Abraham, Abram, Ibrahim亚伯拉罕

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Abraham, originally called Abram, was Israel's first great patriarch. He probably lived in the late 3d or early 2d millennium BC, but the earliest source for information on his life is Genesis 11-25, written about 10 centuries later.亚伯拉罕,最初叫亚伯兰,是以色列的第一个伟大的族长 ,他可能住在后期的3D或2D公元前3000年初期,但在他的生活的信息,最早的来源是创世纪11-25,大约10世纪以后写的。He was born at Ur in Chaldea, where he married his half-sister Sarah.他出生在乌尔在迦勒底,在那里他娶了他的同父异母妹妹莎拉。Under divine inspiration, he went to Haran in Mesopotamia.神的启示下,他去哈兰在美索不达米亚。Later God commanded him to leave his home for a new land; in return God offered Abraham fame, land, and descendants, promising that he would become a blessing to all nations.后来神吩咐他离开他的家,一个新的土地;回报神向亚伯拉罕名利,土地和后裔,有前途,他将成为所有国家的祝福。Abraham obeyed and migrated to Canaan, where he lived as a nomadic chieftain.亚伯拉罕服从和迁移到迦南地,在那里他作为一个游牧民族头目居住。He soon became wealthy, but he still had no son.他很快成为富裕,但他仍然没有儿子。Because Sarah was advanced in years, she substituted her Egyptian slave Hagar, who bore Ishmael, Abraham's first son.因为莎拉在多年的先进,她取代了她的埃及奴隶夏甲,亚伯拉罕的第一个儿子以实玛利,谁承担。Later, in accord with a divine promise, Sarah gave birth to Isaac.后来,在一个神圣的承诺一致,莎拉生下艾萨克。

Abraham's faith was put to a severe test when God commanded that he sacrifice Isaac, his only son by Sarah.亚伯拉罕的信仰是一个严峻的考验时,神吩咐他牺牲艾萨克,他唯一的儿子由萨拉。Abraham did not waver and he prepared for the sacrifice, but God spared the boy at the last moment, substituting a ram.亚伯拉罕没有动摇,他牺牲的准备,但上帝幸免男孩在最后一刻,而代以RAM。The Bible portrays Abraham as a man struggling to trust God's promises. By his faith Abraham became the father of the Israelite people and is still honored in three different religions. “圣经”描绘一名男子奋力相信神的应许亚伯拉罕,他的信仰,亚伯拉罕成为父亲的以色列人人民仍然是在三个不同的宗教荣幸。Jewish tradition stresses Monotheism.一神教强调犹太传统。Christians see him as a model for the man of faith and recognize him as their spiritual ancestor. 基督徒信仰的人的典范,他承认他当作自己的精神祖先。Muslims accept him as an ancestor of the Arabs through Ishmael. Numerous works of art are based on the story of the sacrifice of Isaac. 穆斯林接受他作为阿拉伯人的祖先以实玛利以撒的牺牲的故事,众多的艺术作品。

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(Editor's Note: Muslims believe that God commanded Abraham to sacrifice Ishmael instead of Isaac. Where the Hebrew and Christian Bibles present later genealogies as based on Isaac, the Islam Koran indicates that Arabs descended through Ishmael. There is no agreement on this matter, but in all cases, it is agreed that Abraham, and therefore his ancestor Shem was an ancestor, which means that both Jews and (Sunnite) Arabs are Semites (descended from Shem).) (编者注:。穆斯林相信,上帝吩咐亚伯拉罕以牺牲代替了以撒以实玛利在哪里的希伯来和基督教的“圣经”目前后来作为对艾萨克基于族谱的伊斯兰教古兰经表明阿拉伯人通过以实玛利的后裔在这个问题上没有达成协议,但。在所有情况下,它同意亚伯拉罕,因此,他的祖先闪是一个祖先,这意味着,无论是犹太人,(逊尼派),阿拉伯人都是闪米特人(闪的后裔)。)

JJM RobertsJJM罗伯茨

Bibliography参考书目
Bright, John, A History of Israel (1972); Neusner, Jacob, Genesis Rabbah: The Judaic Commentary on the Book of Genesis, 3 vols.明亮,约翰,一个以色列的历史(1972年); Neusner,雅各,创世记拉巴:创世记,3卷​​书上的犹太评论。(1985); van Seters, John, Abraham in History and Tradition (1975). (1985年);面包车Seters,历史和传统中的亚伯拉罕(1975),约翰。


Abraham亚伯拉罕

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Abraham, father of a multitude, son of Terah, was named (Gen. 11:27) before his older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of the promises.亚伯拉罕,一个千头万绪,他拉的儿子的父亲,被命名(创11:27)之前,他的哥哥拿鹤和哈兰,因为他是继承人的承诺。 Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred in his native country of Chaldea.截止到70岁,亚伯兰寄居在他的亲属在他的祖国的迦勒底。He then, with his father and his family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in which he had hitherto dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to Haran, where he abode fifteen years.他的话,他的父亲和他的家人和家庭,辞去市乌尔,他在迄今住,哈兰,他在那里居留权十五年了大约300英里以北。The cause of his migration was a call from God (Acts 7:2-4).其迁移的原因是从神(使徒行传7:2-4)打来的电话。There is no mention of this first call in the Old Testament; it is implied, however, in Gen. 12.有没有提到这在旧约中的第一次调用,它是隐含的,但是在将军12。While they tarried at Haran, Terah died at the age of 205 years.虽然他们守侯在哈兰,他拉死了205年的年龄。

Abram now received a second and more definite call, accompanied by a promise from God (Gen. 12:1, 2); whereupon he took his departure, taking his nephew Lot with him, "not knowing whither he went" (Heb. 11:8).亚伯兰现在收到的第二和更明确的呼叫,伴随着从神(创12:1,2)的承诺,于是他带着他的离去,他的侄子地段,“他不知道往哪里去了”(希伯来书11 :8)。He trusted implicitly to the guidance of Him who had called him.他相信含蓄地叫他给他指导。 Abram now, with a large household of probably a thousand souls, entered on a migratory life, and dwelt in tents.亚伯兰现在,与大家电的可能是一个千年的灵魂,进入迁徙的生活,并住在帐篷里。Passing along the valley of the Jabbok, in the land of Canaan, he formed his first encampment at Sichem (Gen. 12:6), in the vale or oak-grove of Moreh, between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south.传递雅博谷,在迦南地,他形成了他的第一个营地Sichem(创12:6),在淡水河谷或橡木树丛Moreh,南Ebal在北部和盖里济姆。 Here he received the great promise, "I will make of thee a great nation," etc. (Gen. 12:2, 3, 7).在这里,他收到了很大的希望,“我会让你一个伟大的民族,”等(创12:2,3,7)。This promise comprehended not only temporal but also spiritual blessings.这个承诺理解,不仅时间,但也有精神的祝福。It implied that he was the chosen ancestor of the great Deliverer whose coming had been long ago predicted (Gen. 3:15).它意味着,他选择的祖先是伟大的订购者信息,其未来不久前曾预测(创世记3:15)。Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah."此后不久,他没有提到的一些原因,除去他的帐篷伯特利山之间的地区,然后叫卢斯和艾,相距大约两英里的城镇,在那里他建立了一个祭坛“耶和华。” He again moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down into Egypt.他再次提出所谓的希伯来人Negeb,到南部的巴勒斯坦道长度,饥荒的帐户,被迫进入埃及。

This took place in the time of the Hyksos, a Semitic race which now held the Egyptians in bondage.这发生在希克索斯的时间,现在的埃及人奴役的犹太人的种族。Here occurred that case of deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of Pharaoh (Gen. 12:18).这里发生了欺骗亚伯兰的情况下,这暴露了他训斥法老(创12:18)。Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country.撒莱恢复到他和法老满载着礼物他,建议他从该国撤出。He returned to Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver, and in gold" (Gen. 12:8; 13:2. Comp. Ps. 105:13, 14).他回到迦南比他离开时更丰富,“牛,银,金,”(创12:8,13:2比赛PS 105:13,14。。)。 The whole party then moved northward, and returned to their previous station near Bethel.全党北移,并返回到其在前一站附近贝瑟尔。Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds and those of Abram about water and pasturage.在这里,纠纷产生地段的关于水和牧草的亚伯兰的牧人和。Abram generously gave Lot his choice of the pasture-ground.亚伯兰慷慨地给了他选择的草场地面地段。(Comp. 1 Cor. 6:7.) He chose the well-watered plain in which Sodom was situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and nephew were separated.(1 Comp.林前6:7)。他选择的是坐落在这所多玛的精心浇灌平原,并删除上去,从而分离的叔叔和侄子。Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a repetition of the promises already made to him, and then removed to the plain or "oakgrove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron.后立即亚伯兰是重复的承诺已经向他提出,然后拆下来平原或“oakgrove”的幔利,这是在希伯伦的欢呼。He finally settled here, pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree, called "the oak of Mamre" (Gen. 13:18).他终于在这里定居,俯仰他的帐篷下一个著名的橡木或笃耨香松节油树,被称为“的幔利的橡树”(创13:18)。

This was his third resting-place in the land.这是他的第三个安身之处的土地。Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who brought under tribute to him the five cities in the plain to which Lot had removed.有十四年来在此之前,而亚伯兰仍然在迦勒底,巴勒斯坦已入侵基大老玛,埃兰国王,谁受到赞扬他在该地段已删除平原的五个城市。 This tribute was felt by the inhabitants of these cities to be a heavy burden, and after twelve years they revolted.赞扬这些城市的居民感到是一个沉重的负担,十二年后,他们起兵。This brought upon them the vengeance of Chedorlaomer, who had in league with him four other kings.这给他们带来的基大老玛,曾与他在联赛中的4个其他国王的报复。He ravaged the whole country, plundering the towns, and carrying the inhabitants away as slaves.他破坏了整个国家,掠夺城镇,并携带居民作为奴隶。Among those thus treated was Lot.在粉碎处理的地段。Hearing of the disaster that had fallen on his nephew, Abram immediately gathered from his own household a band of 318 armed men, and being joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, he pursued after Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near the springs of the Jordan.听力下降了他的侄子的灾难,亚伯兰立即聚集了来自他自己的家庭乐队的武装男子318,Amoritish酋长幔利,亚乃,和Eshcol加入,他追求后,基大老玛,和附近的温泉,他超越了乔丹。 They attacked and routed his army, and pursued it over the range of Anti-Libanus as far as to Hobah, near Damascus, and then returned, bringing back all the spoils that had been carried away.他们攻击和路由他的军队,追求尽可能Hobah大马士革附近,在反Libanus范围,然后返回,带回已被冲昏头脑的战利品。

