Ulrich Zwingli乌尔里希 · 茨温利

Huldrych ZwingliHuldrych温格利

General Information一般信息

Ulrich (Huldreich) Zwingli, b.乌尔里希(Huldreich)茨温利湾Jan. 1, 1484, d. 1484年1月1日,四Oct. 11, 1531, was a leader of the Swiss Reformation.1531年10月11日,是瑞士宗教改革领袖。 The son of a prosperous peasant, Zwingli studied music, scholastic philosophy, and humanistic subjects in Vienna, Bern, and Basel.农民的儿子,一个繁荣,茨温利学习音乐,经院哲学和人文学科和巴塞尔在维也纳,伯尔尼。He became a priest in Glarus (1506 - 16) and accompanied Swiss mercenary troops as chaplain on various Italian campaigns, becoming convinced that the mercenary system was a great evil.他成了一个格拉鲁斯牧师在(1506 - 16),并陪同意大利各运动在瑞士雇佣军部队作为牧师,成为深信,雇佣军制度是一个伟大的邪恶。From Glarus, Zwingli went to Einsiedeln as parish pastor, where he continued his studies of the Bible, church fathers, and the classics.从格拉鲁斯,温格利到艾因西德伦作为教区的牧师,他在那里继续他的学业的父亲教会的圣经,与经典。 He was strongly influenced by Desiderius Erasmus in favor of church reform.他强烈的影响,在改革伊拉斯谟赞成教会。

In 1519, Zwingli began his duties as the people's priest of the Grand Minster in Zurich, where he preached powerful sermons based on the Scriptures, denounced the mercenary trade, dropped his own papal subsidy, and attacked ecclesiastical abuses. Trouble developed with the bishop of Constance in 1522 when several of Zwingli's associates ate meat on a fast day. Moreover, Zwingli married and thus broke his priestly vow of celibacy. 1519年,茨温利开始了圣经的职务为人民的祭司大部长在苏黎世,在那里的基础上的说教,他鼓吹强大,谴责雇佣军贸易,丢下自己的教皇的补贴,并攻击教会的滥用。主教故障的发展与在1522年时,康斯坦茨联营几个温格利的吃一天肉,快速。此外,茨温利结婚,从而打破了他的司铎独身誓言。 In 1524 iconoclasts removed religious statuary from the church, and the next year the Catholic mass was replaced with a Zwinglian communion using both bread and wine as symbols of Christ's body and blood.在1524年取消了反传统从教堂的宗教雕像,以及明年的天主教弥撒是血和Zwinglian取代了使用这两种人体面包共融的和葡萄酒作为符号的基督。 Zwingli's Sixty - seven Articles (1523) for disputation became a basic doctrinal document for the Swiss reformed church.茨温利的60 -七篇文章(1523年争论)为成为一个基本的改革教会教义文件的瑞士人。

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Zwingli was active in extending the reform to other Swiss cities, such as Basel, Sankt Gallen, and Bern.茨温利是积极扩大改革,瑞士其他城市圣加仑,如巴塞尔,圣,和伯尔尼。He was involved in controversy not just with Catholic opponents, but also with the Lutheran reformers because he denied Christ's real presence in any form in the Eucharist.他不仅参与了争议与天主教对手,而且还与信义改革者,因为他否认基督的圣体的真实存在以任何方式。The effort to reconcile the views of Zwingli and Luther at the Colloquy of Marburg (1529) failed. Zwingli also opposed the Anabaptists in Zurich who rejected infant baptism.努力调和路德马尔堡在讨论会的意见和茨温利(1529)失败。温格利也反对在苏黎世的Anabaptists谁拒绝婴儿的洗礼。 He was killed on the battlefield of Kappel in 1531 when the Catholic cantons of southern Switzerland attacked Zurich.他是瑞士苏黎世南部打死了攻击战场上的1531年时,卡普尔在天主教州。

Lewis W Spitz刘易斯W施皮茨

Bibliography 书目
O Farner, Zwingli, The Reformer: His Life and Work (1952); SM Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, The Reformer of German Switzerland (1901); GR Potter, Zwingli (1976); WP Stephens, The Theology of Huldrych Zwingli (1985); RC Walton, Zwingli's Theocracy (1967). Ø法纳,茨温利,是改革者:他的生活和工作(1952年);钐杰克逊Huldreich茨温利的)重整德国瑞士(1901年; GR的波特,茨温利(1976年);可湿性粉剂斯蒂芬斯,1985年的神学温格利(附Huldrych) ;区局沃尔顿,茨温利的政教合一(1967)。


Ulrich Zwingli乌尔里克温格利

General Information一般信息

Introduction介绍

Huldreich Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531), was a Swiss theologian, leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.Huldreich温格利或乌尔里希温格利(1484年至1531年),是瑞士神学家,瑞士领导人在改革。

Zwingli was born on January 1, 1484, in Wildhaus, Sankt Gallen. He was educated at the universities of Vienna and Basel.茨温利出生于1484年1月1日,在维尔德豪斯,圣加仑。他是受过教育的维也纳和巴塞尔大学的。

Early Influences早期的影响

During his formative years, Zwingli was deeply influenced by the spirit of liberal humanism.在他的成长岁月,茨温利也深受影响,自由的人文精神。In 1506 he was ordained and assigned to the town of Glarus as a parish priest.在1506年他被任命为牧师和分配格拉鲁斯教区的一个镇。 Glarus then was well known as a center for recruiting mercenary soldiers for Europe's armies. On two occasions Zwingli served as chaplain with Glarus troops during bloody fighting on foreign soil, and these experiences led him to denounce the mercenary system publicly.格拉鲁斯当时有名的军队欧洲中心的招募雇佣兵的场合。论二温格利担任牧师与格拉鲁斯部队在外国领土上的流血战斗,这些经验使他谴责雇佣军制度公开。 In retaliation certain town officials conspired to make his position at Glarus untenable. In 1516 he accepted an appointment at Einsiedeln, southeast of Zürich.在一些城市的官员密谋报复,使他的地位在格拉鲁斯站不住脚。在1516年,他接受任命艾因西德伦的苏黎世,东南。

During his ministry at Einsiedeln, Zwingli began to entertain doubts about certain church practices.在他的艾因西德伦部在,茨温利开始受理对某些教会的做法表示怀疑。In 1516 he read a Latin translation of the Greek New Testament published by the Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus, which he later transcribed into notebooks and memorized verbatim.在1516年,他读拉丁文翻译的希腊新约逐字发表的荷兰人文主义者伊拉斯谟,后来他抄写到笔记本电脑和记忆。On the basis of these and other scriptural readings, Zwingli charged in sermons that church teachings and practice had diverged widely from the simple Christianity of the Holy Writ. Among the practices cited by Zwingli as unscriptural were the adoration of saints and relics, promises of miraculous cures, and church abuses of the indulgence system.在阅读的基础上这些和其他圣经,温格利收取该教堂布道的教义和实践已广泛分歧令状从基督教的圣简单。unscriptural其中所列举的做法是温格利崇拜的圣人和文物,神奇的承诺治愈,沉迷系统和教堂被滥用的。 His forthright affirmations of scriptural authority won him wide popular repute, and on January 1, 1519, he was appointed priest at the Gross Münster (German, "Great Cathedral") in Zürich.圣经的权威,他直率的誓词为他赢得了广泛流行的声誉,并于1519年1月1日,他被任命为“祭司占明斯特(德国,”伟大的大教堂苏黎世以上)。

