Carmelites加尔默罗

Discalced (Barefoot) CarmelitesDiscalced(赤脚)加尔默罗
Saint Teresa of Ávila, Saint John of the Cross圣德肋撒的阿维拉,圣十字若望
White Friars白方济各会士

General Information一般资料

Carmelites are members of a Roman Catholic religious order founded during the 12th century by a group of hermits on Mount Carmel (in present-day Israel).加尔默罗是一个罗马天主教教会在12世纪创立的隐士卡梅尔山组(在现今的以色列)为了的成员。They were apparently inspired by the prophets Elijah and Elisha, who had lived there, but much of their early history is unknown.他们显然灵感来自先知以利亚和以利沙,曾住在这里,但他们的早期历史中有多少是未知的。In the 13th century, the Carmelites migrated to Europe, where they became friars.在13世纪,加尔默罗迁移到欧洲,在那里他们成为修士。Because their habit was a brown tunic and scapular with an ample white cape and hood, they became known as "white friars."因为他们的习惯是充足的白色斗篷和引擎盖棕色中山装和肩胛,他们成了被称为“白方济各会士。”

During the 16th century, the mystics St. Teresa of Ávila and St. John of the Cross helped establish a reformed branch of the order known as the Discalced Carmelites.在16世纪,神秘主义者阿维拉和圣十字若望圣德肋撒帮助建立一个被称为Discalced加尔默罗为了改革分支。 Today both branches engage in preaching, retreat work, and education.今天的两个分支从事传道,撤退工作,教育。The Carmelite nuns live cloistered lives of prayer.加尔默罗修女过着与世隔绝的生活祈祷。Other famous Carmelites include St. Therese and the Renaissance artist Fra Filippo Lippi.其他著名的加尔默罗包括圣贷瑞莎和文艺复兴时期的艺术家FRA菲利波里皮。

The popular Roman Catholic devotion of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is based on the revelations of Simon Stock, and English Carmelite said to have lived in the 13th century.流行的罗马天主教圣母圣衣奉献是基于西蒙股票的启示,英语加尔默罗说,生活在13世纪。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴维斯,定向结构刨花板

Bibliography 参考书目
Rohrbach, Peter-Thomas, Journey to Carith: The Story of the Carmelite Order (1966). Rohrbach,彼得 - 托马斯,西游记Carith:圣衣(1966)的故事。


Carmelites加尔默罗

General Information一般资料

Carmelites, popular name for members of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, a Roman Catholic religious order founded as a community of hermits in Palestine during the 12th century by the French hermit St. Berthold.加尔默罗圣母圣衣,作为隐士的社会在12世纪由法国隐士圣贝特霍尔德在巴勒斯坦成立一个罗马天主教的宗教秩序的订购成员常用的名字。 The original rule, written for them in 1209 by the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, Albert of Vercelli, was severe, prescribing poverty, abstinence from meat, and solitude.原来的规则,由耶路撒冷拉丁礼宗主教,Vercelli的伟业,为他们写于1209的是严重的,处方贫困,禁欲从肉类和孤独。 It was approved in 1226 by Pope Honorius III.它是由教皇挪三世批准在1226。

After the Crusades, the 13th-century Englishman St. Simon Stock reorganized the Carmelites as mendicant friars.十字军东征后,重组为13世纪的英国人圣西门股票托钵修士的加尔默罗。Under him, a change of rule was made to facilitate a more active apostolate.在他之下,规则的改变,以促进更积极的使徒。Offshoot communities quickly sprang up in Cyprus, Messina, Marseille, and parts of England, where they were known as White Friars.支脉社区的迅速兴起,在塞浦路斯,墨西拿,马赛和英国的部分地区,在那里他们被称为白方济各会士。

During the 16th century two independent branches of the order were created: the Calced Carmelites, who were permitted to wear shoes and followed the mitigated rule of St. Simon Stock; and the Discalced Carmelites, who went without shoes as a sign of austerity and followed the reforms of the Spanish mystic St. John of the Cross.在16世纪创建了两个独立分支的顺序:Calced加尔默罗,被允许穿的鞋子和圣西门股票的减轻规则; 和Discalced加尔默罗 ,不穿鞋,谁去了紧缩的迹象,并遵循西班牙神秘圣约翰十字架的改革。This reform endeavored to restore the spirit of the original rule of Albert of Vercelli.这次改革,努力恢复原来​​的规则韦尔切利伟业的精神。The main purpose of the order is contemplation, missionary work, and theology.该命令的主要目的是沉思,宣教工作,和神学。

Among the several orders of Carmelite nuns, the best known is the Order of Discalced Carmelites, founded during the 16th century by the Spanish mystic St. Teresa of Ávila. The life of a Carmelite nun is completely contemplative, consisting of prayer, penance, hard work, and silence. The nuns are strictly enclosed, or cloistered; they never eat meat, and from the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross (September 14) until Easter, no milk, cheese, or eggs are allowed on Fridays and during Lent, except for the sick.在加尔默罗修女的几个订单,最著名的是西班牙的神秘圣德肋撒的阿维拉在16世纪创立的Discalced加尔默罗订购。一个加尔默罗修女的生活是完全沉思,祈祷,忏悔,硬工作,和沉默的修女是严格封闭,或隐居,他们从不吃肉,而提升,直到复活节十字(9月14日),没有牛奶,奶酪,或者鸡蛋的盛宴是在星期五和四旬期期间允许,除了生病。 The order has produced some of the greatest Roman Catholic mystics.订单已产生的最大的罗马天主教神秘主义。


Saint Teresa of Avila圣德肋撒的阿维拉

General Information一般资料

Saint Teresa of Avila, b.圣德肋撒的阿维拉,B.Mar. 28, 1515, d. 3月28日,1515年,D.Oct. 4, 1582, was a Spanish Carmelite and mystic who was declared a doctor of the church in 1970.10月4日,1582年,是一家西班牙加尔默罗和神秘人被宣布在1970年教会的医生。The daughter of a noble Spanish family, she was originally named Teresa de Cespeda y Ahumada.一个高尚的西班牙家庭的女儿,她最初被命名邓丽君DE Cespeda Ÿ阿乌马达。In 1535 she entered the Carmelite monastery of the Incarnation at Avila, where the nuns observed the rules of the order in a relaxed ("mitigated") way. 1535年,她进入加尔默罗修道院,阿维拉,修女们在轻松愉快的方式(“减轻”)观察的顺序规则的化身。After a serious illness and a prolonged period of spiritual apathy Teresa experienced (1555) a spiritual reawakening that convinced her of the need for strict observance of the austere Carmelite rule.(1555)后,严重的疾病,精神淡漠邓丽君长时间经验丰富的一种精神的觉醒,相信她必须严格遵守严峻的加尔默罗规则。 Despite strong opposition, she succeeded (1562) in opening the Convent of Saint Joseph in Avila, the first of the reformed Carmelite houses.尽管强烈反对,她成功了(1562)在开放的修道院的圣若瑟在阿维拉,首先改革加尔默罗房屋。Until her death she led the way in reforming both the male and female branches of the Carmelite order.直到她去世,她带领的方式,在改革加尔默罗为了男性和女性的分支。Along with Saint John of the Cross, she is considered the founder of the Discalced ("shoeless") Carmelites.随着圣十字若望,她考虑的Discalced加尔默罗(“shoeless”)的创始人。

Besides her activity in directing the reform of her order, which involved extensive travel and communication with nobility and church officials, Teresa wrote many works, among which are some of the greatest classics of mystical literature.除了她在指导她的秩序,它涉及广泛的旅行和与贵族和教会官员的沟通改革活动,邓丽君写了许多作品,之间是一些神秘的文学中最伟大的经典。 A mystic of great stature who achieved the rare state of union referred to as mystical marriage, she wrote advice and direction for others, especially her nuns, with unusual beauty and equally unusual practical wisdom.一个神秘主义者,伟大的身材,谁取得了罕见的联盟国家,称为神秘的婚姻,她写了他人,特别是她的修女们的意见和方向,具有不同寻常的美丽,同样不寻常的实践智慧。 She is considered an authority on spirituality in the Western world, and her writings are read and studied today as much as ever.她被认为是一种灵性在西方世界的权力,和她的著作的阅读和研究今天如初。Teresa's best-known works are The Way of Perfection (1583), The Interior Castle (1588), The Book of Foundations (1610), and her Life (1611).邓丽君的最著名的作品的完美之路(1583年),内政部的城堡(1588),图书基金会(1610),和她的生活(1611)。 Feast day: Oct. 15.节日:10月15日。

Joan A. Range琼A.范围

Bibliography 参考书目
Beevers, John, Storm of Glory (1977); Hatzfeld, HA, Santa Teresa di Avila (1969). Beevers的,荣耀的风暴(1977)约翰; Hatzfeld,医管局,Santa Teresa的DI阿维拉(1969年)。


Saint Teresa of Avila圣德肋撒的阿维拉

General Information一般资料

Saint Teresa of Ávila (1515-82) was a Spanish mystic, influential author, and founder of the religious order of Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites, also known as Teresa of Jesus.阿维拉圣德肋撒(1515年至1582年)是一个神秘的西班牙,有影响力的作者,并创办的宗教秩序的Discalced,或赤脚,加尔默罗,又称耶稣修女。

Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada was born in Ávila on March 28, 1515.出生于1515年3月28日,在阿维拉修女德‧西佩达Ÿ阿乌马达。She was educated in an Augustinian convent and, about 1535, entered the local Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation.她曾就读于奥古斯丁修道院,约1535年,进入当地加尔默罗女修道院的化身。In 1555, after many years marked by serious illness and increasingly rigorous religious exercises, she experienced a profound awakening, involving visions of Jesus Christ, hell, angels, and demons; at times she felt sharp pains that she claimed were caused by the tip of an angel's lance piercing her heart. Long troubled by the slack discipline into which the Carmelites had relapsed, she determined to devote herself to the reform of the order. Through papal intervention in her behalf, she overcame the bitter opposition of her immediate ecclesiastical superiors and in 1562 succeeded in founding at Ávila the Convent of St. Joseph, the first community of reformed, or Discalced, Carmelite nuns. She enforced strict observance of the original, severe Carmelite rules at the convent. Her reforms won the approbation of the head of the order, and in 1567 she was authorized to establish similar religious houses for men.大病和日益严格的宗教演习标志着多年后, 在1555年, 经历了深刻的觉醒,涉及愿景耶稣基督,地狱,天使和恶魔 ,有时她觉得,她声称是由尖引起的尖锐的阵痛天使的长矛刺入她的心脏。 长期的涣散纪律融入其中的加尔默罗有复发的困扰,她决定以奉献自己的秩序的改革 。通过她的代表教皇干预,她克服了的她立即教会上级苦反对和在1562年成功地在阿维拉成立圣若瑟,改革后的首个社区,或Discalced,加尔默罗修女的修道院,她执行原来,严重的加尔默罗修道院规则的严格遵守。改革开放赢得了赞许头的顺序,并于1567年,她被批准建立为男性相似的宗教房子。

Teresa organized the new branch of the old order, with the aid of St. John of the Cross, the Spanish mystic and Doctor of the Church.邓丽君举办的旧秩序的新的分支,与圣十字若望的援助,西班牙神秘主义者和教会的医生。Although she was harassed at every step by powerful and hostile church officials, she helped to establish 16 foundations for women and 14 for men.虽然她在每一步强大和敌对教会官员的骚扰,她帮助建立了16个基础,为妇女和男子14。 Two years before her death the Discalced Carmelites received papal recognition as an independent monastic body.她去世前两年Discalced加尔默罗收到罗马教皇的承认,作为一个独立的寺院机构。Teresa died in Alba de Tormes on October 4, 1582.邓丽君去世,1582年10月4日在Alba DE Tormes。

Teresa was a gifted organizer endowed with common sense, tact, intelligence, courage, and humor, as well as a mystic of extraordinary spiritual depth.邓丽君是一个天才的组织者,拥有常识,技巧,智力,勇气和幽默,以及非凡的精神深度的神秘。She purified the religious life of Spain and, in a period when Protestantism gained ground elsewhere in Europe, strengthened the forces that reformed the Roman Catholic church from within.她净化了西班牙的宗教生活,在一段时间内,当新教在欧洲其他地方抬头,从内部加强力量,改革的罗马天主教教会。

Teresa's writings, all published posthumously, are valued as unique contributions to mystical and devotional literature and as masterpieces of Spanish prose.修女的著作,所有出版了遗腹,是有价值的神秘和虔诚的文学的独特贡献,并为西班牙散文的杰作。Among her works are a spiritual autobiography; The Way of Perfection (after 1565), advice to her nuns; The Interior Castle (1577), an eloquent description of the contemplative life; and The Foundations (1573-82), an account of the origins of the Discalced Carmelites.在她的作品是一种精神的自传;的完美之路(1565)后,建议她的修女,内政部城堡,雄辩地说明一个沉思的生活(1577);和基金会(1573年至1582年),帐户Discalced加尔默罗的起源。 English translations of her complete works appeared in three volumes in 1946.于1946年,她完成的作品的英文翻译出现在三卷。

Teresa was canonized in 1622; she was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church, the first woman to be so named, in 1970.邓丽君在1622年被册封,她被宣布为一个教会的医生,因此而得名的第一个女人,在1970年。 Her feast day is October 15.她的节日是10月15日。


Saint John of the Cross圣约翰的十字架

General Information一般资料

Saint John of the Cross, b.圣约翰的十字架,B.June 24, 1542, d. 06月24日,1542,D.Dec. 14, 1591, a Spanish mystic and poet, is considered by many the greatest Western authority on Mysticism and one of Spain's finest lyric poets. 1591年12月14日,一名西班牙的神秘主义者和诗人,被认为是最大的西方权威的神秘主义和西班牙最优秀的抒情诗人之一。He entered a Carmelite monastery in 1563 and was ordained a priest in 1567.他在1563年进入一个加尔默罗修道院,并于1567年被祝圣的神父。Dissatisfied with the laxity of the order, he began to work for the reform of the Carmelites.与顺序松弛感到不满,他开始工作的加尔默罗改革。With Saint Teresa of Ávila, he founded the Discalced Carmelites.圣德肋撒的阿维拉,他创办的Discalced加尔默罗。Friction with the hierarchy led to his imprisonment (1577) in the monastery of Toledo.层次结构的摩擦导致他的监禁(1577)在托莱多的修道院。He escaped in 1578 and later served as prior of Granada (1582-88) and of Segovia (1588-91).他逃脱了在1578年和以后的格拉纳达(1582年至1588年)和塞戈维亚(1588年至1591年)前送达。

Saint John combined the imagination and sensitivity of a poet with the precision and depth of a theologian and philosopher trained in the tradition of Saint Thomas Aquinas.圣约翰结合的圣托马斯阿奎那的传统训练的神学家和哲学家的精度和深度的诗人的想象力和敏感性。These two factors contributed toward making his writings powerfully descriptive and analytical of the mystical experience.这两个因素促成了对他的著作,有力地描述和分析的神秘体验。His most important writings are The Spiritual Canticle, written during his imprisonment in 1578; The Ascent of Mt.他最重要的著作精神的颂歌,他被监禁期间写于1578年,晋山。Carmel and Dark Night of the Soul, written shortly afterward; and The Living Flame of Love, completed by 1583.焦糖和灵魂,不久写的暗夜;和爱的生活火焰,由1583完成。These poems deal with the purification of the soul--through detachment and suffering--in its mystical journey toward God and give a detailed description of the three stages of mystical union: purgation, illumination, and union.这些诗处理净化灵魂 - 通过支队和苦难 - 在对上帝的神秘之旅,并给出一个神秘联盟的三个阶段的详细描述:下法,照明和工会。Saint John was canonized in 1726 and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1926.圣约翰在1726年被册封,并宣布在1926年教会的医生。Feast day: December 14.节日:12月14日。

Joan A. Range琼A.范围

Bibliography 参考书目
Brenan, Gerald, St. John of the Cross (1973); Collings, Ross, John of the Cross (1990). Brenan,杰拉德,圣十字(1973)约翰; Collings,罗斯,约翰的十字架(1990年)。


Saint Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)阿维拉圣德肋撒(1515年至1582年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Saint Teresa was a Spanish mystic, born Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada at Avila on March 28, 1515.圣德肋撒是一个西班牙的神秘主义者,出生德肋撒德‧西佩达Ÿ阿乌马达在阿维拉,1515年3月28日。Her stepmother died when Teresa was thirteen years of age.继母去世时,邓丽君13岁。Three years later, upon the marriage of her oldest sister, she was sent to the Augustinian convent in Avila, but illness forced her to leave.三年后,她大姐的婚姻后,她被送往在阿维拉的奥古斯丁修道院,但疾病迫使她离开。After a prolonged spiritual struggle, accompanied by poor health, she entered the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation at Avila on November 2, 1535.经过长时间的精神斗争,健康状况不佳的陪同下,她进入11月2日,1535加尔默罗女修道院在阿维拉的化身。Here she was treated with deference because of her personality and family status.在这里,她治疗,因为她的个性和家庭地位的尊重。However, in 1555, her spiritual pilgrimage took a more serious turn.然而,在1555年,她的精神朝圣了一个更严重的的。 This second conversion, as it is sometimes called, was marked by "mental prayer" and estatic visions.这第二次转换,因为它有时也被称为“精神祈祷”和estatic远见,标志着。Some of her spiritual advisors thought her visions were diabolical, but others reassured her that they were, indeed, from the Lord.有些人认为她的精神顾问,她的愿景是毒辣,但别人安慰她,他们确实从主。She found support from the Jesuits, particularly her father confessor, Baltasar Alvarez.她发现从耶稣会士,尤其是她父亲的忏悔,巴尔塔萨阿尔瓦雷斯的支持。

In 1559, Teresa reported a remarkable vision known as the "transverberation of her heart," in which an angel with a fire-tipped lance pierced her heart. 1559年,邓丽君报告的一个显着的视力被称为“她的心脏transverberation,”天使与火尖枪刺穿了她的心脏。Growing increasingly disillusioned with her own Carmelite order, Teresa felt compelled to launch a reform movement with Carmelite nuns who would follow an austere rule.用她自己的圣衣为了成长越来越幻灭,邓丽君感到被迫推出了加尔默罗修女的改革运动,将遵循一个严峻的规则。Her plans met with stiff resistance from a number of sources, including the city of Avila.从若干来源,包括阿维拉的城市,她的计划遭到顽强抵抗。However, wealthy friends offered their support.然而,富裕的朋友提供了他们的支持。In spite of stout opposition, Teresa sought and found approval from Pope Paul IV.尽管粗壮反对,德肋撒寻求和发现教皇保罗四世的批准。Her convent was to be small, numbering no more than thirteen, following the rule prepared by Fray Hugo in 1248.她的修道院是要小,不超过13的编号,以下弗赖雨果在1248年编制的规则。Thus on August 24, 1562, the resolute nun founded the convent of Discalced ("barefoot") Carmelite Nuns of the Primitive Rule of St. Joseph.因此,1562年8月24日,坚决尼姑创立Discalced(“赤脚”)圣若瑟的原始规则的加尔默罗修女的修道院。 After a visit by the General of the Carmelites, she was encouraged in her work and given permission to form other houses of the Discalced Carmelites, not only for nuns, but for monks also.由一般的加尔默罗访问后,她在她的工作感到鼓舞,并获准形成Discalced加尔默罗其他房屋,不仅为尼姑,但僧侣也。 With the backing of Philip II, she managed to escape the Inquisition, and spent the remainder of her life establishing new convents all over Spain.菲利普二世的支持下,她设法逃脱宗教裁判所,并建立新的修道院遍布西班牙度过她的余生。