Returning by way of Salem, ie, Jerusalem, the king of that place, Melchizedek, came forth to meet them with refreshments.萨利姆,即耶路撒冷,国王的那个地方,麦基洗德,方式选举出来,以满足他们茶点。 To him Abram presented a tenth of the spoils, in recognition of his character as a priest of the most high God (Gen. 14:18-20).他亚伯兰提出的战利品的十分之一,以表彰他的性格至高神的祭司(创14:18-20)。In a recently-discovered tablet, dated in the reign of the grandfather of Amraphel (Gen. 14:1), one of the witnesses is called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or Abram.在最近发现的片剂,在Amraphel祖父(创14:1),证人之一的统治日被称为“亚摩利人,Abiramu儿子,”或亚伯兰。 Having returned to his home at Mamre, the promises already made to him by God were repeated and enlarged (Gen. 13:14).在幔利返回到他家,上帝对他已经作出的承诺是重复和放大(创13:14)。"The word of the Lord" (an expression occurring here for the first time) "came to him" (15:1). (表达式发生第一次来这里),他说:“耶和华的话”“他来”(15:1)。He now understood better the future that lay before the nation that was to spring from him.他现在更好地理解未来的民族,是从他的春天打下前。Sarai, now seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be reckoned as her own. Ishmael was accordingly thus brought up, and was regarded as the heir of these promises (Gen. 16).撒莱,现在七十五年的历史,在她的急躁情绪,说服亚伯兰为小妾,她的埃及侍女夏甲,有意任何孩子可能出生的人应该是她自己的估计。伊斯梅尔相应由此带来的,并被视为对这些承诺的继承人(创16) 。

When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham (Gen. 17:4, 5), and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of the covenant.当以实玛利十三岁,神再次尚未透露更明确和充分的他亲切的目的;和族长的名字,在确保实现这一目的的令牌,现在改为从亚伯兰亚伯拉罕(创17时04分,5),和作为该公约的签署实行割礼仪式。 It was then announced that the heir to these covenant promises would be the son of Sarai, though she was now ninety years old; and it was directed that his name should be Isaac.当时宣布,这些“公约”承诺的继承人将撒莱的儿子,虽然她现在90岁;并指示他的名字应该是以撒。At the same time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name was changed to Sarah.与此同时,在纪念的承诺,改变了撒莱的名字是莎拉。On that memorable day of God's thus revealing his design, Abraham and his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were circumcised (Gen. 17).在值得纪念的日子,神,从而揭示出他的设计,亚伯拉罕和他的儿子以实玛利和他家所有的男性割礼(创17)。

Three months after this, as Abraham sat in his tent door, he saw three men approaching.3个月后,亚伯拉罕坐在他的帐篷门口,他看到三名男子逼近。They accepted his proffered hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the fare which Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was none other than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the guise of men. The Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a son by Sarah, who was rebuked for her unbelief.他们接受了他递上的热情好客,坐在橡树下,亚伯拉罕和撒拉提供的票价partook三个特邀之一是无主以外,和其他两个天使在男性的幌子。主再次在这个场合他承诺由Sarah的儿子,谁是她不信,斥责。 Abraham accompanied the three as they proceeded on their journey.亚伯拉罕陪同,因为他们在他们的旅途中进行。The two angels went on toward Sodom; while the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him the destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city.两个天使,向所多玛;而主守侯的背后,曾与亚伯拉罕,他所知的破坏,约落在愧疚城市。The patriarch interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city.族长调解认真注定了城市的代表。But as not even ten righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the city would have been spared, the threatened destruction fell upon it; and early next morning Abraham saw the smoke of the fire that consumed it as the "smoke of a furnace" (Gen. 19: 1-28).但发现它不甚至十正义人士,为了城市幸免,威胁破坏后下跌;第二天一大早,亚伯拉罕看到消耗为一炉的“烟雾的火烟“(创19:1-28)。

After fifteen years' residence at Mamre, Abraham moved southward, and pitched his tent among the Philistines, near to Gerar.亚伯拉罕在幔利居住15年后,南迁,和非利士人之间的高亢基拉耳,他的帐篷附近。Here occurred that sad instance of prevarication on his part in his relation to Abimelech the King (Gen. 20).在这里发生,他在他的关系的一部分推诿的悲哀实例亚比米勒国王(创20)。Soon after this event, the patriarch left the vicinity of Gerar, and moved down the fertile valley about 25 miles to Beer-sheba.此事件后不久,族长离开基拉耳附近,向下移动约25英里到别是巴的肥沃的山谷。It was probably here that Isaac was born, Abraham being now an hundred years old.这可能是这里以撒出生,现在正在亚伯拉罕一百岁。A feeling of jealousy now arose between Sarah and Hagar, whose son, Ishmael, was no longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir.现在出现了一种嫉妒的感觉之间的撒拉和夏甲的儿子,以实玛利,已不再被认为亚伯拉罕的继承人。Sarah insisted that both Hagar and her son should be sent away.莎拉坚持夏甲和她的​​儿子被送走。This was done, although it was a hard trial to Abraham (Gen. 21:12).这样做,虽然这是一场艰苦的试验,以亚伯拉罕(创21:12)。At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of perhaps twenty-five years.在这一点上,在族长的也许是二十五年历史的空白。These years of peace and happiness were spent at Beer-sheba.这些年来的和平与幸福,在别是巴花。

The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the mountains of Moriah.下一次我们看到他的信仰的命令,突然来到他去,并提供了以撒作为牺牲莫利亚山山脉之一,所有承诺的继承人,是一个严峻的考验。 His faith stood the test (Heb. 11:17-19).他的信念,经受住了考验(希伯来书11:17-19)。He proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead.他毫不迟疑的服从开展命令的精神进行;当快要杀死他的儿子,他奠定了祭坛上,他隆起的手被耶和华的使者被捕,和一个RAM,这是一个纠缠近在咫尺的灌木丛,被查获,并代其提供的。 From this circumstance that place was called Jehovah-jireh, ie, "The Lord will provide."从这个地方被称为耶和华以勒,即的情况下,“主会提供。”The promises made to Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of God to the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and returned to his home at Beer-sheba (Gen. 22:19), where he resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron.到亚伯拉罕的承诺,再次证实了(这是上帝的话,最后录制的族长);他与他的儿子后裔的​​坐骑,在别是巴(创22:19),并返回到他家,在那里他居住了几年,然后北移希伯伦。 Some years after this Sarah died at Hebron, being 127 years old.几年后,这个莎拉死在希伯伦,127岁。

Abraham acquired now the needful possession of a burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, by purchase from the owner of it, Ephron the Hittite (Gen. 23); and there he buried Sarah.亚伯拉罕收购现在的一个掩埋的地方,Machpelah洞穴needful占有,从购买它的主人,弗仑赫梯(创23);有他埋葬莎拉。 His next care was to provide a wife for Isaac, and for this purpose he sent his steward, Eliezer, to Haran (or Charran, Acts 7:2), where his brother Nahor and his family resided (Gen. 11:31).他的下一个护理提供了以撒的妻子,并为此目的,他派他的管家,埃利泽,哈兰(或Charran,使徒行传7:2),他的兄弟拿鹤和他的家人居住(创11:31)。 The result was that Rebekah, the daughter of Nahor's son Bethuel, became the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24).其结果是,利百加,拿鹤的儿子彼土利的女儿,成为以撒(创24)的妻子。Abraham then himself took to wife Keturah, who became the mother of six sons, whose descendants were afterwards known as the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3), and later as "Saracens."亚伯拉罕然后自己拿了基土拉的妻子,成为六个儿子的母亲,之后被称为“东方儿童”(Judg. 6:3)的后裔,如“撒拉逊人。”At length all his wanderings came to an end.长度在所有云游走到了尽头。At the age of 175 years, 100 years after he had first entered the land of Canaan, he died, and was buried in the old family burying-place at Machpelah (Gen. 25:7-10).年龄在175年,100年后,他第一次进入迦南地,他死了,而且是在旧家庭埋在Machpelah掩埋的地方(创25:7-10)。 The history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression on the ancient world, and references to it are interwoven in the religious traditions of almost all Eastern nations.亚伯拉罕的历史,古代世界的一个广泛而深刻的印象,和它在几乎所有东欧国家的宗教传统交织在一起。He is called "the friend of God" (James 2:23), "faithful Abraham" (Gal. 3:9), "the father of us all" (Rom. 4:16).他被称为“神的朋友”(雅2:23),“忠实亚伯拉罕”(加拉太书3:9),“我们的父亲”(罗马书4:16)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Abraham亚伯拉罕

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Abraham stands in the unique position of being the father of a nation and the father of all believers.亚伯拉罕代表的是一个民族的父亲和父亲的所有信徒的独特地位。God told Abraham to leave his homeland and go to the land of Canaan.上帝告诉亚伯拉罕离开自己的祖国和迦南地去。There God entered into a covenant with him (Gen. 12:1-3; 15:12-21).有上帝订立盟约与他(创12:1-3; 15:12-21)。Abraham was the progenitor of the Hebrew nation and of several Arabic peoples.亚伯拉罕是希伯来民族和几个阿拉伯人民的祖。 All Jews regard themselves as his descendants, a special people chosen by God (Isa. 51:1-2).所有的犹太人认为自己作为他的后裔,神(以赛亚书51:1-2)选择一个特殊的人。

But beyond the physical posterity lies the spiritual dimension, for "all peoples on earth will be blessed through you" (Gen. 12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14).而在于超越物理后人的精神层面,“地球上所有的人民将通过你的祝福”(创12:3; 18时18分,22时18; 26:4; 28:14)。This is perhaps the first great missionary text in the Bible.这也许是在“圣经”中的第一个伟大的传教士文本。Paul referred to it as the same gospel which he preached (Gal. 3:8).保罗提到了它作为相同的福音,他讲道(加拉太书3:8)。The blessing came through Christ, "the son of David, the son of Abraham" (Matt. 1:1).通过基督的祝福来到,“大卫的儿子,亚伯拉罕的儿子”(太1:1)。All who believe in Christ are the children of Abraham, even the Gentiles (Gal. 3:7-14).相信在基督里的人是亚伯拉罕的子孙,甚至外邦人(加拉太书3:7-14)。They too are "Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise" (Gal. 3:29).他们也“亚伯拉罕的后裔,和继承人根据的承诺”(加拉太书3:29)。In fact, faith in Christ is more important than physical descent when it comes to determining who the children of Abraham really are (Matt. 3:9; John 8:33).事实上,对基督的信心是比物理血统更重要的,当涉及到确定谁真的是亚伯拉罕的子孙(太3:9;约翰福音8:33)。God's promises to Abraham and the rest of the patriarchs find their unique fulfillment in Christ (Acts 3: 25-26), though in a limited sense any godly king who sat on David's throne fulfilled the Abrahamic covenant (cf. Ps. 72:17).神的始祖亚伯拉罕,其余的承诺找到其独特的实现在基督(徒3:25-26),但在有限的意义上,任何虔诚的国王坐在大卫的宝座上,完成了亚伯拉罕之约(参诗72:17。 )。The covenant was unconditional and eternal, but kings and other individuals who disobeyed God would find themselves cut off from the covenant (Gen. 17:13-14; 18:18-19).该公约是无条件的和永恒的,但谁不服从上帝的国王和其他个人,会发现自己切的公约“(创17:13-14; 18:18-19)。

