Beatitude, Sermon on the Mount至福,在山上讲道

General Information一般资料

A beatitude is a declaration of happiness or promised blessing because of some virtue or good deed.一个至福是幸福的声明或承诺的祝福,因为一些美德或好事。The most famous beatitudes are the blessings preached by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5).最有名的八福耶稣山(马太福音5)讲道鼓吹的祝福。They describe the qualities of Christian perfection and promise future blessings rather than current rewards.他们描述基督教完善和承诺,未来的祝福,而不是目前的奖励的素质。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Fitch, William, The Beatitudes of Jesus (1961).惠誉,威廉,耶稣的八福(1961年)。


Beatitudes of Christ八福基督

General Information一般资料

The Beatitudes of Christ represent eight upward steps toward attaining the Blessedness of a Divine Life.讲到基督的代表八个朝着实现一个神圣的生命的幸福向上步骤。They are expressed in Matthew 5 in the New Testament, as an important part of His Sermon on the Mount.他们表示在新约马太福音5,他在登山宝训的一个重要组成部分。

(Preliminary text):(初稿):

Matt.马特。5:1.5:1。And seeing the multitudes, he ascended a mountain: and when he was seated, his disciples came to him: ,看众人,他登上一座山:和他坐下时,他的弟子来到他的面前:

Matt.马特。5:2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,5:2而他张开嘴,并教给他们,说,

(following text:)(以下文字:)

Matt.马特。5:13.5:13。Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt hath lost its savour, with what shall it be salted?你们是世上的盐:,但如果盐祂所失去其品味,什么应是盐腌?it is then good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot by men.它是那么一无是处,但被赶出去,并受到践踏由男性。

Matt.马特。5:14 Ye are the light of the world.5:14你们是世界的光。A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.一个城市,是在一个小山不能躲了起来。

Matt.马特。5:15 Neither do men light a lamp, and put it under a basket, but on a lampstand; and it giveth light to all that are in the house.5时15分都不做男人点燃一盏灯,并把它根据一篮子,但对一个灯台;赐光所有房子。{a bushel: the word in the original signifieth a measure containing about a pint less than a peck} {每蒲式耳:在原signifieth字包含约一品脱的一项措施,不到一个啄}

Matt.马特。5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.5时16分,让你的光也当这样照在人前,他们可能会看到你的好作品,并颂扬你的父亲是谁在天堂。


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Bless保佑


The Eight Beatitudes八八福

Catholic Information天主教信息

The solemn blessings (beatitudines, benedictiones) which mark the opening of the Sermon on the Mount, the very first of Our Lord's sermons in the Gospel of St. Matthew (5:3-10).庄严的祝福(beatitudines,benedictiones),这标志着山开幕的说教,我们的主的布道福音的圣马太(5:3-10)第一。

Four of them occur again in a slightly different form in the Gospel of St. Luke (6:22), likewise at the beginning of a sermon, and running parallel to Matthew 5-7, if not another version of the same.其中四人再次出现在一个略有不同的形式,在圣路加(6:22)福音,同样是在说教开始,马修5-7平行,如果不相同的另一个版本。 And here they are illustrated by the opposition of the four curses (24-26).在这里,他们都说明了四个诅咒(24-26)的反对。

The fuller account and the more prominent place given the Beatitudes in St. Matthew are quite in accordance with the scope and the tendency of the First Gospel, in which the spiritual character of the Messianic kingdom -- the paramount idea of the Beatitudes -- is consistently put forward, in sharp contrast with Jewish prejudices.更充分地考虑和更加突出的位置,在马太八福相当根据的范围和第一福音的倾向,在这种精神品格的弥赛亚王国 - 八福的最重要的理念 - 一贯提出,与犹太人的偏见形成了鲜明的对比。The very peculiar form in which Our Lord proposed His blessings make them, perhaps, the only example of His sayings that may be styled poetical -- the parallelism of thought and expression, which is the most striking feature of Biblical poetry, being unmistakably clear.非常奇特的形式在我们的主提出了他的祝福,让他们,也许是唯一的例子,他的说法可能诗意的风格 - 并行思想和言论自由,这是圣经的诗歌最突出的特点,明白无误地明确。

The text of St. Matthew runs as follows:文圣马太运行如下:

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.是穷人的人有福了精神:是他们的天国。(Verse 3)(3节)

