Calendar日历

General Information一般资料

Many different societies have used their own special calendar during recorded history.许多不同的社会有文字记载的历史过程中使用自己的特殊的日历。Most have been based on the apparent motion in the sky of the Sun or Moon.大部分已在天空的太阳或月亮的视运动的基础上。Early in the Roman Empire, around what we would now call 400 BC, a calendar with a year of 365 days was instituted.早在罗马帝国,围绕我们现在称之为公元前400年,一年365天的日历被提起。Over time, the calendar got out of step with the seasons, and the Emperor Julius Caesar declared every fourth year to be a 'leap year' (with an extra day) and, to solve the past problems, the year we would call 46 BC was made 445 days long!随着时间的推移,日历得到了随着季节的一步,每四年皇帝凯撒大帝宣布了“闰年”(与一个额外的一天),解决过去的问题,今年,我们将调用46公元前445天之久!

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This Julian calendar greatly improved the situation, but there was still a small error, where the calendar would get about 3 days off for each 400 years.儒略历大大改善的情况,但仍然有一个小错误,日历会得到3天左右,每400年关闭。As a result, the actual occurrence of the equinoxes and solstices slowly drifted away from their assigned calendar dates.因此,分点和夏至,冬至,实际发生的,慢慢地飘然而去从分配给他们的日历日期。As the date of the spring equinox determines that of Easter, the church was concerned, and Pope Gregory XIII, with the help of an astronomer, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), introduced what is now called the Gregorian calendar. Wednesday, Oct. 4, 1582 (Julian), which was followed by Thursday, Oct. 15, 1582 (Gregorian); leap years occur in years exactly divisible by four, except that years ending in 00 must be divisible by 400 to be leap years.由于春分的日期确定,复活节,教会而言,和罗马教皇格雷戈里十三,帮助天文学家克里斯托弗克拉维乌斯(1537年至1612年),介绍了什么是现在称为公历日(星期三) 10月4,1582(朱利安),随后在周四,1582年10月15日(公历);闰年正好被4整除的年份发生的,除了在00年结束中,必须被400整除的是闰年。 Thus, 1600, 1984, and 2000 are leap years, but 1800 and 1900 are not.因此,1600年,1984年和2000年是闰年,但1800年和1900年没有。

The Gregorian civil calendar is a solar calendar, calculated without reference to the Moon.阳历民间日历是阳历,不参照月球计算。However, the Gregorian calendar also includes rules for determining the date of Easter and other religious holidays, which are based on both the Sun and the Moon.然而,公历还包括确定复活节的日期和其他宗教节日的规则,这些规则上的太阳和月亮的基础。The Gregorian calendar was quickly adopted by Roman Catholic countries.公历罗马天主教国家很快就被通过。Other countries adopted it later, sometimes choosing only the civil part.其它国家所采纳后,有时只选择民事部分。It was not adopted by the Soviet Union until 1918; Turkey did not adopt it until 1927.它不是通过苏联直到1918年,土耳其没有采纳,直到1927年。

Year Beginning新年开始

The year used to begin at different times in different localities. The Roman year originally began in March; December, whose name is derived from the Latin word for "ten," was the tenth month of the year.今年用于在不同时期在不同的地方开始的罗马原本在今年3月开始 ;十二月,他的名字是从拉丁词派生的“十”,是今年10月。(Similarly, September was the seventh month, October, the eighth, and November, the ninth.) In 153 BC, Roman consuls began taking office on January 1, which became the beginning of the year. (同样,九月第七月,10月,第八,和11月,第九届)。公元前153年,罗马领事开始于1月1日起,成为年初上任。This practice was retained in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, although other starting dates continued to be used; England and its colonies, for example, used March 25 and the Julian reckoning until 1752. Thus, George Washington was officially born on Feb. 11, 1731, Old Style (OS); this is Feb. 22, 1732, Gregorian, or New Style (NS).这种做法是保留在朱利安和公历日历,虽然继续使用其他开始日期; 英国和它的殖民地,例如,使用,直到1752年3月25日和朱利安推算因此,乔治华盛顿2月11日正式诞生 1731年,旧样式(OS)这是1732年2月22日,公历,或新的风格(NS)。

Week

The Babylonians used a nonastronomical, 7-day interval, the week, which was adopted by the Jews.巴比伦人用一个nonastronomical,间隔7天,周,这是犹太人通过。The seventh day, the Sabbath, was given a religious significance.第七天,安息日,被赋予了宗教意义。Independently, the Romans associated a cycle of 7 days with the Sun, the Moon, and the five known planets.独立,罗马人与一个周期为7天的太阳,月亮,和五个已知行星。Their names became attached to the days of the week: Sunday (dies solis, "Sun's day"), Monday (dies lunae, "Moon's day"), and Saturday (dies Saturni, "Saturn's day") retain their names derived directly from the Roman culture, and Tuesday ("Tiw's day"), Wednesday ("Woden's day"), Thursday ("Thor's day"), and Friday ("Frigg's day") are derived from the Germanic equivalents of Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Venus, respectively.他们的名字成为天一周:星期日(死亡Solis表示,“太阳的日子”),星期一(死亡lunae,“月亮的日子”),和周六(模具Saturni,“土星的一天”)保留自己的名字直接来源于罗马文化,星期二(“TIW的日子”),星期三(“Woden的日子”),星期四(“托尔的日子”),及周五(“Frigg的日子”)是派生来自火星,水星,木星的日耳曼等值,和金星。