The NT mentions Abraham more than any other OT figure except Moses, and it stresses his significance as a man of faith.新台币提到亚伯拉罕超过任何其他除摩西旧约图,并强调他作为一个人的信仰的意义。When called to leave Mesopotamia, Abraham "obeyed and went, even though he did not know where he was going" (Heb. 11:8).当所谓离开美索不达米亚,亚伯拉罕“遵命去了,即使他不知道他会”(希伯来书11:8)。Even after reaching Canaan, Abraham still remained a stranger and did not live to see the fulfillment of the promises (Heb. 11:9-10).即使达到迦南后,亚伯拉罕仍然一个陌生人,并没有活着看到履行承诺(希伯来书11:9-10)。He did believe that God would give him a son and that his offspring would someday become as numerous as the stars.他相信,上帝给他的儿子和他的后代,总有一天会成为众多明星。On the basis of this faith God "credited it to him as righteousness" (Gen. 15:4-6).在这个信念的基础上的神“,贷记给他的义”(创15:4-6)。Paul cites this passage as his first illustration of justification by faith in Rom.保罗引用这段话,他在罗马书的信心的理由说明。4:1-3.4:1-3。In the same chapter Paul notes that Abraham dared to believe that Sarah would give birth to the promised child, even though she was past the age of childbearing and he was a hundred years old (Rom. 4:18-19).在同一章中保罗指出,亚伯拉罕不敢相信,莎拉会生出答应孩子,即使她过去的育龄和他一百岁(罗马书4:18-19)。 Abraham's unwavering faith in the promises of God remains a challenge to all people to "believe in Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead" (Rom. 4:20-24).在神的应许亚伯拉罕的坚定信仰,仍然是一个所有的人挑战,“相信他是谁我们的主耶稣从死里复活”(罗马书4:20-24)。

The greatest test of Abraham's faith came when God instructed him to sacrifice Isaac on Mt.亚伯拉罕的信仰的最大考验是,当上帝指示他牺牲艾萨克山。Moriah.莫利亚山。In spite of the fact that God's previous promises were intertwined with the life of Isaac, Abraham obeyed and was ready to plunge the knife into his dear son.亚伯拉罕在上帝的承诺与以撒的生活交织在一起,但,服从和准备,投身到他亲爱的儿子的刀。According to Heb.根据希伯来书。 11:17-19, Abraham reasoned that God would bring Isaac back to life, so deep was his confidence in God's promises.11:17-19,亚伯拉罕的理由,上帝会带来艾萨克起死回生,如此之深是他对上帝的承诺的信心。This experience of nearly sacrificing his only son placed Abraham in the position of God the Father, who sent his one and only Son to Mt.这几乎牺牲他唯一的儿子放在亚伯拉罕在神的父亲,谁送他唯一的儿子到山的位置的经验。Calvary, not far from Mt.各各他,不远处的山。Moriah (II Chr. 3:1).莫利亚山(二CHR 3:1)。The Greek word that describes Christ as the "only begotten" or "one and only son," monogenes, is applied to Isaac in Heb.希腊字,描述为“独生子”或“之一,唯一的儿子,”monogenes基督,是艾萨克在希伯来书。11:17.11时17分。A ram was substituted on the altar for Isaac (Gen. 22:13), but God "did not spare his own son" (Rom. 8:32).一只公羊代替以撒(创22:13)的祭坛上,但上帝“没有放过自己的儿子”(罗马书8:32)。The pain and agony felt by Abraham at the prospect of sacrificing Isaac in some small way helps us understand the suffering of the Father when he offered up his Son for us all.疼痛和痛苦感到在一些小的牺牲以撒的前景,有助于我们理解父亲的痛苦时,他提出了他的儿子,我们所有的亚伯拉罕。

Abraham's fellowship with God is also illustrated through his prayer life.亚伯拉罕与神相交,也说明了通过他的祷告生活。In Gen. 20:7 Abraham is called a prophet who will pray for the healing of a Philistine king and his family.在将军20时07亚伯拉罕被称为先知谁将愈合了非利士人的国王和他的家人祈祷。Earlier, in Gen. 18:22-33, Abraham stood before the Lord and interceded in behalf of the city of Sodom.此前,在创18:22-33亚伯拉罕站在耶和华面前,并在所多瑪城的代表交涉。His boldness in prayer encourages the believer to lay petitions before the throne of grace.他在祈祷的勇气,鼓励信徒奠定施恩的宝座前的请愿书。Because of his close walk with the Lord, Abraham is sometimes called the friend of God (II Chr. 20:7; Isa. 41:8; James 2:23).亚伯拉罕,因为他与主密切步行,有时也被称为神的朋友(II CHR 20:7;。伊萨41:8;詹姆斯2:23)。Both the Hebrew and the Greek words for "friend" include the idea of "the one who loves God."希伯来文和希腊字的“朋友”包括的理念,“爱神”。Abraham loved God more than anything else in the world (Gen. 22:2).亚伯拉罕爱上帝超过世界上其他任何(创22:2)。His obedience to the Lord is emphasized also in Gen. 26:5.他服从主还强调,在创26:5。Before the law was written, Abraham kept God's requirements, commands, and laws.写入法律面前,亚伯拉罕保持上帝的要求,命令和法律。

Abraham was rightly called a prophet because he received divine revelation (Gen. 12:1-3).亚伯拉罕是正确地称为先知,因为他收到了神圣的启示(创12:1-3)。God spoke to him in a vision (Gen. 15:1) and appeared to him in a theophany (Gen. 18:1).在视力(创15:1)上帝对他说话,他出现在theophany(创18:1)。

HM Wolf航模狼

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J. Walvoord, "Premillennialism and the Abrahamic Covenant," BS 109:37-46, 293-303; G. von Rad, OT Theology, I, 170-75; JB Payne, The Theology of the Older Testament; J. Jeremias, TDNT, I, 8-9; R. Longenecker, "The 'Faith of Abraham,'" JETS 20:203-12; W. Kaiser, Jr., Toward an OT Theology; RE Clements, TDOT,I, 52-58.J. Walvoord,“Premillennialism和亚伯拉罕的公约”,“BS 109:37-46,293-303; G.冯RAD,旧约神学,我,170-75; JB佩恩,上了年纪的旧约的神学;研究赫雷米亚斯TDNT,我,8-9; Longenecker“,”亚伯拉罕的信仰“,”20:203-12射流; W ·凯泽,小,走向旧​​约神学;稀土克莱门茨,TDOT,我,52 - 58。


Abrahamic Covenant亚伯拉罕之约

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From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

GENESIS CHAPTERS 14, 15创世纪第14章,15

The Confederated KIngs该联盟的国王

Gen. 14: 1-12 How does the Revised Version translate "nations" in verse 1?创14:1-12如何修订版翻译在第一节的“国家”? In what valley was the battle joined (3)?在什么山谷加入战斗(3)?How is that valley now identified?是山谷现在确定了吗?Against what six peoples did Chedorlaomer and his confederates campaign in the fourteenth year (5-7)?六个民族,反对什么,基大老玛和他的同伙在14年的运动(5-7)?You will find these peoples located on the east and south of the Dead Sea.你会发现位于东部和南部的死海这些人民。Who were victors in this case (10)?谁是胜利者(10)在这种情况下呢?How did they reward themselves (11)?他们是如何奖励自己(11)?What gives us a special interest in this story (12)?是什么让我们在这个故事的特殊利益(12)?Objectors have denied the historicity of it, but the monuments of Assyria, Babylonia and Egypt, with their inscriptions and paintings, confirm it.反对者否认它的历史性,但亚述,巴比伦和埃及的古迹,与他们的题字和绘画,确认它。The names of some of these kings are given, and it would appear that Chedorlaomer was the general name of a line of Elamite kings corresponding to the several pharaohs and Caesars of later times.这些国王的名字,它会出现,基大老玛是埃兰国王相应的几个后来的法老和凯撒的通用名称。

Abram's Exploit of Arms亚伯兰的漏洞的武器

Gen. 14: 13-24 By what name was Abram distinguished among these heathen peoples (13)?亚伯兰杰出其中异教徒人民(13)创14:13-24通过什么样的名字?What hint have we of his princely power (14)?有什么暗示我们他的王侯功率(14)?What was the manner of his attack (15)?什么是他的攻击方式(15)?The motive for it (16)? (16)的动机是什么呢?We are not surprised at Abram's meeting with the king of Sodom on his return, but what other king is named (18)?亚伯兰的会议所多瑪王在他的回归,我们并不感到惊讶,但其他国王被命名为(18)? What office did he hold beside that of king?他抱什么办公室旁边的王吗?Was he a heathen like the others (19)?他是一个和别人一样的异教徒(19)吗?Who gave the tithes, Abram or he?是谁给了什一税,他亚伯兰或是什么?(Compare Heb. 7:6.) Melchizedek seems to have been a king of Salem, later called Jerusalem, who like Job had not only retained the knowledge of the true God but also like him was in his own person a prince and a priest. (比较希伯来书7时06分)。麦基洗德王,后来被称为耶路撒冷的萨利姆,一样的作业,不仅保留,但他也想在自己的人是一个王子和一名牧师真正的上帝的知识似乎已经。 (Compare Job 1:5-8; 29; 25.) Recent discoveries of correspondence of the Egyptian kings written at about the time of the Exodus refute the theory once held that Melchizedek was an imaginary character and that this incident never occurred.(比较作业1:5-8; 29; 25)最近发现,在出埃及记时写的埃及国王的信件驳斥一次举行,麦基洗德是一个假想的字符,这起事件从未发生过的理论。

This correspondence includes letters of the king of Jerusalem, Ebed-Tob by name, which means "the servant of the Good One," who speaks of himself in the very phrases used by his predecessor Melchizedek (Heb. 7).这种对应关系包括耶路撒冷,名称,这意味着“仆人的好,”谈到自己在他的前任麦基洗德(希伯来书七)所使用的非常短语Ebed TOB国王的信件。The probability is that Melchizedek, like Chedorlaomer, was the common name of a race or dynasty of priest-kings ruling over that city.的概率是,麦基洗德,基大老玛一样,是祭司国王统治这个城市的一个种族或王朝的通用名称。He is employed as a type of Christ in the 110th Psalm and in Hebrews 7.雇用他作为基督在第110届诗篇在希伯来7。How does the king of Sodom probably the successor to him who had been slain (10), express his gratitude to Abram (21)?如何所多玛王可能给他的继任者已被杀害(10),表达他的谢意亚伯兰(21)?What is Abram's response (22-24)?什么是亚伯兰的反应(22-24)?How does this response show that Melchizedek worshipped the same God?这是如何的反应表明,麦基洗德崇拜神一样的?What elements of character does it show in Abram?它显示在亚伯兰什么样的字符元素?

