Aisha, Ayesha阿伊莎

General Information一般资料

Aisha, b.阿伊莎湾614, d. 614,D.July 678, was the third and favorite wife of Muhammad and daughter of the caliph Abu Bakr. 7月678,是穆罕默德的第三和最喜爱的妻子和女儿哈里发艾布伯克尔。After the Prophet's death in 632, she opposed the fourth caliph, Ali.先知的死亡在632后,她反对的第四任哈里发阿里。When her army was defeated by him in the "Battle of the Camel" (656), she retired to Medina.当她的军队在“骆驼之战”(656)击败他,她退休的麦地那。

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Aisha阿伊莎

General Information一般资料

Aisha or Ayeshah (circa 614-78), favorite wife of the Prophet Muhammad after the death of his first wife, Khadija.阿伊莎或Ayeshah(约公元前614-78),先知穆罕默德的最喜爱的妻子去世后的第一任妻子卡蒂嘉。In order to strengthen ties with Abu Bakr, his chief adviser, Muhammad married Aisha, Abu Bakr's daughter, when she was about nine years old. (He was about 53 years old at the time.) Even after subsequent marriages of the Prophet, she remained devoted to him; she is known among Muslims as Mother of the Believers.为了以加强与阿布贝克尔,他的首席顾问, 穆罕默德结婚阿伊莎,阿布贝克尔的女儿,她约九十岁的时候 ,(他是当时约53岁。)即使先知随后婚姻之后,她关系专门给他;她母亲的信徒称为穆斯林之间。After the death of Muhammad in 632, Aisha, a childless widow of 18, helped her father become first caliph, or ruler, of the Muslims.632穆罕默德去世后,艾莎,无子女的寡妇,18帮助,她的父亲,成为第一个哈里发,或穆斯林统治者,。 She remained politically inactive during his caliphate (632-34), but she later opposed the succession of Ali as fourth caliph (656-61) and incited an unsuccessful revolt against him.她在他的哈里发(632-34)保持政治活动,但她后来反对了第四任哈里发(656-61)阿里的继承和煽动对他失败的起义。


Aisha阿伊莎

Advanced Information先进的信息

"Aisha" is a common misspelling of Ayesha“艾莎”是一种常见的拼写错误的Ayesha

Aisha bint Abu Bakr (Arabic: عائشةʿāʾ 'isha , "she who lives", also transcribed as A'ishah , Ayesha , ' A'isha , or ' Aisha ) was a wife of Muhammad. 阿伊莎宾特艾布伯克尔 (阿拉伯语:عائشةʿʾ“宵礼 ”,她的生活“,也转录A'ishah,Ayesha,”A'isha,阿伊莎 )是穆罕默德的妻子。In Islamic writings, she is thus often referred to by the title "Mother of the Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنينumm-al-mu'minīn ), per the description of Muhammad's wives as "Mothers of Believers" in the Qur'an (33.6), and later, as the "Mother of the Faithful", as in Qutb's Ma'alim fi al-Tariq (pps6).在伊斯兰的著作中,她因此常被称为“母亲的信徒”的标题是“母亲的信徒”( 阿拉伯语:أمالمؤمنينUMM- AL - mu'minīn)在“古兰经”,每穆罕默德的妻子们的描述(33.6),以及后来的“母亲”的忠实,库特布的Ma'alim Fi的人塔里克(pps6)。She is quoted as source for many Hadith (traditions about Muhammad's life), with Muhammad's personal life being the topic of most narrations.她援引许多圣训(穆罕默德的生活传统),穆罕默德的个人生活最叙写的主题来源。

Aisha is a controversial figure because of differing portrayals of her in Shia versions of Islamic history and her role in the First Fitna (first Islamic civil war) at the head of an army against Ali ibn Abu Talib in the Battle of Bassorah.阿伊莎是一个有争议的人物,因为她的写照在什叶派伊斯兰的历史和她的角色在第一Fitna(第一伊斯兰内战)Bassorah战役的军队对阿里本阿布利布头版本不同。

Early life早期的生活

Aisha was the daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca.阿伊莎庵Ruman的麦加和阿布贝克尔的女儿。Abu Bakr belonged to the Banu Taym sub-clan of the tribe of Quraysh, the tribe to which Muhammad also belonged.艾布伯克尔属于巴努Taym古莱什族部落的氏族,部落,穆罕默德也属于。Aisha is said to have followed her father in accepting Islam when she was still young.阿伊莎是说,跟随她的父亲在接受伊斯兰教时,她还年轻。She also joined him in his (first) migration to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 615 AD; a number of Mecca's Muslims emigrated then, seeking refuge from persecution by the Meccans who still followed their pre-Islamic religions.她也加入了他在他的(第一)迁移到阿比西尼亚(埃塞俄比亚),公元615年,麦加的穆斯林移民,由麦加人仍然沿袭前伊斯兰宗教迫害寻求避难。