Blessed are the meek: for they shall posses the land.温柔的人有福:他们应拥有的土地。(Verse 4)(4节)

Blessed are they who mourn: for they shall be comforted.有福的,他们谁哀悼:因为他们必得安慰。(Verse 5)(5节)

Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill.有福的,他们的饥饿和正义的渴求后:他们应填写。(Verse 6)(第6节)

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.仁慈的人有福了,因为他们必蒙怜恤。(Verse 7)(7节)

Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God.人是有福的心脏清洁:因为他们必得见神。(Verse 8)(8节)

Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.使人和睦的人是有福的:为他们必称为神的儿女。(Verse 9)(9节)

Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.有福的,他们为了正义“,遭受迫害,是他们的天国。(Verse 10)(10节)

TEXTUAL CRITICISM考据学

As regards textual criticism, the passage offers no serious difficulty.至于考证,通过提供没有严重的困难。Only in verse 9, the Vulgate and many other ancient authorities omit the pronoun autoi, ipsi; probably a merely accidental ommission.只有在第9节,武加大和其他许多古老的当局省略代词autoi,IPSI;可能只是一个偶然的的OMMISSION。 There is room, too, for serious critical doubt, whether verse 5 should not be placed before verse 4.也有房,严重的关键无疑,无论是第5节不应该放置在第4节之前。Only the etymological connection, which in the original is supposed to have existed between the "poor" and the "meek", makes us prefer the order of the Vulgate.只有词源连接,原来是应该存在的“穷人”和“温顺”,让我们喜欢的武加大秩序。

First Beatitude首先至福

The word poor seems to represent an Aramaic `ányâ (Hebrew `anî), bent down, afflicted, miserable, poor; while meek is rather a synonym from the same root, `ánwan (Hebrew `ánaw), bending oneself down, humble, meek, gentle.字差似乎代表阿拉姆`安雅(希伯来语'ANI),弯下腰,折磨,痛苦,贫困而温顺而从同根生,`ánwan(希伯来`ánaw)的代名词,弯曲自己,谦逊,温柔的,温柔。 Some scholars would attach to the former word also the sense of humility; others think of "beggars before God" humbly acknowledging their need of Divine help.有些学者将前字的谦卑感的重视;他人“乞丐上帝面前”想虚心地承认他们需要神的帮助。But the opposition of "rich" (Luke 6:24) points especially to the common and obvious meaning, which, however, ought not to be confined to economical need and distress, but may comprehend the whole of the painful condition of the poor: their low estate, their social dependence, their defenceless exposure to injustice from the rich and the mighty.但反对​​“富”(路加福音6:24)点尤其是常见和最明显的意义,但是这不应该被局限于经济的需要和痛苦,但​​可以理解整个穷人的痛苦条件:其低的房地产,其社会的依赖,他们手无寸铁的接触,从丰富和强大的不公正。 Besides the Lord's blessing, the promise of the heavenly kingdom is not bestowed on the actual external condition of such poverty.除了主的祝福,天国的承诺是没有赋予这种贫困的实际外部条件。The blessed ones are the poor "in spirit", who by their free will are ready to bear for God's sake this painful and humble condition, even though at present they be actually rich and happy; while on the other hand, the really poor man may fall short of this poverty "in spirit".的祝福的穷人“的精神”,谁他们的自由意志是准备要为上帝的的缘故这痛苦和卑微的条件,即使在目前他们实际上是丰富和快乐;而在其他的手,真是可怜的男人可能属于这个“精神”贫困。

Second Beatitude二至福

Inasmuch as poverty is a state of humble subjection, the "poor in spirit", come near to the "meek", the subject of the second blessing.因为贫困是一个谦卑顺服的状态,“精神贫困”,来到附近的“温顺”,第二个祝福的主题。The anawim, they who humbly and meekly bend themselves down before God and man, shall "inherit the land" and posses their inheritance in peace. anawim,他们虚心和温顺地弯曲自己的神和人前,应“继承的土地”,他们继承和拥有和平。This is a phrase taken from Psalm 36:11, where it refers to the Promised Land of Israel, but here in the words of Christ, it is of course but a symbol of the Kingdom of Heaven, the spiritual realm of the Messiah.这是一个短语取自诗篇36:11,它指的是以色列的乐土,但在基督的话,它当然是天国的象征,弥赛亚的精神境界。 Not a few interpreters, however, understand "the earth".然而,并非几个口译员了解“大地”。But they overlook the original meaning of Psalm 36:11, and unless, by a far-fetched expedient, they take the earth also to be a symbol of the Messianic kingdom, it will be hard to explain the possession of the earth in a satisfactory way.但他们忽略了诗篇36:11的原有的意义,,远远牵强的权宜之计,除非他们采取地球的弥赛亚王国的象征,将难以在地球拥有一个满意的解释方式。