The Second Test and Reward of Faith第二次试验和信仰的奖励

Gen. 15: 1-6 "After these things" Abram might have feared that the defeated warriors would return in force and overwhelm him, nor is it improbable that misgivings arose as to relinquishing the spoil he was entitled to as the conqueror.创15:1-6“这事以后,”可能有担心亚伯兰击败勇士,将返回力量压倒他,也不是不可能的疑虑便产生了放弃溺爱他有权作为征服者。 But God could deliver him from fear in the one case and make up to him the loss in the other.但上帝可以提供他的恐惧,在一种情况下,使他在其他的损失。How does He express both ideas in verse 1?他表示如何在第一节双方的想法?But what burdens Abram heavier than either of these things (2)?但比这些东西(2)较重负担亚伯兰?God promised him a seed to inherit Canaan, which should be multiplied as the dust of the earth, yet he was going hence childless.上帝答应了他一个种子继承迦南,应乘以尘土,但他会因此没有子女。He who should be possessor of his house under these circumstances would be Dammesek Eliezer (RV).他养着他的房子在这种情况下,应会Dammesek埃利泽(RV)。Just how to explain this is difficult, but Eliezer was his steward, and oriental custom may have entailed the possessions of his master on such an one where no natural heir existed.如何解释这是困难的,但埃利泽是他的管家,和东方的习俗,可能因为这样的人,没有天然继承人存在他的主人的财产。 We cannot explain this but would call attention to the reply of Jehovah, that it is not an adopted son he shall have but a supernatural one (4).我们无法解释这一点,但会呼吁关注耶和华的答复,认为它是不是一个养子,他有权而是一种超自然的(4)。

And now what does Jehovah do to Abram (5)?现在是什么耶和华做亚伯兰(5)?And what does He ask Abram to do?他问什么亚伯兰做呢?And what does He then promise him?什么然后,他答应他吗?Was Abram's faith able to measure up to this stupendous declaration (6)?亚伯兰的信心,能够测量到这个巨大的宣言(6)?And in what did this faith of Abram result to him (v. 6, last clause)?什么这亚伯兰结果他(第6节,最后一句)的信念吗?These words, "COUNTED IT TO HIM FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS," reveal a fact more important to Abram personally than the promise of a seed, except that the seed, considered as the forerunner and type of Christ, was the only ground at length on which Abram might be counted righteous.计算,“这些话给他的义”,揭示一个事实,更重要的一粒种子的承诺亚伯兰亲自,除了种子,认为基督的先行者和类型,长度只有地面上亚伯兰可能算作正义。 To understand these words is vital to an understanding of our own redemption, and an apprehension of the Gospel.要了解这些词是至关重要的了解我们自己的赎回,并逮捕的福音。Abram was a sinner, born into a state of wrongness, but God now puts him by an act of grace into a state of rightness, not because of Abram's righteous character but on the ground of his belief in God's word.亚伯兰是个罪人,成为一个国家的不正当性出生,但神使他的恩典到一个国家的正确性的行为,不是因为亚伯兰的正义性,但他在神的话语信仰的地面上。 Nor does this righteous state into which he is brought make it true that thereafter he is without a flaw in his character, for he is guilty of much.这也不是带来正义的国家,到他是否属实,此后他没有在他的性格缺陷,因为他是犯了多大。

But he has a right standing before God and because of it God can deal with him in time and eternity as He cannot deal with other men who do not have this standing.但他有权利站在神的面前,因为它的上帝可以对付他,因为他无法处理与其他人没有这个站在的时间和永恒。The significance of this to us is seen in Romans 4:23-25, which you are urged to read prayerfully.本的意义,给我们的是看到在罗马书4:23-25​​,这要求你读祷告。The question is sometimes asked whether Abram, and for that matter, any Old Testament saint, was justified or made righteous just as we are in these days.问题是,有时问是否亚伯兰,对于这个问题,任何旧约圣人,是正当的或正义的,正如我们在这些天。The answer is yes, and no.答案是肯定的,并没有。They were made righteous just as we are in that Christ took away their guilt on the cross and wrought out a righteousness for them, but they were not made righteous just as we are in that they knew Christ as we do.他们是正义的,正如我们在说,基督是拿走了他们在十字架上的内疚和锻造出了他们的正义,但他们没有正义,正如我们在他们知道基督为我们做。 Christ indeed said that Abram rejoiced to see His day, and he saw it and was glad (John 8:56), but this does not mean that he saw and understood what we now do of the Person and finished work of Christ.基督确实说,亚伯兰很高兴看到他的一天,他看见了,很高兴(约翰福音8:56),但是这并不等于说,他看到和了解我们现在的个人和基督完成的工作做。 The fact is this: God set a certain promise before Abram.事实上是这样的:上帝设置了一定的承诺之前,亚伯兰。He believed God's testimony concerning it and was counted righteous in consequence.他相信神有关的证词和计数正义的后果。

God sets a certain promise before us, and if we believe God's testimony concerning it we are counted righteous in consequence.神设置了一定的承诺,摆在我们面前,如果我们相信上帝的证词有关,我们算正义在后果。The promise to Abram was that of a natural seed; the promise to us is that of salvation through Jesus Christ, the anti-type of that seed.亚伯兰的承诺是一个自然的种子,给我们的承诺是,通过耶稣基督的救赎,种子的反型。 We have but to believe His testimony concerning Jesus Christ, as Abram believed it concerning the seed, to obtain the same standing before God forever.我们有关于耶稣基督,亚伯兰相信有关的种子,以获得相同站在上帝面前永远相信他的证词。It is not our character that gives it to us, nor does our change of standing immediately produce a change of character, but this does not affect the standing, which is the important thing because the character grows out of it.这不是我们的性格,赋予了它给我们的,也不我们站在立即产生变化的性格变化,但这并不影响字符的增长,因为它的地位,这是最重要的事情。 The reward of the first test of faith brought Abram a country (Gen. 12), but that of the second brought him a better country, that is, a heavenly (Heb. 11: 8-16).奖励的第一次测试的信仰带来亚伯兰一个国家(创12),但第二,给他带来了一个更好的国家,就是一个天堂(希伯来书11:8-16)。

The Covenant of God“公约”的神

Gen. 15: 7-12, 17-21 In what words does God now identify Himself and renew the promise of the land (7)?创15:7-12 17-21日,在什么话神现在确定自己和更新的土地(7)的承诺?Is Abram altogether satisfied about the land (8)?亚伯兰是完全符合有关土地(8)?What does God tell him to do (9)?是什么神告诉他做(9)?What now happens to Abram (12)?现在发生亚伯兰(12)?What next takes place with reference to the sacrifice (17)?未来需要参考的牺牲(17)什么?And in connection with this what does God do with Abram?就此什么神与亚伯兰做呢?How does He define the boundaries of His gift?他是如何定义他的恩赐的界限?We ought to say that "the river of Egypt," can hardly mean the Nile, although some so regard it.我们应该说,埃及的河流“,”难以意味着尼罗河,虽然有些方面,。Others think it is that wady or brook of Egypt lying at the southern limit of the land of Israel, referred to in Num.另一些人则认为它是wady或小溪躺在埃及南部的以色列土地的限制,在NUM。34:5; Josh.34:5;乔希。 15:4, and Isaiah 27:12. 15:4,以赛亚书27:12。The strange incident recorded here is of symbolic importance.奇怪的事件记录在这里的象征意义。 Men entered into covenant with one another in this way, that is, they would slay an animal, divide it into parts, walk up and down between them and thus solemnly seal the bond they had made.与另一个男子进入到这样的公约,那就是,他们将杀死的动物,它分成部分,步行和它们之间,从而郑重密封他们的债券。

Afterward part of the victim would be offered in sacrifice to their gods, while the remainder would be eaten by the parties to the covenant.随后,受害人的一部分,将提供的牺牲,他们的神,而其余的将吃“公约”的缔约方。It was the highest form of an oath.这是最高形式宣誓。God thus condescended to assure Abram, since the smoking furnace and burning lamp, passing between the pieces and doubtless consuming them, typified His presence and acceptance of the bond.上帝从而屈尊,因为吸烟炉及燃烧灯,保证亚伯兰件,无疑耗费他们之间传递,代表他的存在和接受的债券。Among men it takes two to make a covenant, but not so here.在男子中,有两个盟约,但在这里并非如此。God is alone in this case, and asks of Abram nothing in return but the repose of confidence in His faithfulness.只有上帝是在这种情况下,并要求亚伯兰任何回报,但他的忠诚的信心养神。It is thus that God covenants with us in Christ.因此,这是神与我们同在基督的公约。He gives, and we take.他给的,我们采取。He promises, and we believe.他承诺,我们相信。But dwelling on what Abram saw we passed over what he heard, and this is an essential part of God's covenant with him (13-16).但什么亚伯兰看到我们传了过来,他听到什么,这是上帝与他同在(13-16)公约的重要组成部分的住宅。

What did He say would be true of Abram's seed for a while?他说什么了一段时间将真实的亚伯兰的种子? It is a matter of dispute how these four hundred years are computed, but Anstey's Romance of Chronology says that Abraham's seed here means Isaac and his descendants from the time of the weaning of the former when he became his father's heir, to the date of the Exodus, which was precisely 400 years.如何这四百年多年是计算,它是一个争议的问题,安斯蒂的年表演义说,亚伯拉罕的后裔在这里是指以撒和的前断奶时,他的后代,当他成为父亲的继承人,日期的出埃及记“,这正是400年。 What two-fold promise is given Abram personally (15)?什么2倍的承诺是给予亚伯兰亲自(15)?What particular reason does God give for the delay in possessing Canaan (16)?上帝给拖延藏迦南(16)什么特别的原因?"The Amorite" here is the name used doubtless for all the inhabitants of Canaan, of which they were a chief nation and a very wicked one. “亚摩利人”这里是使用的名称,无疑为所有居民的迦南,其中,他们是一个行政民族和一个非常邪恶的。The long-suffering of God will wait while they go on filling up the measure of their iniquity, but at last the sword of divine justice must fall.长期苦难的神将等待他们去填补了他们的罪孽的措施,但最后神圣的正义之剑必须下降。The same thing happens with sinners in general, and as another says, it ought to embitter the cup of their pleasures.同样的事情发生在一般情况下,与罪人,作为另一个说,它应该embitter一杯他们的乐趣。

Questions 1.问题 1。What corroborative evidence of the historicity of Chapter 14 can you name?第14章的历史性佐证你的名字?2.2。Recall in detail what has been taught or suggested about Melchizedek.回想一下详细说明了什么教或约麦基洗德的建议。3.3。How would you explain Genesis 15:6?创世记15:6你会如何解释?4.4。Can you repeat from memory Romans 4:23-25?你可以从记忆体罗马书重复4:23-25​​吗?5.5。In a word, what is the significance of the transaction in 15:7-21?总之,交易15:7-21意义是什么?


Abraham亚伯拉罕

Catholic Information天主教信息

The original form of the name, Abram, is apparently the Assyrian Abu-ramu.原始形式的名称,亚伯兰,显然是亚述人阿布 - 拉穆。It is doubtful if the usual meaning attached to that word "lofty father", is correct.通常的含义,这个词的“崇高的父亲”,这是值得怀疑的,如果是正确的。The meaning given to Abraham in Genesis 17:5 is popular word play, and the real meaning is unknown.在创世记17:5亚伯拉罕的含义是流行的文字游戏,和真正的意义是未知的。The Assyriologist, Hommel suggests that in the Minnean dialect, the Hebrew letter Hê ("h") is written for long a. Assyriologist,HOMMEL表明,在Minnean方言,希伯来文的信中,他(“H”)是长期A.书面Perhaps here we may have the real derivation of the word, and Abraham may be only a dialectical form of Abram.也许在这里,我们可能有这个词的真正的推导,和亚伯拉罕可能只有亚伯兰的辩证形式。

The story of Abraham is contained in the Book of Genesis, 11:26 to 25:18.亚伯拉罕的故事载于书创世记,11:26至25:18。We shall first give a brief outline of the Patriarch's life, as told in that portion of Genesis, then we shall in succession discuss the subject of Abraham from the viewpoints of the Old Testament, New Testament, profane history, and legend.我们应首先简要介绍了族长的生活,告诉记者,在那部分的成因,那么,我们应在继承亚伯拉罕从旧约,新约圣经,亵渎历史和传说的观点讨论主题。

