herzl opposed turning Zionism into a cultural, religious, or piecemeal settlement society, he did make concessions to these advocates.赫茨尔的想法是纯粹世俗的,事实上,他是一个不可知论者。的信徒大部分他的,却是东正教东南部欧洲人,而赫茨尔反对把社会的犹太复国主义到文化,宗教,或零碎的解决,他没有让这些让步倡导者。 This fragile alliance indicates the many facets of Zionism during the twentieth century.这个脆弱的结盟,标志着20世纪犹太复国主义在许多方面的影响。To Herzl, the main goal of Zionism was to obtain a political charter granting Jews sovereign rights in their homeland.为了赫茨尔,犹太复国主义的主要目标是获得一个政治宪章赋予犹太人家园的主权权利研究。Shortly after his death in 1904 approximately seventy thousand Jews had settled in Palestine.不久后,他在1904年犹太人死亡约7.0万定居在巴勒斯坦。A majority (at least 60 percent) lived in the cities.大多数(至少百分之六十)居住在城市。Zionism was metamorphosed into a mass movement and political power during World War I. In 1917 the British issued the Balfour Declaration, which bestowed favor upon the establishment in Palestine of a Jewish national home.犹太复国主义在巴勒斯坦变质的犹太民族家园成为群众运动和政治力量第一次世界大战期间,英国在1917年成立的贝尔福宣言的发表,这赋予欢迎。

Zionism was a minority movement and encountered opposition even within the Jewish community.犹太复国主义是少数派运动和遇到的反对,甚至在犹太人社区。American Reform Judaism, for example, believed that Jews were not suited for the rigors of Palestine, where disease and famine were rampant.美国改革犹太教,例如,认为犹太人并不猖獗,适合严酷饥荒是为巴勒斯坦,在那里和疾病。 Furthermore, they claimed that Palestine was no longer a Jewish land and that the United States was "Zion."此外,他们声称,巴勒斯坦已不再是一个犹太人的土地和美国是“锡安”。To these non - Zionist Jews, Zionism was damaging to the fabric of Judaism and only served to stir up the Russians. It was only the horror of the mass murder of a hundred thousand Jews by Russian army units from 1919 to 1921 and, ultimately, the horror of the Nazi Holocaust during World War II in which six million Jews were exterminated that drew Zionists and non - Zionists together in support of Palestine as a Jewish commonwealth, a haven for the persecuted and homeless.对这些非-犹太复国主义犹太人,犹太复国主义的破坏性的犹太教面料,只担任挑起俄罗斯。这只是谋杀十万犹太人从1919年由俄罗斯陆军部队的大规模恐怖到1921年,并最终第二恐怖的大屠杀的纳粹在第二次世界大战期间将600万犹太人被灭绝,吸引了犹太复国主义和非-犹太复国主义无家可归者一起在支持巴勒斯坦作为一个犹太联合体,并为受迫害的避难所。

In November, 1947, a partition plan creating a Jewish state, endorsed by both the United States and the Soviet Union, was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations.去年11月,1947年,分区计划建立一个犹太国,联盟都赞同美国和苏联是联合国通过了联合国的大会。The State of Israel was formally recognized on May 14, 1948, when British rule ended. As the young state strengthened, the definition of Zionism and what its current goals and purpose should be have been heatedly debated within the World Zionist Organization itself.以色列国于5月14日正式承认,1948年,英国统治结束时加强。由于年轻的状态,犹太复国主义的定义以及其当前的目标和宗旨应该是有激烈辩论本身在世界犹太复国主义组织。 Since 1968 the emphasis of aliyah (personal migration to Israel) has been seen by many as an ultimate, yet controversial, goal.自1968年以来的阿利亚重点的(个人移民到以色列)已经看到了许多作为一个最终目标,但争议。

Zionism has been aided in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by "Christian Zionists."犹太复国主义一直资助几个世纪的“基督教犹太复国主义在19和20。”Because of their premillennial eschatology fundamentalist evangelicals have been particularly supportive of the restoration of the Jewish people to Israel and of Israel itself in the twentieth century.由于他们premillennial末世原教旨主义福音派一直特别支持人民恢复对以色列的犹太人和以色列本身在20世纪。

DA Rausch多巴胺劳施
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
W Laqueur, A History of Zionism; A Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader; NW Cohen, American Jews and the Zionist Idea; I Cohen, Theodor Herzl: Founder of Political Zionism; EJ , XVI.W Laqueur,一个犹太复国主义的历史,一个赫茨伯格,犹太复国主义的观念:历史分析与读者;净重科恩,美国犹太人和犹太复国主义的思想,我科恩,西奥多赫茨尔:犹太复国主义创始人的政治,对EJ,十六。


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