Teresa was a remarkable person, combining mystic contemplation and a fervent activism with a literary career.邓丽君是一个了不起的人,结合神秘的沉思和一个狂热激进主义与文学生涯。She wrote two autobiographical works, the Life and the Book of Foundations.她写了两本自传作品,生活和书的基础。Two were written for her nuns: The Way of Perfection and The Interior Castle.写她的修女:完善和内政部的城堡之路。It was her conviction that contemplation should lead to action, not lethargy.这是她的信念,即观照应该导致行动,不嗜睡。In spite of a frail body, beset by continuing bouts of illness, she became the personification of this conviction.尽管一个体弱多病的身体,持续发作的疾病的困扰,她成为这个信念的化身。Teresa was canonized by Gregory XV in 1622.邓丽君在1622年被册封格雷戈里十五。

WR Estep, Jr.西铁Estep,小
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
EA Peers, Handbook to the Life and Times of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross; "Teresa of Jesus, Saint," Catholic Encyclopedia, XIV. EA的同行,手册德兰和圣十字若望的生活和时代“耶稣的修女,圣,”天主教百科全书,十四。


Saint John of the Cross圣约翰的十字架

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1542-1591)(1542年至1591年)

John of the Cross was one of the leading teachers of Christian contemplation or the mystical way, as well as a founder of the Discalced Carmelite order.约翰的十字架是基督教沉思或神秘的方式,以及Discalced加尔默罗秩序的创始人,教师的主导之一。Born Juan de Yepes y Alvarez in Old Castile, Spain, to a poor family of noble stock, he entered the Carmelite order in 1563 and, after a study of theology at Salamanca, was ordained in 1567.生于胡安德耶佩斯Ÿ阿尔瓦雷斯在旧卡斯蒂利亚,西班牙,一个高尚的股票家境贫寒,他在1563年进入加尔默罗为了,在萨拉曼卡神学研究后,于1567年被祝圣的。 At that time the discipline of the Carmelite Order was relatively lax, and many of its leaders favored the mitigated observance.当时加尔默罗订购的纪律是比较宽松的,它的许多领导人,有利于减轻遵守。John, distressed by their laxity, came under the influence of Teresa of Avila and, following her advice, attempted to introduce reform into the order.约翰,由他们的松弛苦恼,来到阿维拉修女的影响下,她的意见后,尝试引入改革的顺序。While in and out of office and prison because of his combination of great ability and reforming zeal (which his superiors mistrusted and feared), he produced some of the greatest mystical theological literature in the history of the church.虽然在出办公室和监狱,因为他伟大的能力和改革的热诚(他的上司不信任和担心)的组合,他制作了一些在教会历史上最大的神秘神学文学。 The order itself eventually split into Calced and Discalced branches, as the stricter group withdrew in 1578 under the leadership of Teresa and John.订单本身最终分裂成Calced和Discalced分行,作为严格的修女和约翰的领导下于1578年退出。His death was the result of privations suffered in these struggles.他的死亡是在这些斗争中遭受贫困的结果。

While John of the Cross is best known for his Dark Night of the Soul, that work is but the second part of Ascent of Mount Carmel.虽然约翰的十字架是最适合他的灵魂的暗夜,这项工作,但第二部分圣衣的上升。This latter work deals with the purgative way, while the former instructs in the illuminative and unitive ways.后者的工作涉及与泻药的方式,而前者在启蒙和unitive方式的指示。Through the progressive stages of purgation (the night of the senses) and spiritual growth (the night of the spirit) the soul is prepared for union with God, described in terms of marriage (The Living Flame of Love).通过渐进阶段的下法(感官晚上)和心灵成长(的精神晚上)的灵魂,是准备为联盟与神,在婚姻方面描述(爱生活火焰)。 While John was a strict monastic and a philosopher in the Thomistic tradition, and while he fed on Scripture, especially the hard sayings of Jesus and Paul, his poetic gentleness is evident in The Spiritual Canticle (begun while in prison), and his wisdom as a spiritual guide and counselor shines through his work, which is important to pastors in many traditions but is invaluable to people interested in more mystical spiritual experience of the nonimaged type.而约翰是严格的寺院和在Thomistic传统哲学家,而他喂养的圣经,尤其是耶稣和保罗的硬熟语,他的诗的温柔是显而易见的,在精神的颂歌(在监狱中开始),和他的智慧闪耀着一种精神的引导和辅导员,通过他的工作,这很重要,在许多传统的牧师,但更神秘的心灵体验的nonimaged类型有兴趣的人是非常宝贵的。

PH Davids PH值戴维斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
A. Cugno, St. John of the Cross; L. Christiani, St. John of the Cross; B. Frost, St. John of the Cross; EA Peers, Spirit of Flame and Handbook of the Life and Times of Saint Teresa and Saint John of the Cross.A. Cugno,圣十字架的约翰L. Christiani,圣十字架的约翰B.霜,圣十字若望EA的同龄人,火焰和手册圣德肋撒的生活和时代精神圣约翰的十字架。


The Carmelite Order加尔默罗订购

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the mendicant orders.一个乞丐订单。

Origin原产

The date of the foundation of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been under discussion from the fourteenth century to the present day, the order claiming for its founders the prophets Elias and Eliseus, whereas modern historians, beginning with Baronius, deny its existence previous to the second half of the twelfth century.圣母圣衣订购的基础上迄今一直在讨论从14世纪到今天,为了声称它的创始人先知埃利亚斯和Eliseus,而现代的历史学家,开始与Baronius,否认它的存在前十二世纪的下半年。 As early as the times of the Prophet Samuel there existed in the Holy Land a body of men called Sons of the Prophets, who in many respects resembled religious institutes of later times.早在先知撒母耳的时代存在着一个男人的机构,称为先知,在许多方面类似于后来的宗教机构的儿子在圣地。They led a kind of community life, and, though not belonging to the Tribe of Levi, dedicated themselves to the service of God; above all they owed obedience to certain superiors, the most famous of whom were Elias and his successor Eliseus, both connected with Carmel, the former by his encounter with the prophets of Baal, the latter by prolonged residence on the holy mountain.他们带动了一种社会生活,和,虽然不属于利未支派,献身上帝的服务,高于一切,他们欠服从某些​​上级,其中最有名的是埃利亚斯和他的继任者Eliseus的,同时连接卡梅尔,由他与巴力的先知,后者由长期居住的圣山遇到前。 With the downfall of the Kingdom of Israel the Sons of the Prophets disappear from history.随着以色列王国的灭亡的先知的儿子从历史上消失。In the third or fourth century of the Christian Era Carmel was a place of pilgrimage, as is proved by numerous Greek inscriptions on the walls of the School of the Prophets: "Remember Julianus, remember Germanicus", etc. Several of the Fathers, notably John Chrystostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, and Jerome, represent Elias and Eliseus as the models of religious perfection and the patrons of hermits and monks.佳美在第三或第四世纪的基督教时代是一个朝圣的地方,是由无数的先知学校的墙壁上的希腊铭文证明:“记住Julianus,记住格马尼库斯”等几种的父亲,特别是约翰Chrystostom,罗勒,格雷戈里Nazianzen,和杰罗姆,代表Elias和Eliseus宗教完美的模型和顾客的隐士和僧侣。 These undeniable facts have opened the way to certain conjectures.这些无可否认的事实有一定的猜想开辟了道路。As St. John the Baptist spent nearly the whole of his life in the desert, where he gathered around him a number of disciples, and as Christ said he was endowed with the spirit and virtue of Elias, some authors think that he revived the institute of the Sons of the Prophets.正如施洗者圣约翰在沙漠中,他周围聚集了一些弟子,他花了近他的整个生命,基督说,他被赋予的精神和美德,埃利亚斯,一些作者认为,他恢复了研究所先知的儿子。

The glowing descriptions given by Pliny, Flavius Josephus, and Philo, of the manner of life of the Essenes and Therapeutes convinced others that these sects belonged to the same corporation; unfortunately their orthodoxy is open to serious doubts.普林尼,弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫和斐罗的爱色尼和Therapeutes生活的方式,发光的描述说服别人,这些教派属于同一公司,可惜他们的正统是严重怀疑。 Tacitus mentions a sanctuary on Carmel, consisting "neither of a temple, nor an idol, but merely an altar for Divine worship"; whatever its origin may have been, it certainly was at the time of Vespasian in the hands of a pagan priest, Basilides.塔西提到卡梅尔一个避难所,组成“既不是一座庙,也不是偶像,但只是一个祭坛神崇拜”,不论其来源可能已经的,它当然是一个异教徒祭司手中维斯帕先,巴西里德。 Pythagoras (500 BC) is represented by Jamblichus (AD 300) as having spent some time in silent prayer in a similar sanctuary on Carmel, a testimony of greater force for the time of Jambilichus himself than for that of Pythagoras.毕达哥拉斯(公元前500年)为代表的Jamblichus(公元300年)在默祷在卡梅尔Jambilichus自己的时间,更大的力量比毕达哥拉斯的证词类似避难所度过了一段时间。 Nicephorus Callistus (AD 1300) relates that the Empress Helena built a church in honour of St. Elias on the slopes of a certain mountain. Nicephorus卡利斯图斯(公元1300年)有关,皇后赫莲娜某山的山坡上建造一个教会在纪念圣埃利亚斯。This evidence is, however, inadmissible, inasmuch as Eusebius is witness to the fact that she built only two churches in the Holy Land, at Bethlehem and at Jerusalem, not twenty, as Nicephorus says; moreover the words of this author show clearly that he had in view the Greek monastery of Mar Elias, overhanging the Jordan valley, and not Carmel as some authors think; Mar Elias, however, belongs to the sixth century.然而,这方面的证据,不予受理,因为尤西比乌斯是见证的事实,她只有两个内置教会在圣地伯利恒和耶路撒冷,而不是二十,Nicephorus说;,而且这个作者的话清楚地表明,他查看希腊修道院三月埃利亚斯,悬垂约旦谷地,并没有卡梅尔一些作者认为,三月埃利亚斯,然而,属于六世纪。 These and other misunderstood quotations have enfeebled rather than strengthened the tradition of the order, which holds that from the days of the great Prophets there has been, if not an uninterrupted, at least a moral succession of hermits on Carmel, first under the Old Dispensation, afterwards in the full light of Christianity, until at the time of the Crusades these hermits became organized after the fashion of the Western orders.这些和其他人误解的报价已经衰弱,而不是强化传统的秩序,它拥有伟大的先知天,如果没有一个不间断的,至少隐士的道德继承上卡梅尔,首先根据旧省却后来在基督教全亮,直到在十字军东征时这些隐士成为时尚的西方订单后组织。 This tradition is officially laid down in the constitutions of the order, is mentioned in many papal Bulls, as well as in the Liturgy of the Church, and is still held by many members of the order.这个传统是正式奠定了宪法的秩序,提到在许多教皇公牛,以及在教会的礼仪,并仍然是由许多成员的顺序举行。

The silence of Palestine pilgrims previous to AD 1150, of chroniclers, of early documents, in one word the negative evidence of history has induced modern historians to disregard the claims of the order, and to place its foundation in or about the year 1155 when it is first spoken of in documents of undoubted authenticity.巴勒斯坦朝圣者以前的早期文件,到公元1150的编年史的沉默,一个字,引起了负面的历史证据现代历史学家不顾为了索赔,并放置在它的基础或有关1155年时,首先发言的是勿庸置疑的真实性的文件。 Even the evidence of the order itself was not always very explicit.即使订单本身的证据并不总是很明确。A notice written between 1247 and 1274 (Mon. Hist. Carmelit., 1, 20, 267) states in general terms that "from the days of Elias and Eliseus the holy fathers of the Old and the New Dispensation dwelt on Mount Carmel, and that their successors after the Incarnation built there a chapel in honour of Our Lady, for which reason they were called in papal Bulls "Friars of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel". The General Chapter of 1287 (unedited) speaks of the order as of a plantation of recent growth (plantatio novella). More definite are some writings of about the same time. A letter "On the progress of his Order" ascribed to St. Cyril of Constantinople, but written by a Latin (probably French) author about the year 1230, and the book "On the Institution of the First Monks" connect the order with the Prophets of the Old Law. This latter work, mentioned for the first time in 1342, was published in 1370 and became known in England half a century later. It purports to be written by John, the forty-fourth (more accurately the forty-second) Bishop of Jerusalem (AD 400). However, as Gennadius and other ancient bibliographers do not mention it among the writings of John, and as the author was clearly a Latin, since his entire argument is based upon certain texts of the Vulgate differing widely from the corresponding passages of the Septuagint, and as he in many ways proves his entire ignorance of the Greek language, and, moreover, quotes or alludes to writers of the twelfth century, he cannot have lived earlier than the middle of the thirteenth. A third author is sometimes mentioned, Joseph, a Deacon of Antioch, whom Possevin assigns to about AD 130. His work is lost but its very title, "Speculum perfectæ militæ primitivæ ecclesiæ", proves that he cannot have belonged to the Apostolic Fathers, as indeed he is entirely unknown to patristic literature. His name is not mentioned before the fourteenth century and in all probability he did not live much earlier.在1247和1274(周一组织胺。Carmelit,1,20,267)国家之间的书面的通知,笼统地认为,“从埃利亚斯和Eliseus天旧神圣的父亲和新的豁免住在卡梅尔山他们的继任后的化身,建有1287(未编辑)在​​纪念圣母教堂,由于这个原因,他们在罗马教皇的公牛“有福了玛丽的卡梅尔山天主教方济会”所谓的总章说,作为一个顺序大约在同一时间种植(plantatio中篇小说)最近的增长更明确的信了“关于他的命令的进展”冲高圣西里尔君士坦丁​​堡,但一个关于拉丁美洲(可能是法国)的作者写的一些著作。 1230年,和“第一僧侣学会”连接的顺序,与旧法的先知书。后者的工作,在1342首次提到,在1370年出版,并成为英格兰半世纪稍后它看来是由约翰,第四十四(更准确第四十二)耶路撒冷主教(公元400年)写的。然而,作为Gennadius和其他古代bibliographers没有提到约翰的著作中,并作为作者显然是一个拉丁,因为他的整个论据是基于广泛的不同从相应通道的septuagint武加大后的某些文本,并在许多方面,他证明了他的整个希腊语无知,而且,而且,报价或第十二世纪的作家暗示,他不能住前面比第十三中间。一个第三作者是有时提到,约瑟夫,一个安提阿的执事,其中Possevin分配到约公元130。失去他的工作,但它非常称号,“窥perfectæ militæ primitivæ,该书”,证明人说,他不能属于的使徒父亲,事实上他是完全未知的教父文献。他的名字是没有提到的第十四个世纪前,并在所有的可能性,他并没有住早得多。

The tradition of the order, while admitted by many of the medieval Schoolmen, was contested by not a few authors.该命令的传统,而许多中世纪Schoolmen承认,比赛没有几个作家。Hence the Carmelite historians neglected almost completely the history of their own times, spending all their energy on controversial writings, as is evident in the works of John Baconthorpe, John of Chimeneto, John of Hildesheim, Bernard Olerius, and many others.因此加尔默罗历史学家几乎完全忽视了自己的时代的历史,他们所有的精力都花费上有争议的著作,作为约翰Baconthorpe,Chimeneto约翰,约翰的希尔德斯海姆,陈智思Olerius,以及许多其他的作品中可见一斑。 In 1374 a disputation was held before the University of Cambridge between the Dominican John Stokes and the Carmelite John of Horneby; the latter, whose arguments were chiefly taken from canon law, not from history, was declared victorious and the members of the university were forbidden to question the antiquity of the Carmelite Order.在1374举行了一个争议之前,剑桥大学之间的多米尼加约翰斯托克斯Horneby加尔默罗约翰大学;后者,其主要由教会法的参数,而不是从历史,被宣告胜利和大学的成员被禁止问题加尔默罗订购古代。 Towards the end of the fifteenth century this was again ably defended by Trithemius (or whoever wrote under his name), Bostius, Palæonydorus, and many others who with a great display of learning strove to strengthen their thesis, filling in the gaps in the history of the order by claiming for it numerous ancient saints.这是迈向十五世纪末再次Trithemius(或谁写了下他的名字),Bostius,Palæonydorus,和一个伟大的学习显示的努力,以加强他们的论文,在填补历史空白的许多其他难以辩护声称它众多的古代圣人的顺序。 Sts.STS。Eliseus and Cyril of Alexandria (1399), Basil (1411), Hilarion (1490), and Elias (in some places c. 1480, in the whole order from 1551) had already been placed on the Carmelite calendar; the chapter of 1564 added many more, some of whom were dropped out twenty years later on the occasion of a revision of the Liturgy, but were reintroduced in 1609 when Cardinal Bellarmine acted as reviser of Carmelite legends.加尔默罗日历Eliseus和西里尔亚历山大(1399),罗勒(1411),伊拉里(1490),和Elias(在一些地方在整个订单从1551 C. 1480)已被列入1564章多,其中一些人是辍学20年后修订的礼仪场合,但在1609年重新贝拉明枢机担任审校圣衣传说。He, too, approved with certain reservations the legend of the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 16 July, which had been instituted between 1376 and 1386 in commemoration of the approbation of the rule by Honorius III; it now (1609) became the "Scapular feast", was declared the principal feast of the order, and was extended to the whole Church in 1726.他也批准与传说中的圣母圣衣,7月16日,在纪念挪三规则的认可已在1376和1386之间提起的盛宴某些保留;现在(1609年)成为“肩胛骨盛宴”,被宣布为主要盛宴的命令,并在1726年扩展到整个教会。 The tendency of claiming for the order saints and other renowned persons of Christian and even classical antiquity came to a climax in the "Paradisus Carmelitici decoris" by MA Alegre de Casanate, published in 1639, condemned by the Sorbonne in 1642, and placed on the Roman Index in 1649.来到了一个高潮,在马里港DE Casanate“Paradisus Carmelitici decoris”在1639年出版的,由索邦大学在1642年谴责,声称为了基督教,甚至古代的圣人和其他知名人士的倾向,和放置在罗马在1649年的指数。 Much that is uncritical may also be found in the annals of the order by J.-B.也可能很多是不加批判地J.-B.为了史册 de Lezana (1645-56) and in "Decor Carmeli" by Philip of the Blessed Trinity (1665).DE Lezana(1645年至1656年)和“装饰Carmeli”三位一体的祝福(1665)的菲利普。On the publication, in 1668, of the third volume of March of the Bollandists, in which Daniel Papebroch asserted that the Carmelite Order was founded in 1155 by St. Berthold, there arose a literary war of thirty years' duration and almost unequaled violence.出版,1668年,三月第三卷的Bollandists,其中丹尼尔Papebroch断言,在1155年由圣贝特霍尔德加尔默罗订购,都产生了三十多年的时间几乎是无与伦比的暴力文学的战争。 The Holy See, appealed to by both sides, declined to place the Bollandists on the Roman Index, although they had been put on the Spanish Index, but imposed silence on both parties (1698).罗马教廷,呼吁双方,拒绝地方罗马指数Bollandists,虽然他们已经把西班牙​​指数,但对双方(1698)沉默。 On the other hand it permitted the erection of a statue of St. Elias in the Vatican Basilica among the founders of orders (1725), towards the cost of which (4064 scudi or $3942) each section of the order contributed one fourth part.另一方面,它允许在梵蒂冈大教堂竖立雕像圣埃利亚斯的订单(1725年)的创始人,对其中的成本(4064 scudi或$ 3942)每节的顺序贡献四分之一的一部分。At the present time the question of the antiquity of the Carmelite Order has hardly more than academical interest.古代加尔默罗订购问题,在目前几乎没有比academical利益。