Year

In ancient calendars, years were generally numbered according to the year of a ruler's reign.在古代历法,几年普遍编号按统治者的统治一年。About AD 525, a monk named Dionysius Exiguus suggested that years be counted from the birth of Christ, which was designated AD (anno Domini, "the year of the Lord") 1.关于公元525年,一个和尚名为狄奥尼Exiguus建议从基督诞生,被指定为AD(公元,“耶和华的一年”)1年计算。This proposal came to be adopted throughout Christendom during the next 500 years.在未来500年,这个建议后来被采纳整个基督教。

The year before AD 1 is designated 1 BC (before Christ).在公元1年前被指定公元前1年(在基督之前)。 (There was no "year zero!") Dionysius had referred the year of Christ's birth to other eras. (有没有“零年”!)狄奥尼修斯曾提到基督的诞生年,其他时代。Modern chronology, however, suggests that Dionysius had been off in his calculations that now firmly places the event of Jesus' Birth at about 4 BC.然而,现代年表表明,狄奥尼修斯曾在他的计算,牢固的地方,现在在公元前4年左右的耶稣诞生的事件。

The 1st century of the Christian Era began in AD 1, the 2d in AD 101; the 21st began in 2001.在公元1,二维第一世纪的基督教时代开始于公元101始于2001年的21。

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The Hebrew Calendar希伯来历法

The Hebrew calendar in use today begins at the Creation, which is calculated to have occurred 3,760 years before the Christian era.在使用希伯来历法今天开始的创作,这是计算有3,760年的基督教时代之前发生。

The week consists of 7 days, beginning with Saturday, the Sabbath.周7天,安息日(星期六)开始。

The year consists of 12 lunar months -- Tishri, Heshvan, Kislav, Tebet, Shebat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Ab, and Elul -- which are alternately 29 and 30 days long.年由12个朔望月-提斯利,Heshvan,Kislav,Tebet,Shebat,亚达,尼散月,Iyar,斯万,塔姆兹,AB,并 Elul -交替29日和30天之久。Because a year is some 11 days longer than 12 lunar months, a 13th month ve-Adar, is added seven times during every 19-year cycle.由于今年是大约11天,比12个朔望月,第13 个月VE -阿达尔,在每19年为周期增加了7倍。

Therefore, the Hebrew calendar stays fairly synchronized with the seasons.因此,希伯来日历停留相当与季节同步。

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The Islamic Calendar伊斯兰历法

Muslims begin their calendar at the day and year (July 16, 622, by the Gregorian calendar) when Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina. (The Hegira actually occurred around two months after their beginning of that official lunar year.) There are 12 lunar months of alternate 30 and 29 days, making the year 354 days long. Because of the shortness of the year, the months move backward through all the seasons, completing a cycle every 32 1/2 years.穆斯林开始在他们的日历日和年(公历7月16日,622),当穆罕默德逃往从麦加到麦地那 (Hegira实际发生大约两个月后,他们开始官方农历)有12生肖替代30和29天,一年354天,长的几个月。由于今年气短,几个月向后移动通过所有的季节,每32个1 / 2年完成一个周期。

The months are Muharram, Safar, Rabi I, Rabi II, Jumada I, Jumada II, Rajab, Shaban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Zulkadah, and Zulhijjah.月是回历,萨法尔,拉比我,拉比第二,Jumada我,Jumada二,回历,回历,斋月,Shawwal,Zulkadah,并Zulhijjah。

(The result of all this is that the Holy month of Ramadan occurs in different seasons in different years.)(这一切的结果是斋月,在不同年份,不同季节的发生。)

Wm. WM。Markowitz马科维茨

Bibliography 参考书目
Archer, Peter, The Christian Calendar and the Gregorian Reform (1941); Asimov, Isaac, The Clock We Live On (1963); Keane, Jerryl, Book of Calendars (1981); Michels, AK, The Calendar of the Roman Republic (1967; repr. 1978); Monaco, James, The French Revolutionary Perpetual Calendar (1982); Philips, Alexander, The Calendar: Its History, Structure, and Improvement (1921); Schocken, WA, The Calendar of the Mayas (1986); Watkins, Harold, Time Counts: The Story of the Calendar (1954).阿彻,彼得,基督教日历和公历改革(1941)阿西莫夫,艾萨克,我们生活(1963年)的时钟;基恩,Jerryl,日历书(1981年);米歇尔斯,支AK,罗马共和国的日历( 1967年,1978年再版),摩纳哥,法国革命万年历(1982年),詹姆斯飞利浦,亚历山大,日历:它的历史,结构,及改善(19​​21年); Schocken,WA,玛雅人的日历(1986)沃特金斯,哈罗德,时间计数:“日历”(1954年)的故事。



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