According to the early Islamic historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Aisha's father tried to spare her the dangers and discomfort of the journey by solemnizing her marriage to her fiance, Jubayr ibn Mut'im, son of Mut'im ibn 'Adi.根据早期的伊斯兰历史学家穆罕默德伊本Jarir AL -塔芭丽,艾莎的父亲试图以饶了她,solemnizing她的婚姻,她的未婚夫,本Mut'im,Mut'im本“阿迪的儿子Jubayr的旅途的危险和不适。 However, Mut'am refused to honor the long-standing betrothal, as he did not wish his family to be connected to the Muslim outcasts.然而,Mut'am拒绝履行长期的订婚,因为他不希望他的家人被连接到穆斯林的弃儿。The emigration to Ethiopia proved temporary and Abu Bakr's family returned to Mecca within a few years.埃塞俄比亚移民被证明是暂时的,艾布伯克尔的家庭在几年之内返回到麦加。Aisha was then betrothed to Muhammad.阿伊莎当时许配给穆罕默德。

Marriage to Muhammad给穆罕默德结婚

Aisha was initially betrothed to Jubayr ibn Mut'im, a Muslim whose father, though pagan, was friendly to the Muslims.阿伊莎最初许配给Jubayr本Mut'im,一个穆斯林,他的父亲,虽然是异教徒,是对穆斯林的友好。When Khawla bint Hakim suggested that Muhammad marry Aisha after the death of Muhammad's first wife (Khadijah bint Khuwaylid), the previous agreement regarding marriage of Aisha with ibn Mut'im was put aside by common consent. [2] Watt suggests that Muhammad hoped to strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr; [2] the strengthening of ties commonly served as a basis for marriage in Arabian culture. [3]当Khawla宾特哈基姆建议,穆罕默德穆罕默德的第一个妻子的死亡(Khadijah宾特Khuwaylid)阿伊莎结婚后,以前的协议,与本Mut'im阿伊莎结婚共同同意搁置。[2]瓦表明穆罕默德希望加强艾布伯克尔他的关系; [2]加强俗称结婚的阿拉伯文化的基础上担任的关系[ 3]

Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad.阿伊莎是六,七岁,许配给穆罕默德。She stayed in her parents' home until the age of nine, when the marriage was consummated. [2] [4] [5] [6] The marriage was delayed until after the Hijra, or migration to Medina, in 622.她住在她父母的家,直到九时,婚姻是完善岁[2] [4] [5] [6]婚姻是希吉拉,或迁移到麦地那之后推迟到622。Aisha and her older sister Asma bint Abi Bakr only moved to Medina after Muhammad had already fled there.阿伊莎和她的姐姐阿斯玛宾特ABI贝克尔只迁移到麦地那后,穆罕默德已经逃到那里。Abu Bakr gave Muhammad the money to build a house for himself.艾布伯克尔给穆罕默德的钱为自己建造的房子。After this, the wedding was celebrated very simply.在此之后,婚礼是非常简单的庆祝。After the wedding, Aisha continued to play with her toys, and Muhammad entered into the spirit of these games. [7][7]阿伊莎婚礼结束后,继续玩她的玩具,穆罕默德进入到这些游戏的精神。

Status as "favorite wife"状态为“最喜爱的妻子”

Even though the marriage may have been politically motivated, to mark the ties between Muhammad and his companion Abu Bakr, most early accounts say that Muhammad and Aisha became sincerely fond of each other.即使婚姻可能已经有政治动机,以纪念先知穆罕默德和他的同伴艾布伯克尔之间的关系,最早期的账户说,穆罕默德和阿伊莎成为真诚的喜欢对方。 Aisha is usually described as Muhammad's favorite wife, and it was in her company that Muhammad reportedly received the most revelations. [1] [1]阿伊莎通常是形容穆罕默德的最喜爱的妻子,并在她的公司,穆罕默德据说收到的最启示。