Foundations in Palestine在巴勒斯坦的基础

The Greek monk John Phocas who visited the Holy Land in 1185 relates that he met on Carmel a Calabrian (ie Western) monk who some time previously, on the strength of an apparition of the Prophet Elias, had gathered around him about ten hermits with whom he led a religious life in a small monastery near the grotto of the prophet.希腊的僧侣约翰Phocas 1185人访问圣地涉及他卡梅尔会见谁一段时间以前,先知埃利亚斯幽灵的力量,在他周围聚集约10人隐士一个卡拉布里亚(即西方​​)和尚他带领先知石窟附近的一个小修道院的宗教生活。 Rabbi Benjamin de Tudela had already in 1163 reported that the Christians had built there a chapel in honour of Elias.拉比本杰明 - 图德拉已经在1163报道,基督徒已建有一个小教堂,在埃利亚斯荣誉。Jacques de Vitry and several other writers of the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries give similar accounts.雅克 - 维特里和其他几个作家的第十二届结束,十三世纪初,给出了类似的账户。The exact date of the foundation of the hermitage may be gathered from the life of Aymeric, Patriarch of Antioch, a relative of the "Calabrian" monk, Berthold; on the occasion of a journey to Jerusalem in 1154 or the following year he appears to have visited the latter and assisted him in the establishment of the small community; it is further reported that on his return to Antioch (c. 1160) he took with him some of the hermits, who founded a convent in that town and another on a neighbouring mountain; both were destroyed in 1268.归隐的基础上的确切日期可能会聚集了来自Aymeric,Antioch的族长,“卡拉布里亚”和尚,贝特霍尔德相对的生命旅程耶路撒冷在1154年或以下的场合,他似乎参观了后者,他协助建立的小社区,它是另据报道,他返回安提阿(约1160),他与他的隐士,谁创立了一个在那个小镇的修道院和其他一些邻近的山区;均在1268销毁。 Under Berthold's successor, Brocard, some doubts arose as to the proper form of life of the Carmelite hermits.根据贝特霍尔德的继任者,Brocard,以适当的形式加尔默罗隐士的生活出现了一些疑虑。The Patriarch of Jerusalem, Albert de Vercelli, then residing at Tyre, settled the difficulty by writing a short rule, part of which is literally taken from that of St. Augustine (c. 1210).耶路撒冷宗主教,阿尔伯特 - 韦尔切利,然后居住在轮胎,解决了困难,写一个简短的规则的一部分,这是字面上的圣奥古斯丁(公元前1210)。The hermits were to elect a prior to whom they should promise obedience; they were to live in cells apart from one another, where they had to recite the Divine Office according to the Rite of the church of the Holy Sepulchre, or, if unable to read, certain other prayers, and to spend their time in pious meditation varied by manual labour.隐士分别选出一个他们应该承诺服从前,他们住在细胞彼此,在那里他们背诵的神圣办公室根据圣墓教堂的仪式外,或者,如果无法读,某些其他的祈祷,和自己的时间花费在体力劳动不同的虔诚的冥想。 Every morning they met in chapel for Mass, and on Sundays also for chapter.每天早上,他们在教堂举行了会议质量,上周日本章还。 They were to have no personal property; their meals were to be served in their cells; but they were to abstain from flesh meat except in cases of great necessity, and they had to fast from the middle of September until Easter.他们有没有个人财产,要在他们的牢房里担任吃饭,但他们是十分必要的情况下投弃权票,除了从肉的肉,和他们从9月中间,直到复活节快。 Silence was not to be broken between Vespers and Terce of the following day, while from Terce till Vespers they were to guard against useless talk.沉默晚祷和次日Terce之间并没有被打破,而从Terce直到晚祷他们,以防止无用的谈话。the prior was to set a good example by humility, and the brothers were to honour him as the representative of Christ.事先由谦逊是一个很好的例子,和兄弟们履行他作为基督的代表。

Migration to Europe迁移到欧洲

As will be seen from this short abstract no provision was made for any further organization beyond the community on Carmel itself, whence it must be inferred that until 1210 no other foundation had been made except those at and near Antioch, which were probably subject to the patriarch of that city.何处将看到从这个简短的摘要没有提供焦糖本身以外的任何社会上进一步组织,它必须被推断,直到1210已没有其他的基础除了那些在安提阿和附近,这可能是受族长的那个城市。 After that date new communities sprang up at Saint Jean d'Acre, Tyre, Tripoli, Jerusalem, in the Quarantena, somewhere in Galilee (monasterium Valini), and in some other localities which are not known, making in all about fifteen.在该日期之后的新社区兴起,耶路撒冷圣让德阿克里,轮胎,的黎波里,在Quarantena,在加利利(monasterium Valini)的某个地方,和一些其他地方是不知道,在所有大约十五。Most of these were destroyed almost as soon as they were built, and at least in two of them some of the brothers were put to death by the Saracens.这些几乎大部分被摧毁,尽快为他们建成,并至少在他们两个兄弟的一些人提出的撒拉逊人死亡。Several times the hermits were driven from Carmel, but they always found means to return; they even built a new monastery in 1263 (in conformity with the revised rule) and a comparatively large church, which was still visible towards the end of the fifteenth century.从卡梅尔驱动的隐士几次,但他们总是发现意味着返回;他们甚至建立了一个新的修道院在1263(符合修订后的规则)和一个比较大的教会,这是对十五世纪末仍然可见。 However, the position of Christians had become so precarious as to render emigration necessary.然而,基督徒的地位已变得非常不稳定使移民必要。Accordingly colonies of hermits were sent out to Cyprus, Sicily, Marseilles, and Valenciennes (c. 1238).因此,殖民地的隐士被送到塞浦路斯,西西里岛,马赛,瓦朗谢讷(约1238)。Some brothers of English nationality accompanied the Barons de Vescy and Grey on their return journey from the expedition of Richard, Earl of Cornwall (1241), and made foundations at Hulne near Alnwick in Northumberland, Bradmer (Norfolk), Aylesford, and Newenden (Kent).有些兄弟的英语国籍陪同他们的远征,康沃尔伯爵理查德(1241)返程DE Vescy和灰色男爵,并取得了Hulne附近阿尼克在诺森伯兰郡,Bradmer(诺福克),艾尔斯福德,Newenden(肯特的基础)。St. Louis, King of France, visited Mount Carmel in 1254 and brought six French hermits to Charenton near Paris where he gave them a convent.圣路易斯,法国国王,参观在1254卡梅尔山,并带来了巴黎附近的6个法国隐士Charenton,他给了他们一个修道院。 Mount Carmel was taken by the Saracens in 1291, the brothers, while singing the Salve Regina, were put to the sword, and the convent was burnt.卡梅尔山由撒拉逊在1291年,兄弟,一边唱着药膏里贾纳,向剑,和修道院被烧毁。

Character and Name字符和名称

With the migration of the Carmelites to Europe begins a new period in the history of the order.随着迁移到欧洲的加尔默罗,开始了新秩序的历史时期。Little more than the bare names of the superiors of the first period has come down to us: St. Berthold, St. Brocard, St. Cyril, Berthold (or Bartholomew), and Alan (1155-1247).小比第一期的上级裸露的名称来给我们:圣贝特霍尔德,圣Brocard,圣西里尔,贝特霍尔德(或巴塞洛缪),艾伦(1155年至1247年)。 At the first chapter held at Aylesford, St. Simon Stock was elected general (1247-65).在艾尔斯福德举行的第一章,圣西门股票当选(1247年至1265年)。As the oldest biographical notice concerning him dates back only to 1430 and is not very reliable, we must judge the man from his works.作为最古老的自传通知,关于他的历史可以追溯到只有1430和并不十分可靠,我们必须判断他的作品从该名男子。He found himself in a difficult position.他发现自己在一个困难的境地。Although the rule had been granted about 1210 and had received papal approbation in 1226, many prelates refused to acknowledge the order, believing it to be founded in contravention of the Lateran Council (1215) which forbade the institution of new orders.虽然规则已经获得大约1210和1226已经收到了教皇的赞许,许多主教拒绝承认的顺序,认为它是违反拉特兰会议(1215年),禁止新订单的机构成立。 In fact the Carmelite Order as such was only approved by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), but St. Simon obtained from Innocent IV an interim approbation, as well as certain modifications of the rule (1247).其实这样的加尔默罗订购只由里昂(1274)第二届理事会批准,但圣西门无辜四,临时认可,以及某些规则的修改(1247)获得。 Henceforth foundations were no longer restricted to deserts but might be made in cities and the suburbs of towns; the solitary life was abandoned for community life; meals were to be taken in common; the abstinence, though not dispensed with, was rendered less stringent; the silence was restricted to the time between Compline and Prime of the following day; donkeys and mules might be kept for traveling and the transport of goods, and fowls for the needs of the kitchen.今后基金会不再局限于沙漠,但可能会在城市和城镇的郊区,被抛弃的孤独的生活社区生活,外出要共同采取的禁欲,但不免除,呈现较宽松的;沉默仅限于翌日Compline和总理之间的时间;毛驴和骡子可能保持厨房的需求行驶和货物运输,和家禽。 Thus the order ceased to be eremitical and became one of the mendicant orders.因此,为了不再被eremitical成为乞丐订单。 Its first title, Fratres eremitæ de Monte Carmeli, and, after the building of a chapel on Carmel in honour of Our Lady (c. 1220), Eremitæ Sanctæ Mariæ de Monte Carmeli, was now changed into Fratres Ordinis Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmeli.它的第一个冠军,Fratres eremitæ蒙地Carmeli,和建设上焦糖纪念圣母教堂(约1220)后,Eremitæ Sanctæ Mariæ蒙地Carmeli,现在改变成Fratres Ordinis Beatissimæ室女座Mariæ蒙地Carmeli 。 By an ordinance of the Apostolic Chancery of 1477 it was further amplified, Fratres Ordinis Beatissimæ Dei Genitricus semperque Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmeli, which title was rendered obligatory by the General Chapter of 1680.由1477使徒衡平条例“进一步放大,Fratres Ordinis Beatissimæ之Genitricus semperque室女座Mariæ蒙地Carmeli,所提供的1680总章标题是强制性的。Having obtained the mitigation of the rule, St. Simon Stock, who was altogether in favour of the active life, opened houses at Cambridge (1249), Oxford (1253), London (about the same time), York (1255), Paris (1259), Bologna (1260), Naples (date uncertain), etc. He strove especially to implant the order at the universities, partly to secure for the religious the advantages of a higher education, partly to increase the number of vocations among the undergraduates.在取得缓解的规则,圣西门联合,谁是完全赞成积极的生活,打开房子在剑桥(1249),牛津大学(1253),伦敦(大约在同一时间),纽约(1255),巴黎(1259),博洛尼亚(1260),那不勒斯(日期不定),等他努力特别是植入大学的订单,部分安全宗教高等教育的优势,部分原因是增加之间的召本科生。 Although the zenith of the mendicant orders had already passed he was successful in both respects.虽然天顶的乞讨订单已经过去了,他在这两方面取得成功。The rapid increase of convents and novices, however, proved dangerous; the rule being far stricter than those of St. Francis and St. Dominic, discouragement and discontent seized many of the brothers, while the bishops and the parochial clergy continued to offer resistance to the development of the order.然而,修道院和新手的快速增加,证明危险的规则远远超过圣弗朗西斯和圣星严,沮丧和不满检的兄弟很多,而主教和教会神职人员继续提供阻力为了发展。 He died a centenarian before peace was fully restored.他死了一个百岁老人前完全恢复和平。With the election of Nicholas Gallicus (1265-71) a reaction set in; the new general, being much opposed to the exercise of the sacred ministry, favoured exclusively the contemplative life.随着选举的尼古拉Gallicus(1265年至1271年)设置在一个反应​​;新的一般,很多反对行使神圣部,赞成完全沉思的生活。 To this end he wrote a lengthy letter entitled "Ignea sagitta" (unedited) in which he condemned in greatly exaggerated terms what he called the dangerous occupations of preaching and hearing confessions.为此,他写了长信题为“Ignea天箭座”(未编辑),这是他在谴责大大夸大了他所谓的口供的说教和听觉的危险的职业。 His words remaining unheeded, he resigned his office, as did also his successor, Radulphus Alemannus (1271-74), who belonged to the same school of thought.他的话仍然置若罔闻,他辞去了他的办公室,也是他的继任者,Radulphus Alemannus(1271年至1274年),属于同一所学校的思想一样。

Habit习惯

The approbation of the order by the Second Council of Lyons secured its permanent position among the mendicant orders, sanctioned the exercise of the active life, and removed every obstacle to its development, which thenceforth went on by leaps and bounds.顺序由里昂第二届理事会的认可担保乞丐订单之间的永久地位,批准了积极的生活的锻炼,从那时起了突飞猛进的发展,并取消一切障碍。 Under Peter de Millaud (1274-94) a change was made in the habit.根据彼得 - Millaud(1274年至1294年),改变了习惯。 Hitherto it had consisted of a tunic, girdle, scapular, and hood of either black, brown or grey colour (the colour became subject to numberless changes according to the different subdivisions and reforms of the order), and of a mantle composed of four white and three black vertical stripes or rays, whence the friars were popularly called Fratres barrati, or virgulati, or de pica (magpie).迄今它已包括中山装,腰部,肩胛部,要么黑色,棕色或灰色(颜色成为受到无数的变化,根据不同的细分和改革的顺序)的防护罩,和四白组成的地幔和三个黑色的垂直条纹或射线,从那里的修士俗称Fratres barrati,或virgulati,或取消PICA(喜鹊)。In 1287 this variegated mantle was exchanged for one of pure white wool which caused them to be called Whitefriars.在1287杂色地幔是一个纯白色的羊毛,造成他们被称为Whitefriars交换。

The Thirteenth Century十三世纪

Besides the generals already mentioned, the thirteenth century saw two saints of the order, Angelus and Albert of Sicily.除了已经提到的将军,在十三世纪看到两位圣人的顺序,西西里岛的奉告祈祷和阿尔伯特。Very little is known of the former, his biography, purporting to be written by his brother Enoch, Patriarch of Jerusalem, being a work of the fifteenth century; in those portions in which it can be controlled by contemporary evidence it is proved to be unreliable, eg when it establishes a whole Greek hierarchy at Jerusalem during the period of the Crusades; or when it gives the acts of an apocryphal Council of Alexandria together with the names of seventy bishops supposed to have taken part in it.很少有人知道这些部分,它可以通过控制当代证据前,他的传记,看来要写入他的弟弟以诺,耶路撒冷宗主教,十五世纪的工作,它是被证明是不可靠例如,当它建立了整个希腊等级在耶路撒冷的十字军东征期间期间,或当它给亚历山大猜测理事会的行为,应该有部分的七十主教的名字。 These and some other particulars being altogether unhistorical, it is difficult to say how much credence it deserves in other matters for which there is no independent evidence.这些和一些其他细节完全非历史,这是很难说在其中有没有独立的证据的其他事项值得多信任。It is, however, worthy of notice that the Breviary lessons from 1458, when the feast of St. Angelus first appears, until 1579 represent him simply as a Sicilian by birth and say nothing of his Jewish descent, his birth and conversion at Jerusalem, etc. Nor is there any positive evidence as to the time when he lived or the year and cause of his martyrdom.它是,但是,值得通知,祈祷书的经验教训,从1458奉告祈祷的圣宴,第一次出现,直到1579代表只是作为一个西西里他因出生,并说没有他的犹太血统,他出生在耶路撒冷的转换, ,也没有任何积极的证据,他住的时候,或一年他殉难的原因。According to some sources he was put to death by heretics (probably Manichæans), but, according to later authors, by a man whom he had publicly reproved for grave scandal.据一些异端(可能是摩尼教)他置于死地,但根据后来的作者,一个人,他曾公开谴责严重丑闻的人,的来源。Again, the oldest legends of St. Francis and St. Dominic say nothing of a meeting of the three saints in Rome or their mutual prophecies concerning the stigmata, the rosary, and the martyrdom.再次,最古老的圣弗朗西斯和圣星的传说,一个在罗马的三个圣人或有关的印记,念珠,和殉难,他们的相互预言会议上说一无所知。 The life of St. Albert, too, was written a long time after his death by one who had no personal recollection of him and was more anxious to edify the reader by an account of numerous miracles (frequently in exaggerated terms), than to state sober facts.圣伟业的生活,也没有他个人的回忆和更着急,以陶冶读者无数奇迹的帐户(经常夸张),而不是国家,是写一个长一段时间后,他的死亡清醒的事实。 All that can be said with certainty is that St. Albert was born in Sicily, entered the order very young, in consequence of a vow made by his parents, that for some time he occupied the position of provincial, and that he died in the odour of sanctity on 7 August, 1306.可以肯定地说,出生在西西里岛的圣伟业,进入的顺序非常年轻的,后果由他的父母发誓,这一段时间,他占领了省的地位,和他死在8月7日,第1306神圣不可侵犯的气味。 Though he was never formally canonized, his feast was introduced in 1411.虽然他从未正式册封,于1411年推出他的盛宴。

Foundations in the British Isles在英伦三岛的基础

The English province, to which the Irish and Scottish houses belonged until 1305, made rapid progress until about the middle of the fourteenth century, after which date foundations became less numerous, while from time to time some of the smaller houses were given up.英语省,其中爱尔兰和苏格兰的房子属于直到1305,取得了突飞猛进的进展,直到大约十四世纪中叶,在这之后日期的基础,成为为数较少,而一些规模较小的房子不时被放弃。 The Carmelites enjoyed the favour of the Crown, which contributed generously towards several foundations, particularly that of Oxford, where the royal residence was handed over to the order.加尔默罗享有官方的青睐,特别是牛津大学的几个基金会慷慨地作出了贡献,皇家住所被移交给的顺序。The site is now occupied by the Beaufort Hotel, but there may still be seen Friars' Walk, and the little church of St. Mary Magdalen which for a time was served by the Carmelites.该网站现在占领级酒店,但那里还可以看到天主教方济会“走路,而圣玛丽抹大拉的小教堂,这一段时间的加尔默罗担任。 Other royal foundations were Hitchin, Marlborough, etc. John of Gaunt was a great benefactor of the order and chose his confessors from amongst its members; the House of Lancaster likewise almost always had Carmelites as royal confessors, a post which corresponded to some extent to that of royal almoner or minister of public worship.其他王室基础希钦,马尔堡等约翰瘦削的顺序是大恩人,并选择其成员从他的忏悔;兰开斯特宫,同样几乎一直作为皇家忏悔加尔默罗,它相当于在一定程度上后皇家almoner或公众崇拜部长。 These confessors were as a rule promoted to small bishoprics in Ireland or Wales.这些忏悔者在爱尔兰或威尔士的小主教晋升为一个规则。The order became very popular among the people.在人民群众中的顺序变得非常流行。The life was one of deep poverty, as is proved by various inventories of goods and other documents still extant.生活极度贫困,是各种商品库存和尚存的其他文件证明。During the Wycliffite troubles the order took the leadership of the Catholic party, the first opponent of Wyclif being the Provincial of the Carmelites, John Cunningham.在Wycliffite麻烦的顺序发生的天主教政党,约翰威克里夫的加尔默罗省的第一个对手,坎宁安的领导。 Thomas Walden was entrusted by Henry V with important missions abroad, and accompanied Henry VI to France.托马斯瓦尔登湖是亨利五世“的委托,与国内外重要的任务,并陪同亨利六世到法国。During the wars with France several French convents were attached to the English province, so that the number of English Carmelites rose to fifteen hundred.在与法国的战争中,一些法国修道院英语省,使英语加尔默罗的人数上升到一千五百。But ultimately there remained only the house at Calais, which was suppressed by Henry VIII.但最终只剩房子在加莱,是由亨利八世抑制。At the end of the fifteenth century the province had dwindled down to about six hundred religious.在十五世纪末全省减少到约六百宗教信仰。

