Caliph, Caliphs, Muslim Early History Chart早期伊斯兰史纲要

General Information一般资料

.
(Shi'ites, Shi'a) (什叶派,什叶派) (Kharijites, Kharijiyyah)(Kharijites,Kharijiyyah) (Sunni, Sunnites) (逊尼派,逊尼派)
Ali Ben Abu Talib (656-661) (1st Imam)阿里本阿布利布 (656-661)(第一伊玛目)
al-Hasan (661-669) (2nd Imam)哈桑 (661-669)(第二伊玛目)
al-Husayn (669-680) (3rd Imam)AL -侯赛因 (669-680)(第三伊玛目)
Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4th Imam)Zayn AL - 'Abidin(680-713)(第4伊玛目阿里
Muhammad al-Baqir (713-733) (5th Imam)穆罕默德Baqir(713-733)(第5次伊玛目)
Ja'far al-Sadiq (733-765)贾法尔基地萨迪克 (733-765)
(or Jafar ibn Muhammad) (6th Imam)(或本穆罕默德贾法)(第六伊玛目)

(Ismailis, Isma'iliyyah)(伊斯玛仪,Isma'iliyyah)
(Sevener Shi'ites) (什叶派Sevener)

Ismail (died before, 760,)伊斯梅尔 (前,760名死亡,)
(7th imam, last for Ismailis)(第七伊玛目,最后为伊斯玛仪)
or Muhammad , his son穆罕默德 ,他的儿子
(either is considered to still be alive, hiding)(或者被认为是仍然活着,躲在)


(Fatimids) (through Ismail)(法蒂玛)(通过司马义)

Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909- )欧柏安拉马赫迪 (909 - )

al-Qa'im al - Qa'im

al-Mansur -972)AL -曼苏尔 -972)

Moizz (972- ) Moizz(972 - )

Al-Hakim (3rd Fatimid Caliph)哈基姆 (第三法蒂玛哈里发)

Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021)阿布“阿里-曼苏尔哈基姆 (985-1021)
(6th Fatimid Caliph)(第六届法蒂玛哈里发)

al-Mustansir ( -1094)AL - Mustansir(-1094)

al-Mustali (1094- ) began Musta'liyyahAL - Mustali(1094 - )开始Musta'liyyah

he killed brother, Nizar , began Nizariyyah, Nizaris, Khojas他杀害的弟弟, 尼扎尔哈姆 ,开始Nizariyyah,Nizaris,Khojas

( -1171)(-1171)

(overthrown by Saladin 1171)(萨拉丁1171推翻)

(but endures as the Druzes)(但在Druzes等外)

Twelver Shi'ites, ImamiyyahTwelver什叶派,Imamiyyah
(Ithna Ashariyya) (Ithna Ashariyya)

Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7th imam)穆萨AL - Kazim(765-799)(7日伊玛目)
'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8th Imam)阿里RIDA“(799-818)(第八伊玛目)
Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9th Imam)穆罕默德贾瓦德 (818-835)(9日伊玛目)
'ali al-Hadi (835-868) (10th Imam)“阿里-哈迪 (835-868)(第10伊玛目)
al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11th Imam)AL -哈桑'Askari(868-874)(第11伊玛目)
had student ibn Nusayr (d.868), began Nusayris, Nusayriyyah学生本Nusayr(d.868),开始Nusayris,Nusayriyyah
Muhammad al-Mahdi (12th Imam, last)穆罕默德迈赫迪 (12日伊玛目,最后)
(considered to still be alive, hiding)(考虑到仍然活着,躲在)


(Buwayhids) (Buwayhids)

(945- )(945 - )

Adid ( -1171)Adid(-1171)

(conquered by Saladin 1171)(萨拉丁1171征服)


Ayyubids Ayyubids

Saladin (1171-1193)萨拉丁(1171年至1193年)

al-Adil (1193-1218) AL -阿迪尔(1193年至1218年)

al-Kamil (1218-1238) AL -卡米尔(1218年至1238年)

( -1249)(-1249)

(conquered by Mamelukes 1249)(征服Mamelukes 1249)


(Babis) (Babis)

(1830- )(1830 - )