Accusation of adultery通奸称

Aisha was traveling with her husband Muhammad and some of his followers.阿伊莎是旅游与丈夫穆罕默德和他的一些追随者。Aisha claimed that she had left camp in the morning to search for her lost necklace, but when she returned, she found that the company had broken camp and left without her.阿伊莎声称,她在早晨离开营地寻找她丢失的项链,但是,当她回来时,她发现,该公司打破了阵营,并没有她的左。She waited for half a day, until she was rescued by a man named Safwan ibn Al-Muattal and taken to rejoin the caravan.她等了半天,直到她被救出一名男子名为萨夫万本AL - Muattal重新马帮。This led to speculation that she had committed adultery with Safwan.这导致猜测,她犯了通奸与萨夫万。Muhammad's adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah defended Aisha's reputation.穆罕默德的养子宰德本Harithah辩护阿伊莎的声誉。 Shortly after this, Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses. [8] These verses also rebuked Aisha's accusers, [9] whom Muhammad ordered to receive forty lashes, among them his poet Hassan ibn Thabit. [10] [11]在这之后不久,穆罕默德宣布,他已收到一个启示确认阿伊莎的清白和指示,通奸的指控是由四个目击者支持。[8]这些经文也斥责阿伊莎的控告,[9]人穆罕默德下令以收到第四十睫毛,其中他的诗人哈桑本萨比特[10] [11 ​​]

Story of the honey蜂蜜的故事

Ibn Kathir wrote in his biography of Muhammad that Muhammad's wife Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya was given a skin filled with honey, which she shared with her husband. [12] He stayed overlong with Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya; at least in the opinion of Aisha and her co-wife Hafsa bint Umar.伊本Kathir写道他的穆罕默德传记,穆罕默德的妻子乌姆萨拉马后宾特阿比Umayya是给定的填充与蜂蜜一个皮肤,其中她与丈夫共享[12]他下榻乌姆萨拉马后宾特阿比Umayya过长;。至少在阿伊莎和她合作的妻子哈芙赛宾特欧麦尔的意见。 Aisha and Hafsa conspired.阿伊莎和哈芙赛合谋。Each of them was to tell Muhammad that the honey had given him bad breath.他们每个人都告诉穆罕默德的蜂蜜给他口臭。When he heard this from two wives, he believed that it was true and swore that he would eat no more of the honey.当他听到这两个妻子,他相信这是真的,并发誓,他会吃蜂蜜。Soon afterwards, he reported that he had received a revelation, in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted by God. [13] In the following verses, Muhammad's wives are rebuked for their unruliness: "your hearts are inclined (to oppose him)".此后不久,他报告,他曾收到一个启示,中,他被告知,他可以吃神所允许的任何事情[13]在下面的诗句,穆罕默德的妻子是斥责其野性:。“你的心是倾向(反对他)。“

Word spread in the small Muslim community that Muhammad's wives were tyrannizing him, speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him.相传穆罕默德的妻子们欺压他,说他的大幅和密谋对他在小的穆斯林社区。Umar, Hafsa's father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to Muhammad of the matter.欧麦尔,赛神学院的父亲,骂他的女儿,还谈到了此事给穆罕默德。Muhammad, saddened and upset, separated from his wives for a month.穆罕默德,悲痛和不安,他的妻子分开了一个月。By the end of this time, his wives were humbled and harmony was restored.这段时间结束时,他的妻子是自愧不如,并恢复了和谐。

When Muslim commentators on the Qur'an explicate At-Tahrim, Sura 66, it is usually this story that is told to explain the "occasion of revelation."当穆斯林评论家- Tahrim 66,苏拉在古兰经阐明,它通常是这个故事就是告诉解释“的启示之际。”

There is a similar but alternative explanation of this chapter, also involving Aisha.是本章的相似,但另一种解释,也涉及阿伊莎。In this story, Aisha and her co-wives were unhappy because Muhammad was infatuated with Maria al-Qibtiyya, the Coptic Christian woman who bore Muhammad a brief-lived son.在这个故事里,艾莎和她的妻子不满,因为穆罕默德与玛丽亚AL - Qibtiyya,科普特基督徒女子孔穆罕默德住一个简短的儿子迷恋。(Some accounts say that she was a slave, some that she converted to Islam, was freed, and was taken as a wife.) [14](有些帐户说她一些,她皈依伊斯兰教,被释放的奴隶,和被采取了作为一个妻子。)[14 ]

Death of Muhammad穆罕默德的死亡

Ibn Ishaq, in his Sirah Rasul Allah , states that during Muhammad's last illness, he sought Aisha's apartments and died with his head in her lap.伊本伊斯哈格,在他的Sirah拉苏尔真主,穆罕默德的最后患病期间,他试图阿伊莎的公寓,并与他的头死在她的腿上。 The Sunni take this as evidence of Muhammad's fondness for Aisha.逊尼派作为穆罕默德的阿伊莎喜爱证据。The Shia deny this, and say that Muhammad died with his head in Ali's lap. [15] Aisha never remarried after Muhammad's death.什叶派否认这一点,并说,穆罕默德与他的头死在阿里的腿上。[15]艾莎从未穆罕默德去世后再婚。 A passage in the Qur'an forbids any Muslim to marry a widow of Muhammad:在“古兰经”通过禁止任何穆斯林穆罕默德娶一个寡妇:

Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy God's Apostle, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. 你们应该惹恼上帝的使者,或者,你们应该在任何时候结婚他的寡妇后,他也不是适合你的。Truly such a thing is in God's sight an enormity.诚然这样的事情是在神的视线一个艰巨。

Qur'an 33:53古兰经33:53

After Muhammad穆罕默德之后

Aisha's father becomes the first caliph阿伊莎的父亲成为第一任哈里发

After Muhammad's death in 632 AD, Aisha's father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph, or leader of the Muslims.公元632年穆罕默德去世后,艾莎的父亲艾布伯克尔,成为第一位哈里发,或穆斯林的领袖。This matter of succession to Muhammad is extremely controversial to the Shi'as.这给穆罕默德的继承问题,是极具争议的什叶派。 Shia believe that Ali had been chosen to lead by Muhammad; Sunni maintain that the community chose Abu Bakr, and did so in accordance with Muhammad's wishes.什叶派相信,阿里被选为导致穆罕默德;逊尼派保持社会选择艾布伯克尔,并没有按照穆罕默德的愿望。

Battle of Bassorah对Bassorah战役

Abu Bakr's reign was short, and in 634 AD he was succeeded by Umar, as caliph.艾布伯克尔的统治是短暂的,公元634年,他的继任者是哈里发欧麦尔为。Umar reigned for ten years, and was then followed by Uthman Ibn Affan in 644 AD.欧麦尔在位10年,是公元644年由奥斯曼伊阿凡。Both of these men had been among Muhammad's earliest followers, were linked to him by clanship and marriage, and had taken prominent parts in various military campaigns.穆罕默德的最早的追随者,这些人都已经与clanship和婚姻给他,并采取了各种军事活动,突出部位。Aisha, in the meantime, lived in Medina and made several pilgrimages to Mecca.艾莎,在此期间,居住在麦地那和几个去麦加朝觐。

In 656 Uthman was killed by rebellious Muslim soldiers.656奥斯曼叛逆的穆斯林士兵被打死。The rebels then asked Ali to be the new caliph.叛乱分子,然后问阿里成为新的哈里发。Many reports absolve Ali of complicity in the murder.有许多报道在谋杀开脱阿里的同谋。He is reported to have refused the caliphate.据报道,他都拒绝哈里发。He agreed to rule only after his followers persisted.他同意的规则,只是在他的追随者坚持。

Aisha raised an army which confronted Ali's army outside the city of Basra.艾莎起兵面临阿里的军队以外的巴士拉市。Professor Leila Ahmed claims that it was during this engagement that Muslim slaughtered Muslim for the first time. [1] Battle ensued and Aisha's forces were defeated.莱拉艾哈迈德教授声称,它在这种接触是穆斯林屠宰穆斯林首次[1]战接踵而至,阿伊莎的部队被击败。 Aisha was directing her forces from a howdah on the back of a camel; this 656 battle is therefore called the Battle of the Camel.阿伊莎是导演从骆驼后面howdah,她的力量,因此,这656战斗称为“骆驼之战。

Ali captured Aisha but declined to harm her.阿里抓获阿伊莎,但拒绝伤害她。He sent her back to Medina under military escort.在军队的护送下下,他送她到麦地那。She lived a retired life until she died in approximately 678 under the reign of Muawiyah I.她,直到她在大约678人死亡穆阿维耶一统治下过着退休生活

Sunni and Shia views of Aisha逊尼派和什叶派的阿伊莎意见

Sunni historians see Aisha as a learned woman, who tirelessly recounted stories from the life of Muhammad and explained Muslim history and traditions.逊尼派历史学家看到作为一个博学多才的女人,他不知疲倦地讲述了从穆罕默德的生命故事,并解释了穆斯林的历史和传统的阿伊莎。 She is considered to be one of the foremost scholars of Islam's early age with some historians accrediting up to one-quarter of the Islamic Sharia (Islamic religious law), based on the collection of hadiths, to have stemmed from her narrations.她被认为是伊斯兰教的一些历史学家评审一季度基础上收集的圣训,从她的叙述源于伊斯兰教法(伊斯兰宗教法)从小最重要的学者之一。 Aisha became the most prominent of Muhammad's wives and is revered as a role model by millions of women. [1][1]艾莎成为穆罕默德的妻子中最突出的是数以百万计的妇女作为榜样崇敬。

Shia historians believe that Ali should have been the first caliph, and that the other three caliphs were usurpers.什叶派历史学家认为,阿里已被第一任哈里发和其他三个哈里发被篡夺。Aisha not only supported Umar, Uthman, and her father Abu Bakr, she also raised an army and fought against Ali, her stepson-in-law.阿伊莎不仅支持欧麦尔,奥斯曼,和她的父亲艾布伯克尔,她还提出了军队和争取对阿里,她的继子法。 Shia believe that she did wrong in rebelling against Ali. [16]什叶派相信,她在对阿里的反抗[16]错了