A BRIEF OUTLINE OF ABRAHAM'S LIFE亚伯拉罕的生命中的一个概要

Thare had three sons, Abram, Nachor, and Aran.Thare有三个儿子,亚伯兰,Nachor和Aran。Abram married Sarai.亚伯兰结婚撒莱。Thare took Abram and his wife, Sarai, and Lot, the son of Aran, who was dead, and leaving Ur of the Chaldees, came to Haran and dwelt there till he died. Thare了亚伯兰和他的妻子撒莱,和地段,阿兰的儿子,谁死了,留下的迦勒底的乌尔,来到哈兰和住在那里,直到他去世。Then, at the call of God, Abram, with his wife, Sarai, and Lot, and the rest of his belongings, went into the Land of Chanaan, amongst other places to Sichem and Bethel, where he built altars to the Lord: A famine breaking out in Chanaan, Abram journeyed southward to Egypt, and when he had entered the land, fearing that he would be killed on account of his wife, Sarai, he bade her say she was his sister.然后,在与他的妻子撒莱,和地段,和他的财物休息通话,亚伯兰,神,去到的土地Chanaan,除其他地方Sichem和伯特利,他在那里建立祭坛主:在Chanaan分手的饥荒,亚伯兰远航南下到埃及,当他进入土地,怕他将在他的妻子撒莱,帐户被打死,他吩咐她说她是他的妹妹。 The report of Sarai's beauty was brought to the Pharao, and he took her into his harem, and honoured Abram on account of her.撒莱的美丽的报告带来的PHARAO,他带着她到他的后宫,和荣幸亚伯兰她的帐户上。Later, however finding out that she was Abram's wife, he sent her away unharmed, and, upbraiding Abram for what he had done, he dismissed him from Egypt.后来,但发现她是亚伯兰的妻子,他送她走安然无恙,并责备亚伯兰为他所做的一切,他被解雇,他从埃及。From Egypt Abram came with Lot towards Bethel, and there, finding that their herds and flocks had grown to be very large, he proposed that they should separate and go their own ways.亚伯兰从埃及来到走向伯特利的地段,那里,发现他们的牛群和羊群已发展到非常大,他提出,他们应该独立,走自己的方式。 So Lot chose the country about the Jordan, whilst Abram dwelt in Chanaan, and came and dwelt in the vale of Mambre in Hebron.因此,地段选择了对约旦的国家,而亚伯兰住在Chanaan,来到住在淡水河谷芒布雷在希伯伦。Now, on account of a revolt of the Kings of Sodom and Gomorrha and other kings from Chodorlahomor King of Elam, after they had served him twelve years, he in the fourteenth year made war upon them with his allies, Thadal king of nations, Amraphel King of Senaar, and Arioch King of Pontus.现在,反叛所多玛和Gomorrha和其他Chodorlahomor埃兰国王,国王国王的帐户后,他们曾担任他的十二年中,他在14年后,他们的战争与他的盟友,Thadal国家,王Amraphel Senaar,国王和Arioch庞景。The King of Elam was victorious, and had already reached Dan with Lot a prisoner and laden with spoil, when he was overtaken by Abram.埃兰国王获得了胜利,并且已经达到了很多囚犯和本拉丹与溺爱,当他由亚伯兰超越丹。With 318 men the patri arch surprises, attacks, and defeats him, he retakes Lot and the spoil, and returns in triumph.318人patri拱惊喜,攻击,并击败他,他重拍地段和溺爱,胜利返回。On his way home, he is met by Melchisedech, king of Salem who brings forth bread and wine, and blesses him And Abram gives him tithes of all he has; but for] himself he reserves nothing.在回家的路上,他会见了Melchisedech,塞勒姆国王带来了面包和酒,并祝福他和亚伯兰给他他的什一税,但他]​​自己保留什么。 God promises Abram that his seed shall be as the stars of heaven, and he shall possess the land of Chanaan.神应许亚伯拉罕,他的种子应当如天上的星星,他应具备的土地Chanaan。But Abram does not see how this is to be, for he has already grown old.但亚伯兰没有看到这是如何,他已垂垂老矣。Then the promise is guaranteed by a sacrifice between God and Abram, and by a vision and a supernatural intervention in the night.然后保证的承诺是由上帝与亚伯兰牺牲,在夜晚的远见和超自然的干预。Sarai, who was far advanced in years and had given up the idea of bearing children, persuaded Abram to take to himself her hand-maid, Agar.萨莱,谁是远远先进多年,已经放弃了生育的想法,说服亚伯兰采取自己她的手,侍女,琼脂。He does so, and Agar being with child despises the barren Sarai.他这样做,琼脂与孩子鄙视荒芜撒莱。For this Sarai afflicts her so that she flies into the desert, but is persuaded to return by an angel who comforts her with promises of the greatness of the son she is about to bear.对于这个撒莱折磨着她,使她进入沙漠苍蝇,但劝返舒适与她的儿子的伟大诺言,她是承担一个天使。She returns and brings forth Ismael.她返回,并带来了伊斯梅尔。Thirteen years later God appears to Abram and promises him a son by Sarai, and that his posterity will be a great nation.13年后,上帝似乎亚伯兰和承诺,他由撒莱的儿子,和他的后代将是一个伟大的民族。As a sign, he changes Abram's name to Abraham, Sarai's to Sara, and ordains the rite of circumcision.作为一个标志,他的变化亚伯兰的名字亚伯拉罕,撒莱的萨拉,并ordains割礼仪式。One day later, as Abraham is sitting by his tent, in the vale of Mambre, Jehovah with two angels appears to him in human form.一天之后,亚伯拉罕坐在淡水河谷芒布雷,耶和华在他的帐篷,两个天使他看来,在人类形式。He shows them hospitality.他表示他们的热情好客。Then again the promise of a son named Isaac is renewed to Abraham.然后再次名为以撒的儿子的承诺是再次向亚伯拉罕。The aged Sarah hears incredulously and laughs.岁的莎拉听见难以置信和欢笑。Abraham is then told of the impending destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha for their sins but obtains from Jehovah the promise that he will not destroy them if he finds ten just men therein.亚伯拉罕,然后告诉即将毁灭所多瑪和Gomorrha为他们的罪孽,但耶和华从获得的承诺,他将不会销毁它们,如果他发现其中十个义人。 Then follows a description of the destruction of the two cities and the escape of Lot.接着两市的破坏和地段逃生的描述。Next morning Abraham, looking from his tent towards Sodom, sees the smoke of destruction ascending to heaven.第二天早上,亚伯拉罕,从他对所多玛的帐篷,看到烟雾升天破坏。After this, Abraham moves south to Gerara, and again fearing for his life says of his wife, "she is my sister".在此之后,亚伯拉罕移动南Gerara,并再次为他的生命担心他的妻子说,“她是我妹妹”。The king of Gerara, Abimelech, sends and takes her, but learning in a dream that she is Abraham's wife he restores her to him untouched, and rebukes him and gives him gifts. Gerara,亚比米勒,王发送和她,但在梦中的学习,她是亚伯拉罕的妻子,他恢复了他不变,并责骂他,给他的礼物。In her old age Sarah bears a son, lsaac, to Abraham, and he is circumcised on the eighth day.萨拉在她的晚年承担lsaac,一个儿子,亚伯拉罕,他是第八天受割礼。Whilst he is still young, Sarah is jealous, seeing Ismael playing with the child Isaac, so she procures that Agar and her son shall be cast out.虽然他还很年轻,莎拉是嫉妒,看到伊斯梅尔与孩子艾萨克玩,让她采购,琼脂和她的儿子被赶出去。Then Agar would have allowed Ismael to perish in the wilderness, had not an angel encouraged her by telling her of the boy's future.琼脂将允许伊斯梅尔灭亡在旷野,没有一个天使鼓励她,告诉她男孩的未来。

Abraham is next related to have had a dispute with Abimelech over a well at Bersabee, which ends in a covenant being made between them.亚伯拉罕是未来相关的,有良好的争议Bersabee,在它们之间作出了“公约”的结束与亚比米勒。It was after this that the great trial of the faith of Abraham takes place.这是在此之后,伟大的试验亚伯拉罕的信心发生。God commands him to sacrifice his only son Isaac.上帝命令他牺牲他唯一的儿子以撒。When Abraham has his arm raised and is in the very act of striking, an angel from heaven stays his hand and makes the most wonderful promises to him of the greatness of his posterity because of his complete trust in God.当亚伯拉罕他的手臂提出,是非常引人注目的行为,是从天上来的使者保持他的手,让他最美妙的承诺,他的后代,因为他对上帝的完全信任的伟大。 Sarah dies at the age of 127, and Abraham, having purchased from Ephron the Hethite the cave in Machpelah near Mambre, buries her there.莎拉去世,享年127岁,和亚伯拉罕,从弗仑购买Hethite在芒布雷Machpelah附近的山洞,埋她那里。His own career is not yet quite ended for first of all he takes a wife for his son Isaac, Rebecca from the city of Nachor in Mesopotamia.他自己的职业生涯是尚未完全结束,他首先需要为他的儿子以撒,丽贝卡在美索不达米亚城市的Nachor妻子。 Then he marries Cetura, old though he is, and has by her six children.然后他娶了Cetura,老,虽然他是,和她的6个孩子。Finally, leaving all his possessions to Isaac, he dies at age 170, and is buried by Isaac and Ismael in the cave of Machpelah.最后,以撒把他所有的财产,他死了170岁,是由艾萨克和伊斯梅尔埋在Machpelah洞穴。