Adoption of the Reformation通过改革

Zürich was a center of humanist belief, with a tradition of state limitation on the temporal power of the church. Zwingli quickly attracted large audiences to the cathedral by expounding the original Greek and Hebrew Scriptures chapter by chapter and book by book, beginning with the Gospel of Matthew. These oral translations of the original Scriptures broke sharply with church tradition. Previously priests had based their sermons on interpretations of the Vulgate and on the writings of the Fathers of the Church. In 1519 an admirer placed a printing press at the reformer's disposal, and his bold new ideas spread far beyond the confines of Zürich.苏黎世是一个信仰中心,以人为本的限制,与国家的传统教会对世俗权力的。 温格利迅速吸引了大批观众所阐述的教堂原来的希腊文和希伯来文圣经章节和书57章的,首先是福音马修。原有的圣经这些口头翻译的发生急剧与教会的传统。此前祭司根据武加大他们的说教上的解释和对教会的神父们的著作的。在1519年1崇拜者把改革者的处置印刷机在和他大胆的新观念的传播远远超出了苏黎世的范围。

During the same year Zwingli read for the first time the writings of his contemporary, Martin Luther. Heartened by Luther's stand against the German hierarchy, Zwingli in 1520 persuaded the Zürich council to forbid all religious teachings without foundation in the Scriptures. Among these teachings was the church stricture against eating meat during Lent.在同一年温格利读第一的著作,他的当代,马丁路德。 层次感到鼓舞路德德国的立场反对,温格利1520说服在苏黎世议会禁止在圣经的所有地基宗教教义没有。在这些教诲是四旬期期间禁止吃肉教会狭窄。 In 1522 a group of his followers deliberately broke the rule and were arrested. Zwingli vigorously defended the lawbreakers, who were released with token punishment.在1522年1信徒故意打破了他的统治而被捕。温格利大力捍卫了违法分子,谁被处罚的释放,令牌。

Pope Adrian VI, angered by Zwingli's behavior, then forbade him the pulpit and asked the Zürich council to repudiate him as a heretic.教皇艾德里安六世的行为激怒了茨温利的,然后禁止他的讲台,并要求苏黎世议会否定他作为一个邪教。In January 1523, Zwingli appeared before the council to defend himself.在1523年1月,茨温利出现在议会为自己辩护。He asserted the supremacy of the Holy Writ over church dogma, attacked the worship of images, relics, and saints, and denounced the sacramental view of the Eucharist and enforced celibacy as well.他宣称在圣经的教条至上的教堂,袭击了好崇拜的图像,文物,和圣徒,并谴责了圣体圣事的看法和强迫独身的。After deliberation, the council upheld Zwingli by withdrawing the Zürich canton from the jurisdiction of the bishop of Constance; it also affirmed its previous ban against preachings not founded on the Scriptures. By taking these steps the council officially adopted the Reformation. Zwingli in 1524 marked his new status by marrying Anna Reinhard, a widow with whom he had lived openly.经商议后,该局坚持康斯坦斯温格利由主教提出取消对从苏黎世州管辖,而且还重申了以前对圣经的禁令对说教不成立。 通过采取这些步骤会正式通过。茨温利的改革在1524年显着他的新地位莱因哈德安娜结婚,一个寡妇与他住公开。

Under the Reformation, Zürich became a theocracy ruled by Zwingli and a Christian magistrate.根据改革,苏黎世成为一个神权统治的茨温利和基督教裁判官。Sweeping reforms were instituted, among them the conversion of monasteries into hospitals, the removal of religious images, and the elimination of Mass and confession. Eventually Zwingli taught that devout Christians have need of neither pope nor church.大刀阔斧的改革,是建立,其中包括到医院寺院转换,图像去除宗教,和忏悔的质量和消除。最终温格利告诉我们,虔诚的基督徒教会既不需要,也不教皇。

Conflicts Among Protestants新教徒之间的矛盾

During 1525 a radical Protestant group called the Anabaptists challenged Zwingli's rule.在1525年一组称为激进的新教的anabaptists挑战温格利的统治。In a disputation, however, held before the council on the following January 2, Zwingli defeated the Anabaptists, whose leaders were then banished from Zürich.在争论,但是,在苏黎世举行的理事会对下列1月2日,茨温利击败的Anabaptists,从当时的领导人驱逐。

In 1529 friends of Martin Luther and Zwingli, concerned over doctrinal and political differences that had developed between the two Protestant leaders, arranged a meeting between them.1529年领导人的朋友马丁路德和新教2茨温利,关注的理论和政治之间的分歧已制定,安排了他们之间的会晤。 At this meeting, held in Marburg an der Lahn and known since as the Marburg Colloquy, Luther and Zwingli clashed over the question of consubstantiation versus transubstantiation, and the conference failed to reconcile the two leaders.在这次会议上,举行拉恩河畔马尔堡和已知的马尔堡讨论会以来路德和茨温利质变发生冲突的问题超过兑consubstantiation,会议未能调和这两位领导人。

Meanwhile, Zwingli carried his crusade to cantons other than Zürich.同时,茨温利进行讨伐,以他的苏黎世州以外。In all, six cantons were converted to the Reformation. The remaining five, known as the Forest Cantons, remained staunchly Catholic.在所有6个州转化为改造。其余五人,州被称为森林,仍然坚定地天主教。The antagonisms between Catholic and Protestant cantons created a serious split within the Swiss confederation.新教与天主教州的对立,创造了瑞士联邦内的严重分裂。

End of the Swiss Reformation结束对瑞士的改革

In 1529 the hostility between the cantons flared into open civil war.1529年,各州之间的敌对情绪爆发为公开的内战。On October 10, 1531, Zwingli, acting as chaplain and standard-bearer for the Protestant forces, was wounded at Kappel am Albis and later put to death by the victorious troops of the Forest Cantons. 10日,1531年,茨温利,作为牧师和标准的新教势力的旗手,是卡普尔在上午阿尔比斯受伤,后来把林州的部队死亡的胜利。After Zwingli's death the Reformation made no further headway in Switzerland; the country is still half Catholic, half Protestant.经过茨温利死亡的改革取得进展在瑞士没有进一步的,国家仍然是半天主教,新教的一半。

Rev. Reinhold Niebuhr尼布尔牧师


Ulrich Zwingli (1484 - 1531)乌尔里希茨温利(1484年至1531年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