Notes注释

  1. Goodwin, Jan. Price of Honour: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World.古德温,电梯上月价格荣誉:穆斯林妇女在伊斯兰世界的沉默的面纱。UK: Little, Brown Book Group, 1994英国:小布朗的图书集团,1994年
  2. Watt, "Aisha", Encyclopedia of Islam Online瓦特,“艾莎”, 伊斯兰教的在线百科全书
  3. Amira Sonbol, Rise of Islam: 6th to 9th century, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures阿米拉Sonbol,伊斯兰教的兴起:6日至9世纪, 妇女和伊斯兰文化百科全书
  4. Barlas (2002), p.125-126巴尔拉斯(2002年),第125页- 126
  5. Sahih Bukhari 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64, 7:62:65, 7:62:88, Sahih Muslim 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, Sunnan Abu Dawud 41:4915, 41:4917布哈里圣训5:58:234,5:58:236,7:62:64,7:62:65,7:62:88,穆斯林圣训8:3309,8:3310,8:3311,桑耐艾布达乌德41 :4915,41:4917
  6. Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7塔芭丽,第9卷,第131页;塔芭丽,第7卷,第7页
  7. Watt, Muhammad, Oxford University Press 1961, page 102.瓦特, 穆罕默德,牛津大学出版社1961年,第102页。
  8. Surah 24:4古兰经24:4
  9. Surah 24:11古兰经24:11
  10. Watt, M "Aisha bint Abi Bakr". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online .瓦,M“的艾莎宾特ABI贝克尔” 伊斯兰在线百科全书Ed.ED。PJ Bearman, Th.PJ Bearman,钍。Bianquis, CE Bosworth, E. van Donzel and WP Heinrichs. Bianquis,CE,E面包车Donzel博斯沃思和可湿性粉剂海因里希。Brill Academic Publishers.布里尔学术出版商。
  11. Glubb (2002), p.Glubb(2002年),第264f.264f。
  12. Muhammad's Wives in the Books of al-Sira穆罕默德的妻子在AL -西拉书
  13. Qu'ran 66:1古兰经66:1
  14. Rodinson 1961, pp. 279-283罗丁森1961年,第279-283
  15. Death and Burial死亡和埋葬
  16. Shia sources:什叶派来源:
    a) Al Shafi, Vol. A)铝沙菲,卷。No. 2, Page No. 108 2号,第108号
    b) Haqq-ul-Yaqeen, Page No. 139B)Haqq - UL - Yaqeen,第139号
    c) Hayat-ul-Quloob, Vol.C)生活报- UL - Quloob,卷。No. 2, Page No. 901 2号,第901页

References参考文献


Aisha - 9 year-old bride艾莎 - 9岁的新娘

Advanced Information先进的信息

Muslim documentation of her earliest life.穆斯林文档她最早的生命。

Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 234铝布哈里圣训,圣训,第5卷,预定58号234

Narrated Aisha: The Prophet engaged me when I was a girl of six (years).收录阿伊莎:从事先知的我,当我是六(年)女孩。We went to Medina and stayed at the home of Bani-al-Harith bin Khazraj.我们去麦地那,并留在家里巴尼- AL - Harith斌Khazraj。Then I got ill and my hair fell down.然后,我得了绝症,我的头发掉了下来。Later on my hair grew (again) and my mother, Um Ruman, came to me while I was playing in a swing with some of my girl friends.后来在我的头发成长(再次)和我的母亲,庵Ruman来找我,而我是在打我的一些女性朋友荡秋千。She called me, and I went to her, not knowing what she wanted to do to me.她给我打电话,我到她,不知道她想我做什么。She caught me by the hand and made me stand at the door of the house.她抓住我的手,让我站在房子的门。I was breathless then, and when my breathing became Allright, she took some water and rubbed my face and head with it.我是气喘吁吁,然后,当我的呼吸变得ALLRIGHT,她花了一些水和擦我的脸和头部。Then she took me into the house.然后,她带我进了屋。There in the house I saw some Ansari women who said, "Best wishes and Allah's Blessing and a good luck."有在房子里,我看到一些安萨里妇女说,“最美好的祝愿和安拉的祝福和好运。”Then she entrusted me to them and they prepared me (for the marriage).然后,她委托我向他们和他们准备我(婚姻)。Unexpectedly Allah's Apostle came to me in the forenoon and my mother handed me over to him, and at that time I was a girl of nine years of age.不料安拉的使者来找我,在午前和妈妈递给我他,当时我是一个9岁的女孩。

Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 151铝布哈里圣训,圣训,第8卷,预定73号151

Narrated 'Aisha: I used to play with the dolls in the presence of the Prophet, and my girl friends also used to play with me.圣训“阿伊莎:我用来播放与先知的存在娃娃,和我的女朋友也跟我玩。 When Allah's Apostle used to enter (my dwelling place) they used to hide themselves, but the Prophet would call them to join and play with me.当安拉的使者进入(我居住的地方),他们用来隐藏自己,但先知呼吁他们加入,跟我玩。 (The playing with the dolls and similar images is forbidden, but it was allowed for 'Aisha at that time, as she was a little girl, not yet reached the age of puberty.) (Fateh-al-Bari page 143, Vol.13)(玩娃娃和类似图像是被禁止的,但是,它是阿伊莎允许当时,因为她是一个小女孩,尚未达到青春期的年龄。)(法塔赫- AL -巴里卷第143页。 13)

Sahih Muslim, Book 8, Number 3309穆斯林圣训,8册,编号3309

Chapter 10: IT IS PERMISSIBLE FOR THE FATHER TO GIVE THE HAND OF HIS DAUGHTER IN MARRIAGE EVEN WHEN SHE IS NOT FULLY GROWN UP.第10章:它是允许父亲给他的女儿的手,在婚姻中,即使当她没有完全长大了。

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house at the age of nine.“A'isha(安拉她高兴)报道:安拉的使者(愿平安归于他)嫁给我,我六岁的时候,我考上了他的房子在9岁。She further said: We went to Medina and I had an attack of fever for a month, and my hair had come down to the earlobes.她进一步表示:我们去麦地那,我一个月的高烧,我的头发下来的耳垂。Umm Ruman (my mother) came to me and I was at that time on a swing along with my playmates.温Ruman(我母亲)来找我,我当时是在与我的玩伴一起荡秋千。She called me loudly and I went to her and I did not know what she had wanted of me.她大声叫我,和我去她和我不知道她有我想。 She took hold of my hand and took me to the door, and I was saying: Ha, ha (as if I was gasping), until the agitation of my heart was over.她抓住我的手,把我的门,和我说:哈,哈(如果我是气喘吁吁),直到我的心激动得过来。She took me to a house, where had gathered the women of the Ansar.她把我带到一所房子,那里聚集了安萨尔妇女。They all blessed me and wished me good luck and said: May you have share in good.他们都祝福我,并祝我好运,并说:“你有良好的份额。She (my mother) entrusted me to them.她(我妈妈)委托我给他们。They washed my head and embellished me and nothing frightened me.他们洗了头,点缀我并没有什么让我害怕。Allah's Messenger (, may peace be upon him) came there in the morning, and I was entrusted to him.安拉的使者(愿平安他)有在早上,我托付给他。

Sahih Muslim, Book 8, Number 3310穆斯林圣训,8册,编号3310

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old. “A'isha(安拉高兴与她的)报道:安拉的使者(愿平安归于他)嫁给我,我六岁的时候,和我考上了他的房子时,我9岁。

Sahih Muslim, Book 8, Number 3311穆斯林圣训,8册,编号3311

'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) married her when she was seven years old, and he was taken to his house as a bride when she was nine, and her dolls were with her; and when he (the Holy Prophet) died she was eighteen years old. A'isha“(安拉她高兴)报道,安拉的使者(愿平安归于他)她结婚时,她7岁,和,他被带到一个新娘,当她9他家,和她的娃娃与她,而当他(神圣的先知)死亡,她18岁。

Sunan Dawud - Book 41, Number 4915苏南Dawud - 41册,编号4915

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) married me when I was seven or six.收录阿伊莎,Ummul Mu'minin:安拉的使者(peace_be_upon_him)结婚,我当我是七,六。When we came to Medina, some women came.当我们来到麦地那时,一些妇女来了。according to Bishr's version: Umm Ruman came to me when I was swinging.根据Bishr的版本:乌姆Ruman来找我,当我摆动。They took me, made me prepared and decorated me.他们拉着我,让我准备和装饰我。I was then brought to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), and he took up cohabitation with me when I was nine.当时我带到安拉(peace_be_upon_him)的使者,和他拿起我九岁的时候与我同居。She halted me at the door, and I burst into laughter.她我在门口停下,我放声大笑。