VIEWPOINT OF OLD TESTAMENT旧约观

Abraham may be looked upon as the starting-point or source of Old Testament religion.亚伯拉罕可能被看作旧约宗教的出发点或源。So that from the days of Abraham men were wont to speak of God as the God of Abraham, whilst we do not find Abraham referring in the same way to anyone before him.所以从亚伯拉罕男子的日子,习惯说话的神,是亚伯拉罕的神,虽然我们没有找到亚伯拉罕指以同样的方式在他面前的人。So we have Abraham's servant speaking of "the God of my father Abraham" (Gen. xxiv, 12).因此,我们有“我的父亲亚伯拉罕”(创世纪24,12)的神的仆人亚伯拉罕的发言。Jehovah, in an apparition to Isaac, speaks of himself as the God of Abraham (Gen. xxvi, 24), and to Jacob he is "the God of my father Abraham" (Gen. xxxi, 42).耶和华,在一个幽灵以撒,谈到自己的亚伯拉罕(创26,24)的神,雅各,他是“我的父亲亚伯拉罕”(创三十一,42)的神。 So, too, showing that the religion of Israel does not begin with Moses, God says to Moses: "I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham" etc. (Ex. iii, 6).因此,也表明以色列的宗教不与摩西开始,上帝对摩西说:“我是你父亲的神,是亚伯拉罕的神”(出三,六)。The same expression is used in the Psalms (xlvi, 10) and is common in the Old Testament.使用相同的表达式是在诗篇(四十六,10)和常见的是在旧约。Abraham is thus selected as the first beginning or source of the religion of the children of Israel and the origin of its close connection with Jehovah, because of his faith, trust, and obedience to and in Jehovah and because of Jehovah's promises to him and to his seed.亚伯拉罕是因此选定的第一个开始或在以色列儿童的宗教和其与耶和华紧密连接的起源源,因为对他的信仰,信任,并服从在耶和华和因耶和华的承诺,向他和他的种子。 So, in Genesis, xv, 6, it is said: "Abram believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice."因此,在创世纪,十五,6,它是说:“亚伯兰信神,这是他被誉为所不欲,正义。”This trust in God was shown by him when he left Haran and journeyed with his family into the unknown country of Chanaan.他对上帝的信任,当他离开哈兰,远航到Chanaan未知国家与他的家人。It was shown principally when he was willing to sacrifice his only son Isaac, in obedience to a command from God.结果表明,主要是当他愿意牺牲在服从他唯一的儿子以撒,从上帝的命令。It was on that occasion that God said: "Because thou hast not spared thy only begotten son for my sake I will bless thee" etc. (Genesis 22:16, 17).这是在那个场合,上帝说:“因为祢不能幸免你只为我着想的独生子,我会祝福你”等(创22时16,17)。It is to this and other promises made so often by God to Israel that the writers of the Old Testament refer over and over again in confirmation of their privileges as the chosen people.它和其他承诺,经常取得上帝对以色列旧约的作家,是指及以上再次确认他们的特权所选择的人。These promises, which are recorded to have been made no less than eight times, are that God will give the land of Chanaan to Abraham and his seed (Genesis 12:7) that his seed shall increase and multiply as the stars of heaven; that he himself shall be blessed and that in him "all the kindred of the earth shall be blessed" (xii, 3).这些承诺,这是记录已作出不低于8倍,是神给的土地Chanaan亚伯拉罕和他的后裔(创12:7),他的种子应当增加乘以如天上的星星;应祝福他本人和在他的“地球的亲属应祝福”(十二,3)。 Accordingly the traditional view of the life of Abraham, as recorded in Genesis, is that it is history in the strict sense of the word.因此,在创世记记载,亚伯拉罕生活的传统看法是,它是严格意义上的历史。Thus Father von Hummelauer, SJ, in his commentary on Genesis in the "Cursus Scripturae Sacrae" (30), in answer to the question from what author the section on Abraham first proceeded, replies, from Abraham as the first source.因此,父亲冯Hummelauer,律政司司长,他评“Cursus Scripturae Sacrae”(30),在回答这个问题从什么作者亚伯拉罕节进行,从亚伯拉罕的答复,作为第一个源成因。Indeed he even says that it is all in one style, as a proof of its origin, and that the Passage, xxv, 5-ll, concerning the goods, death, and burial of Abraham comes from Isaac.事实上,他甚至说,这是一种风格,作为其原产地证明,并通过,二十五,5 - LL,有关货物,死亡和埋葬亚伯拉罕从Isaac。It must, however, be added that it is doubtful if Father von Hummelauer still adheres to these views, written before 1895, since he has much modified his position in the volume on Deuteronomy.但是,它必须补充说,这是值得怀疑的,如果父亲冯Hummelauer仍然坚持这些意见,在1895之前写的,因为他拥有得多修改他的位置,在体积上申命记。

Quite a different view on the section of Genesis treating of Abraham, and indeed of the whole of Genesis, is taken by modern critical scholars.创世记亚伯拉罕治疗的部分相当不同的看法,确实是整个创世纪,是现代批判学者。They almost unanimously hold that the narrative of the patriarch's life is composed practically in its entirety of three writings or writers called respectively the Jahvist, the Elohist, and the priestly writer, and denoted by the letters J, E, and P. J and E consisted of collections of stories relating to the patriarch, some of older, some of later, origin.他们几乎一致认为,族长的生命叙事实际上是由在其著作或作家的全部三个分别称为Jahvist,在Elohist,和祭司的作家,字母J,E,和P J和E表示由族长的故事,一些老年人,一些后来,产地集合。Perhaps the stories of J show a greater antiquity than those of E. Still the two authors are very much alike, and it is not always easy to distinguish one from the other in the combined narrative of J and E. From what we can observe, neither the Jahvist nor the Elohist was a personal author.也许J的故事表现出更大的古代,比大肠杆菌不过,两位作者是非常相像的,它并不总是很容易区别于其他我们可以观察相结合的叙事J和大肠杆菌, Jahvist也不在Elohist既不是个人的作者。Both are rather schools, and represent the collections of many years.两者都是,而学校,并代表多年的收藏品。Both collections were closed before the time of the prophets; J some time in the ninth century BC, and E early in the eighth century, the former probably in the South Kingdom, the latter in the North.两个集合禁区前的先知的时间; J一些时间在公元前9世纪,早在公元八世纪和E,前者可能是在南英国,后者在北。Then towards the end of the kingdom, perhaps owing to the inconvenience of having two rival accounts of the stories of the patriarchs etc. going about, a redactor R.JE (?) combined the two collections in one, keeping as much as possible to the words of his sources, making as few changes as possible so as to fit them into one another, and perhaps mostly following J in the account of Abraham.然后朝王国的结束,也许是由于对手的始祖等前往有关的故事有两个帐户的不便,一个redactor的R.乙脑(?)合并成一个两个集合,保持尽可能他的消息来源的话,使尽可能少的改变,以适应成一个,也许主要是以下J亚伯拉罕帐户。 Then in the fifth century a writer who evidently belonged to the sacerdotal caste wrote down again an account of primitive and patriarchal history from the priestly point of view.然后在第五个世纪的作家,他们显然属于sacerdotal种姓写下再次从祭司点的原始和宗法历史的帐户。He attached great importance to clearness and exactness; his accounts of things are often cast into the shape of formulas (cf. Genesis 1); he is very particular about genealogies, also as to chronological notes.他十分重视清晰度和准确性;其帐目的东西往往是转换为公式的形状(参见创世记第一章)有关的族谱​​,他是非常特别,也以时间顺序注意到。 The vividness and colour of the older patriarchal narratives, J and E, are wanting in the later one, which in the main is as formal as a legal document, though at times it is not wanting in dignity and even grandeur, as is the case in the first chapter of Genesis.逼真和色彩的旧宗法的叙述,J和E,是希望在以后的之一,它主要是正式的法律文件,虽然有时它不是在尊严和甚至宏伟希望,是在创世记第一章。 Finally, the moral to be drawn from the various events narrated is more clearly set forth in this third writing and, according to the critics the moral standpoint is that of the fifth century BC Lastly, after the time of Ezra, this last history, P was worked up into one with the already combined narrative JE by a second redactor R. JEP, the result being the present history of Abraham, and indeed the present book of Genesis; though in all probability insertions were made at even a later date.最后,从叙述了各种活动得出的道德的是更清楚地阐明在这第三次写作,并根据批评的道德立场是公元前五世纪的最后,以斯拉的时间后,这最后的历史,P第二redactor的R. JEP,结果是目前亚伯拉罕的历史,确实是本书的成因与已经结合的叙事乙脑是到一个工作,但在所有的概率插入即使日后作出。

VIEWPOINT OF NEW TESTAMENT新约圣经观

The generation of Jesus Christ is traced back to Abraham by St. Matthew, and though in Our Lord's genealogy, according to St. Luke, he is shown to be descended according to the flesh not only from Abraham but also from Adam, still St. Luke shows his appreciation of the fruits of descent from Abraham by attributing all the blessings of God on Israel to the promises made to Abraham.耶稣基督代马太上溯到亚伯拉罕,以及虽然在我们的主的家谱,根据圣卢克,他是要根据肉不仅从亚伯拉罕也从亚当的后裔,仍然街卢克显示归咎于上帝的祝福,对以色列向亚伯拉罕的承诺,他从亚伯拉罕的后裔的成果表示赞赏。 This he does in the Magnificat, iii, 55, and in the Benedictus, iii, 73.他不尊,三,55岁,和在Benedictus,三,73。 Moreover, as the New Testament traces the descent of Jesus Christ from Abraham, so it does of all the Jews; though as a rule, when this is done, it is accompanied with a note of warning, lest the Jews should imagine that they are entitled to place confidence in the fact of their carnal descent from Abraham, without anything further.此外,新约的痕迹耶稣基督从亚伯拉罕的后裔,所以它所有的犹太人;,虽然作为一项规则,这样做时,它是一个警告的陪同下,以免犹太人应以为他们是有权无需任何进一步的信心,在他们肉体的后裔,从亚伯拉罕事实。 Thus (Luke 3:8) John the Baptist says: "Do not begin to say: We have Abraham for our father, for I say to you God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham." (路加福音3:8),因此,施洗约翰说:“不要开始说:我们有我们的祖宗亚伯拉罕,因为我对你说,神能从这些石头中,提高了亚伯拉罕的子孙。”In Luke 19:9 our Saviour calls the sinner Zacheus a son of Abraham, as he likewise calls a woman whom he had healed a daughter of Abraham (Luke 13:16); but in these and many similar cases, is it not merely another way of calling them Jews or Israelites, just as at times he refers to the Psalms under the general name of David, without implying that David wrote all the Psalms, and as he calls the Pentateuch the Books of Moses, without pretending to settle the question of the authorship of that work?在路加福音19时09分,我们的救主呼吁罪人Zacheus亚伯拉罕的儿子,因为他同样调用一个女人他有医治女儿的亚伯拉罕(路加福音13:16),但在这些和许多类似的案件,是不是只是换个称他们是犹太人或以色列人的方式,只是有时他指的诗篇根据大卫的通用名称,不暗示,大卫写了所有的诗篇,并作为他调用的pentateuch摩西的书,没有假装要解决的问题作者在这项工作的? It is not carnal descent from Abraham to which importance is attached; rather, it is to practising the virtues attributed to Abraham in Genesis.它不是肉体的后裔从亚伯拉罕到它的重要性是连接;相反,它是实践的美德归结到亚伯拉罕在创世记。Thus in John, viii, the Jews, to whom Our Lord was speaking, boast (33): "We are the seed of Abraham", and Jesus replies (39): "If ye be the children of Abraham, do the works of Abraham".因此,在约翰,八,犹太人,其中我们的主说,夸(33):“我们是亚伯拉罕的后裔”,和耶稣的回复(39):“如果你们是亚伯拉罕的子孙,做工程亚伯拉罕“。 St. Paul, too, shows that he is a son of Abraham and glories in that fact as in 2 Corinthians 11:22, when he exclaims: "They are the seed of Abraham, so am I".圣保罗,也说明他是一个儿子在哥林多前书11时22分,这一事实亚伯拉罕和辉煌,时,他感叹地说:“他们是亚伯拉罕的后裔,所以我”。 And again (Romans 11:50): "I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham", and he addresses the Jews of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:26) as "sons of the race of Abraham". (罗马书11:50):“我也是一个以色列人,亚伯拉罕的后裔”,和他的地址为“儿子的亚伯拉罕的比赛”的安提阿皮西迪亚犹太人(徒13:26)。 But, following the teaching of Jesus Christ St. Paul does not attach too much importance to carnal descent from Abraham; for he says (Galatians 3:29): "If you be Christ's, then you are the seed of Abraham", and again (Romans 9:6): "All are not Israelites who are of Israel; neither are all they who are the seed of Abraham, children".但是,下面的耶稣基督的圣保罗教学没有太重视肉体的后裔,从亚伯拉罕,他说(加拉太书3:29):“如果你是基督的,那么你是亚伯拉罕的后裔”,并再次(罗马书9:6):“都是没有以色列人,以色列的人;都没有,他们是亚伯拉罕的后裔,儿童”。 So, too, we can observe in all the New Testament the importance attached to the promises made to Abraham.太多,所以,我们可以观察到所有的新约圣经的重视,对亚伯拉罕的承诺。In the Acts of the Apostles, iii, 25, St. Peter reminds the Jews of the promise, "in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed".圣彼得使徒,III,25的行为,提醒犹太人的承诺,“在你的种子应当地球的所有家庭祝福”。So does St. Stephen in his speech before the Council (Acts 7), and St. Paul in the Epistle to the Hebrews, vi, 13.因此,摆在安理会面前的讲话(7),圣士提反圣保罗在书信的希伯来人,六,13。Nor was the faith of the ancient patriarch less highly thought of by the New Testament writers.也不是认为新约作家少高古族长的信心。The passage of Genesis which was most prominently before them was xv, 6: "Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice."创世纪的流逝,这是他们面前最突出的是十五,六:“亚伯拉罕信神,和他所不欲,正义是驰名。” In Romans 4, St. Paul argues strongly for the supremacy of faith, which he says justified Abraham; ' for if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, but not before God." The same idea is inculcated in the Epistle to the Galatians, iii, where the question is discussed: "Did you receive the spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?" St. Paul decides that it is by faith, and says: "Therefore they that are of faith shall be justified with faithful Abraham". It is clear that this language, taken by itself, and apart from the absolute necessity of good works upheld by St. Paul, is liable to mislead and actually has misled many in the history of the Church. Hence, in order to appreciate to the full the Catholic doctrine of faith, we must supplement St. Paul by St. James. In ii, 17-22, of the Catholic Epistle we read: "So faith also, if it have not works, is dead in itself.圣保罗在罗马书4,认为强烈的信仰至上,这是他正当亚伯拉罕说,“如果亚伯拉罕是因行为称义,祂所特此荣耀,但在神面前并无”在书信中灌输同样的想法。加拉太,三,讨论的问题是:“你的精神,接受法律的作品或信仰的听证会”圣保罗决定,它是由信仰,并说:“因此,他们认为应合理信仰的忠实亚伯拉罕“。很显然,这种语言本身,除了绝对必要的优秀作品,由圣保罗坚持,是被误导,实际上误导了许多在历史教会因此,为了欣赏到完整的信仰天主教的教义,我们必须补充圣保禄由圣雅各福群在二,17-22,天主教书信我们读到:“因此,信仰,如果IT没有作品,本身就是死。 But some man will say: Thou hast faith, and I have works, show me thy faith without works, and I will show thee by works my faith.但有些人会说:祢的信仰,我有,告诉我你的信心没有作品,并以作品我的信仰,我会告诉你。Thou believest that there is one God.你believest有一个上帝。Thou dost well; the devils also believe and tremble.你多斯特;魔鬼也相信和颤抖。But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?但祢知道,没有工程Ø白白做人,信仰是死了吗?Was not Abraham our father justified by works, and by works faith was made perfect?"是不是亚伯拉罕因行​​为称义,我们的父亲和作品的信仰是完美呢?“