After Luther and Calvin, Zwingli was the most important early Protestant reformer.路德和卡尔文后,茨温利是最重要的早期新教改革者。Zwingli was born in Wildhaus, St. Gall, Switzerland, and showed early promise in education.温格利出生于维尔德豪斯,圣加仑,瑞士,并显示在早期教育的承诺。He studied at Berne and Vienna before matriculating at the University of Basel, where he was captivated by humanistic studies.他曾在伯尔尼和维也纳的研究matriculating之前在人文大学的巴塞尔,在那里他被迷住了。At Basel he also came under the influence of reformer Thomas Wyttenbach, who encouraged him in the directions that would eventually lead to his belief in the sole authority of Scripture and in justification by grace through faith alone.在巴塞尔,他也受到影响,仅在改革者托马斯维滕巴赫,谁信鼓励他在今后的方向,将最终导致他的权力的唯一理由相信在圣经中的恩典和通过。 Zwingli was ordained a Catholic priest and served parishes in Glarus (1506 - 16) and Einsiedeln (1516 - 18) until called to be the people's (or preaching) priest at the Great Minister in Zurich.茨温利被任命为天主教神父和教区中担任格拉鲁斯(1506年至1516年)和艾因西德伦(1516年至1518年),直到称为是市民(或说教)苏黎世祭司部长大。

Sometime around 1516, after diligent study in Erasmus's Greek NT and after long wrestling with the moral problem of sensuality, he experienced an evangelical breakthrough, much like Luther was experiencing at about the same time.大约在1516年后,勤奋学习的伊拉斯谟的希腊NT和长期摔跤后感性与道德问题,他经历了福音的突破,就像路德是时间在大约相同的经历。 This turned him even more wholeheartedly to the Scriptures, and it also made him hostile to the medieval system of penance and relics, which he attacked in 1518.这更是全心全意地拒绝了他的圣经,也使他在1518敌视中世纪制度的忏悔和遗物,攻击他。One of the great moments of the Reformation occurred early in 1519 when Zwingli began his service in Zurich by announcing his intention to preach exegetical sermons beginning with the Gospel of Matthew.改革的一个时刻发生的巨大早在1519年开始打算时,茨温利在苏黎世他的服务,宣布他的传福音的马修与训诂开始说教。 In the final decade of his life he shepherded Zurich to its declaration for reform (1523).在他生命的最后10年,他带领着苏黎世改革宣言(1523)。He wrote numerous tracts and aided in the composition of confessions to promote the course of the Reformation (eg, the Ten Theses of Berne, 1528); he established solid relationships with other Swiss reformers, including Oecolampadius in Basel; he inspired and then broke with the rising Anabaptist movement; and he had a momentous disagreement with Luther over the Lord's Supper (expressed most sharply at the Colloquy of Marburg in 1529).他写了大量传单,并在供词资助的组成,以促进)课程体系的改革(如伯尔尼,1528年十大论文,他建立了稳固的关系,在巴塞尔的瑞士与其他改革者厄科兰帕迪乌斯,包括,他的启发,然后打破再洗礼派运动的崛起,以及他的晚餐(主的一个重大分歧与路德过度表达最明显的马尔堡讨论会在1529年)。 Zwingli lost his life while serving as a chaplain to Zurich troops engaged in warfare with other Swiss cantons.茨温利失去了他的生活,同时担任瑞士各州与其他战争牧师到苏黎世军队进行。

Zwingli's Protestantism was a more rationalistic and biblicistic variation of Luther's theology.茨温利的新教路德是一个变异的神学更加理性和biblicistic。His discussions with German Protestants about the Lord's Supper led him to doubt Luther's belief in a sacramental real presence of Christ in Communion, and even Martin Bucer's belief in a real spiritual presence, in favor of a nearly memorialistic view.的圣餐主与他讨论有关德国新教徒使他怀疑路德的共融中存在的信念,真正的基督在圣事,甚至马丁布塞珥的存在一个真正的信仰精神,鉴于近memorialistic赞成。 To Zwingli the Lord's Supper was primarily an occasion to remember the benefits purchased by Christ's death.为了茨温利主的晚餐,主要是机会,记住死亡的基督的好处购买。In his approach to theology and practice Zwingli looked for strict and specific scriptural warrant, even through this led him into embarrassment when early Anabaptists demanded proof texts for the practice of infant baptism.在他向神学和实践温格利看圣经严格和具体的保证,即使是通过这导致他陷入尴尬早Anabaptists的要求婴儿的洗礼证明文本的做法。 Zwingli's strict adherence to the Bible led him in 1527 to remove the organ from the Great Minister, since Scripture nowhere mandated its use in worship (and this in spite of the fact that Zwingli was an accomplished musician who otherwise encouraged musical expression).茨温利的严格遵守圣经导致他在1527年消除大的机关从部长,因为圣经无处授权其使用的崇拜(这表达的是,尽管是一个多才多艺的音乐家温格利否则谁鼓励音乐)。 He was strongly predestinarian in his theology, but did not display the consummate sense of Scripture's thematic relationships which Calvin employed in the discussion of election.他是在他的强烈神学宿命论者,但没有显示的选举完善意义上的讨论圣经的关系,而这在专题卡尔文。

Zwingli had no qualms in seeking reform through the authority of the Zurich council.茨温利在苏黎世会毫不犹豫的改革,寻求通过权威。Even after his death the Zurich city government under his successor, Heinrich Bullinger, exercised a dominant role in church affairs.即使在他死后,在教会事务苏黎世市政府根据他的继任者的角色,海因里希主导布凌格,行使。This model of churchstate relations eventually appealed to England's Queen Elizabeth, even as reformers Calvin and John Knox fought for the autonomy of the church over its own affairs这种关系模型churchstate最后呼吁英国女王伊丽莎白二世,尽管改革者卡尔文和约翰诺克斯事务争取自己的自主权,教会在其

Zwingli's noble character, his firm commitment to scriptural authority, and his diligent propagation of evangelical reform, even more than his writings, marked him as one of the Reformation's most appealing leaders.茨温利的高尚品格,他的坚定承诺,圣经的权威,他的勤奋传播福音改革的著作,甚至超过他的,他明显领导人呼吁为一体的改革最。

Mark A Noll标志着诺尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (埃尔韦尔福音字典)

Bibliography 书目
GW Bromiley, ed., Zwingli and Bullinger; GR Potter, Zwingli; GR Potter, ed., Huldrych Zwingli; O Farner, Huldrych Zwingli; C Carside, Zwingli and the Fine Arts.毛重罗米立,教育署。,茨温利和布凌格; GR的波特,茨温利; GR的波特,编辑。,Huldrych温格利; Ø法纳,Huldrych温格利;三Carside,茨温利和美术。


Ulrich Zwingli乌尔里克温格利

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Also, Huldreich)(另外,Huldreich)