Sunan Dawud - Book 41, Number 4916苏南Dawud - 41册,编号4916

Narrated AbuUsamah: The tradition mentioned above (No. 4915) has also been transmitted by AbuUsamah in a similar manner through a different chain of narrators.收录AbuUsamah:上面提到的传统(4915号)也已转交以类似的方式,通过不同的叙述者链AbuUsamah。 This version has: "With good fortune. " She (Umm Ruman) entrusted me to them.这个版本有:“有了良好的财富。”她(乌姆Ruman)委托我给他们。They washed my head and redressed me.他们洗了头,并纠正我。No one came to me suddenly except the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) in the forenoon.没有人来找我,突然除安拉(peace_be_upon_him)在午前的使徒。So they entrusted me to him.于是,他们委托我给他。

Sunan Dawud - Book 41, Number 4917苏南Dawud - 41册,编号4917

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: When we came to Medina, the women came to me when I was playing on the swing, and my hair were up to my ears.收录阿伊莎,Ummul Mu'minin:当我们来到麦地那,妇女来找我,当我打秋千上,我的头发,我的耳朵。They brought me, prepared me, and decorated me.他们给我带来了,准备我,装饰我。Then they brought me to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) and he took up cohabitation with me, when I was nine.然后,他们把我带到了安拉(peace_be_upon_him)的使者,他跟我同居,我九岁的时候。


As an older man of fifty-plus years, Muhammad married a mere child of six years old and co-habited with her when she was 9 years old.穆罕默德结婚五十多年的老男人,一个单纯的孩子6岁,和与她合作habited她9岁的时候。As quoted above, the most trusted collections of hadiths establish the authenticity of this oral tradition.正如上文所引述的,最值得信赖的圣训集,建立这一口头传统的真实性。But still, Western Muslims are embarrassed by these hadiths.但尽管如此,西方的穆斯林都不好意思这些圣训。Sometimes they use a Weak hadith defense to excuse Muhammad's child marriage.有时他们使用圣训国防穆罕默德的童婚的借口。

At other times, they use an Arabic culture defense by claiming that no one has the right to judge Oriental culture by Occidental norms.在其他时候,他们声称,没有人有正确的判断东方文化西方规范的阿拉伯文化辩护。Now, this is a strange defense to make, since Muslims frequently criticized Western culture as being morally decadent.现在,这是一个奇怪的防御使,因为穆斯林经常批评西方文化在道德上的腐朽。If another culture cannot be morally evaluated, then other cultures must not be judged as morally decadent.另一种文化如果不能在道义上进行评估,然后其他文化绝不能判断为道义上的腐朽。But, this conclusion is not acceptable to Muslims, since they argue that an Islamic culture is the better culture.但是,这个结论是不能接受穆斯林,因为他们认为,伊斯兰文化是更好的文化。So, we must conclude that cultures may be evaluated morally, or that, someone is hypocritically judging others while not permitting themselves to be judged by the same standard.因此,我们必须得出结论,文化道德上可评估,或者说,有人假惺惺地判断别人,而不允许自己被同样的标准来评判。

However, if hypocrisy is not a good alternative, then it is concluded that cultures may be evaluated morally.但是,如果虚伪是不是一个很好的选择,那么它的结论是文化道德上可评估。In fact, it is permissible, and even desirable, to have moral discussions on cultural issues.事实上,这是允许的,甚至是可取的,有道德文化问题的讨论。Moral discussions on cultural issues occur in many different cultures.发生在许多不同的文化道德文化问题的讨论。

So, the problem of Muhammad marrying a child cannot be defended on Eastern cultural grounds.因此,穆罕默德的孩子结婚的问题,不能对东方文化的理由加以辩护。The issue remains as to whether or not Muhammad acted rightly in marrying a six year old.问题仍然与否穆罕默德担任在嫁给一个六岁正确。Certainly, it is wrong according to the natural order of Allah's creation.当然,这是错误的,按照安拉的创造的自然秩序。In fact, many nations of the world list such behavior as a crime against nature.事实上,许多国家的世界列表这样的行为作为打击性质的犯罪。Thus, it must be concluded that Muhammad committed a grave moral sin against the moral order of Allah's creation.因此,必须得出结论,穆罕默德犯了一个严重的道德罪对安拉的创造道德秩序。And, his behavior is a reprehensible example for others to follow.而且,他的行为是应该受到谴责的例子为他人。It is tragic to read news reports of old men marrying children in some Islamic countries, because they seek to follow the example of Muhammad who married a child.可悲的是阅读新闻报道,在某些伊斯兰国家的儿童结婚的老男人,因为他们寻求追随穆罕默德的例子,谁娶了一个孩子。Muhammad had such an interest in fondling young girls, he criticized even the lawful marriage union of two grown adults.穆罕默德有过这样的爱抚少女的兴趣,他批评甚至两个大人的合法婚姻联盟。

Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 17铝布哈里圣训卷7,62册,第17号

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When I got married, Allah's Apostle said to me, "What type of lady have you married?"收录贾比尔本阿卜杜拉:我结婚时,安拉的使者对我说,“什么类型的小姐,你结婚?” I replied, "I have married a matron' He said, "Why, don't you have a liking for the virgins and for fondling them?" Jabir also said: Allah's Apostle said, "Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you might play with her and she with you?'我回答说,“我有一个护士长”他说,“为什么不你有一个处女​​和爱抚他们喜欢”贾比尔也说:安拉的使者说,“你为什么不娶一个年轻的姑娘结婚所以,你可能会跟你玩吗?与她和她“


In the classic history of "The Life of Muhammad" ( Sirat Rasul Allah ) by Ibn Ishaq, there is an account in which Muhammad expressed a marital interest in a crawling baby.在“生命”穆罕默德伊本伊斯哈格(Sirat拉苏尔真主 )的经典的历史,有一个帐户中,穆罕默德表示在宝宝爬行的婚姻兴趣。This event seems to have occurred around the time of the Battle of of Badr which would have made Muhammad approximately 55 years old.此事件似乎​​已经巴德尔战役会作出穆罕默德约55岁左右的时间发生。He had married Ayesha two years earlier, when he was 53 years of age.他娶了Ayesha两年前,当他53岁。


(Suhayli, ii. 79: In the riwaya of Yunus II recorded that the apostle saw her (Ummu'lFadl) when she was a baby crawling before him and said, 'If she grows up and I am still alive I will marry her.' But he died before she grew up and Sufyan b. al-Aswad b. 'Abdu'l-Asad al-Makhzumi married her and she bore him Rizq and Lubab. 1 (Suhayli,二79:尤努斯第二riwaya记录在使徒看到她(Ummu'lFadl),当她是一个婴儿,爬在他面前,说:“如果她长大,我还活着,我会娶她。 “但他去世前,她长大了,苏富扬B. AL -阿斯瓦德B.”阿博阿萨德AL - Makhzumi她结婚,她为他生了Rizq和Lubab 1

So, Muhammad's interest in young girls extended beyond Ai'sha ('Ayesha).因此,穆罕默德的年轻女孩的兴趣扩展超越Ai'sha(Ayesha“)。Why would anyone think that Muhammad's sexual interest in babies be "the timeless expression of the Will of Allah?"为什么会有人认为,穆罕默德的婴儿的性兴趣“安拉的意志的永恒表达?”How does such a prurient desire support Muhammad's claim to be a prophet of Allah?这样一个津津乐道的愿望如何支持穆罕默德自称是真主的先知?Such a desire by an old man is contrary to nature, and it is a perversion against the moral order of Allah's universe.这种由一个老人的愿望,是违背自然的,它是对安拉的宇宙的道德秩序倒错。

Yet, according to Islam, Muhammad is the perfection of humanity and the prototype of the most wonderful human conduct.然而,根据伊斯兰教,穆罕默德是人类最美妙的人类行为的原型完美。He married a nine year-old and leaves an enduring legacy for old Muslim men to fulfill their carnal desires contrary to natural law and to the life-long devastation of young girls.他娶了九名岁,并留下一个持久的遗产,对旧的穆斯林男子以履行他们的肉体的欲望违背自然法则和终身破坏的年轻女孩。


Footnote:注:

1 Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, Translated by A. Guillaume, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, (Re-issued in Karachi, Pakistan, 1967, 13th impression, 1998) 1955, p. 1伊本穆罕默德的生命伊沙克:伊斯哈格的Sirat拉苏尔真主的一个翻译 ,翻译,牛津大学,英国牛津大学出版社,A.纪尧姆(重发在卡拉奇,巴基斯坦,1967年,13的印象,1998年),1955 ,P 。311.311。


The Wives of Muhammad穆罕默德的妻子

Advanced Information先进的信息

Khadijah bint KhuwaylidKhadijah宾特Khuwaylid

Sawda bint Zama*索达宾特扎马*

Aisha bint Abi Bakr *阿伊莎宾特阿比贝克尔 *

Hafsa bint Umar哈芙赛宾特欧麦尔

Zaynab bint KhuzaymaZaynab宾特Khuzayma

Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya乌姆萨拉马后宾特ABI Umayya

Zaynab bint JahshZaynab宾特哲赫什

Juwayriya bint al-HarithJuwayriya宾特al - Harith的

Ramlah bint Abi-SufyanRamlah宾特ABI -苏富扬

Rayhana bint Amr ibn Khunafa**Rayhana宾特AMR本Khunafa **

Safiyya bint HuyayySafiyya宾特Huyayy

Maymuna bint al-HarithMaymuna宾特al - Harith的

Maria al-Qibtiyya**玛丽亚AL - Qibtiyya **

* succession disputed* 继承争议

** status as wife or concubine is disputed** 作为妻子或妾的地位是有争议



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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