Third Beatitude第三至福

The "mourning" in the Third Beatitude is in Luke (6:25) opposed to laughter and similar frivolous worldly joy.“哀悼”在第三至福是在笑声和类似的轻浮世俗的欢乐反对卢克(6时25分)。Motives of mourning are not to be drawn from the miseries of a life of poverty, abjection, and subjection, which are the very blessings of verse 3, but rather from those miseries from which the pious man is suffering in himself and in others, and most of all the tremendous might of evil throughout the world.哀悼的动机是不被来自贫困的生活的苦难,落魄,和遭受的,这是第3节非常祝福,而是从那些虔诚的男子是在自己和他人的痛苦的苦难,并最所有的邪恶在世界各地的巨大可能。 To such mourners the Lord Jesus carries the comfort of the heavenly kingdom, "the consolation of Israel" (Luke 2:25) foretold by the prophets, and especially by the Book of Consolation of Isaias (11-16).主耶稣要等送葬进行天国的舒适性,“以色列的安慰”(路加福音2:25)预言的先知,特别是由伊萨亚斯(11-16)安慰奖“。 Even the later Jews knew the Messiah by the name of Menahhem, Consoler.即使在后来的犹太人知道Menahhem,Consoler名称弥赛亚。 These three blessings, poverty, abjection, and subjection are a commendation of what nowadays are called the passive virtues: abstinence and endurace, and the Eighth Beatitude (verse 10) leads us back again to the teaching.这三个祝福,贫困,落魄,和隶属时下什么所谓的被动的美德的赞扬:禁欲和endurace,使我们回来的教学和第八届至福(10节)。

Fourth Beatitude第四至福

The others, however, demand a more active behaviour.然而,其他的需求更积极的行为。First of all, "hunger and thirst" after justice: a strong and continuous desire of progress in religious and moral perfection, the reward of which will be the very fulfilment of the desire, the continuous growth in holiness.首先,“饥饿和干渴”后司法:一个强大而持续的愿望,在宗教和道德的完美方面取得的进展,奖励,这将是非常圆满的愿望,在圣洁的持续增长。

Fifth Beatitude第五至福

From this interior desire a further step should be taken to acting to the works of "mercy", corporal and spiritual.从这个内部的愿望应进一步采取行动“慈悲”的作品,体罚和精神。 Through these the merciful will obtain the Divine mercy of the Messianic kingdom, in this life and in the final judgment.通过这些仁慈的将获得的弥赛亚王国的神圣慈悲,在此生活,并在最终判决。The wonderful fertility of the Church in works and institutions of corporal and spiritual mercy of every kind shows the prophetical sense, not to say the creative power, of this simple word of the Divine Teacher.教会在每一种怜悯的体罚和精神的作品和机构美妙的生育能力,显示了预言的意义,更不要说创造性的力量,在这个神圣的教师简单的字。