Founder of the Reformation in Switzerland, born at Wildhaus in Switzerland, 1 January, 1484; died 11 October, 1531.创办人在瑞士的宗教改革,维尔德豪斯出生在瑞士,1484年1月1日,死于1531年10月11日。Zwingli came from a prominent family of the middle classes, and was the third of eight sons.温格利来自一个中产阶级家庭的突出,并且是第三个儿子8个。His father Ulrich was a district official of the little town of Wildhaus, and a cousin of his mother, Margaret Meili, was abbot of the Benedictine monastery in Fischingen in Thurgau. A brother of the elder Zwingli, Bartholomew, was pastor of Wildhaus until 1487, but then became pastor and dean of Wesen on the Walensee.他的父亲是一个维尔德豪斯乌尔里希区正式小镇的,和一,表弟对他的母亲,玛格丽特魅力是图尔高州住持的菲兴根在本笃修道院英寸甲,兄弟老茨温利,巴塞洛缪是直到1487维尔德豪斯牧师,但后来成为牧师和Walensee的院长Wesen。 Zwingli received his early education at Wesen under the guidance of this uncle, by whom he was sent, at the age of ten, to Gregory Bunzli of Wesen who was studying at Basle and also teaching in the school of St. Theodore, which Zwingli henceforth attended.茨温利收到叔叔的指导,根据他的早期教育Wesen这是谁,他被送往,在10岁至格雷戈里Wesen Bunzli谁是就读于巴塞尔,并,学校教学西奥多圣今后的温格利出席了会议。For his higher studies he went to Berne, whither the celebrated Swiss Humanist Schuler was attracting many students for Classical studies.对于他的高级研究,他到伯尔尼,瑞士著名向何处去人文舒勒是吸引许多学生为研究古典。Zwingli's name is entered on the roll of the University of Vienna for the winter term of 1498-99, but he was excluded from the university.茨温利的名字进入了1498年至1499年推出的冬季学期的大学为维也纳,但他排除在大学。 The reason for his exclusion is unknown.排除不明原因的。Zwingli appears, however, to have overcome the difficulty, for he was again matriculated in 1500.茨温利出现,但是,克服了困难,因为他1500年再次被录取英寸Two years later he returned to Basle, where, among others, Thomas Wyttenbach encouraged him to devote himself to the serious study of theology.两年后,他回到巴塞尔,在那里,其中包括托马斯维滕巴赫鼓励他投身到神学认真研究。 In 1506 he completed his studies and received the degree of Master of Theology.在1506年他完成他的学业,并获得了神学学位的硕士课程。Shortly before his graduation the parish of Glarus had selected him as its pastor, although he had not yet been ordained priest.不久之前,他毕业格拉鲁斯教区的牧师,他已选定为,尽管他还没有被祝圣司铎。Apart from his exclusion from the University of Vienna, his student life presents no unusual features, though his later friends and followers relate much that is laudatory about this period.除了他排除来自维也纳大学的学生生活并没有任何不寻常的特征,虽然他后来的朋友和追随者涉及许多赞美的是这期间。His studies at Berne, Vienna, and Basle, where Humanism was eagerly cultivated, made Zwingli one of its zealous supporters.热心的支持者,他的研究在伯尔尼,维也纳和巴塞尔,在那里是它急切地一人文耕地,使温格利。

As pastor of Glarus from 1506 to 1516, the continuation of his humanistic studies was one of Zwingli's chief occupations.由于格拉鲁斯牧师的一五○六年至1516年,继续研究他的职业是一个人文的茨温利的首席。He studied Greek, read the Classics and the Fathers of the Church, and entered into familiar intercourse with the Humanists of the time, especially with Heinrich Loriti (Glareanus), Erasmus, and Vadian.他研究希腊,读经和教会的神父的,熟悉和Vadian进入交往与人文主义和时间,特别是海因里希Loriti(格拉雷亚努斯),伊拉斯谟。 He also engaged in teaching, and the later chroniclers Aegidius and Valentine Tschudi were his pupils.他还从事教学,以及后来的编年史埃吉迪乌斯和情人楚迪是他的学生。In public life he was chiefly conspicuous for his political activity, in this respect following the example of many ecclesiastics of his day.在公共生活中,他主要活动突出了他的政治方面,在这一天之后,例如他的许多教区。In the Italian campaigns of 1513 and 1515, when the Swiss won the victories of Novara and Marignan, he acted as army chaplain. His earliest literary attempts -- the rhymed fables of the ox (about 1510), "De Gestis inter Gallos et Helvetios relatio" (1512), "The Labyrinth" (1516?) -- are all concerned with politics.在诺瓦拉和马里尼昂意大利战役的1513和1515,当胜利的瑞士赢得了,他担任随军牧师。他最早的文学尝试-关于1510)的押韵寓言的牛(“德Gestis除加洛斯等Helvetios关系看“(1512),”迷宫“(1516?) -都与政治有关。These works, which reveal Zwingli as the devoted adherent and champion of the papal party, won him the friendship of the powerful Swiss cardinal Matthew Schinner and an annual pension of fifty gulden from the pope.这些作品,这显示教宗温格利为教皇和专门贴在党的冠军,赢得了一个强大的瑞士枢机马修Schinner和年度养老金从50格尔登他的友谊。 So zealously indeed did he then espouse the cause of the pope that his position in Glarus became untenable when the French party became predominant there in 1516.因此,实在没有他那么热情拥护教宗的事业,他的立场变得站不住脚格拉鲁斯当法国党成为主导1516年有研究。Diebold von Geroldseck, the administrator and sole conventual in the Benedictine monastery at Einsiedeln, entrusted him with the position of a secular priest there, and at the end of 1516 Zwingli left Glarus.迪博尔德冯Geroldseck,管理员和艾因西德伦修道院唯一在本笃会修道院,委托有他的立场与世俗的一名牧师,并在1516年底温格利左格拉鲁斯。

As secular priest at Einsiedeln, the celebrated place of pilgrimage for Switzerland and South Germany, Zwingli's chief office was that of preacher.截至艾因西德伦世俗教士,行政办公著名的朝圣地点为瑞士和德国南部,茨温利是,传教士。For the fulfilment of this task he devoted himself to the study of Holy Writ, copied the Epistles of St. Paul, and learned Hebrew, but did not meanwhile neglect the Classics, a fact which won him flattering praise from the Humanists.为了实现保圣他致力于这项工作的研究圣经的,复制的书信,知道希伯来文,但没有同时忽视的经典,这个事实使他赢得人文主义奉承赞誉。 Erasmus was keenly aware of the laxity of ecclesiastical life (the abuses in external worship, the degeneracy of a large proportion of the clergy), and rightly agitated a reform within the Church, impressing its necessity on the ecclesiastical authorities.伊拉斯谟敏锐地意识到崇拜对外不严的教会生活中滥用(即,神职人员堕落的一个大的比例),并正确地激动,在教会内的改革,令人印象深刻的必要性及其当局对教会的。 Zwingli worked in the same spirit at Einsiedeln from 1516 to 1518.茨温利曾在1518年从1516年到艾因西德伦以同样的精神。In disputing Luther's priority, Zwingli later claimed (and most historians have supported his claim) that while at Einsiedeln he already preached against the old Faith.在争执路德重点,温格利后来声称(大多数历史学家都支持他的索赔),虽然他已经在艾因西德伦鼓吹反对旧的信仰。His claim is, however, negatived by the facts that he continued to draw his pension, that at the end of 1518, at his own petition, he was appointed by the pope acolyte chaplain of the Roman See (cf. the document in "Analecta reformatoria", I, 98), and that his friendly intercourse with Cardinal Schinner still continued when he was engaged at Zurich in 1519.他的说法是,但是,否决的事实,他继续画他的退休金,在1518年底,在他自己的请愿书,他被任命文件Analecta在“教皇的助手牧师的罗马的教廷(参见reformatoria“,我98),他的友好交往与枢机Schinner仍继续当他1519年在苏黎世进行。