In the seventh chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews, St. Paul enters into a long discussion concerning the eternal priesthood of Jesus Christ.在书信的希伯来人的第七章,圣保禄进入一个长期的讨论关于耶稣基督永恒的祭司。He recalls the words of the 109th psalm more than once, in which it is said: "Thou art a Driest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech."他不止一次回顾第109诗篇的话,它是说:“你的艺术永远根据Melchisedech为了一个最干旱的” He recalls the fact that Melchisedech is etymologically the king of justice and also king of peace; and moreover that he is not only king, but also priest of the Most High God.他回忆事实Melchisedech词源是正义的国王和王和平,而且,他是不是只有国王,但也至高神的祭司。Then, calling to mind that there is no account of his father, mother, or genealogy, nor any record of his heirs, he likens him to Christ king and priest; no Levite nor according to the order of Aaron, but a priest forever according to the order of Melchisedech.然后,记住,有没有父亲,母亲,或家谱的帐户,也没有任何记录他的继承人,他比喻他基督国王和祭司;没有利未人,也没有按照顺序亚伦,但一个牧师永远根据Melchisedech为了。

IN THE LIGHT OF PROFANE HISTORY亵渎历史

One is inclined to ask, when considering the light which profane history may shed on the life of Abraham: Is not the life of the patriarch incredible?之一是倾向于要求,在考虑光这可能揭示亚伯拉罕生命的亵渎历史:是不是族长令人难以置信的生活呢?That question may be, and is, answered in different ways, according to the point of view of the questioner.回答这个问题可能是,是,以不同的方式,根据提问的角度点。Perhaps it will not be without interest to quote the answer of Professor Driver, an able and representative exponent of moderate critical views:也许不会不计利息报价教授驱动器,一个温和的批评意见能够代表指数的答案:

Do the patriarchal narratives contain intrinsic historical improbabilities?宗法叙述包含固有的历史不可能性吗?Or, in other words, is there anything intrinsically improbable in the lives of the several patriarchs, and the vicissitudes through which they severally pass?或者,换句话说,是有本质上的几个元老的生活不可能,通过它的沧桑,他们个别通吗?In considering this question a distinction must be drawn between the different sources of which these narratives are composed.在考虑这个问题,必须区分得出不同来源之间的这些叙述组成。Though particular details in them may be improbable, and though the representation may in parts be coloured by the religious and other associations of the age in which they were written, it cannot be said that the biographies of the first three patriarchs, as told in J and E, are, generally speaking, historically improbable; the movements and general lives of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are, taken on the whole, credible (Genesis, p. xlvi).虽然他们特别细节可不可能,但表示可能在零件是在其中,他们是书面的年龄的宗教和其他协会的着色,也不能说,在第一三个始祖传记,如在J告诉和E,一般来讲,​​历史上不可能的;亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各的动作和一般的生活,总体上采取的,可信的(创世记四十六页)。

Such is the moderate view; the advanced attitude is somewhat different." The view taken by the patient reconstructive criticism of our day is that, not only religiously, but even, in a qualified sense, historically also, the narratives of Abraham have a claim on our attention" (Cheyne, Encyc. Bib., 26).这种是温和的观点,先进的态度是有所不同的“病人我们今天重建的批评采取的观点是,不仅是宗教,但即使在一个合格的意义,历史上也,亚伯拉罕的叙述有一个说法。我们的注意“(进益,百科全书。背带裤,26)。 Coming now to look at the light thrown by profane history upon the stories of Abraham's life as given in Genesis, we have, first of all, the narratives of ancient historians, as Nicholas of Damascus, Berosus, Hecateus, and the like.现在看亵渎历史抛出后,亚伯拉罕的生命的故事在创世纪的光,我们有,首先,尼古拉大马士革,Berosus,Hecateus,像古代历史学家的叙述。 Nicholas of Damascus tells how Abraham, when he left Chaldea lived for some years in Damascus.尼古拉大马士革告诉如何亚伯拉罕,当他离开迦勒底一些年来住在大马士革。In fact in Josephus he is said to have been the fourth king of that city.事实上,在约瑟夫,他说已经是这个城市的第四个国王。But then there is no practical doubt that this story is based on the words of Genesis 14:15, in which the town of Damascus is mentioned.但后来有没有实际的疑问,这个故事是根据创世记14:15,在大马士革镇提到的话。 As to the great man whom Josephus mentions as spoken of by Berosus, there is nothing to show that that great man was Abraham.至于人约瑟夫提到的伟人​​Berosus的发言,没有什么表明,伟人亚伯拉罕。In the "Praeparatio Evang."在“Praeparatio Evang。”of Eusebius there are extracts recorded from numerous ancient writers, but no historical value can be attached to them.尤西比乌斯有从众多的古代作家记录中提取,但没有历史价值,可以连接到他们。In fact, as far as ancient historians are concerned, we may say that all we know about Abraham is contained in the book of Genesis.事实上,尽可能古代历史学家而言,我们可以说,我们知道亚伯拉罕在创世记中。

A much more important and interesting question is the amount of value to be attached to the recent archaeological discoveries of Biblical and other explorers in the East.一个更为重要和有趣的问题是要连接到最近的考古发现圣经和其他探险家在东的货值金额。Archaeologists like Hommel, and more especially Sayce, are disposed to attach very great significance to them.考古学家像HOMMEL,更特别是,塞斯,处置,将具有十分重要的意义。They say, in fact, that these discoveries throw a serious element of doubt over many of the conclusions of the higher critics.他们说,其实,这些发现将抛出一个疑问,许多批评者提出了更高的的结论严重元素。On the other hand, critics, both advanced as Cheyne and moderate as Driver, do not hold the deductions drawn by these archaeologists from the evidence of the monuments in very high esteem, but regard them as exaggerations.另一方面,批评,既先进进益和驱动温和,不持有这些考古学家从古迹非常崇高的敬意的证据得出的扣除,但把它们当作言过其实。 To put the matter more precisely, we quote the following from Professor Sayce, to enable the reader to see for himself what he thinks (Early Hist. of the Hebrews, 8):" Cuneiform tablets have been found relating to Chodorlahomor and the other kings of the East mentioned in the 14th chapter of Genesis, while in the Tel-el-Amarna correspondence the king of Jerusalem declares that he had been raised to the throne by the 'arm' of his God, and was therefore, like Melchisedech, a Driest-king. But Chodorlahomor and Melchisedech had long ago been banished to mythland and criticism could not admit that archaeological discovery had restored them to actual history. Writers, accordingly, in complacent ignorance of the cuneiform texts, told the Assyriologists that their translations and interpretations were alike erroneous."为了更精确地将此事,我们下面的引述教授塞斯,使读者能够看到自己(组织胺的希伯来人,8月初。)他认为:“楔形文字片已发现有关Chodorlahomor和其他国王创世记第14章中提到,而在电话:86 - EL -阿玛尔纳书信耶路撒冷王宣布,他已提出的“手臂”他的神的宝座,因此,像Melchisedech,东最干旱的王,但Chodorlahomor和Melchisedech早就被放逐到mythland和批评不能承认的考古发现已经恢复他们实际的历史。作家,因此,在自满无知楔形文字文本,告诉Assyriologists,他们的翻译和解释同样的错误。“ That passage will make it clear how much the critics and archaeologists are at variance.该通道将使其明确的批评和考古学家的方差是多少。But no one can deny that Assyriology has thrown some light on the stories of Abraham and the other patriarchs.但没有人可以否认,亚述已抛出一些亚伯拉罕和其他元老的故事。Thus the name of Abraham was known in those ancient times; for amongst other Canaanitish or Amorite names found in deeds of sale of that period are those of Abi-ramu, or Abram, Jacob-el (Ya'qub-il), and Josephel (Yasub-il).因此,亚伯拉罕的名字,在那些古代被称为除其他Canaanitish或亚摩利人的名字,发现这一时期的销售事迹是那些阿比 - 瑞木,亚伯拉罕,雅各- EL(Ya'qub - IL),并Josephel (Yasub一)。So, too, of the fourteenth chapter of Genesis, which relates the war of Chodorlahomor and his allies in Palestine, it is not so long ago that the advanced critics relegated it to the region of fable, under the conviction that Babylonians and Elamites at that early date in Palestine and the surrounding country was a gross anachronism.太多,所以,创世记第十四章,其中涉及Chodorlahomor和他的盟友在巴勒斯坦的战争,这是不久前,先进的批评退居寓言地区的信念下,当时的巴比伦人和Elamites早日在巴勒斯坦及周边国家是一个重大的时代错误。 But now Professor Pinches has deciphered certain inscriptions relating to Babylonia in which the five kings, Amraphel King of Senaar, Arioch King of Pontus, Chodorlahomor King of the Elamites, and Thadal King of nations, are identified with Hammurabi King of Babylon, Eri-aku, Kudur-laghghamar, and Tuduchula, son of Gazza, and which tells of a campaign of these monarchs in Palestine.但现在教授捏破译某些题字有关巴比伦其中Amraphel国王Senaar Arioch庞景,Chodorlahomor Elamites的国王和Thadal国家的国王,五王,巴比伦国王汉谟拉比确定,ERI AKU Kudur - laghghamar和Tuduchula Gazza的儿子,并告诉这些君主运动在巴勒斯坦。So that no one can any longer assert that the war spoken of in Genesis, xiv, can only be a late reflection of the wars of Sennacherib and others in the times of the kings.所以任何人都无法再断言战争口语,第十四条,在创世记的只能是一个迟到的森纳赫里布国王时代的战争和其他反射。From the Tel-el-Amarna tablets we know that Babylonian influence was predominant in Palestine in those days.从电话:86 - EL -阿玛尔纳片,我们知道,在那些日子里,巴比伦的影响主要在巴勒斯坦。Moreover, we have light thrown by the cuneiform inscriptions upon the incident of Melchisedech.此外,我们光抛出Melchisedech事件后的楔形文字铭文。In Genesis, xiv, 18, it is said: "Melchisedech, the King of Salem, bringing forth bread and wine, for he was the priest of the Most High God, blessed him."在创世记,14,18,它是说:“Melchisedech塞勒姆国王,带来了面包和酒,因为他是至高神的祭司,祝福他。” Amongst the Tel-el-Amarna letters is one from Ebed-Tob, King of Jerusalem (the city is Ursalim, ie city of Salim, and it is spoken of as Salem).电话:86 - EL -阿玛尔纳字母当中,是一个从Ebed - TOB,耶路撒冷国王(城市U​​rsalim,即萨利姆城市,它是作为萨利姆说)。He is priest appointed by Salem, the god of Peace, and is hence both king and priest.他是牧师任命萨利姆,和平之神,并因此国王和祭司。In the same manner Melchisedech is priest and king, and naturally comes to greet Abraham returning in peace; and hence, too, Abraham offers to him as to a priest a tithe of the spoils.以同样的方式Melchisedech教士和国王,自然来迎接亚伯拉罕在和平返回;太多,因此,亚伯拉罕为他作为一个牧师的战利品什一。 On the other hand, it must be stated that Professor Driver will not admit Sayce's deductions from the inscriptions as to EbedTob, and will not recognize any analogy between Salem and the Most High God.另一方面,必须指出,教授的驱动程​​序不会承认从铭文EbedTob塞斯的扣减,将不承认任何萨利姆和至高的神之间的比喻。