None of the various reforms seems to have been introduced into England, although Eugene IV and the general, John Soreth, took steps in this direction.各项改革都没有,似乎已被引入英国,尤金四,一般情况下,约翰Soreth,虽然发生在这个方向采取的步骤。 The peculiar constitutions in vigour in England, and the excellent organization of the province rendered the spread of abuses less to be feared than elsewhere.在英格兰,活力的奇特宪法和全省优秀组织呈现滥用的蔓延比其他地方要担心。At the beginning of the Reformation a number of the junior religious, affected by the new learning, left the order; the remainder were compelled to sign the Act of Supremacy, which they apparently did without hesitation, a fact not much to be wondered at if it be borne in mind that Cardinal Wolsey had already obtained power from the Holy See to visit and reform the Carmelite convents, a measure which left no alternative but blind submission to the royal will or suppression.的改革开始在一些新的学习受到影响,初中宗教,左的顺序,其余被迫签署的至高无上的法,他们显然也毫不迟疑地,其实没有太大的被怀疑在若它牢记,红衣主教沃尔西已经获得了从罗马教廷的权力请参阅访问和改革的加尔默罗修道院,离开皇家意志或抑制无可奈何盲目提交的一项措施。 Separated from the rest of the order, the Carmelites were for a time subjected to the rule of George Brown, general of all the mendicants, but gained a comparative independence under John Byrd, first provincial and then general of the English section of the order.其余的顺序分开,加尔默罗乔治布朗,所有的乞丐一般规则的时间,但获得了一个相对独立,根据约翰伯德首个省级和一般的英语部分的顺序。 At the time of the final suppression there were thirty-nine houses, including that of Calais.在最后镇压时,有三十九个房子,包括加莱。The suppression papers are very far from complete, exhibiting the names of only about 140 religious, and containing the inventories of less than a dozen houses.抑制文件完成,参展只有约140宗教名,并载有十几家的房子少的存货还相差很远。These were in a state of abject poverty.这些人在赤贫状态。At Oxford the friars had been obliged to sell the benches of the church and the trees in the road, and the commissioners stated that soon they would have to sell the tiles off the roof, to buy a few loaves of bread.在牛津的修士被迫出售教堂的长椅和树木,道路,和委员们表示,不久他们会卖掉的屋顶瓦片,买几个面包,面包。Yet one of the novices, Anthony Foxton, nothing daunted by this trying situation, fled to Northallerton to continue his novitiate, whence a few weeks later he was expelled for the second time.然而,安东尼福克斯顿新手,没有吓倒这个尝试的情况,逃到Northallerton继续他的见习期,何处几个星期后,他被第二次开除。 The property of the order was squandered with the same recklessness as other ecclesiastical goods.与其他教会的商品相同鲁莽为了财产被浪费掉了。The library of the London house, considered one of the finest in England (this applies in all probability to the building, not to its contents, which bear no comparison with other monastic libraries of that period), came into the possession of Dr. Butt.库伦敦的房子,认为在英格兰最优秀的之一(这适用于所有建筑物的概率,而不是它的内容,它承担没有比较与那个时期的其他寺院图书馆),走进藏博士对接。 The other buildings were sold in parcels.在包裹出售的其他建筑物。Only two Carmelites are known to have suffered death, Lawrence Cook and Reginald Pecock; others seem to have recanted in prison.只有两个加尔默罗已知有遭受死亡,劳伦斯库克和Reginald Pecock,其他人似乎都否认自己在监狱里。 But as practically nothing is known of the fate of a large number of convents, especially those of the North, it is more than probable that during the different risings some were burnt and their inmates hanged.但几乎没有命运的修道院,特别是北方的大量,较有可能在一些不同的起义被烧毁,他们的犯人绞死。Among the few remains of the English Carmelite convents must be mentioned the first two foundations, Hulne, now a ruin, and Aylesford, in a fairly good state of preservation, and also the beautiful cloister in what is now the workhouse for male paupers at Coventry.在英语加尔默罗修道院仍然中,必须提到的前两个基金会,Hulne,现在一片废墟,艾尔斯福德,保存在一个相当不错的状态,也是美丽的修道院,在什么是现在男性贫民在考文垂的习艺。 An attempt to revive the English province during the reign of Queen Mary was unsuccessful.玛丽统治期间,以图重振英语省是不成功的。

The history of the Irish and Scottish provinces has never been exhaustively studied, owing chiefly to the loss of many documents.在爱尔兰和苏格兰的省份的历史从来没有被详尽的研究,主要是由于许多文件丢失。The total number of Irish convents is variously given as twenty-five or twenty-eight, but in all probability some of these had but a short-lived existence.爱尔兰修道院的总数是不同的二十个或二十个,但在所有的可能性,其中一些,但一个短暂的存在。The fact that the general chapters repeatedly appointed Englishmen as provincials for Ireland seems to indicate that the province was frequently troubled by disunion and strife.一般章节反复任命为爱尔兰外省人英国人的事实似乎表明,全省经常不愈和纷争的困扰。At an early epoch the Dublin house was designated a studium generale, but as it is never mentioned as such in the official lists it probably served only for the Irish students, foreign provinces not being required to send their contingent.在早期时代的都柏林家被指定一个studium兴业,但因为它是从来没有提到在正式名单中,它可能只适用于爱尔兰的学生担任,外国省份没有被要求把他们的队伍。 For the pursuit of higher studies special faculties were given to the Irish and Scottish in London and at the English universities.对于追求更高的研究,特别在伦敦,爱尔兰和苏格兰在英国大学和院系。The Irish convents fell without exception under the iron hand of Henry VIII.亨利八世的铁腕下,爱尔兰修道院下跌无一例外。 The Scottish province numbered at the utmost twelve convents, of which that of South Queensferry at the foot of the Forth Bridge is still extant.苏格兰编号在全省最大的12修道院,其中Queensferry福思桥脚南尚存。Here again we have to content ourselves with stray notices, from which, however, it is manifest that the order was in high favour with the Crown.在这里我们再一次以自己的内容与流浪的告示,然而,它是明显的,是为了在高赞成与皇冠。Some Scottish Carmelites played an important part at the University of Paris, while others were among the chief promoters of the Reform of Albi.一些苏格兰加尔默罗发挥在巴黎大学的一个重要组成部分,而其他人之间的阿尔比改革行政推动者。At the suppression of the English convents many religious betook themselves to Scotland where convents were allowed to exist as best they could until 1564.在镇压的英语修道院许多宗教betook苏格兰修道院被允许存在,作为最好的,他们可能直到1564。

Constitutions宪法

The oldest constitutions that have come down to us are dated 1324, but there is evidence of a former collection begun about 1256 to supplement the rule, which lays down only certain leading principles.最古老的已回落到我们的宪法的日期为1324,但目前的约1256开始,以补充规则只有某些主要原则,其中规定了一个前收集的证​​据。 In 1324 the order was divided into fifteen provinces corresponding to the countries in which it was established.在1324的顺序分为十五个省份,相应的在它成立的国家。At the head of the order was the general, elected in open scrutinium (ballot) by the general chapter; at each successive chapter he had to render an account of his administration and if no serious complaints were made he was confirmed in his office until he was removed by the nomination to a bishopric, or by death, or until he resigned of his own accord.为了头一般,在开放scrutinium(选票)由一般的篇章中当选;在每个连续的章节中,他不得不使他的政府的帐户,如果没有严重的投诉,他在他的办公室证实,直到他被提名中删除一个主教,或死亡,或直至他自己辞职。 He chose his own residence which from 1472 was usually Rome.他选择了自己的住所,从1472通常是罗马。He was given two companions (generally of his own choice) to accompany him on his journeys and to assist him with advice.他的两个同伴(通常是他自己的选择),陪在他的旅程,并协助他的意见。The whole order contributed annually a fixed amount towards the maintenance of the general and the costs of the administration.整个秩序作出了贡献,每年一个固定金额对一般维修和管理成本。In theory, at least, the power of the general was almost unlimited but in practice he could not afford to disregard the wishes of the provinces and provincials. ,至少在理论上,一般的力量几乎是无限的,但在实践中他不能漠视的省份和外省人的意愿。The general chapter assembled fairly regularly every third year from 1247 to the end of the fourteenth century; but from that period onward the intervals became much longer, six, ten, even sixteen years.一般章组装相当定期每第三个年头,从1247到十四世纪结束;但是从这一时期开始的时间间隔变得更长,六,十,甚至十六年。 The chapters had become a heavy burden, not only for the order but also for the towns which accorded them hospitality.章节已成为一个沉重的负担,不仅为顺序,但也给予他们热情好客的城镇。Each province (their number was constantly increasing) was represented by the provincial and two companions.每个省(他们的人数不断增加),代表由省级和两个同伴。In addition to these there was a gathering of masters in divinity and promising students who held theological disputations, while the definitors discussed the affairs of the order; as the Holy See usually granted indulgences on the occasion of chapters, the pulpits of the cathedral and parochial and conventional churches were occupied several times a day by eloquent preachers; traveling being performed on horseback, each province sent a number of lay brothers to care for the horses.除了这些在神性和有前途的学生举行神学disputations大师的聚会,而definitors讨论事务的秩序;罗马教廷通常授予放纵的篇章之际,大教堂和狭隘的讲坛和传统教堂被占领,每天数次,雄辩的布道者,行驶在马背上进行,每个省派奠定兄弟照顾马匹。

Thus the general chapters were always attended by large numbers of friars, from five hundred to a thousand and more.因此,一般章节经常参加大量的修士,从五个一百到一千多。To defray the costs each provincial was bound to ask his sovereign for a subsidy, the English Crown as a rule contributing ten pounds, while board and lodging for the members of the chapter were found in other religious houses and among the townspeople.要支付的成本必然要求各省级补贴他的主权,英冠作为一个规则贡献十磅,而其他宗教的房屋和城镇居民之间的板和本章的成员住宿。 In return the order used to grant the town letters of fraternity and to place its patron saints on the Carmelite calendar.在返回的顺序用于授予友爱镇字母和加尔默罗日历放在它的守护神。For the election of the general all the provincials and their companions assembled, but the remaining business was entrusted to the definitors, one for each province; these were chosen at the provincial chapter in such a way that no one could act in this capacity in two successive chapters.对于换届选举中,所有的外省人和他们的同伴组装,但其余业务委托definitors,每个省份之一;这些选择这样一种方式,在省章,没有人能够在这方面的能力两个连续的章节。 The duty of the definitors was to receive reports on the administration of the provinces; to confirm provincials or to depose them, and elect the annual taxation; to nominate those who were to lecture on Scripture and the Sentences at the universities, especially Paris; to grant permission for the reception of academical honours at the expense of the whole order; to revise and interpret existing laws and add new ones; and finally, to grant privileges to deserving members, deal with those guilty of serious offenses by meting out adequate punishment, or, if cause were shown for leniency, by relaxing or condoning previous sentences. definitors的职责是接收各省管理的报告;确认外省人或废黜他们,并选出年度税收;提名那些圣经和句子,尤其是巴黎大学演讲;接待academical荣誉授予的权限,在整个订单的费用;修改和解释现行法律和添加新的;最后,值得成员授予权限,给予应有的惩罚那些犯有严重罪行处理,或者,如果造成放宽或纵容以前的句子,争取宽大处理。 This done, the whole chapter was again called together, he decisions of the definitors were published and handed in writing to each provincial.这做,整章再次召集,他的definitors决定公布,并交各省级书面。 Of the records of the earlier chapters only fragments are now to be found, but from 1318 the acts are complete and have partly been printed.前面的章节中的记录只有片段被发现,但是从1318的行为是完整的,部分已印。

The provincial chapters were held as a rule once a year, but there were complaints that some provincials held only two in three years.省分会举行了每年一次的规则,但也有投诉,一些外省人只有两三年举行。Each convent was represented by the prior or vicar and by one companion elected by the conventual chapter to take complaints against the prior.每个修道院代表通过事前或副主教和同伴当选conventual章采取事先的投诉。Out of the whole number of capitulars four definitors were chosen who together with the provincial performed much the same duties on behalf of the province as did the definitory of the general chapter on behalf of the whole order. capitulars整体数量的四个definitors被选为省共同执行代表全省相同的职责,并definitory一般章代表整个秩序。Among other things they had full authority to depose priors and to elect new ones; they also selected students to be sent to the various studia generalia and particularia, and to the universities, and made adequate provision for their expenses.除其他事项外,他们有充分的权力,废黜先验,并选出新的;他们还选定的学生被送到各种studia generalia和particularia,大学,并提供足够的开支。They decided--subject to the approval of the general and the Holy See--on the foundation of new convents.他们决定 - 一般的审批和罗马教廷 - 新的修道院的基础上。They dealt with delinquents.他们与罪犯处理。Attempts were made from time to time to limit the duration of the office of provincials, but so long as the general legislation of the church tolerated an indefinite tenure of office these endeavours were practically unavailing.不时有人企图限制外省人办公室的时间,但作为教会的一般立法,以便长期容忍这些努力几乎徒劳的办公室无限期任期。

The superior of a convent was the prior, or in his absence and during a vacancy the vicar.上级修道院前,或在他缺席期间空缺的副主教。The prior was controlled in his administration by three guardians who held the keys of the common chest and countersigned bills and contracts.事先控制在他的政府由三个监护人持有共同胸部键和会签票据及合同。 Complaints against the prior were sent to the provincial or the provincial chapter.对之前的投诉,发送到省级或省级章。 There was no limit to the tenure of office of the prior; he might be confirmed year after year for twenty or more years.有前办公室任期没有限制,他可能会为20年或以上证实年复一年。In the case of convents in university towns, especially Paris and the Roman Curia (Avignon, afterwards Rome) the nomination belonged to the general or the general chapter; and there appears to have been an unwritten law that at Cambridge, Louvain, and other universities the priorship should be filled by the bachelor who in the course of the year was to take his degree as Master in Divinity.在大学城,尤其是巴黎和罗马教廷(阿维尼翁,事后罗马)提名属于一般或一般章节的修道院的情况下,似乎有一个不成文的规定,鲁汶,剑桥和其他大学应填写的priorship单身汉,在这一年中,采取在神学硕士他的程度。 From about the middle of the fourteenth century it became customary to fill the offices of general, provincial, and prior (at least in the larger convents) exclusively with those who had taken degrees.大约从十四世纪中叶,它成为习惯,以填补与那些采取度一般的办公室,省,和之前(至少在较大的修道院)专用。Almost the only systematic exception to this rule is to be found in the province of Upper Germany.几乎是唯一的系统的例外是在省上德国发现。

Sources of Membership会员来源

When St. Simon Stock established convents in university towns he obviously counted upon the undergraduates as the future recruits of the order; nor was he deceived in his expectation.圣西门股票在大学城建立的修道院,他显然指望为了未来新兵的本科生;也不是他欺骗他的意料。True, the time had passed when in one day sixty or more students with their professors flocked to the Dominican convent at Paris to receive the habit from the hands of Blessed Jordan.诚然,在一天的时间已经过去了,当六教授的学生聚集在巴黎多米尼加修道院有福了约旦手中接收的习惯。But there were still many applicants, notwithstanding the severe by-laws of the universities regulating the reception of students in mendicant convents.但是仍然有许多申请人,尽管大学的法律规范接待学生乞讨修道院严重。 It was perhaps chiefly the poor scholars who by joining one of these orders secured for themselves the necessaries of life as well as the means of education.或许它是主要穷人学者加入为自己的生活以及教育手段的必需品担保这些订单之一。Not only in the time of St. Simon but even much later a good deal of trouble was caused by these young men, who had recently exchanged the free and easy life of the scholar for the discipline of the cloister.不仅在圣西门甚至更晚的时间,但麻烦的一个很好的协议,是因为这些年轻人,谁最近交换回廊的纪律学者的自由和安逸的生活。 In many convents we find numerous instances of members of the families of the founders and chief benefactors becoming conventuals; in some cases the relationship of uncle and nephew may be traced through several centuries; just as the prebends of cathedrals and collegiate churches were often the gift of the founder and his family and were handed down from generation to generation, the more humble cells of a Carmelite convent remained frequently in the hands of one and the same family who considered it their duty as well as their right to be ever represented by at least one member.我们发现在许多修道院的创始人和首席恩人,成为conventuals家庭成员的众多实例,叔叔和侄子的关系,在某些情况下可追溯到通过几个世纪,就像大教堂和合议教堂的棒禄往往礼物的创始人和他的家人和流传下来的一代又一代,一个加尔默罗女修道院更加谦逊的细胞仍经常在一的手,同一个家族的人认为这是他们的职责,以及他们的权利,是有史以来在代表至少有一名成员。 Again, it frequently happened that a father desirous of settling his son in life bought or endowed a cell for him in a convent.再次,它经常发生,希望他的儿子,解决生活中的父亲买了或赋予了他在修道院的细胞。It was probably due to the ardent piety of former times and the careful preservation from dangerous society that such casual calls ripened into solid vocations.这可能是由于前的时间和危险的社会小心保存成固体召成熟,这种随意调用的殷切虔诚。In places where the Carmelites had public or semi-public schools they found little difficulty in choosing suitable boys.在一些地方的加尔默罗公开或半公开的的学校,他们发现在选择合适的男孩有点困难。But there remained a good many convents in small places, where the recruiting was evidently not so easy and where with a decreasing number of inmates a dangerous relaxation of religious observance went hand in hand.但仍然有相当多的修道院中的小地方,招聘显然不是那么容易的,与犯人的数目减少的宗教仪式的危险放松齐头并进。 For, throughout the Middle Ages a friar belonged to the convent in which he had taken the habit, although through force of circumstances he might be absent from it for the greater part of his life.对于整个中世纪的修道士属于修道院中,他采取了习惯,虽然通过武力的情况下,他可能会为他的生活大部份从缺席。Hence, the general chapter repeatedly commanded the priors to receive every year one or two promising young men even if they brought no endowment, so as to gradually increase the number of religious.因此,一般章多次指挥先验接受每年一个或两个有前途的年轻男子即使他们带来了不养老,从而逐步增加对宗教的数量。 In other cases where provinces were numerous enough but lacked the means of subsistence the reception of novices might be stopped for several years.在其他情况下,地方省市众多,但缺乏生活资料新手接待可能会停止好几年了。

Probation and Formation of Members缓刑和成员形成

The clothing of novices was preceded by certain inquiries into their antecedents and the respectability of their families.新手的服装之前,一定的查询到自己的来路和他们的家人的尊敬。 The year of probation was spent in the convent which they entered, the "native convent" as it was called, and a father was commissioned to take personal care of a novice, teaching him the customs of the order and the ceremonies of the choir.缓刑一年花费在他们进入修道院,“原生修道院”,因为它被称为一个委托的父亲是一个新手个人护理,他的教学秩序和合唱团的仪式的习俗。 According to the oldest constitutions, each novice might have a special master, but in practice one master, assisted, if necessary, by a substitute, was appointed for all.据最古老的宪法,每一个新手可能有一个特殊的高手,但一个主人,在实践中的替代品,如果有必要,协助,是所有任命。The novices were not allowed to mingle with the rest of the community or with the boys of the convent school; no office that in any way could interfere with their chief duty, viz.新手不准与社会的其余部分,或与修道院学校的男生打成一片,没有办公室,以任何方式干涉其行政责任,即。learning the Divine Office, was given them.学习神圣的办公室,给了他们。On the other hand the prior was not to allow anyone to reprehend the novices or find fault with them, except the novice-master himself, whose business it was to teach, correct, guide, and encourage them.另一方面,事先是不容许任何人以申斥的新手,或找到与他们的过错除新手大师本人,其业务,这是教,纠正,引导和鼓励他们,。 Towards the end of the novitiate the probationer was voted on; if he had given satisfaction he was allowed to make his profession, otherwise he was dismissed.受感化者建立的见习期结束被评选上,如果他满意,他被允许让他的职业,否则他被开除了。One of the conditions for profession was that the novice should be able to read fluently and write correctly.行业的条件之一是,新手应该能够流利地阅读并正确填写。Those who might smile at such elementary requirements should remember that reading and writing implied a complete mastery of the Latin grammar and a practical knowledge of the system of abbreviations and contractions, a knowledge of palæography which is not now required either of schoolboys or advanced scholars.那些可能的笑容在这样的基本要求,应该记住,阅读和写作隐含一个完全掌握系统的缩写和收缩,古文字学的知识,这是不是现在需要的学童或先进学者拉丁语法和实用知识。