Towards the end of 1518, when the post of secular preacher at Münster became vacant, Zwingli applied for the vacancy at the invitation of Oswald Myconius (a friend of his youth), who was engaged as teacher in the monastery school of that place.在接近1518年底,当牧师在明斯特职位出现空缺的世俗,温格利申请青年空缺在他的邀请对奥斯瓦德Myconius的(朋友),谁是地方参与,作为学校的教师在寺院。 Like many other clerics, Zwingli was suspected of offences against celibacy.像其他许多神职人员,茨温利涉嫌犯罪的禁欲反对。 These reports, which were current even in Zurich, made his position there difficult.这些报告,它们目前甚至在苏黎世,使他的立场有困难。When his friend Myconius questioned him on this point Zwingli wrote from Einsiedeln that it was not, as had been asserted, a respectable girl, but a common strumpet with whom he had been intimate.当他的朋友Myconius质疑这点,他就从艾因西德伦茨温利说,它并不像已经断言,一个体面的女孩,但一个共同的strumpet与他亲密了。 His friends in Zurich succeeded in suppressing these reports, and on 11 Dec., 1518, the chapter elected Zwingli by a great majority.在苏黎世他的朋友们成功地抑制这些报告,并于1518年12月11日,该章当选多数温格利由一个伟大的。 He was then thirty-five years old, "in body a handsome and vigorous person, fairly tall, and of a friendly aspect".然后,他被35年历史,“一个漂亮的身体和积极的人,比较高大,一个友好的一面”。In his intercourse with others he was an agreeable companion, of pleasant address and gay temperament, a good singer and musician, and a skilled orator.在他与别人交往,他是一个称心如意的伴侣,同性恋,景致怡人的地址和气质,一个好的歌手和音乐家,以及熟练的演说家。 Accused by his contemporaries of no slight moral offences, he made no attempt to clear himself of the charges.被指控的罪行轻微道德他同时代的不,他没有试图明确自己的指控。As a scholar he was a Humanist rather than a theologian. Under the influence of Erasmus, he saw clearly the defects of ecclesiastical life, but could not himself claim to be spotless, and his talents led him to engage rather in disputes concerning secular affairs than to devote himself to clerical reforms.作为一个学者,他是一个以人为本,而不是神学家伊拉斯谟。影响下,他清楚地看到教会生活中的缺陷的,但可能不是他自己说是一尘不染,使他和他的才华,而不是搞关于世俗事务的纠纷投身文书改革。 So far he had no intention of introducing doctrinal innovations; such an idea occurred to him first in Zurich after 1519.到目前为止,他并没有打算引进的创新理论,这样一来他的想法发生后,1519年首次在苏黎世。Luther had already hung up his ninety-five theses against indulgences at the church of the castle in Wittenberg, 31 Oct., 1517.路德已经挂了,1517年10月31日在他的90维滕贝格城堡- 5的论文对在教堂的放纵。

On 1 January, 1519, Zwingli preached for the first time in the cathedral at Zurich. 1月1日,1519年,茨温利在苏黎世鼓吹为首次在大教堂。He began with the exposition of the Bible, taking first the Gospel of St.他开始与圣经的论述,采取先圣福音Matthew, and by going back to the sources showed himself especially a Humanist.马修,并回到自己的来源,特别是表明一个以人为本。Of doctrinal innovation he had still scarcely any thought.创新的理论,他还几乎没有任何想法。Even his stand against the indulgence preacher, Bernhardin Sanson, at the beginning of 1519, was taken with the consent of the Bishop of Constance.就连他的立场反对放纵布道者,Bernhardin桑松1519年,在开始的时候,是采取与康斯坦茨主教的同意。 The transformation of Zwingli the Humanist and politician into a teacher of the new faith was faciliated by the ecclesiastical and political conditions of the people and public authorities at Zurich and in Switzerland in general.信仰转化温格利以人为本和政治家到新教师提供了便利的政治条件和人民的教会和公共机关在瑞士苏黎世和一般。The populace displayed great religious zeal externally, eg, in pious foundations and pilgrimages.民众表现出极大的宗教狂热外部,例如,在基础和虔诚朝圣。This zeal, however, was insufficient to counteract the decay of morals, which resulted especially from the mercenary army system.这种热情,但是,不足以抵消道德衰减,特别是从哪个系统造成的雇佣军。The clergy to a great extent neglected their obligations, many of them lived in concubinage, and joined in the shameless pursuit of spiritual prebends, thus damaging their prestige.这在很大的程度上被忽视的神职人员的义务,其中有许多生活在纳妾,和棒禄加入的无耻的精神追求,从而损害他们的威信。 Worthy clerics, however, were not wanting.值得注意的神职人员,但是,并没有希望。The Bishop of Constance, Hugo von Hohenlandenberg, was a man of stainless conduct; he endeavoured to do away with abuses, and issued various mandates, but unfortunately without permanent results.在康斯坦茨主教,雨果冯Hohenlandenberg,是一个人行为的不锈钢,他努力做好滥用取消,并发出各种任务,但不幸的是没有永久的结果。 This failure was due to the lack of cooperation on the part of the civil rulers, who then enjoyed in ecclesiastical matters very extensive rights acquired, especially by Zurich and Berne, from the popes and bishops in consequence of the Burgundian, Swabian, and Milanese wars (1474-1516).此故障是由于战争缺乏合作和米兰的部分民间统治者,那么谁的问题非常广泛的权利,享有获得教会,尤其是施瓦本的苏黎世和伯尔尼,来自勃艮第的教皇和主教在后果的, (1474年至1516年)。Rome, like France, had endeavoured to secure, by the outlay of much money, the services of Swiss mercenaries.罗马法国一样,一直努力争取资金,通过对支出的多少,瑞士雇佣军服务。In Zurich, the "foremost and supreme place", the council espoused the cause of the pope, and opposed the French party.在苏黎世的“首要的和最高的地方”,该委员会所支持的事业,教皇,反对法国的党。Zwingli did the same and came into prominence first as a politician, a fact which makes his case essentially different from that of Luther.茨温利也相同,突出生效首先作为一个政治家,这个事实使他的案件基本上从不同的路德。It was only in 1520 that he voluntarily renounced his papal pension.这是1520年才在他自愿放弃了教皇的养老金。He then attacked the ruinous mercenary system, and through his efforts Zurich alone of all the cantons refused to enter the alliance with France on 5 May, 1521.然后,他攻击了毁灭性的雇佣军制度,并通过他的努力仅苏黎世州拒绝所有进入1521年5月,该联盟与法国。However, 2000 mercenaries entered the service of the pope.然而,进入2000年,教皇雇佣军服务的。On 11 Jan., 1522, all foreign services and pensions were forbidden in Zurich.关于1522年1月11日,所有外国的服务和养老金被禁止在苏黎世。By the publication, 16 May, 1522, of his "Vermahnung an die zu Schwyz, dass sie sich vor fremden Herren hutend", Zwingli succeeded in extending his influence beyond Zurich, although only temporarily.在出版,1522年5月16日,他的“Vermahnung一死祖施维茨,达斯女士自在沃尔fremden黑伦hutend”,茨温利成功地扩展其影响力超越苏黎世,虽然只是暂时的。