Ali Muhammad Shirazi ( -1850), started Babism Shirazi的阿里穆罕默德(-1850),开始Babism

Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (c.1863), started Ba'hai米尔扎侯赛因阿里鹦鹉(c.1863),开始Ba'hai

.(c. 650 - c.720) Often called the Puritans of Islam, as they demanded purity of conscience as well as body.(公元前650 - c.720),通常被称为伊斯兰教的清教徒,因为他们要求纯度的良心以及身体。They tended to brand everyone who did not agree with them as unbelievers.他们往往品牌大家谁没有同意他们作为非信徒。 A sub-sect, the Azraqites, believed in such rigid following of the Koran as to massacre large groups of Muslims who had allegedly committed grave sins.一个分节,Azraqites,相信在“古兰经”等刚性以下穆斯林大屠杀的大组,据称曾犯下的严重罪过。Interestingly, Kharijites were very tolerant of non-Muslims.有趣的是,Kharijites非常宽容的非穆斯林。 Umayyad Caliphs (661-750)倭马亚哈里发 (661-750)

  • Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680)穆阿维耶我本阿布苏夫扬 (661-680)
    related to Uthman涉及到奥斯曼
  • Yazid I ibn Muawiyah (680-683)我本穆阿维耶耶齐德 (680-683)
  • Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683-684)二,本耶齐德Muawiya(683-684)
  • Marwan I (684-685)我马尔万 (684-685)
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705)阿卜杜勒马利克本马尔万 (685-705)
  • al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715)瓦利德我本阿卜杜勒马利克 (705-715)
  • Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717)伊本阿卜杜勒马利克苏莱曼(715-717 )
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720)欧麦尔本阿卜杜勒-阿齐兹 (717-720)
  • Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724)耶齐德二本阿卜杜勒马利克 (720-724)
  • Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743)希沙姆伊本阿卜杜勒马利克(724-743 )
  • al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744)沃利德II伊本阿卜杜勒马利克(743-744 )
  • Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744)耶齐德三本阿卜杜勒马利克 (744)
  • Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744)易卜拉欣本阿卜杜勒马利克 (744)
  • Marwan II (744-750)马尔万二世 (744-750)
    (end of Umayyad)(倭马亚结束)
    (conquered by Abbasids 750)(阿巴斯王朝750所征服)


Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba倭马亚哈里发科尔多瓦
(Spanish Umayyads) (929-1031)(西班牙伍玛亚德)(929-1031)

  • Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain, 756-788阿布杜拉AR拉赫曼我,逃到西班牙,756-788

  • Abd-ar-rahman III , as caliph, 929-961阿布杜拉AR拉赫曼第三 ,为哈里发,929-961
  • Al-Hakam II , 961-976铝哈卡姆II,961-976
  • Hisham II , 976-1008希沙姆二 ,976-1008
  • civil war (1008-1028)内战(1008年至1028年)
  • Mohammed II , 1008-1009穆罕默德二世 ,1008至1009年
  • Suleiman , 1009-1010苏莱曼 ,1009至1010年
  • Hisham II , restored, 1010-1012希沙姆二 ,恢复,1010至12年
  • Suleiman , restored, 1012-1017苏莱曼 ,恢复,1012年至1017年
  • Abd-ar-rahman IV , 1021-1022阿布杜拉AR拉赫曼IV,1021至22年
  • Abd-ar-rahman V , 1022-1023阿布杜拉AR拉赫曼伏 ,1022至1023年
  • Muhammad III , 1023-1024穆罕默德三 ,1023年至1024年
  • Hisham III , 1027-1031希沙姆三 ,1027至1031年

Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad (750-1258)在巴格达的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发(750-1258
descendants of Prophet's uncle Abbas先知的叔叔阿巴斯的后裔
Sunnites 逊尼派

  • Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754为了防备阿巴斯AL - Saffah 750-754
  • Al-Mansur 754-775 阿尔-曼苏尔 754-775
  • Al-Mahdi 775-785 铝迈赫迪 775-785
  • Al-Hadi 785-786 阿尔-哈迪 785-786
  • Harun al-Rashid 786-809哈伦AL -拉希德 786-809
  • Al-Amin 809-813 阿尔-阿明 809-813
  • Al-Ma'mun 813-833 AL - Ma'mun 813-833
  • Al-Mu'tasim 833-842AL - Mu'tasim 833-842
  • Al-Wathiq 842-847 铝Wathiq 842-847
  • Al-Mutawakkil 847-861铝穆塔瓦基勒 847-861
  • Al-Muntasir 861-862铝Muntasir 861-862
  • Al-Musta'in 862-866铝Musta'in 862-866
  • Al-Mu'tazz 866-869铝Mu'tazz 866-869
  • Al-Muhtadi 869-870铝Muhtadi 869-870
  • Al-Mu'tamid 870-892铝Mu'tamid 870-892
  • Al-Mu'tadid 892-902铝Mu'tadid 892-902
  • Al-Muktafi 902-908铝Muktafi 902-908
  • ???(908, one day)(908,一天)
  • Al-Muqtadir 908-932铝Muqtadir 908-932
  • Al-Qahir 932-934 铝Qahir 932-934
  • Al-Radi 934-940 铝拉迪 934-940
  • Al-Muttaqi 940-944铝Muttaqi 940-944
  • Al-Mustakfi 944-946铝Mustakfi 944-946
  • (by about 950, very little power)(约950个,很少的电力)
  • Al-Muti 946-974 铝穆蒂 946-974
  • Al-Ta'i 974-991 铝Ta'i 974-991
  • Al-Qadir 991-1031 铝卡迪尔 991-1031
  • Al-Qa'im 1031-1075铝Qa'im 1031至75年
  • Al-Muqtadi 1075-10941075年至1094年铝- Muqtadi
  • Al-Mustazhir 1094-11181094年至1118年铝- Mustazhir
  • Al-Mustarshid 1118-11351118年至1135年铝- Mustarshid
  • Al-Rashid 1135-11361135年至1136年阿尔-拉希德
  • Al-Muqtafi 1136-11601136年至1160年铝- Muqtafi
  • Al-Mustanjid 1160-11701160年至1170年铝- Mustanjid
  • Al-Mustadi 1170-11801170年至1180年铝- Mustadi
  • An-Nasir 1180-1225安纳西尔 1180年至1225年
  • Az-Zahir 1225-1226AZ -查希尔 1225年至1226年
  • Al-Mustansir 1226-12421226年至1242年铝- Mustansir
  • Al-Musta'sim 1242-12581242年至1258年铝- Musta'sim
  • (conquered by Mongols in 1258)(1258年蒙古人征服)

(Mamelukes) (Mamelukes)

(first Dynasty, Bahri) (1250-1382)(第一个王朝,巴赫里)(1250年至1382年)

(second Dynasty, Burji) (1382-1517)(第二个王朝,Burji)(1382年至1517年)

[two Caliphs, but just symbolic][两个哈里发,但只是象征]

(defeated by Selim, 1517)(击败塞利姆,1517)

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From about the 13th century various monarchs throughout the Muslim world, particularly the Ottoman sultans, assumed the title caliph indiscriminately without regard to the prescribed requirements of the caliphate.大约从13世纪的各个君主整个穆斯林世界,特别是奥斯曼帝国苏丹,假设标题哈里发哈里发规定要求,而不考虑到不分青红皂白地。 The title held little significance for the Ottoman sultans until their empire began to decline.标题为奥斯曼帝国苏丹举行意义不大,直到他们的帝国开始衰落。In the 19th century, with the advent of Christian powers in the Near East, the sultan began to emphasize his role as caliph in an effort to gain the support of Muslims living outside his realm.苏丹在19世纪,在近东基督教权力的到来,开始强调在努力争取他的境界外居住的穆斯林支持他作为哈里发的作用。The Ottoman Empire collapsed during World War I (1914-1918).奥斯曼帝国在第一次世界大战期间(1914-1918)倒塌。After the war, Turkish nationalists deposed the sultan, and the caliphate was finally abolished (March 1924) by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.战争结束后,土耳其民族主义者在苏丹被废黜,终于废除了政教合一由土耳其大国民议会(1924年3月)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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