After profession the provincial decided what was to be done with the young religious.经过专业的省决定什么是要与年轻的宗教做。He might stand in need of further training in grammar and rhetoric, or he might begin at once the study of physics and logic.他可能的立场,在语法和修辞需要进一步培训,或者,他可能开始一次的物理和逻辑的研究。If his own convent afforded no facility for these pursuits, which was probably seldom the case, he would be sent to another.如果自己的修道院给予这些追求,这可能是很少的情况下,没有工厂,他将被发送到另一台。Once a week or a fortnight the teacher would hold a repetition with his scholars in presence of the community so that it might become known who had studied and who had been negligent.一个星期或两个星期后,老师将举行一个与他的学者在社会,使其有可能成为研究过,谁疏忽存在的重复。Special convents were assigned for the study of philosophy and theology; in England the former was taught at Winchester, the latter at Coventry.特别修道院被分配的哲学和神学的研究,在英国,前者是在温彻斯特,后者在考文垂的教导。The higher studies were, however, pursued at the studia generalia of which in 1324 there were eight: Paris, Toulouse, Bologna, Florence, Montpellier, Cologne, London, and Avignon.然而,追求studia generalia在132​​4其中有8个:巴黎,图卢兹,博洛尼亚,佛罗伦萨,蒙彼利埃,科隆,伦敦和阿维尼翁较高的研究。Their number was gradually increased until each province had its own, but in earlier times every province was bound to send a certain number of students to each of these studia, and to provide for their maintenance; they were even free to send a larger number than prescribed, but they had to pay for the full number even if they sent less.它们的数量正在逐步增加,直到每个省都有自己的,但在更早的时候,每个省,势必每个studia发送一定数量的学生,并提供其维修,他们甚至免费送一个较大的数目比订明,但他们不得不支付完整的数字,即使他们派出少。 In addition to the students sent to the studia at the expence of their provinces, others might be sent at the expense of their parents and friends, provided the superiors had given their consent.除了发送到所在省份expence studia的学生,其他人可能是在牺牲自己的父母和朋友发送,为上级提供了他们的同意。Thus the number of students at the Carmelite convent at Paris averaged three hundred, in London over a hundred.因此,加尔默罗女修道院在巴黎的学生人数平均在伦敦的三百年,百余名。The majority of students were sent to pro simplici formâ, that is just to complete their course, after which they returned to their provinces.大部分学生被送到亲simplici备考,这是只是为了完成他们的课程,之后,他们返回自己的省份。

Only the most promising were allowed to study for degrees, because this involved a prolonged residence at the universities, ten, twelve or more years, and a corresponding outlay.只有最有前途的研究度,因为这涉及一个长期居住在大学,十,十二个月或两年以上,以及相应的支出。(For the course of studies and the various steps leading to the degree of Master in Divinity see UNIVERSITIES.) The provincial and general chapters regulated the succession of lecturers on Scripture and the Sentences; particularly at Paris, the foremost university, provision was often made for ten years in advance, so as to ensure a steady supply of able readers and to distribute as far as possible the honours among all the provinces. (对于研究过程中导致的主神看到大学学位的各个步骤)省和一般章节规定的圣经和句子讲师继承;,尤其是在巴黎,最重要的大学,提供常发提前10年,以确保读者能够稳定供应和分配尽可能在所有省份中的荣誉。 For the universities would allow only one friar of each of the mendicant orders to take degrees in the course of a year, and each order was naturally anxious to put its most capable men in the foreground.大学将允许每个乞丐订单只有一个修道士度在一年的过程中,每个订单自然是恨不得把其最能干的男人在前台。It was therefore not an idle boast when it was said, as we read sometimes, of one or other of the Carmelites, that he was the best lecturer of his term at Paris.因此不是一个空闲的吹嘘,当有​​人说,我们读到有时,一个或其他的加尔默罗,他是在他的任期在巴黎的讲师。As Paris was the most celebrated university, so the doctors of Paris had precedence over those of the other universities.作为巴黎最有名的大学,所以巴黎的医生们比其他大学的优先级。During the schism Paris took sides with the Clementist party whose most powerful support it was. Clementist党的最有力的支持,这是在分裂巴黎的双方。The Urbanist party in the Carmelite Order transferred the prerogatives of the graduates of Paris to those of Bologna, a poor makeshift.Urbanist党在加尔默罗令博洛尼亚,一个贫穷的临时巴黎毕业生的特权。 There exists a fairly complete list of the Masters of Paris, but only fragmentary information concerning other universities.存在一个相当完整的列表巴黎大师赛,但只有零碎的信息,关于其他大学。Unfortunately the register of the English province was destroyed during the Reformation, while the greater part of the archives of Oxford and Cambridge were lost during the Civil War, so that the priceless notices collected by John Bale are the chief sources for our knowledge of Carmelite activity at the English universities.不幸的是,英语省登记的宗教改革期间被摧毁,而牛津大学和剑桥大学的档案,大部份是在内战期间失去,使约翰罢了收集的无价的通知,是为我们圣衣活动的知识的主要来源在英国的大学。 This is the more regrettable as the position of Carmelite friars was regulated by special statutes often alluded to, but nowhere preserved.这是圣衣修士的位置更令人遗憾的是经常提到的特殊法规规管,但无处保存。On their return from the universities the religious were usually appointed to some readership, care being taken that in every convent there should be a daily lecture on Scripture and theology.宗教通常被任命为一些读者从大学回来,正在采取的,在每一个修道院,应每天对圣经和神学讲座。

Penalties Established by Rule成立由规则的处罚

The constitutions deal very fully with the faults committed by religious and their punishment.宪法处理非常充分与宗教和他们的处罚犯下的过失。A few words will not be out of place with regard to more serious breaches of discipline, especially the violation of the religious vows.几句话,不会考虑到更严重的违反纪律,特别是违反宗教誓言的地方。Faults against chastity were punished with six months', or, if notorious, with a year's imprisonment, and the loss of voice and place in chapter for from three to five years.故障对贞操被处以六个月,或者,如果声名狼藉,一年的监禁,和章三至五年的语音和地方的损失。If special circumstances required it the punishment was increased, and in the case of a grave scandal the culprit was sent to the galleys for hard labour for a number of years or even for the remainder of his life.如果有特殊情况需要它的处罚明显增加,严重的丑闻案件的罪魁祸首,甚至为他的生活剩下的被送到了数年的辛勤劳动的厨房。 If serious suspicion existed against anyone which it was impossible either to prove or to disprove, the accused was allowed the benefit of canonical purgation, ie having himself denied the charge on oath, he produced six other religious of good name and high standing to affirm on oath that they considered the charge unfounded and the accused innocent.如果存在严重的怀疑,反对任何人,它是不可能的,要么证明或反证,被告被允许规范下法的好处,即有自己拒绝宣誓负责,他制作了6个好名字和崇高的地位,肯定其他宗教宣誓,他们认为无根据的指责无辜的负责。 If unable to find such witnesses, he was punished as though he had been convicted.如果无法找到这样的证人,他是因为他虽然已被定罪处罚。Other faults that occur frequently were open disobedience and rebellion against the command of the superiors, the undue exercise of proprietorship, theft, apostasy (by which was understood any absence from the convent without proper permission, even if there was no intention of quitting the order permanently).经常发生的其他故障,开放的不服从和反抗上级的命令,所有权的不当行使,盗窃,叛教(这是从修道院了解任何情况下,没有适当的权限,即使有没有打算退出的顺序永久)。 Thus, if a religious, being sent from one place to another, tarried on the road without proper cause, or went out of his way without necessity, he was punished as an apostate; again, a lecturer at the universities leaving town before the end of the course was judged guilty of the same crime, his action being prejudicial to the honour of the order.因此,如果一个宗教,正在从一个地方到另一个发送,守侯在道路上没有适当的理由,或去他的方式没有必要性,他作为一个叛教者的惩罚;再次,在年底前离开镇大学的讲师该课程被判定犯同样的罪,他的行动损害为了荣誉。 In all these matters it must be borne in mind that the penal system of the Middle Ages was far less humane than the modern one, and that many faults were ascribed to perversity of will where we should make allowance for weakness of character or even mental derangement.在所有这些问题都必须铭记,中世纪的刑罚制度是远远低于现代的人性化,被赋予许多缺点,我们应该为字符或者甚至精神错乱的弱点津贴的反常。 The more serious faults were judged and punished by the provincial and general chapters, to whom was also reserved the absolution of the culprits and their reinstatement.更严重的故障判断和由省级和一般章节处罚,谁也保留了赦免的罪犯和他们的复职。The general chapters frequently granted free pardon to all prisoners except those recently condemned and there were occasional complaints that some of the superiors showed undue leniency; but the material before us proves that on the whole discipline was well maintained.一般章节常常给予赦免所有囚犯,除了那些最近谴责和有偶尔投诉,一些上级表现出过分的宽大,但摆在我们面前的材料证明,在整个学科保持良好。 With an average of twenty thousand friars or more during the fifteenth century, the "Chronique scandaleuse" is singularly unimportant, a fact that tells in favour of the order, all the more as a large percentage of this number consisted of students at the great universities exposed to many temptations.平均两万修士或以上,在15世纪,“Chronique scandaleuse”奇异不重要,赞成为了告诉一个事实,作为这个数字的很大比例,包括学生在伟大的大学接触到很多的诱惑。

Constitutional Revisions修宪

These constitutions underwent numerous changes.这些宪法经历了无数的变化。Almost every chapter made additions which were frequently canceled or qualified by subsequent chapters.几乎每章以后的章节中,经常取消或合格的补充。John Balistarius (1358-74) published a revised edition in 1369 (unedited) and the mitigation of the rule by Eugene IV necessitated a further revision under John Soreth (1462, printed in 1499).约翰Balistarius(1358年至1374年)发表在1369修订版(未编辑),尤金四规则的缓解,需要进一步修订根据约翰Soreth(1462,在1499年印)。 Nevertheless it must be admitted that the legislation of the order moved too slowly, and that many measures were out of date almost as soon as they were passed.尽管如此,它必须承认,为了立法动议太慢,许多措施过时几乎他们尽快获得通过。Moreover, laws that may have been excellent for Norway or England were hardly applicable in Sicily or at Seville.此外,可能已被挪威和英国的优秀法律难以适用于西西里岛,或在塞维利亚。These simple facts account for many complaints about relaxation or want of discipline.这些简单的事实帐户有关放宽不少投诉,或要纪律。

From the approbation of the order by the Council of Lyons until the outbreak of the great Western Schism (1274-1378) there was a steady increase in provinces and convents, interrupted only temporarily by the Black Death.从顺序由里昂西部大分裂(1274年至1378年)的爆发,直到理事会认可的,有在省和修道院的稳步增长,只是暂时中断黑死病。 At the time of the schism it was not left to the provinces, much less to individuals, to choose their own party; they necessarily followed the politics of the country to which they belonged.在分裂时,它没有离开的省份,更谈不上给个人,要选择自己的党,他们一定跟着他们所属国家的政治。A census taken in 1390 shows the following provinces on the Urbanist side: Cyprus (number of convents not stated); Sicily, with 18 convents; England with 35; Rome with 5; Lower Germany with 12; Lombardy with 12 or 13; Tuscany with 7; Bologna with 8; and Gascony with 6.在1390普查显示Urbanist方以下省份:塞浦路斯(没有说明修道院);西西里岛,18修道院;英格兰35与5罗马;德国有12与12或13伦巴第,托斯卡纳7,博洛尼亚8;与6加斯科尼。 The Clementist party with the Scottish, French, Spanish, and the greater number of the German houses, was rather more powerful.Clementist党与苏格兰,法国,西班牙,和德国的房屋数量更多,而更强大。The general, Bernard Olerius (1375-83) being a native of Calatonia, adhered to Clement VII, and was succeeded first by Raymond Vaquerius and next by John Grossi (1389-1430), one of the most active generals, who during the schism made numerous foundations and maintained excellent discipline among the religious belonging to his party, so that at the union in 1411 he was unanimously elected general of the whole order.一般情况下,伯纳德Olerius(1375年至1383年)是一个土生土长的Calatonia,坚持克莱门特七世,并成功首先由约翰格罗西(1389年至1430年),最活跃的将领之一,由Raymond Vaquerius和明年的世卫组织在分裂众多的基金会和宗教属于他的党之间保持优良的纪律,使工会于1411年,他被一致推选为一般的整体秩序。 The Urbanists had been less fortunate.在城市规划已经那么幸运了。Michael de Anguanis who succeeded Olerius (1379-86) having become suspect, was deposed after a long trial; the financial administration was far from satisfactory, and the loss of Paris proved a serious blow to that section of the order.迈克尔 - Anguanis成功Olerius(1379年至1386年)成为犯罪嫌疑人,被废黜经过长期试验,财务管理是远远不能令人满意,和巴黎的损失证明是一个严重的打击,该段的顺序。 Soon after the re-establishment of the union a radical change of the rule became necessary.不久后重新建立工会的规则的彻底改变成为必要。This, as has been seen, was originally composed for a handful of hermits living in a singularly mild climate.这一点,我们已经看到,最初是由少数的隐士生活在一个奇异的气候温和。Notwithstanding the few changes made by Innocent IV, the rule had proved too severe for those who spent one half of their life in the intellectual turmoil of the university and the other half in the exercise of the sacred ministry at home.尽管诺森四的一些变化,规则也已证明,那些花了他们生活的一半,在大学和另一半在行使在家的神圣部的智力风暴的严重。Accordingly Eugenius IV granted in 1432 a mitigation allowing the use of flesh meat on three or four days a week, and dispensing with the law of silence and retirement.因此,叶夫根尼四,授予在1432缓解允许使用三四天一个星期肉的肉,免除沉默和退休的法律。But even so the chief abuses that had crept in during the fourteenth century were by no means abolished.但即便如此,蹑手蹑脚在14世纪的行政滥用,并没有取消。

Abuses, Irregularities滥用职权,违规

It is indispensable to have a clear idea of these abuses in order to understand the reforms called into life to counteract them.这是必不可少的,这些侵权行为有清晰的思路,以了解所谓深入生活,以抵消他们的改革。

The permanency of superiors.上级的永久性。Even an excellent superior is liable to lose his first energy after a number of years while an indifferent superior seldom improves.即使是一个优秀的上司是可能失去了数年后他的第一次能源,而无动于衷上级很少提高。This is one of the most difficult problems in the history of monasticism, but the experience of fifteen hundred years has turned the scales in favour of a limited tenure of office.这是修道的历史中最困难的问题之一,但一千五百多年的经验已经转向赞成有限的办公任期的尺度。

The right of private property.私有财产的权利。Notwithstanding the vow of poverty many religious were allowed the use of certain revenues from hereditary property, or the disposal of moneys acquired by their work, teaching, preaching, the copying of books, etc. All this was fully regulated by the constitutions and required special permission from the superiors.尽管贫困的许多宗教的誓言被允许使用某些世袭的财产,或出售他们的工作,教学,传道,复制书籍收购款项收入,等这一切都完全受宪法和需要特殊从上级的许可。 It was, therefore, quite reconcilable with a good conscience, but it necessarily caused inequality between rich and poor friars.因此,这是相当具有良好的良心调和,但它必然造成不平等之间的富国和穷国的修士。

The acceptance of posts of honour outside the order.接受外为了荣誉职位。From the middle of the fourteenth century the popes became more and more lavish in granting the privileges of papal chaplaincies, etc., to those who paid a small fee to the Apostolic chancery.从十四世纪中叶,教皇成为更多和更豪华的教皇chaplaincies等授予的特权,那些支付一小笔费用使徒尚书。 These privileges practically withdrew religious from the rule of their superiors.这些权限几乎退出宗教从他们的上司的统治。 Again, after the Black Death (1348) thousands of benefices fell vacant, which were too small to provide a living for an incumbent; these were eagerly sought after by religious, among others by Carmelites, who, for an insignificant service, such as the occasional celebration of Mass in a chantry, obtained a small but acceptable income.后,再次黑死病(1348)数以千计的benefices下跌空置,这是现任太小,无法提供生活,这些都是急切寻求的宗教后,加尔默罗别人的人,一个微不足道的服务,如中偶尔的庆祝活动,在一个小教堂的质量,获得一个小,但可以接受的收入。 The papal dispensation ab compatibilibus and the necessary permission of the superiors were easily obtained.教皇省却AB compatibilibus和必要的权限,上级很容易获得。Others again were empowered to serve high ecclesiastics or lay people "in all things becoming a religious" or to act as chaplains on board ship, or to fill the post of organist in parish churches.还有一些人有权为高教士或外行“人在成为一个宗教的所有事情”,或作为牧师在船上,或在教区教堂的风琴师的职位,以填补。 All such exceptions, of which many instances could be quoted, tended to loosen the bonds of religious observance; they filled with pride those who had obtained them and with envy those who were less fortunate.所有这些例外,其中许多情况下可以援引,往往放松宗教仪式的债券;他们充满自豪那些已取得他们羡慕那些不太幸运。

A further source of disorder was found in the small convents with only a few religious, who, naturally, could not be expected to keep up the full observance and sometimes appear to have kept hardly any.无序的进一步源被发现在只有少数的宗教,人,自然无法预料跟上全面遵守,有时会出现一直几乎没有任何小修道院。

Reforms改革

These and other abuses were by no means peculiar to the Carmelites; they occurred, to say the least, in an equal degree in all the mendicant orders, and awakened everywhere loud cries for reform.这些和其他虐待手段奇特的加尔默罗;发生,可以说至少在同等程度在所有的乞丐订单,并为改革惊醒到处大声呼喊。In point of fact, long before the end of the Western Schism nearly every order had inaugurated that long series of partial and local reforms which constitutes one of the most refreshing elements in the history of the fifteenth century; but though it seems to have remained unknown to the strenuous reformers, no lasting improvement was possible so long as the root of the evil was not removed.事实上,前不久结束的西方分裂的几乎每一个订单开始,长系列的局部改革,构成在十五世纪的历史上最令人耳目一新的元素之一,但尽管它似乎仍然不明剧烈的改革者,没有持久的改善是可能的,所以只要邪恶的根源是不会被删除。 This was not in the power of individual reformers, even of saints, but required the concerted action of the whole Church.这不是改革者个人的权力,甚至是圣人,但需要采取协调一致的行动对整个教会。It required a Council of Trent to raise the whole conception of religious life to a higher level.这需要安理会的遄达宗教生活的整个观念,提高到一个更高的水平。The first step towards reform in the Carmelite Order dates from 1413, when three convents, Le Selve near Florence, Gerona, and Mantua, agreed to adopt certain principles, among which were the limitation of the tenure of office to two years, with an enforced vacation of four years between each two terms of office, the abolition of all private property, and the resignation of all posts necessitating the residence of religious outside their convents.在加尔默罗令对改革的第一步日期从1413开始,当三个修道院,乐Selve佛罗伦萨附近,赫罗纳,曼图亚,同意采取一定的原则,其中有两年任期的限制,强迫,度假的四间办公室每两个方面,取消所有的私有财产,和所有宗教以外的修道院居住需要职位辞职。 After considerable difficulty, the congregation of Mantua, as it was called, obtained in 1442 quasi-autonomy under a vicar-general.经过相当的难度,曼图亚众,因为它被称为,获得1442准自治下副主教一般。It gradually brought under its authority several other houses in Italy, but it was only after the death of the general, John Soreth, himself an ardent reformer but an enemy of all separatist tendencies, that it began to spread with rapidity.它逐渐受到其权威性几个在意大利的其他房屋,但它是只死亡后,一般情况下,约翰Soreth,自己是一个热心的改革者,但所有的分裂主义倾向的敌人,它开始迅速蔓延。 In 1602 it counted fifty-two houses.1602年,算五十两院。The most celebrated member of this reform was Blessed Baptista Mantuanus (Spagnoli) (qv) who filled the office of vicar-general six times and became general of the whole order.这项改革的最有名的成员是有福巴普蒂斯塔Mantuanus(Spagnoli)(QV)填补了办公室副主教一般6倍,并成为整个秩序一般。 The statutes of this congregation were printed in 1540 and again in 1602.这个教会的章程于1540年,于1602年再次印刷。After the French Revolution it was amalgamated with the remains of the old stock of the order in Italy.法国大革命后,这是为了在意大利的老股票仍然合并。