Taking archaeology as a whole, it cannot be doubted that no definite results have been attained as to Abraham.考古学作为一个整体,不能怀疑,没有明确的结果已达到以亚伯拉罕。What has come to light is susceptible of different interpretations.已经到了光线,容易受到不同的解释。But there is no doubt that archaeology is putting an end to the idea that the patriarchal legends are mere myth.但毫无疑问,考古学的思想,宗法传说仅仅是神话。They are shown to be more than that.它们显示不止于此。A state of things is being disclosed in patriarchal times quite consistent with much that is related in Genesis, and at times even apparently confirming the facts of the Bible.一个国家的事情被披露,相当多是在创世记相关在重男轻女的时代一致,有时甚至明显地证实了“圣经”的事实。

VIEWPOINT OF LEGEND观传奇

We come now to the question: how far legend plays a part in the life of Abraham as recorded in Genesis.我们现在的问题是:如何远传说在亚伯拉罕的生命的一部分,作为记录在创世记。It is a practical and important question, because it is so much discussed by modern critics and they all believe in it.这是一个实际和重要的问题,因为它是这么多的现代批评家讨论,他们都相信它。In setting forth the critical view on the subject, I must not be taken as giving my own views also.提出关于这一问题的关键,的,我不能给我自己的看法也。

Hermann Gunkel, in the Introduction to his Commentary on Genesis (3) writes: "There is no denying that there are legends in the Old Testament, consider for instance the stories of Samson and Jonah. Accordingly it is not a matter of belief or scepticism, but merely a matter of obtaining better knowledge, to examine whether the narratives of Genesis are history or legend."赫尔曼贡克尔,在介绍他的成因述评(3)写道:“无可否认,有传说在旧约,例如考虑参孙和约拿的故事,因此,它不是一个信仰或怀疑的问题。 ,但仅仅是获得更好的知识的问题,检查是否创世记的叙述历史或传说。“And again: "In a people with such a highly developed poetical faculty as Israel there must have been a place for saga too. The senseless confusion of ' legend ' with ' Iying ' has caused good people to hesitate to concede that there are legends in the Old Testament. But legends are not lies; on the contrary, they are a particular form of poetry." :“在这样一个高度发达的以色列诗意教师一个人必须有一个传奇故事的地方,”传奇“与”Iying“无谓的混乱已经引起了良好的人毫不犹豫地承认,在传说。旧约,但传说是不是谎言。相反,他们是一个特殊形式的诗“。 These passages give a very good idea of the present position of the Higher Criticism relative to the legends of Genesis, and of Abraham in particular.这些经文,一个创世纪的传说相对更高批判现在的位置是非常好的主意,特别是亚伯拉罕。

The first principle enunciated by the critics is that the accounts of the primitive ages and of the patriarchal times originated amongst people who did not practise the art of writing.由评论家所阐明的第一项原则是,原始时代的宗法时代的帐户之间人谁不练习写作的艺术起源。Amongst all peoples, they say, poetry and saga were the first beginning of history; so it was in Greece and Rome, so it was in Israel.所有人民当中,他们说,诗歌和佐贺县是历史上第一个开始,所以这是在希腊和罗马,所以它是在以色列。 These legends were circulated, and handed down by oral tradition, and contained, no doubt, a kernel of truth.流传,这些传说和口头传统传下来,并载,毫无疑问,一个真理的内核。Very often, where individual names are used these names in reality refer not to individuals but to tribes, as in Genesis 10, and the names of the twelve Patriarchs, whose migrations are those of the tribes they represent.很多时候,使用个人的名字,这些名字,在现实中不是个人,而是部落,在创世记10,和十二个月始祖,其迁移是那些他们所代表的部落的名称。 It is not of course to be supposed that these legends are no older than the collections J, E, and P, in which they occur.这当然是不应该的,这些传说是年龄不超过集合J,E和P,它们发生。They were in circulation ages before, and for long periods of time, those of earlier origin being shorter, those of later origin longer, often rather romances than legends, as that of Joseph.他们在流通年龄之前,和长期的时间,那些正在较短的早期起源,后来的原产地不再,而往往比传说恋情约瑟夫。Nor were they all of Israelitish origin; some were Babylonian, some Egyptian.也不是所有Israelitish原产地;一些巴比伦,一些埃及。As to how the legends arose, this came about, they say, in many ways.至于如何产生的传说,这约来到,他们说,在许多方面。At times the cause was etymological, to explain the meaning of a name, as when it is said that Isaac received his name because his mother laughed (cahaq); sometimes they were ethnological, to explain the geographical position, the adversity, or prosperity, of a certain tribe; sometimes historical, sometimes ceremonial, as the account explaining the covenant of circumcision; sometimes geological, as the explanation of the appearance of the Dead Sea and its surroundings.倍的原因是词源,解释名字的含义,当它是说,艾萨克收到他的名字,因为他的母亲笑了(cahaq);有时他们人种学,解释的地理位置,逆境,或繁荣,某一个部落;有时历史,有时礼仪解释割礼的盟约的帐户,有时地质解释死海及其周边地区的外观。 Ætiological legends of this kind form one class of those to be found in the lives of the patriarchs and elsewhere in Genesis.这种形式,这些被发现的始祖,在创世记生命的一类病因的传说。But there are others besides which do not concern us here.但也有其他人除了不关心我们在这里。

When we try to discover the age of the formation of the patriarchal legends, we are confronted with a question of great complexity.当我们试图探索形成的重男轻女的传说时代,我们面临着极其复杂的问题。For it is not merely a matter of the formation of the simple legends separately, but also of the amalgamation of these into more complex legends.它是不是仅仅是一个形成单独简单的传说的问题,而且这些到更复杂的传说合并。Criticism teaches us that that period would have ended about the year 1200 BC Then would have followed the period of remodeling the legends, so that by 900 BC they would have assumed substantially the form they now have.批评教导我们将结束这一时期,约公元前1200年,然后将跟随期重塑传说,公元前900年,使他们承担大幅他们现在的形式。 After that date, whilst the legends kept in substance to the form they had received, they were modified in many ways so as to bring them into conformity with the moral standard of the day, still not so completely that the older and less conventional ideas of a more primitive age did not from time to time show through them.在该日期之后,而在实质上,他们收到的形式保存的传说,他们在许多方面修改,使其符合道德标准的一天,老的和少的传统思想仍然没有完全,一个更原始的时代,没有时间通过​​他们的时间显示。 At this time, too, many collections of the ancient legends appear to have been made, much in the same way as St. Luke tells us in the beginning of his Gospel that many had written accounts of Our Saviour's life on their own authority.此时,也出现许多古老的传说集合已经取得了很大的以同样的方式,如圣路加告诉我们在他的福音的开始,许多人写上自己的权威,我们的救主的生活帐户。

Amongst other collections were those of J in the South and E in the North.其他收藏品当中,那些J在南,北的E。Whilst others perished these two survived, and were supplemented towards the end of the captivity by the collection of P, which originated amidst priestly surroundings and was written from the ceremonial standpoint.而其他人丧生,这两个活了下来,并辅以P的集合,它起源于环境之中祭司,从礼仪的角度来看的书面走向尾声的囚禁。 Those that hold these views maintain that it is the fusion of these three collections of legends which has led to confusion in some incidents in the life of Abraham as for instance in the case of Sarai in Egypt, where her age seems inconsistent with her adventure with the Pharao.那些持有这些意见,认为它是融合这三个集合传说在某些事件导致混乱,例如在亚伯拉罕的生命在埃及的情况下撒莱,她的年龄似乎与她的冒险与不一致PHARAO。 Hermann Gunkel writes (148): "It is not strange that the chronology of P displays everywhere the most absurd oddities when injected into the old legends, as a result, Sarah is still at sixty-five a beautiful woman whom the Egyptians seek to capture, and Ishmael is carried on his mother's shoulders after he is a youth of sixteen."赫尔曼贡克尔写(148):“这是不奇怪的P年表显示无处不在的最荒谬的怪事时注入的古老传说,因此,莎拉是在六十五个,还有一个美丽的女子,其中埃及人寻求夺取,以实玛利是他母亲的肩膀上后,他是一个十六岁青年。“

The collection of P was intended to take the place of the old combined collection of J and E. But the old narrative had a firm hold of the popular imagination and heart.收集的P拟采取的老J和大肠杆菌结合收集的地方,但旧的叙事已经牢牢把握了大众的想象和心脏。And so the more recent collection was combined with the other two, being used as the groundwork of the whole, especially in chronology.所以结合其他两个作为整个基础,尤其是在年表,更近的集合。It is that combined narrative which we now possess.我们现在拥有的,正是结合​​的叙事。

Publication information Written by JA Howlett.由司法机构政务长豪利特编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Tomas Hancil.转录由Tomas汉奇尔。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,第I卷出版1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



If you are studying the Christian/Jewish importance of Abraham, also, see:如果你是学习基督教/犹太人的重要性,石礼谦,也见:
God 上帝
Ishmael 伊斯梅尔
Bible 圣经


If you are studying the Islamic importance of Abraham, also, see:如果你是学习伊斯兰的重要性,石礼谦,也见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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