Sixth Beatitude第六至福

According to biblical terminology, "cleanness of heart" (verse 8) cannot exclusively be found in interior chastity, nor even, as many scholars propose, in a genral purity of conscience, as opposed to the Levitical, or legal, purity required by the Scribes and Pharisees.根据圣经的术语,(第8节)“的心脏清洁”,不能完全发现室内贞洁,也不甚至,为许多学者提出一个良心genral纯度,,作为反对的利未人,或法律,纯度的要求文士和法利赛。 At least the proper place of such a blessing does not seem to be between mercy (verse 7) and peacemaking (verse 9), nor after the apparently more far-reaching virtue of hunger and thirst after justice.至少有这样的祝福适当的地方并不之间的怜悯(7节)和建立和平(第9节)似乎,也不显然更为深远的美德后,正义的饥饿和口渴后。 But frequently in the Old and New Testaments (Genesis 20:5; Job 33:3, Psalms 23:4 (24:4) and 72:1 (73:1); 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:22) the "pure heart" is the simple and sincere good intention, the "single eye" of Matthew 6:22, and thus opposed to the unavowed by-ends of the Pharisees (Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18; 7:15; 23:5-7, 14) This "single eye" or "pure heart" is most of all required in the works of mercy (verse 7) and zeal (verse 9) in behalf of one's neighbor.但经常在旧约和新约(创世记20时05分,工作33:3,诗篇23时04分(24:4)和72:1(73:1);提摩太前书1:5;提摩太后书2点22分) “纯粹的心脏”,是简单而真诚的的好意,“单眼球”马修6点22分,因而反对法利赛人的unavowed两端(马太福音6:1-6,16-18; 7: 15; 23:5-7,14)这种“单眼球”或“纯粹的心脏”是最怜悯的作品(7节)和热情,在代表一个人的邻居(9节)所需的所有。And it stands to reason that the blessing, promised to this continuous looking for God's glory, should consist of the supernatural "seeing" of God Himself, the last aim and end of the heavenly kingdom in its completion.它代表理性的祝福,承诺这种不断寻找神的荣耀,应该由超自然的“看见”神自己,最后的目标和​​完成天国结束。

Seventh Beatitude第七至福

The "peacemakers" (verse 9) are those who not only live in peace with others but moreover do their best to preserve peace and friendship among mankind and between God and man, and to restore it when it has been disturbed. “和平缔造者”(第9节)是指那些不仅生活在和平与他人,但此外各尽其能之间维持人类与神与人之间的和平和友谊,并恢复它时,它已被打乱。It is on account of this godly work, "an imitating of God's love of man" as St. Gregory of Nyssa styles it, that they shall be called the sons of God, "children of your Father who is in heaven" (Matthew 5:45).正是考虑这个虔诚的工作,“模仿神的人的爱”为圣的nyssa样式格雷戈里它,因为他们必称为神的儿子,“你的父亲的孩子是谁在天堂”(马太福音5 :45)。

Eighth Beatitude第八至福

When after all this the pious disciples of Christ are repaid with ingratitude and even "persecution" (verse 10) it will be but a new blessing, "for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."当基督的虔诚弟子,毕竟这是忘恩负义,甚至“迫害”(10节),这将是一个新的祝福偿还“,是为他们的天国。”

So, by an inclusion, not uncommon in biblical poetry, the last blessing goes back to the first and the second.因此,一个包容性,在圣经诗歌中屡见不鲜,最后祝福追溯到第一和第二。The pious, whose sentiments and desires whose works and sufferings are held up before us, shall be blessed and happy by their share in the Messianic kingdom, here and hereafter.虔诚的,其作品,并举行了摆在我们面前的,应得到祝福和快乐的份额在弥赛亚的国度,在这里和以后的痛苦的情绪和欲望。 And viewed in the intermediate verses seem to express, in partial images of the one endless beatitude, the same possession of the Messianic salvation.在中间的诗句来看似乎表达,在一个无尽的至福,拥有相同的弥赛亚救赎部分图像。The eight conditions required constitute the fundamental law of the kingdom, the very pith and marrow of Christian perfection.这八个条件要求构成王国的基本法律,非常髓和基督教完美的骨髓。For its depth and breadth of thought, and its practical bearing on Christian life, the passage may be put on a level with the Decalogue in the Old, and the Lord's Prayer in the New Testament, and it surpassed both in its poetical beauty of structure.其深度和广度思想,以及其对基督徒的生活实际轴承,通过上一个层次的旧十诫,和主的新约中的祷告,它超越了其结构诗意的美感都。

Publication information Written by John P. Van Kasteren.约翰P范Kasteren编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie.转录贝丝STE玛丽。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Besides the commentaries on St. Matthew and St. Luke, and the monographs on the Sermon on the Mount, the Beatitudes are treated in eight homilies of ST.除了圣马太和圣卢克的评论,并在登山宝训的专着,八福被视为在ST的8颂歌。GREGORY OF NYSSA, PG, XLIV, 1193-1302, and in one other of ST.格雷戈里的果树,PG,四十四,1193年至1302年,和在一个ST的。CHROMATIUS, PL, XX, 323-328. CHROMATIUS,PL,XX,323-328。Different partristical sermons on single beatitudes are noticed in PL., CXXI (Index IV) 23 sqq.单八福不同partristical说教注意到,在PL。CXXI(指数四)23 SQQ。



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