Blessed John Soreth (1451-71) throughout his long generalship carried out a similar reform, but on the basis of the constitutions.福若望Soreth(1451年至1471年)在他的长大将进行了类似的改革,但宪法的基础上。His own life and work are a proof that under certain circumstances a protracted tenure of office can be most profitable.他自己的生活和工作证明,在某些情况下,长期的办公任期可以最有利可图的。While offically visiting numerous provinces he established in each of them several reformed houses whither the most fervent religious flocked.他虽然正式访问许多省份建立在每一个改革的几个房屋往那最狂热的宗教蜂拥而至。For these he obtained many privileges; no superior could refuse permission to one desirous of joining such a convent; the very fact of entering a reformed house dispensed a religious from penalties previously incurred, which, however, would revive should he return to a non-reformed convent.对于这些,他获得了许多特权,没有优越的可能拒绝加入这样一个修道院的渴望;进入一个改革家的张女士免除刑罚以前发生的,不过,能恢复的宗教,他应该返回非改革修道院。 No superior could withdraw a member of a reformed community except for the purpose of reforming other houses through his instrumentality.没有上级可以撤回改革后的社会成员,除了改革其他房子通过他的工具的目的。If Soreth was, on the whole, successful in his enterprise he also encountered a certain amount of systematic opposition on the part of graduates who were loth to give up their privileges of not attending choir, of taking their meals privately, and of having lay brothers and "fags" [younger brothers required to perform certain menial tasks] for their personal attendance, and who preferred to withdraw to distant convents rather than submit to the rules of the general.如果Soreth是,就整体而言,在他的企业成功,他也遇到了毕业生谁是loth放弃他们的特权,不参加合唱团,私下吃饭,一定量的系统性反对,并奠定兄弟,和“fags”[弟弟需要执行某些琐碎的任务,为他们的个人求诊,和谁的首选撤回到遥远的修道院,而不是向一般规则。 The latter obtained leave from the Holy See to fill up the gaps by bestowing the title of doctor on those who were not qualified by a proper course at the universities, a most dangerous proceeding, which before long led to fresh and serious abuses.后者获得教廷离开给予那些没有在适当的大学,一个最危险的程序,这导致在不久的新鲜和严重侵犯课程合格的医生标题填补的空白。 It has often been asserted that Soreth died of poison, but there is no foundation for such a calumny.经常有人断言Soreth死于毒药,但有没有这样一个诽谤基础。Even after his death the movement so happily inaugurated did not lose all vigour, but neither of his two immediate successors understood the art of appealing to the higher nature of his subjects, whereby Soreth had gained his marvellous influence.如此兴高采烈地开始了运动,即使在他死后并没有失去所有的活力,但既不是他的两个直接后继理解,呼吁他的臣民,即Soreth取得了他的奇妙的影响性质艺术。 Christopher Martignon (1472-81) was considered an intruder, his election being ascribed to the pressure exercised by Sixtus IV, his personal friend, and Pontius Raynaud (1482-1502) had the reputation of being a martinet.克里斯托弗Martignon(1472年至1481年)被认为是一个入侵者,他的当选被归因于由Sixtus IV,他个人的朋友,和丢雷诺(1482至1502年)所行使的压力,有一个马蒂的声誉。Peter Terasse (1503-13) visited most of the provinces and has left in his register (unedited) a vivid picture of the condition of the order immediately before the Reformation.彼得Terasse(1503至1513年),参观了大部分的省份,并一直留在他的选民登记册(未编辑)一个生动的画面以便立即宗教改革之前的条件。 Many convents, he is able to state, were thoroughly reformed, while others were far from perfect.许多修道院,他能状态,彻底改革,而其他人则很不完善。He himself, however, was too generous in granting licenses and privileges, and, though strict in punishing, he contributed not a little to the very abuses he intended to abolish.然而,他本人在惩罚过于慷慨,在发放许可证和特权,而且,尽管严格,他贡献了他打算取消的滥用不是一个小。His successor, Blessed Baptista Mantuanus (1513-16), was too old and worn out to exercise any lasting influence.他的继任者,有福了巴普蒂斯塔Mantuanus(1513年至1516年),太旧,磨损行使任何持久的影响力。 He obtained, however, the recognition and approbation of the congregation of Albi.然而,他获得了阿尔比众的认同和赞许。

This congregation had been established in 1499 by Bishop Louis d'Amboise, who, there being no reformed convent in the province of France, obtained from Mantuanus tow religious, one of whom died on the road; the survivor found in the Collège Montaigu in Paris some twenty students willing to embrace the religious life.这个教会已经在1499年成立主教路易斯德昂布瓦兹,Mantuanus丝束宗教,其中一人死亡的道路上取得的人,有没有在法国全省的改革修道院,在巴黎大学蒙太古发现幸存者约二十名学生愿意接受的宗教生活。 They were placed in the convent of Albi, while the legitimate inmates were dispersed.他们被安置在修道院的阿尔比,而合法的囚犯被分散。Soon other convents, Meaux, Rouen, Toulouse, joined the movement, at the head of which was Louis de Lyra.很快其他修道院,莫城,鲁昂,图卢兹,参加了运动,在头部的是路易斯de天琴座。It is related, though hardly credible, that the general died of grief when he heard of this new rift in the unity of the order.,虽然几乎没有可信的,它与一般的悲痛去世时,他听说本为了统一的新的裂痕。The General Chapter of 1503 excommunicated Louis de Lyra on the ground that the right of reforming belonged to the general and not to self-constituted reformers. 1503总章驱逐在地面上,改革的权利属于一般,而不是自我构成改革者路易斯de天琴座。But the congregation was already strong enough to offer resistance and had even found an entrance into the most important convent of the order, that of Paris.但众已经强大到足以提供阻力,甚至发现订单的最重要的修道院的入口,巴黎。The next year Terasse spent five months there trying to win back the dissidents.明年Terasse花了5个月,有试图赢回持不同政见者。At last, by a strange error of judgment, he ordered the lecturers to leave Paris at the conclusion of the term and the students to return to their native convents within three days.最后,一​​个奇怪的错误判断,他下令讲师离开巴黎缔结的长期和学生,在三天内返回家乡修道院。The natural result was that many of them formally joined the congregation of Albi which now obtained complete control at Paris.自然的结果是,其中许多人正式加入众的阿尔比,现在在巴黎获得完全控制。A compromise was then reached whereby the vacancies were alternately filled by the order and by the congregation of Albi.当时达成了妥协,即职位空缺交替充满秩序和阿尔比众。Baptista Mantuanus obtained for the latter papal approbation and an extension of the privileges of his own congregation.巴普蒂斯塔Mantuanus获得后者的罗马教皇的认可和扩展自己众的特权。Notwithstanding this victory the new congregation became prey to disunion and was unable to make much headway.尽管这场胜利的新众成为猎物不愈,未能取得多大进展。The evils brought about by the Reformation and the civil and religious wars weighed heavily upon it until, in 1584, it was dissolved by the Holy See.权衡后,宗教改革和民间和宗教战争带来的罪恶严重,直到1584年,它是由罗马教廷解散,请参阅。

A further reform of somewhat different nature was that of the convent of Mount Olivet near Genoa, 1514; it consisted in a return to the purely contemplative life and the ancient austerity of the order.一个有点不同性质的进一步改革是山,1514热那亚附近的橄榄山上的修道院,它包括在回归纯粹沉思的生活和古代紧缩的命令。 The general, Giovanni Battista Rubeo, has left a record that during his visit there in 1568, which lasted only three days, he abstained from flesh meat.一般,乔万尼巴蒂斯塔Rubeo,留下的记录,在他访问期间,于1568年,历时仅三天有他从肉体肉中投了弃权票。This reform continued well into the seventeenth century.这项改革一直持续到十七世纪。A later reform modelled upon that of St. Teresa was inaugurated at Rennes in 1604 by Philip Thibault (1572-1638) and nine companions.后来改革后的圣德肋撒为蓝本,在雷恩菲利普蒂博(1572年至1638年)和9个同伴在1604年落成。 With the assistance of the Discalced Carmelites he was able to give it a solid basis, so that before long it embraced the whole province of Touraine.随着Discalced加尔默罗的协助下,他能够给它一个坚实的基础,这样用不了多久,它接受了全省的图海纳。 Unlike the other reforms it remained in organic union with the bulk of the order, and enjoyed the favour of the French Court.不像其他的改革,它仍然与大宗订单的有机结合,并享有赞成法国法院。Among its greatest ornaments were Leo of St. John, one of the first superiors, and the blind lay brother, John of St. Sampson, author of various works on the contemplative life.狮子座的圣约翰,第一上级之一,盲目奠定兄弟,约翰圣桑普森,沉思的生活的各种作品的作者在其最大的饰品。

Affiliations, Carmelite Sisters背景,加尔默罗修女

About the middle of the fifteenth century several communities of Beguines at Gueldre, Dinant, etc., approached John Soreth with the request that they be affiliated to the order (1452).关于十五世纪中叶的几个社区Beguines Gueldre,迪南等,走近约翰Soreth与他们下属的顺序(1452)的要求。He gave them the rule and constitutions of the friars, to which he added some special regulations which unfortunately do not appear to be preserved.他给他们的修士的规则和宪法,他补充说,不幸似乎并没有被保留的一些特殊规定。 The prestige of the Carmelite Sisters grew rapidly when the Duchess of Brittany, Blessed Frances d'Amboise (1427-85), joined one of the convents, which she herself had founded.布列塔尼公爵夫人,圣弗朗西斯德昂布瓦兹(1427年至1485年),加入修道院,她自己成立了一个加尔默罗修女的威信迅速增长。 Before the end of the century there were convents in France, Italy (Blessed Jane Scopelli, 1491), and Spain.在本世纪末之前,在法国,意大利(有福简Scopelli,1491),西班牙的修道院。Especially in the latter country the manner of life of the nuns was greatly admired, and several convents became so crowded that the slender means available hardly sufficed for their maintenance.尼姑的生活的方式,尤其是在后者国家十分钦佩,和几个修道院变得如此拥挤,修长的手段几乎足以其维修。

St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross德兰和圣十字若望

The convent of the Incarnation at Avila was destined to fashion the brightest ornament of the Carmelite Order, St. Teresa of Jesus.修道院在阿维拉的化身,是注定要时尚加尔默罗订购,圣德肋撒的耶稣最亮的装饰品。Born in 1515 she entered the convent in 1535 and made her profession in the following year.生于1515年,她在1535年进入修道院,并在次年她的职业。Shortly afterwards she fell ill and, unable to fulfill the usual duties of a religious, gave herself to the practice of mental prayer.不久之后,她病倒了,无法履行宗教通常职责,给自己的实践精神祈祷。Frightened by her directors, who believed her trances to be diabolical illusions, she passed through a period of interior trials which awakened in her the desire for a more perfect life.害怕她的董事,相信她恍惚,被凶残的幻想,她通过一段时间在她唤醒了一个更完美的生活的愿望的室内试验。Learning that the primitive rule aimed at the contemplative life and prescribed several austerities which had since been dispensed with, she resolved upon the foundation of a convent for thirteen nuns in her native town, which after many difficulties was established on 24 August, 1562.学习的原始规则,目的是在沉思的生活和规定已被免除,她为13修女在她的家乡,其中许多困难后,成立于1562年8月24日,修道院的基础后解决的几个苦行。 The general, Rubeo (1564-78), who at that time visited Spain, approved of what St. Teresa had done and encouraged her to make further foundations.一般情况下,Rubeo(1564年至1578年),当时访问了西班牙,圣德肋撒做了批准,并鼓励她作出进一步的基础。 In a letter written from Barcelona (unedited) he enlarged on the blessings of the contemplative life and granted permission for the establishment of two convents for reformed friars within the province of Castile.在从巴塞罗那(未编辑)写了一封信,他扩大会议上的沉思生活的祝福,并为建立两个在卡斯蒂利亚省改革修士的修道院授予的权限。 But warned by what had happened in the case of the congregation of Albi he made some very stringent regulations so as to suppress from the outset any separatist tendencies.但他警告说,阿尔比众的情况下,他提出了一些非常严格的规定,以制止任何分离主义倾向从一开始就发生了什么。 In the course of fifteen years St. Teresa founded sixteen more convents of nuns, often in the teeth of the most obstinate oppression.在十五年的过程中,圣德肋撒创办了16个修女修道院,往往在最顽固的压迫牙齿。

Among the friars she found two willing helpmates, the prior Anton de Heredia who had already filled important posts in the order, eg that of auditor of civil causes at the General Chapter of 1564, and St. John of the Cross, who had just completed his studies.其中修道士,她发现两个愿意帮手,例如,核数师一般在1564章民事原因已经充满秩序的重要职位的前安东 - 埃雷迪亚,和圣约翰的十字架,谁刚刚完成他的研究。They entered with supernatural courage upon a life of untold hardships and were joined not only by a number of postulants, but also by many of their former brethren in religion.千辛万苦生活后,他们进入超自然的勇气,不仅加入的postulants人数,也由许多他们的前兄弟宗教。The province of Castile being numerically weak, it stands to reason that the provincial resented the departure of so many of his subjects, among whom were the most reliable and promising.卡斯蒂利亚省数字弱,它代表省反感,所以他的很多科目离开的理由,其中最可靠的和有希望的。The papal nuncio, Hormaneto, was favourably disposed towards the reform. Hormaneto,罗马教皇的教廷大使,是倾向于对改革。As Apostolic visitor of the religious orders he wielded papal powers and considered himself entitled to overrule the restrictions of the general.使徒游客的宗教命令他挥起教皇的权力,并认为自己有权推翻了一般的限制。 He granted leave for the foundation of other convents of friars, besides the two stipulated by the general, and for the extension of the reform to the province of Andalusia.他授予的其他修道院的修士基础离开,除了两个一般规定,并为改革延伸到安达卢西亚省。

By an almost incomprehensible error of judgment he appointed visitor of the Calced Carmelites of this last named province Jerome of the Mother of God (Jerome Gratian, 1545-1615) who had just made his profession among the Reformed or Discalced Carmelites, and who, however zealous and prudent, could lay no claim to much experience of the religious life.几乎是不可理解的错误判断,他任命这最后命名为省杰罗姆的母亲神(杰罗姆Gratian,1545年至1615年),刚刚提出改革或Discalced加尔默罗他的职业Calced加尔默罗旅客,和谁,但热心和审慎的,可以奠定声称没有多少经验的宗教生活。 The Calced Carmelites appealed to Rome, and the result was that the general took a great dislike to the new reform.Calced加尔默罗呼吁罗马,结果是一般了一个伟大的厌恶新的改革。He himself was a reformer, and had favoured the foundation of a convent of reformed nuns at Alcalá de Henares by Mary of Jesus (1563), and of a reformed convent of friars at Onde in Aragon under James Montanes (1565), and in his visitations he frequently resorted to drastic measures to bring about improvements; moreover he was a strict disciplinarian, punishing faults with a severity which to us seems inconceivable.他本人是一位改革者,有利于改革修女修道院的耶稣玛丽(1563),在阿尔卡拉的基础和改革修道院的修士在阿拉贡Onde詹姆斯蒙塔内斯(1565)下,并在他的探视他动辄采取严厉措施,以改善,而且他是一个严格的纪律的,惩治故障,这对我们似乎是不可思议的严重性。 When he found that the danger he had striven to avert, viz.当他发现的危险,他努力避免,即。a repetition of the disorders caused by the congregation of Albi, had actually occurred, he resolved to root out the new reform.一个重复的阿尔比众所造成的障碍,实际发生的,他决心深挖新的改革。The General Chapter of 1575 decided to abolish the Discalced Carmelites, threatened to send Mariano del Terdo, formerly a hermit, and Baldassare Nieto, an ex-Minim, to their former abodes, ordered the three Andalusian convents of Grenada, Seville, and Peñuela, to be closed, and the friars to return to their proper convents within three days. 1575总章决定取消Discalced加尔默罗,扬言要送马里亚诺DEL Terdo,隐士,和Baldassare涅托,当然微量,其前住所,下令格林纳达,塞维利亚和Peñuela三个安达卢西亚修道院,要关闭,并三天内返回到其正确的修道院的修士。 The acts of the chapter (unedited) are silent as to the nuns, but it is known from the correspondence of St. Teresa that she received orders to choose one of her convents their to remain, and to abstain from further foundations.尼姑章(未编辑)的行为是无声的,但它是从圣德肋撒的信件,她收到的订单选择她的一个修道院依然存在,而放弃进一步的基础。

The Discalced friars, however, relying upon the powers they had received from the nuncio, resisted these commands and went so far as to hold a provincial chapter at Almodóvar (1576).然而,Discalced修士,依赖的权力,他们从教廷大使,抵制这些命令和竟然举行省章在阿尔莫多瓦(1576)。 The general sent a visitor with ample powers, Girolamo Tostado, who for some years had been his official companion and was fully acquainted with his intentions.一般发送具有足够的权力的旅客,吉罗拉莫Tostado,几年曾经是他的官方伴侣和完全了解他的意图。At this juncture the nuncio died and was succeeded by Sega, who at first remained impartial but soon began to proceed vigorously against the reform.在这个时候,教廷大使死亡和世嘉,首先保持公正,但很快就开始大力进行反对改革成功。A second chapter having been held at the same place (1578), the nuncio excommunicated all the capitulars; St. John of the Cross was seized in the convent of the Incarnation at Avila where he was confessor and hurried to Toledo, where he was thrown into a dungeon and cruelly treated; others were imprisoned elsewhere.第二个章节已在同一地点举行(1578),与大使逐出教会所有capitulars;圣十字若望在修道院的化身,被扣押在阿维拉,他是忏悔,并急忙向托莱多,在那里他被抛出成一个地牢和残酷对待;人被监禁在别处。 The persecution lasted for nearly a year until at length Philip II intervened.迫害持续了将近一年,直到菲利普二世在长度干预。 The reform having thus proved too strong, it was resolved to give it legal standing by establishing a special province for the Discalced friars and nuns, but under obedience to the general (1580).改革后从而证明太强大了,它解决了,给它建立一个Discalced修士和修女的特殊省的法律地位,但下服从一般(1580年)。 The first provincial was Jerome Gratian who throughout had been the chief support of St. Teresa.第一个省级杰罗姆Gratian贯穿了圣德肋撒的行政支持。To her it was given to see the triumph of her work, but dying on 4 October, 1582, she was spared the pain which the disunion among the friars of her own reform must have caused her.她看到她工作的胜利,但是,1582年10月4日死亡,她才幸免于难她自身的改革修士之间的分裂的必须有给她造成的痛苦。 When founding her first convent she had a definite object in view.当她的第一个修道院成立时,她已在查看一个明确的对象。Not only was she anxious to reintroduce the contemplative life, but knowing how many souls were daily being lost through heresy and unbelief she wished the nuns to pray and offer up their mortifications for the conversion of infidels and heretics, while the friars were also to engage in active work.不仅是重新沉思的生活,她着急,但我们知道有多少灵魂每天通过异端和不信,她希望修女祈祷,并提供了对异教徒和异端的转换mortifications丢失,而修士也参与在积极开展工作。 She was delighted when St. John of the Cross and his brethren went from village to village instructing the ignorant in Christian doctrine, and her joy knew no bounds when, in 1582, missioners of the order were sent out to the Congo.她很高兴圣十字架的约翰和他的弟兄来到村与村,指导基督教教义的无知,知道她的快乐没有界限的时候,在1582年,顺序传教士被送往刚果。 This first missionary expedition, as well as a second, came to an abrupt end through misadventures at sea, but a third was successful, at least so long as it received support from home.这第一个传教士探险队,以及第二,来到一个戛然而止,通过在海上不幸的事,但第三个是成功的,至少只要接到家里的支持。