Owing to his success as a politician his prestige and importance increased.由于他作为一个政治家,他的威信和成功的重要性增加。From 1522 he came forward as sponsor of the religious innovations.从1522年他来到了宗教革新作为赞助商。His first reformatory work, "Vom Erkiesen und Fryheit der Spysen", appeared when the bookseller Froschauer and his associates publicly defied the ecclesiastical law of fasting, and a controversy concerning fasts broke out.他的第一感化工作,“沃姆Erkiesen北达科Fryheit明镜Spysen”,出现时,书商和他的同伙弗罗绍尔公开违背了教会法斋戒,斋戒和有关争议爆发。 Zwingli declared the fasting provisions mere human commands which were not in harmony with Holy Writ; and the Bible was the sole source of faith, as he asserted in his second writing, "Archeteles".茨温利宣布禁食的规定仅仅是圣经的和谐与人的命令中没有和圣经是信仰的唯一源泉,因为他写在他的第二个断言,“Archeteles”。 Through the medium of a delegation the Bishop of Constance exhorted the town to obedience on 7 April.通过授课的一个代表团康斯坦茨主教告诫的小镇服从于4月7日。On 29 Jan., 1523, the council, on whose decision everything depended, held a religious disputation at Zwingli's instigation, and agreed to base its action on the result of the debate.关于1523年1月29日,安理会而定,在其决定一切,举行的宗教争论唆使在茨温利,并同意其辩论的基础上采取行动的结果。 In sixty-seven theses (his most extensive and important work) Zwingli now proposed a formal programme for the innovations; according to his view the Bible with his interpretation was to be the sole authority.在67篇(他的最广泛,最重要的工作)温格利现在正式提出的创新方案,据他看来,他的解释是圣经是唯一的权威。 The arguments brought against this view by the most important champion of the old Faith, the vicar-general Johann Faber of Constance, who appealed to the teaching and tradition of the early Church, were disregarded; the council in whose hands Zwingli reposed the government of the Church, forthwith declared in favour of the innovation.这些论据提起这个教会鉴于早期最重要的冠军旧信仰,副主教干事约翰法贝尔康斯坦茨,谁呼吁传统的教学和被忽视;政府对安理会在他的手中温格利的寄托教会,随即宣布赞成的创新。

A second religious disputation in October, 1523, dealt with the practical institution of a state church, the veneration of the saints, the removal of images, good works, and the sacraments.宗教争论的第二个10月,1523年,教会处理了国家机构的实际,圣人崇拜的,去除图像的作品,好的,圣礼。 No notable representative of the ancient Faith was present.古老的信仰没有显着的代表出席。Zwingli urged the adoption of his doctrines so successfully that even his devoted adherent, Commander Schmid of Kusnacht, warned him against the too sudden abolishment of ancient customs and usages.茨温利敦促他的学说,以便成功地通过了,即使他深爱的追随者,指挥官Kusnacht施密德的,警告他对古老的习俗惯例和太突然取消的。 The first steps having been taken in 1522-23, the reforms were carried into effect in Zurich in 1524-25.第一个步骤已被1522年至1523年采取的改革进行到苏黎世的影响在1524年至1525年。About Easter, 1524, indulgences and pilgrimages were abolished, the sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction rejected, and pictures, statues, relics, altars, and organs destroyed, regardless of their artitic value.关于复活节,1524,宽容和朝圣取消后,忏悔圣事和临终拒绝,图片,塑像,文物,祭坛,和机关遭到破坏,不论其artitic价值。 Sacred vessels of great value, such as chalices and monstrances, were melted into coin. Church property was seized by the State, which gained most by the suppression of the monasteries; the Fraumünster Abbey, founded in 853, was voluntarily surrendered to the secular authorities by the last abbess.神圣的船只很有价值的monstrances,如酒杯,并分别将硬币熔化。教会财产被检获的国家,取得了大部分的寺庙的镇压;的Fraumünster修道院,成立于853,是自首的世俗当局由过去的住持。 Celibacy was rejected as contrary to Holy Writ, and monks and nuns were married.独身被拒绝视为违反圣经,和僧侣和尼姑结婚。 As early as 1522 Zwingli with ten other ecclesiastics assembled at Einsiedeln and addressed a petition to the Bishop of Constance and to the diet asking freedom for priests to marry.早在1522年温格利聚集在艾因西德伦教士与其他10个和讨论了请愿书,康斯坦茨主教和司铎的饮食要求结婚的自由。"Your honourable wisdom", they declared, "has already witnessed the disgraceful and shameful life we have unfortunately hitherto led with women, thereby giving grievous scandal to everyone." “你的光荣的智慧”,他们宣称,“已经目睹了可耻,可耻的生活中,我们迄今已导致不幸的妇女,从而使严重丑闻的每一个人。”From 1522 the marriage of priests in Zurich became ever more frequent; Zwingli himself on 2 July, 1524, married Anna Reinhard (the widow of Hans Meyer von Knonau), who bore him his first daughter on 31 July.从1522年的苏黎世结婚的牧师则越来越频繁;温格利自己7月2日1524年,安娜嫁给莱因哈德(寡妇的克诺瑙迈耶的汉斯冯),谁承担女儿7月31日他第一次。 A new marriage law of 10 May, 1525, regulated these innovations.一,1525年,新婚姻法规定5月10日这些创新。In the spring of 1525 the Mass was abolished; in its place was introduced the memorial service of the Last Supper.在1525年春天的群众被废除,在它的地方是引入了最后的晚餐的追悼会。