Jerome Gratian, the provincial, was heart and soul in these undertakings.杰罗姆Gratian,省,这些承诺在心脏和灵魂。When his tenure of office expired he was replaced by a man of a very different stamp, Nocoló Doria, known in religion as Nicholas of Jesus (1539-94), a Genoese who had come to Spain as the representative of a large banking house, in which capacity he was able to render important services to the king.当他的任期届满的一个非常不同的邮票的人,Nocoló的Doria在宗教被称为尼古拉耶稣(1539年至1594年),曾到西班牙作为一个大钱庄的代表热那亚,他被替换了,在这种能力,他能够提供重要服务的王。 Aspiring after a higher life, he distributed his immense fortune among the poor, took Holy orders and joined the reformed friars at Seville (1577).拟任更高的生活后,他分发给穷人之间的巨大财富,采取了神圣的命令,并在塞维利亚(1577)加入改革的修士。He rapidly rose from dignity to dignity, and while engaged in the foundation of a convent in his native town, was elected provincial of the Discalced Carmelites.他迅速上升,从尊严的尊严,而在从事基础的一个修道院,在他的家乡,当选为省Discalced加尔默罗。 Endowed with an iron will and indomitable energy, he at once began to fashion his subjects after his own ideas.拥有钢铁般的意志和顽强的能源,他开始在一次时尚,他自己的想法后,他的臣民。Having known only the old stock of the order during the troublous times preceding the separation of his province, he was not attached to the order as such.在已知的只有旧股的顺序,在省里的分离前的多事之秋,他不重视,以这样的顺序。He widened rather than lessened the breach by laying aside, on a mere pretext and against the wishes of the friars, the venerable Carmelite Liturgy in favour of the new Roman Office books, and by soliciting useless privileges from Rome; he withdrew the missioners from the Congo, renounced once for all every idea of spreading the order beyond the frontiers of Spain, restricted the active work to a minimum, increased the austerities, and without consulting the chapter introduced a new form a government which, it was said at the time, was more fit for the policing of an unruly Italian republic than for the direction of a religious order.他扩大搁置,只是借口,反对的修士的意愿,古老的加尔默罗礼仪赞成新罗马办公室的书籍,并通过征求无用的特权,从罗马,而不是减轻了违反,他退出了传教士刚果,一旦放弃了所有的每一个传播超越西班牙边境的秩序的想法,限制到最低限度的积极工作,增加了苦行,并没有咨询本章引入了一个新形式的政府,这是说,当时,更适合不羁的意大利共和国的治安比一个宗教秩序的方向。 He relegated St. John of the Cross to an out-of-the-way convent and on the flimsiest pretext expelled Jerome Gratian.他退居到一个偏僻的修道院和圣十字若望驱逐杰罗姆Gratian上站不住脚的借口。Finally at the General Chapter of 1593 he proposed "for the sake of peace and tranquillity and for many other reasons", the total separation of the Discalced Carmelites from the rest of the order, which was granted by a Bull of 20 December, of the same year.最后1593总章中,他提出的“为了和平与安宁和许多其他原因”,从其余的秩序,这是由12月20日公牛授予Discalced加尔默罗完全分离,同年。 Doria now became the first general of the Discalced Carmelites.多利亚现在成为第一Discalced加尔默罗一般。He died a few months later.他去世几个月后。It would be unjust to belittle his merits and talents, but it must be acknowledged that in many respects his spirit was diametrically opposed to the lofty conceptions of St. Teresa and the generous dispositions of St. John of the Cross, while the unwarranted expulsion of Jerome Gratian is a blot on his reputation.这将是不公正的贬低他的功绩和才华,但必须承认,在许多方面,他的精神是截然相反的德兰和圣十字若望的慷慨处分权的崇高概念,而无理驱逐杰罗姆Gratian是他的声誉的一个污点。 It was, he said on his death-bed, the only thing that troubled him.据他说,对他的逝世床,唯一困扰他。The Spanish Carmelites having practically renounced all exterior work and interest, the further history of that branch reduces itself to notices on the foundations of convents, and the truly edifying life of numerous friars and nuns.西班牙加尔默罗几乎放弃了所有外部工作和利息,该分行进一步的历史可以减少本身的修道院的基础上的告示,以及众多的修士和修女真正有启发性的的生活。 At the end of the eighteenth century Spain possessed eight provinces with about 130 convents of friars and 93 of nuns.在十八世纪末,西班牙的八个省份拥有约130修道院的修士和修女93。The greater number of these convents were suppressed in 1836, but many have been restored since 1875, when the old Spanish congregation was united with the Italian congregation.这些修道院在1836年被镇压,但许多已经恢复了1875年以来,美国与意大利众时,古老的西班牙众。 They now constitute the Order of the Discalced Carmelites, without subdivision.现在,他们构成Discalced加尔默罗订购,没有细分。The Portuguese province was separated from the Spanish congregation in 1773 for political reasons; it possessed twenty-one convents of friars and nine of nuns, nearly all of which were secularized in 1834.葡萄牙省在1773年脱离西班牙众,出于政治原因,它拥有二十一修道院的修士和修女9,几乎所有这些在1834年世俗化。

Missionary Work宣教工作

As has been said, the first two missionary undertakings came to a premature end, one on account of shipwreck, the members of the other being captured by privateers.正如人们所说的,前两个传教事业来提前结束,对沉船帐户之一,其他成员被抓获私。When set free the missioners, instead of resuming their journey to the west coast of Africa, proceeded to Mexico, where they laid the foundation of a province which in the course of time embraced twenty convents of friars and ten of nuns, but was finally suppressed by the Government.当设置免费的传教士,而不是继续他们的旅程非洲西海岸,前往墨西哥,在那里他们的一个省,这在时间过程中接受20修道院的方济各会士和修女10奠定了基础,但终于抑制由政府负责。 As early as 1563 Rubeo had granted leave to the Calced friar, Francisco Ruiz, to make foundations in Peru, Florida, and elsewhere, nominating him at the same time vicar-general.为1563 Rubeo早已经获准Calced修道士弗朗西斯科鲁伊斯,使基金会在美国佛罗里达州秘鲁,,和其他地方,提名他同时副主教一般。By 1573 there were convents at Santa Fè (New Mexico), New Grenada, and other places, and provision was made for further increase.到1573圣达菲(新墨西哥州),格林纳达和其他地方的修道院,并提供进一步增加。The Chapter of 1666 took the matter seriously in hand and after certain reforms had been carried out the provinces of Bahia, Pernambuco, and Rio de Janeiro were erected in 1720. 1666年“一章了问题严重的手,已经进行了某些改革后,巴伊亚,伯南布哥州和里约热内卢的省份在1720年架设。There were also convents in Guadeloupe and San Domingo, and there is evidence that foundations were contemplated, if not actually made, in the Philippine Islands as far back as 1705.也有在瓜德罗普岛和圣多明戈修道院,以及有证据基金会的设想,如果不是实际上早在1705菲律宾群岛,。The Discalced Carmelite nuns of the Spanish congregation found their way to the states of South America as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century; several of their convents are still in existence, and others have lately been erected in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru.早在十七​​世纪初,西班牙众Discalced加尔默罗修女发现他们的南美洲国家的方式,他们的几个修道院仍然存在,和其他人最近被竖立在阿根廷,玻利维亚,巴西,智利,哥伦比亚,厄瓜多尔和秘鲁。

The congregation of St. Elias of Discalced Carmelites, otherwise called the Italian congregation was erected at the instigation of Clement VIII.众圣Discalced加尔默罗埃利亚斯,否则被称为意大利众竖立在唆使克莱门特八。By a strange irony of fate Nicolò Doria, who afterwards resisted the spreading of the order beyond the Peninsula and the Spanish colonies, had been commissioned in 1584 to establish a convent at Genoa.由一个奇怪的命运龙华民的Doria,事后抵制超越半岛和西班牙的殖民地秩序的蔓延,具有讽刺意味的​​被委托于1584年建立在热那亚的修道院。 This was followed by one in Rome, Santa Maria della Scala, destined to become the nursery of a new congregation and the living example of perfect observance, and another at Naples.这是一个在罗马,圣玛丽亚德拉斯卡拉注定要成为一个新众的幼儿园和完美遵守的活生生的例子,在那不勒斯另一个。Several of the most prominent members of the Spanish congregation had been sent to these foundations, among them Ven.一些最突出的西班牙众成员已发送到这些基础,其中法师。Peter of the Mother of God (1565-1608), and Ferdinand of St. Mary (1538-1631), who became the first superiors; Ven.母亲的神(1665至08年),彼得和圣玛丽(1538年至1631年),成为第一个上级费迪南德;法师。John of Jesus Mary (1564-1615), whose instructions for novices have become authoritative, and whose incorrupt body is still preserved in the convent of St. Sylvester near Monte Compatri; Ven.约翰耶稣玛丽(1564年至1615年),其为新手的说明已经成为权威,其廉洁的身体仍然保存在修道院的圣西尔维斯特附近的Monte Compatri;法师。Dominic of Jesus Mary (1559-1630), the great wonder-worker of his time, and Thomas of Jesus (1568-1627) to whose genius for organization not only the order but the Catholic Church is deeply indebted.耶稣玛丽(一五五九年至1630年),他那个时代的伟大奇迹工作者,和耶稣的托马斯(1568年至1627年)的玫瑰的组织天才不仅秩序,但天主教会对此深表感谢。 With men such as these at its head the congregation spread rapidly, not alone in Italy but through the length and breadth of Europe, and attracted men of high social position.随着这些人,如在其头部众迅速蔓延,在意大利并不孤单,而是通过欧洲的长度和广度,并吸引社会地位高的男性。The Archduke Albert of Austria and his consort, the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia of Spain having applied in Rome for a colony of Discalced Carmelites, the pope nominated Thomas of Jesus founder of the Belgian province.奥地利大公阿尔伯特和他勾勾搭搭,Infanta伊莎贝尔圣克拉拉西班牙欧亨尼娅教皇在罗马的一个Discalced加尔默罗殖民地,比利时省的创始人耶稣的提名托马斯。 So successful was he that in the course of twelve years he erected ten convents of friars and six of nuns.如此成功,他在十二年过程中,他竖立10修道院的修士和修女6。The establishment in France was more difficult; systematic opposition from various quarters rendered each foundation a hard task, yet from 1611 till the end of the century almost every year saw the foundation of one or two new convents.在法国成立,是比较困难的;来自各方面的系统反对使每个基础是一个艰巨的任务,但由1611至本世纪末,几乎每年都会看到一个或两个新的修道院的基础。 Germany, Austria, Poland, even distant Lithuania, were opened to the disciples of St. Teresa.德国,奥地利,波兰,甚至在遥远的立陶宛,开到圣德肋撒的弟子。The spread of the congregation may perhaps best be illustrated by statistics.众的传播也许最好地说明了统计。In 1632 the reform counted 763 priests, 471 clerics and novices, and 289 lay brothers, total 1523. 1632年改革计数763祭司,神职人员和新手471,和289奠定兄弟,共1523。In 1674 there were 1814 priests, 593 clerics and 747 lay brothers, total 3154. 1674年有1814祭司,593神职人员和747奠定兄弟,共3154。In 1731 the total had risen to 4193 members.在1731年已上升到4193成员。No later statistics are available, but it may be taken that the increase continued for another twenty years until the spirit of Voltaire began to make itself felt.不迟统计数据,但它可能会采取一个20年继续增加,直到精神伏尔泰开始,使自己感到。Comparatively little has been published about the foundations, the annals of the order reaching only as far as 1612, and much manuscript material having been lost, but a great deal is still waiting for the hand of the chronicler.相对较少已经发表了有关的基础,为了达到尽量为1612的史册上,很多手稿材料已经丢失,但一个伟大的交易仍然是等待编年史的手。

Although the exercise of the contemplative life was given prominence even by the Italian congregation, the active life received far wider scope than in the Spanish fraction of the order.虽然行使沉思的生活甚至​​是由意大利众的突出,积极的生活得到更广泛的范围比在西班牙的一小部分的顺序。Almost from the beginning it was decided on principle and in full harmony with the known intentions of St. Teresa, that missionary undertakings were quite reconcilable with the spirit of the congregation.几乎从一开始就决定的原则,在充分和谐与圣德肋撒已知的意图,传教事业相当调和众的精神。The pope himself suggested Persia as the first field of labour for Carmelite missioners.教宗本人建议波斯加尔默罗传教士作为劳动的第一个字段。Such was the zeal of the fathers assembled in chapter that each of them declared himself ready to lay down his office and go forth for the conversion of unbelievers as soon as his superiors should give him permission to do so.这是一章中,他们每个人宣称自己准备放下他的办公室,只要他的上司不信的转换规定,应该给他这样做的权限组装的父亲热情。This promise is made to the present day by every member of the order.顺序的每名成员,这个承诺至今。It was not until 1604 that the first expedition led by Paul Simon of Jesus Mary was actually sent out to Persia.直到1604耶稣玛丽保罗西蒙领导的第一次远征实际发送到波斯。Three fathers, a lay brother, and a tertiary, proceeded through Germany, Poland, and Russia, following the course of the Volga, sailing across the Caspian Sea, until after more than three years of great hardship they reached Ispahan on 2 December, 1607.三个父亲,一个奠定兄弟,高等教育,继续通过德国,波兰和俄罗斯之后,伏尔加河的过程中,穿越里海航行,直到经过三年多的巨大困难,他们达到Ispahan 12月2日,1607年。They met with surprising success, and being speedily reinforced were soon able to extend their activity to Bagdad, Bassora, and other towns, penetrating into India where they founded flourishing missions at Bombay, Goa, Quilon, Verapoly, and elsewhere, even at Peking.他们会见了出人意料的成功,正在迅速增强,尽快能够扩展到巴格达,Bassora,和其他城镇,他们的活动渗透到印度,在那里,他们成立了在孟买,果阿,Quilon,Verapoly繁荣的任务,和其他地方,即使在北京,。 Some of these missions are still in the hands of the order, although the political events of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries proved fatal to others.这些任务有的还在为了手中,十八,十九世纪的政治事件虽然给别人是致命的。Another field of labour was the Near Orient, Constantinople and Turkey, Armenia and Syria.劳动的另一个领域是近东方,君士坦丁堡和土耳其,亚美尼亚和叙利亚。To these was added in 1720 "a new mission in America in the district called Mississippi or Lusitania, which was offered by Captain Poyer in the name of the French company, but under certain conditions".对于这些被添加在1720“在美国密西西比或路西塔尼亚区在法国公司的名称,这是由船长Poyer提供的新的使命,但在一定条件下”。 If indeed this mission was accepted, it does not seem to have been long prosperous.如果确实接受这一使命,它似乎并不已久的繁荣。

One of the happy results of the establishment of missions in the Levant was the recovery of Mount Carmel, which had been lost to the order in 1291.的快乐建立在地中海东部的特派团的结果之一,是迦密山,恢复已经失去的订单在1291。Prosper of the Holy Ghost on his journeys to and from India had repeatedly visited the holy mountain and convinced himself that with prudence and tact it might be recovered.繁荣的圣灵在他的行程,并从印度曾多次访问圣山,相信自己,谨慎和机智,它可能收回。For a time the superiors were by no means favourably disposed towards the project, but at last they furnished him with the necessary powers, and a contract to the said effect was signed at Caiffa, 29 November, 1631.一时间,上级绝不逊色对项目的处置,但最后他们配备必要的权力他,并以合同的效果是在1631年11月29日,Caiffa,签署。 Onuphrius of St. James, a Belgian, and two companions were commissioned to re-establish religious life on the spot where the Carmelite order had had its origin. Onuphrius的圣雅各福群会,比利时,和两名同伴被委托加尔默罗为了它的起源点上重新建立的宗教生活。They reached Alexandrette on 5 November, 1633, and at the beginning of the following year took possession of Mount Carmel.1633年11月5日,他们到达Alexandrette,并在次年开始占有了圣衣。For cells, oratory, refectory, and kitchen they used caverns cut in the living rock, and their life in point of austerity and solitude was worthy of the prophets who had dwelt on Carmel.细胞,小礼拜堂,食堂和厨房,他们用在客厅岩石切割的溶洞,和他们点的紧缩和孤独的生活是值得的先知曾住上卡梅尔的。 At length it became necessary to construct a proper convent, in which they were installed 14 December, 1720, only to be plundered a few days later by the Turks, who bound the fathers hand and foot.在长度,它成为必要构建一个适当的修道院,在他们安装了12月14日,1720年,仅几天后,由土耳其人,谁必将父亲的手和脚被掠夺。 This convent served as a hospital during Napoleon's campaign; the religious were driven out, and on their return, 1821, it was blown up by the Turks.这修道院拿破仑的竞选期间担任一家医院被逐出宗教,对他们的回报,1821年,它是由土耳其人吹。An Italian lay brother, John Baptist of the Blessed Sacrament (1777-1849), having received orders to rebuild it, and having collected alms in France, Italy, and other countries, laid the foundation stone of the new fabric in 1827.意大利奠定兄弟,约翰浸信会的圣体(1777年至1849年),收到的订单重建,并在法国,意大利收集施舍,和其他国家,在1827年奠定基石的新面料。 But as it became necessary to do the work on a larger scale than formerly, it was completed only by his successor, Brother Charles, in 1853.但由于它需要做的工作比以前更大的规模上,它已经完成,只能由他的继任者,兄弟查尔斯,在1853年。It forms a large square block, strong enough to afford protection against hostile attempts; the church is in the centre with no direct entrance from outside; it is erected over a crypt sacred to the Prophet Elias, and has been elevated by the pope to the rank of minor basilica.它形成一个大的方形块,强大到足以负担敌对企图保护;教会在没有从外面直接入口的中心是它架设过一个神圣先知埃利亚斯的地穴,并一直由教皇提升到排名的轻微的教堂。 There are few travellers of any creed who in the course of their journeys in the Holy Land do not seek hospitality on Mount Carmel.有任何信仰圣地途中当然不求卡梅尔山的热情好客的几个旅客。