The new doctrines were not introduced without opposition.新学说并没有引进没有反对。The first opponents of the Reformers were from the ranks of their own party.对改革者的第一个对手是来自本党的队伍的。The peasants could find no reason in the Bible, the sole principle of faith, why they should contribute to their lords' taxes, tithes, and rent, and they refused any longer to do so.农民没有发现在圣经信仰的原因,原则上唯一的,为什么他们要贡献自己的领主'税,什一税和租金,他们拒绝再这样做。The greatest unrest prevailed everywhere, and was only quelled after long negotiations and some concessions by the Government.最大的动荡占了上风无处不在,只有经过长期谈判,并平息了政府的一些让步。The Anabaptists were not so easily silenced.再洗礼派没有这么容易沉默。From the Bible, which Zwingli had placed in their hands, they had deduced the most marvellous doctrines, much more radical than Zwingli's and questioning even the authority of the state.从圣经,茨温利的手放在了自己,他们是最了不起的理论推导,更激进的比茨温利的质疑,甚至与国家权力的。Zwingli persecuted them mercilessly with imprisonment, torture, banishment and death; their leader Felix Manz was drowned.温格利他们无情地迫害与监禁,酷刑,流放和死亡;他们的领导人曼茨菲利克斯被淹死。The war against these visionary spirits was more serious for Zwingli than that against Rome.对这些战争的精神更有远见温格利严重的比对罗马。At first Rome allowed itself to be soothed by evasive words; the "Lutheran sects" were aimed at and the Zwinglians clung to the word of God, was the information supplied to Clement VII by Zurich on 19 August, 1524.起初罗马允许的话安慰自己是被回避;的“路德派”等词的目的和Zwinglians固守上帝是,到1524克莱门特七世提供的资料由苏黎世8月19日。 Soon, however, the breach with the ancient Church was too plain to be doubted.不久,但是,教会违反与古代太平原是毋庸置疑的。 The cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, and Fribourg remained true to the old Faith, and offered determined opposition to Zwingli. They could not see that Zwingli was more favoured by God than the ancient saints and teachers; in his clerical life he was not superior to others, and he was inclined rather towards disturbance than towards peace.楚格州的乌里,施维茨,翁特瓦尔登,卢塞恩,以及弗里堡坚守旧信仰,并提出坚决反对茨温利。他们无法看到,茨温利更青睐上帝比古代圣人和教师,在他的文书生活中他不是高人一等,他倾向的干扰,而不是朝着实现和平。

The Catholic cantons, however, also strove to abolish abuses, issuing in 1525 a Concordat of Faith with important reforms which, however, never found general recognition.天主教各州,不过,也力图取消虐待,1525年发行的认协约信仰发现一般有重要改革,但是,从来没有。From 21 May to 8 June, 1526, they held a public disputation at Baden, to which they invited Dr. Johann Eck of Ingolstadt.5月21日to 1526年6月8日,他们举行了巴登公众争论,他们邀请到约翰埃克博士的英戈尔斯塔特。 Zwingli did not venture to appear.茨温利不敢出现。The disputation ended with the complete victory for the old Faith, but those who believed that the teaching of Zwingli could be driven out of the world by disputations deceived themselves; it had already taken too deep root.在争论结束了旧信仰完全胜利的,但那些谁认为温格利教学可以带动世界走出了disputations自己受骗,它已采取过深根。 In St. Gall the Humanist and burgomaster Vadian worked successfully in Zwingli's interest -- in Schaffhausen, Dr. Sebastian Hofmeister; in Basle, (Ecolampadius. For Berne which, notwithstanding the efforts of Berchtold Haller, had previously maintained a non-committal attitude, the religious disputation held at Zwingli's suggestion, in Jan., 1528, was decisive. Zwingli himself came to the city, and the Catholic cause was but weakly represented. The new doctrines were then introduced as sweepingly into Berne as they had been at Zurich, and many places and counties which had previously wavered followed its example. Zwingli could also point to brilliant successes in 1528 and 1529. He ensured the predominance of his reforms through the "Christian Civic rights", agreed upon between Zurich and the towns of Constance (1527), Berne and St. Gall (1528), Biel, Mulhausen, and Schaffhausen (1529). To compel the Catholic cantons to accept the new doctrines, he even urged civil war, drew up a plan of campaign, and succeeded in persuading Zurich to declare war and march against the Catholic territories. The Catholic districts had endeavoured to strengthen their position by forming a defensive alliance with Austria (1529), the "Christian Union." At this juncture, however, they received no assistance. Berne showed itself more moderate than Zurich, and a treaty of peace was arranged, which, however, was very unfavourable for the Catholics.在圣加仑的人文和镇长Vadian曾经成功地运作温格利的利益-在沙夫豪森博士塞巴斯蒂安霍夫迈斯特,在巴塞尔(伯尔尼Ecolampadius.对于一些,尽管伯克托尔德阿莱的努力,曾保持了不表态的态度,宗教的争论在茨温利的建议举行的1528年,在1月,是决定性的。温格利自己来到这个城市,和天主教原因,但弱的代表。其后的新理论引入伯尔尼作为笼统,因为他们已在苏黎世,许多地方和县的曾动摇过之后它的榜样。温格利也可以指向辉煌在1528年和1529年。他保证“,”公民权利基督教占主导地位的他的改革通过,同意在康斯坦茨城镇和苏黎世之间的( 1527),伯尔尼和圣加仑(1528),比尔,Mulhausen和沙夫豪森(1529年)。迫使天主教各州接受新的学说,他还呼吁内战,制定了活动计划,并成功地说服苏黎世宣布天主教领土战争和游行反对。天主教区已经努力加强基督教联盟的立场,形成一个防御性联盟与奥地利(1529年)的“。”在这个时刻,然而,他们没有得到任何援助。伯尔尼显示苏黎世比自己更温和,并安排了和平条约,其中,但是,天主教徒是非常不利的。

In Zurich Zwingli was now the commanding personality in all ecclesiastical and political questions.在苏黎世茨温利,现在是政治问题,指挥在所有的教会和个性。He was "burgomaster, secretary, and council" in one, and showed himself daily more overbearing.他是“市长,书记,理事会”于一体,并表明自己每天更咄咄逼人。His insolence indeed prevented an agreement with Luther regarding the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, when a disputation was arranged between the two heresiarchs at Marfurt in October, 1529.他确实阻止了路德傲慢与有关协议,原则上主的晚餐时,争论被安排在两个heresiarchs马尔富特在10月间,1529年。 As a statesman, Zwingli embarked in secular politics with ambitious plans. "Within three years", he writes, "Italy, Spain and Germany will take our view". Even the King of France, whose greatest enemy he had previously been, he sought to win to his side in 1531 with the work "Christianae fidei expositio", and was even prepared to pay him a yearly pension.作为一个政治家,茨温利开始在世俗政治与雄心勃勃的计划。“三年之内”,他写道,“意大利,西班牙和德国将采取我们的看法。”即使他要求法国国王,其最大的敌人,他以前曾,争取到1531年在他身边的工作“Christianae信德奥迹博览会的”,并不惜每年付给他的退休金。 By prohibiting intercourse with the Catholic cantons he compelled them to resort to arms.禁止武器交往与诉诸天主教各州他强迫他们。On 9 Oct., 1531, they declared war on Zurich, and advanced to Kappel on the frontiers.关于1531年10月9日,他们宣布苏黎世战争,以及先进的前沿,以卡普尔上。The people of Zurich hastened to oppose them, but met a decisive defeat near Kappel on 11 Oct., Zwingli falling in the battle.苏黎世的人急忙反对他们,但遇到了一个决定性的战役击败近卡普尔在10月11日,温格利下降。After a second defeat of the Reformed forces at Gubel, peace was concluded on 23 Oct., 1531.在居贝尔后的第二次失败的改革力量,和平是结束1531年10月23日。The peace was of long duration, since the Catholic victors displayed great moderation.和平是持续时间长,因为天主教胜利者表现出极大的克制。Zwingli's death was an event of great importance for all Switzerland.茨温利的去世是一个瑞士的所有活动具有重要意义。His plan to introduce his innovations into the Catholic cantons by force had proved abortive.他的计划以武力推行自己的天主教各州创新为已证明失败。But even Catholics, who claimed the same rights in religious matters as the people of Zurich, regarded him as the "governor of all confederates".但即使是天主教徒,谁声称人民苏黎世作为同一宗教事务的权利,把他的同伙“,”总督所有。Zwingli is regarded as the most "liberal" of all the Reformers, and was less a dogmatist than Calvin.茨温利被认为是最“自由”的所有改革者,并减少1比卡尔文教条主义。His statue, with a sword in one hand and the Bible in the other, stands near the municipal library at Zurich, which has also a Zwingli museum.他的塑像,用剑在一方面和其他圣经中,站附近的茨温利在苏黎世市立图书馆博物馆,这也是一个。

Heinrich Bullinger (1504-75), Zwingli's successor, undertook the internal development of the new doctrines.海因里希布凌格(1504年至1575年),茨温利的继任者,承担了新的理论发展的内在。His father (also named Heinrich) who was pastor at Bremgarten and embraced the Reformation early, sent Bullinger to Emmerich and Cologne, where he received a thorough Humanistic training.他的父亲(也叫海因里希)谁是布雷姆加滕牧师在改革初期和拥抱,发送布凌格到埃默里奇和科隆,在那里他获得了彻底的人文培训。 Even from his earliest activity as teacher in the Cistercian monastery near Kappel (1523-29) and later as pastor in Bremgarten (1529 31), Bullinger proved himself a zealous lieutenant of Zwingli's.即使从他最早的1523年至1529年的活动(如教师修道院修道院在不久的卡普尔),后来布雷姆加滕牧师(1529 31),布凌格证明了自己是温格利的热心中尉的。In 1528 he accompanied the latter to the religious disputation at Berne.在1528年他陪同后者在伯尔尼的宗教争论。On 9 Dec., 1531, he was chosen as Zwingli's successor, pastor of the Grossmünster at Zurich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575).关于1531年12月9日,他是)选为温格利的继任者,在苏黎世大教堂牧师,一个位置,他1575年举行的结束他的生命(。 Bullinger regarded union with Luther on the question of the Lord's Supper as his chief task.布林格认为路德对工会工作的主要问题是他的主的晚餐的。For this purpose he composed in 1536, with Myconius and Grynaeus, the "First Helvetic Confession", a profession of faith which was recognized by the Evangelical towns of Switzerland.为此目的,他在1536年组成,与Myconius和格里诺伊斯“第一海尔维自白”,一个瑞士界的信仰是福音派镇的认可。 In the same year also appeared the "Wittenberg Concordia".同年还出现了“维滕贝格捷众”。When Bullinger refused to subscribe to this agreement, which was brought about by Butzer, Luther burst out into abuse of Zwingli.当布凌格拒绝同意这一协议,这是由约带来比策,路德爆发出到温格利滥用。The attempt to bring about an agreement between Bullinger and Calvin on this question at Geneva was more successful, the "Consensus Tigurinus" being concluded between them in 1545.企图实现一日内瓦协议布凌格和卡尔文之间就这一问题进行更多的成功,“共识Tigurinus”是他们于1545年缔结的。 As the expression of his personal religious conviction Bullinger composed the "Second Helvetic Confession", which was printed in 1566, and was recognized by all the Evangelical churches except that of Basle.由于布林格表达他个人的宗教信念组成的“第二海尔维自白”,这是1566年印制的,并于巴塞尔承认这一切,除了基督教教堂。

Besides discharging the office of preacher, Bullinger displayed great literary activity.除了履行牧师办公室,布凌格表现出极大的文学活动。He carried on a large correspondence with several crowned heads, with Lady Jane Grey in London, Vadian, Graubundenn, and many others.他进行的一个大型的通信与数冠头,与简格雷夫人在伦敦,Vadian,Graubundenn,等等。 More than 100 sermons and theological treatises from his pen are known, as well as one drama, "Lucretia and Brutus".100多名神学说教和他的笔从已知的论文,以及一个戏剧,“卢克和布鲁特斯”。His "Diarium" and his extensive history of the Reformation are still valuable.他的“Diarium”和他的广泛的改革仍然是宝贵的历史。 It is an undecided question how far his history is independent and how far a compilation of other writings.这是一个悬而未决的问题多远他的历史是一个独立的著作汇编多远其他。In character Bullinger was particularly hospitable, and many fugitives from England and France found refuge with him.在字符布凌格特别好客,许多逃犯从英国和法国发现他避难的。Although less overbearing than Zwingli and Luther, he was still intolerant; he approved the execution of Servetus at Geneva.虽然不易路德比茨温利和霸道,他仍然不容忍,他批准了在日内瓦的执行塞尔维特。He died on 17 September, 1575.他死于1575年9月17日。

Zwingli's works were first collected and published by his son-in-law, Rudolf Gwalter, and entitled: "Opera DH Zwingli vigilantissimi Tigurinae ecclesiae Antistitis, partim quidem ab ipso Latine conscripta, partim vero e vernaculo sermone in Latinum translata: omnia novissime recognita, et multis adiectis, quae hactenus visa non sunt" (4 fol. vols., Zurich, 1545; reprinted, 1581).茨温利的作品首次收集并有权发表他的女婿,鲁道夫格沃尔特,并且:“歌剧卫生署温格利vigilantissimi Tigurinae琤Antistitis,partim quidem从头而自动拉丁联盟conscripta,partim维罗é vernaculo sermone在Latinum translata:广告计划novissime recognita,等multis adiectis,quae hactenus签证非必须遵守“(4 FOL的。第一卷和第二卷。,苏黎世,1545年,重印,1581)。The first complete edition was edited by Melchior Schuler and Johannes Schulthess (8 vols., Zurich, 1828-42).第一个完整版的第一卷和第二卷主编梅尔基奥尔舒勒和Johannes Schulthess(8。,苏黎世,1828年至1842年)。Volumes VII and VIII, containing Zwingli's correspondence, are especially important.第七和第八册,含茨温利的信件,尤其重要。A new edition of his complete works prepared by Emil Egli (d. 1908), George Finsler, and Walther Kohler is appearing in the "Corpus Reformatorum", LXXXVIII (Berlin, 1905); three volumes I, II, and VII, have already (1912) appeared.阿四1908年新埃米尔埃格(由他的全集版本编写),乔治芬斯勒,科勒和瓦尔特是出现在“语料库Reformatorum”,LXXXVIII(柏林,1905年);三册一,二,和七,已(1912年)出现了。

Publication information Written by Wihelm Jos. Meyer.出版信息写Wihelm迈耶乔斯。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil and Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.托马斯转录由汉奇尔和约瑟夫托马斯。天主教百科全书,体积十五。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York认可。+约翰法利枢机主教,约克大主教新


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