It must not be supposed that the Carmelites were spared the perils to which the missionary life is exposed.它必须不应该的加尔默罗的传教生活是暴露的危险也难幸免。John of Christ Crucified, one of the first band of missioners sent out to Persia met with a hostile reception in the neighbourhood of Moscow, and was thrown into a dungeon where he remained for three years.约翰基督钉在十字架上,波斯传教士派出的第一支乐队之一会见了在莫斯科附近的敌对接待,并扔进地牢,在那里他保持三年。 At last he was released and, nothing daunted, continued his journey to Ispahan.最后,他被释放,并没有气馁,继续他的旅程Ispahan。Another lay brother Charisius a Sanctâ Mariâ, suffered martyrdom in 1621 on the Island of Ormuz; he was tied to a tree and cut open alive.另一个奠定Charisius一个Sanctâ玛丽亚的兄弟,在1621年遭受殉难Ormuz岛;他绑在树上,剖开活着。 Blessed Dionysius of the Nativity (Pierre Bertholet), and Redemptus a Cruce, a Portuguese lay brother, suffered for the Faith in Sumatra on 28 November, 1638.有福的狄奥尼修斯的圣诞(皮埃尔贝尔托莱),和Redemptus一个Cruce,葡萄牙奠定兄弟,1638年11月28日在苏门答腊岛的信仰遭受。 The former had been pilot and cartographer to the Portuguese viceroy, but gave up his position and became a Carmelite novice at Goa.前者已试点和制图的葡萄牙总督,而放弃了自己的立场,并成为一个加尔默罗新手在果阿。 Soon after his profession the viceroy once more demanded his services for an expedition to Sumatra; Dionysius was ordained priest so that he might at the same time act as chaplain and pilot, and Redemptus was given him as companion.总督后不久,他的职业再次要求他为远征苏门答腊服务;狄奥尼晋铎,使他可能会在牧师和试点,并Redemptus的同时行为给他作为同伴。 No sooner had the ship cast anchor at Achin than the ambassador with his suite was treacherously apprehended, and Dionysius, Redemptus, and a number of others were put to death with exquisite cruelty.刚比与他的随员大使在Achin船舶投锚背信弃义的逮捕,并狄奥尼修斯,Redemptus,和其他一些以精湛的残酷死亡。 The two Carmelites were beatified in 1900.两个加尔默罗享福于1900年。Other members of the order suffered martyrdom at Patras in Achaia in 1716.该命令的其他成员遭受殉难于1716年在亚该亚佩特雷。

In order to ensure the steady supply of missioners the order established some missionary colleges.为了确保稳定供应的传教士为了建立一些传教士的学院。The original idea had been to found a special congregation under the title of St. Paul, which should entirely devote itself to missionary work.最初的想法已经找到了圣保罗的标题下的特殊众应完全致力于传教工作。The Holy See granted permission and placed the church of St. Paul in Rome (now Santa Maria della Vittoria) at the disposition of the congregation; but on second thought the project was allowed to drop, and the missionary career was opened to all members of the Italian congregation.教廷获准放置在处置众在罗马圣保罗教堂(圣玛丽亚德拉维多利亚);但第二次认为,该项目被允许下降,和传教事业是所有成员开放意大利众。 Those who manifested a talent in this direction, after having completed their ordinary studies were sent to the college of S. Pancrazio in Rome (1662) or to that of St. Albert at Louvain (1621) to study controversy, practical theology, languages, and natural sciences.表现在这个方向的人才,完成了他们的普通的研究后,被送往S的潘克拉齐奥在罗马大学(1662年),或在鲁汶圣伟业(1621)研究争议,实践神学,语言,科学和自然科学。 After a year they were allowed to take the missionary oath, and after a second year they returned to their provinces until a vacancy in one of the missions necessitated the appointment of a new labourer; by these means the order was prepared to send out efficient subjects at very short notice.一年后,他们被允许采取的传教士宣誓,第二年后,他们返回自己的省份,直到空缺的任务之一,需要任命一个新的劳动者;通过这些手段,是为了准备发送有效的科目在很短的通知。 The seminary of the Missions ètrangérs in Paris was founded by a Carmelite, Bernard of St. Joseph, Bishop of Babylon (1597-1663).温床代表团ètrangérs在巴黎成立一个加尔默罗,巴比伦伯纳德圣若瑟主教(1597年至1663年)。

An attempt in this direction had been made soon after the Council of Trent, but was not followed up.后不久,安理会的遄达已在这个方向的尝试,但没有采取后续行动。The pope, struck with the missionary zeal of the Carmelites, consulted Thomas of Jesus as to the best means of bringing about the conversion of infidels.教宗,袭击的加尔默罗的传教热情,以使转换异教徒的最佳途径咨询托马斯耶稣。This religious, in his works "Stimulus missionum" (Rome, 1610) and especially "De procurandâ salute omnium gentium" (Antwerp, 1613), laid down the disciples upon which the Holy See actually instituted and organized the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda; other fathers, particularly Ven.这种宗教,在他的作品“刺激missionum”(罗马,1610),尤其是“德procurandâ敬礼Omnium公司gentium”(安特卫普,1613),奠定了赖以教廷实际制定和组织宣传的神圣的会众的弟子,其他父亲,尤其是法师。 Dominic of Jesus Mary, contributed towards its success by collecting funds; the Bull of institution by Gregory XV pays just a tribute to the zeal of the Carmelites.耶稣玛丽玫瑰,有助于其募集资金的成功;机构,由格雷戈里十五红牛只是一个支付的加尔默罗的热情赞扬。In establishing missions the order had in view not only the conversion of infidels but also that of Protestants.在建立特派团的顺序鉴于不仅是异教徒的转换,但是新教徒。St. Teresa herself had been deeply afflicted by the spread of Lutheranism; hence the foundation of the Dutch, English, and Irish missions.圣德肋撒自己已深深困扰的蔓延路德教,因此基础的荷兰,英国,和爱尔兰的任务。 The history of the first of these is only partly known; of the three it was the least beset with difficulties, and although obstacles were never wanting, it did not pass through the dangers which were a matter of almost daily occurrence in England and Ireland.这些历史只是部分已知的三个至少困难重重,虽然障碍从来没有希望,没有穿过的危险,这是一个几乎每天都发生在英格兰和爱尔兰的问题。 The most prominent members were Peter of the Mother of God (Bertius, died 1683) and his brother Cæsar of St. Bonaventure (died 1662), the sons of Peter Bertius, rector of the University of Leyden, a famous convert to the Catholic Faith.最突出的成员是彼得的天主之母(Bertius,死于1683年)和他的哥哥圣文德(死于1662年)恺撒的儿子,莱顿大学校长,著名的彼得Bertius转换为信仰天主教。

Missions in the British Isles在英伦三岛的使命

The establishment of a mission in England dates back to the year 1615.设立在英国的使命,要追溯到今年1615。Thomas Doughty of Plombley, Lincolnshire (1574-1652), probably himself a convert, entered the Carmelite novitiate of La Scala in 1610 after having spent some years at the English College where he had taken Holy orders. Plombley托马斯蒂,林肯郡(1574年至1652年),可能是自己一个转换,在1610年进入斯卡拉加尔默罗见习后,花了几年英文书院,他采取了神圣的命令。 After a few months he was obliged by ill-health to return to England, but remained in correspondence with the order and sent some postulants to Belgium.几个月后,他健康欠佳被迫返回英国,但仍然是为了通信和一些postulants发送到比利时。Finally he resumed the religious life and after profession proceeded to London, where he had charge of important negotiations.最后,他恢复了宗教生活和专业后前往伦敦,在那里他负责的重要谈判。Having become acquainted with the Spanish ambassador and having secured a chaplaincy for himself and his successors, he was introduced at Court and gained the confidence of Queen Anne of Denmark.经成为熟悉的西班牙大使,并为他自己和他的继任者获得一个院牧,他在法院介绍,并获得了丹麦的安妮女王的信心。 Nevertheless he was never secure from priest-hunters and had many hairbreadth escapes.尽管如此,他从来没有安全牧师猎人和许多间不容发逃脱。Other missioners having joined him, he withdrew to a country place near Canterbury where he died after a long illness.其他传教士加入了他,他撤退到附近的坎特伯雷国家的地方,在那里他长期患病后去世。He was the author of several controversial and spiritual books much appreciated in his time.他的几个有争议的和精神十分赞赏他的时间的书的作者。For years he loudly advocated the establishment of an English novitiate on the Continent, for which he collected the necessary funds, but unfortunately the superiors did not see their way to take up the idea and when at last it was carried out it came too late to be of much practical use.多年来,他振臂高呼建立对大陆的英语见习期,为此,他收集了必要的资金,但不幸的是,上级没有看到自己的方式,采取了这个念头,最后进行了它来得太晚了是多大的实际使用。

The next missioner, Eliseus of St. Michael (William Pendryck, 1583-1650), a Scotsman and a convert, who had received his religious training at Paris and Genoa, arrived in London with letters patent constituting him vicar-provincial and superior of the mission.英皇制诰构成他的副主教省和优越的下一个传教士,Eliseus圣米迦勒(威廉Pendryck,1583年至1650年),一个苏格兰人和转换,谁收到了他在巴黎和热那亚的宗教培训,抵达伦敦使命。 He led for the most part a very retiring life but did not escape persecution; towards the end of his activity he became involved in one of the innumerable disputes as to the extent of the pope's powers; compelled to justify his attitude before the nuncio in Belgium, he returned to England crushed with disappointment.他领导的多数部分一个非常退休生活,但并没有逃避迫害,对他的活动结束时,他成为教皇的权力范围的无数纠纷之一;必须证明他的在比利时教廷大使之前的态度,他回到英格兰粉碎失望。 Among the prominent missioners must be mentioned Bede of the Blessed Sacrament (John Hiccocks, 1588-1647), a converted Puritan, who had been the first superior of the missionary college at Louvain.其中突出的传教士必须提到的圣体(约翰Hiccocks,1588年至1647年),转换清教徒,曾在鲁汶的传教团的第一个优越的比德。 Soon after his arrival in London he was offered a mission on the estates of Lord Baltimore in Newfoundland, which he appears to have been inclined to accept, but when the faculties from Rome arrived, he was in prison, having been surprised by the priest-hunters while writing to his superiors.他在抵达伦敦后不久,他提供了在纽芬兰巴尔的摩勋爵,他似乎已倾向于接受遗产的使命,但院系从罗马抵达时,他在监狱里,被惊讶神父猎人,同时写信给他的上司。 For several months his fate as well as that of a brother religious and fellow-prisoner was uncertain, but being at last set free through the intervention of the French ambassador he returned to Belgium.几个月来他的命运,以及宗教和一个弟弟同胞囚犯是不确定的,但在最后一组通过法国大使的干预自由,他回到比利时。 He underwent imprisonment for a second time in Holland, but after a long interval came back to London where he resumed his missionary work.他接受了在荷兰的第二次入狱,但很长的时间间隔后返回伦敦,在那里他继续他的传教工作。 Francis of the Saints (Christopher Leigh, 1600-41) died of the plague contracted in prison.圣徒弗朗西斯(克里斯托弗LEIGH,1600年至1641年)死在监狱里染上鼠疫。John Baptist of Mount Carmel (John Rudgeley, 1587-1669) spent a considerable portion of his life in prison.约翰卡梅尔山(约翰Rudgeley,1587年至1669年)浸会花了他在狱中的生活相当一部分。Joseph of St. Mary (Nicholas Rider, 1600-82), after many years of fruitful activity, devoted his old age to the training of aspirants to the order; these were sent abroad for their novitiate and studies and on their return were appointed to one or other of the missionary stations belonging to the order.约瑟夫的圣玛丽(尼古拉骑士,1600至1682年),经过多年卓有成效的活动,专门培训有志的顺序;这些被送往国外见习和研究,并在他们返回自己的晚年生活被任命为一个或其他的传教站属于顺序。

The most remarkable men in a long series of missioners were Bede of St. Simon Stock (Walter Joseph Travers, 1619-96) and his half brother, Lucian of St. Teresa (George Travers, 1642-91).在长期的传教士系列最显着的的男子圣西门股票(沃尔特约瑟夫Travers的,1619年至1696年)和他同父异母的弟弟(乔治Travers的,1642年至1691年),圣德肋撒卢西恩贝德。 The son of a Devonshire clergyman, Walter Travers was articled to a London solicitor.一个德文郡牧师的儿子,沃尔特Travers的articled伦敦的律师。An elder brother having become a Catholic and a Jesuit, Walter, desirous of guarding himself against a like fate, began to study controversial works with the result that he became convinced of the truth of the Catholic Church which he went to Rome to join.一个哥哥已成为一所天主教耶稣会,瓦尔特,希望自己防范类似的命运,开始研究的结果,他成了相信他去罗马参加天主教的真相有争议的作品。 He became a student the English College and afterwards entered the Carmelite Order in which he filled various offices.他成为了学生的英语学院,之后进入加尔默罗他填补了各办事处的顺序。He was active in London during the whole period of the Restoration and has left a record of his manifold experience.他是活跃在整个恢复期间在伦敦,已经离开了他的多方面的经验的记录。At the outbreak of the Oates' Plot he was obliged to return to Italy, but after some years resumed his work in London, until old age and grief over his brother's death compelled him to retire to Paris where he died in the odour of sanctity.的奥茨“阴谋爆发,他不得不回到意大利,但若干年后恢复了他在伦敦的工作,直到岁的年龄和对他哥哥的死悲伤迫使他到退休巴黎他死了的地方在圣洁的气味。 He had the consolation of solemnly inaugurating a chapel in Bucklersbury in London, as well as those at Heresford and Worcester, but the Orange Revolution undid the work begun by him.他庄严开幕式在伦敦的小教堂,在Bucklersbury以及Heresford和伍斯特的安慰,但“橙色革命”毁掉了他开始的工作。 George Travers, after a dissolute life, accidentally met his brother in London, was rescued by him, instructed, and received into the Church.乔治Travers的,一个荒淫生活后,意外地在伦敦会见了他的弟弟,他被救出后,指示,以及收到的教会。He made his studies under Joseph of St. Mary, and entered the novitiate at Namur.约瑟夫圣玛丽他根据他的研究,并在那慕尔进入见习期。 At the outbreak of the plot he was sent to London, where he passed through many thrilling adventures.在情节的爆发,他被送往伦敦,在那里他通过许多惊心动魄的冒险通过。Some time after the Orange Revolution he was betrayed by a false friend, and thrown into prison, whither his accuser, on a different charge, followed him.他背叛了虚假的朋友,并投入监狱的橙色革命后,他的原告,在不同的电荷往那一些时间,跟着他。This man was suffering from a contagious disease which Lucian, while nursing him, contracted, and of which he died, 26 June, 1691.这名男子患有一种传染性疾病,卢西恩,而护理他,承包,和他死了,其中,1691年6月26日。

Much less is known of the missioners of the eighteenth century than of those of the seventeenth.要少得多,被称为比那些十七,十八世纪的传教士。Their lives, though still exposed to dangers, were as a rule quiet; moreover, the art of memoir writing seems to have been lost under the House of Orange.他们的生活,虽然仍面临危险,作为一项规则安静;此外,回忆录写作的艺术似乎已根据橙屋失去。One of the more prominent missioners of this period was Francis Blyth.这一时期比较突出的传教士之一,是弗朗西斯布莱斯。In 1773 the English mission acquired the college of the Society of Jesus, recently suppressed, at Tongres, where a number of missioners were prepared for their work before the French Revolution swept over Belgium.在1773年英国的使命收购耶稣会学院,最近受到抑制,格尔,法国大革命前横扫过比利时的传教士,他们的工作准备。 The disappearance of this short-lived establishment dealt the death-blow to the Carmelite mission in England.在英格兰的这短暂的编制消失圣衣任务受到致命的打击。A few missioners remained stationed in various places, but they received no fresh help and little encouragement; the property of the mission as well as its library and archives were lost through the iniquitous laws which rendered the last will of a Catholic illegal.几个传教士仍然驻扎在各个地方,但他们没有收到任何新鲜的帮助和一点鼓励;的任务,以及作为它的图书馆和档案馆的财产是通过不公正的法律,最后将呈现的一个天主教非法丢失。 On the occasion of the Catholic Emancipation, Francis Willoughby Brewster was obliged to fill up a parliamentary paper with the laconic remark: "No superior, no inferior, being the last man".弗朗西斯威洛比布鲁斯特天主教解放之际,不得不填补议会文件与简洁的话:“没有上级,没有伪劣,最后一人”。

He died at Market Rasen in Lincolnshire 11 January, 1849.他死在1849年1月11日,在林肯郡的市场Rasen。 Cardinal Wiseman, anxious to introduce the Discalced Carmelites into his archdiocese, obtained in 1862 an order authorizing him to select some suitable subjects.枢机怀斯曼,急欲引入他的大主教管区Discalced加尔默罗,在1862年获得命令,授权他选择一些合适的科目。 His choice fell upon Hermann Cohen (Augustine Mary of the Blessed Sacrament, 1820-71), a converted Jew of Hamburg, originally a brilliant musician, whose conversion and entrance into a strict order had caused considerable stir in France.赫尔曼科恩(奥古斯丁玛丽的圣体,1820年至1871年),汉堡的一个转换犹太人,原本是一个辉煌的音乐家,其转换和进入严格的秩序,在法国引起了相当大的轰动落在他的选择。 He opened a small chapel in Kensington Square, London, 6 August, 1862, where the new community struggled against many difficulties, not the least of which was their deep poverty.他开了一个小教堂在肯辛顿广场,伦敦,8月6日,1862年,新的社会对许多困难,其中最重要的是他们的极度贫困中挣扎。 Before long a convenient site was found for a spacious church, designed by Pugin and inaugurated by Cardinal Manning in 1866, and a convent, completed in 1888.不久,一个方便的网站,发现一个宽敞的教堂,由普金设计,落成于1866年由红衣主教曼宁,和修道院,在1888年完成。 A second house having been founded in a remote country district in Somerset, the English semi-province was canonically established in 1885.第二套房在一个遥远的国家,英语半省规范成立于1885年在萨默塞特区成立。Father Hermann did not see the completion of his work; having been called to Spandau to minister to the French prisoners of war, he died of smallpox and was buried in Berlin.父亲赫尔曼没有看到他的工作完成后,被称为部长的Spandau战争的法国囚犯,他死于天花,被埋葬在柏林。

Soon after the English mission a similar undertaking was begun in Ireland by Edward of the Kings (Sherlock, 1579-1629) and Paul of St. Ubaldus, both of whom had made their novitiate in Belgium and had in all probability studied at the missionary college at Louvain.英语任务后不久,类似的承诺在爱尔兰开始由爱德华国王(夏洛克,1579年至1629年),保圣Ubaldus,两人都作出了他们在比利时的见习期,并在所有的概率在传教团研究在鲁汶。 Although the persecution in Ireland was, if possible, more brutal than that in England, Catholic missioners had the support of the poorer classes, who clung tenaciously to their Faith, and from among who they were recruited.虽然在爱尔兰的迫害,如果可能的话,比英格兰更残酷,天主教传教士的贫困阶层,顽强地坚持到自己的信仰,并从之间谁他们被招募的支持。 Besides a convent at Dublin they founded residences in the ruins of several former Carmelite abbeys (as they were called), viz.他们除了在都柏林的一个修道院始建于前几个加尔默罗修道院的废墟的住宅(他们被称为),即。at Athboy, Drogheda, Ardee, Kilkenny, Loughrea, Youghal, and other places. Athboy,德罗赫达,Ardee,基尔肯尼,Loughrea,Youghal,和其他地方。Many of these were but of ephemeral existence.其中许多人,但短暂的存在。About the same time the Calced Carmelites returned to Ireland, and there arose a dispute as to the ownership of these convents.大约在同一时间Calced加尔默罗回到爱尔兰,并有出现这些修道院的所有权发生争议。At the separation of the orders it had been stipulated that the Discalced Carmelites were not to take away any of the convents of their Calced brethren.在分离的订单已规定Discalced加尔默罗没有带走任何其Calced兄弟的修道院。

The Holy See decided in 1640 that the former should retain possession of the four ancient convents they then inhabited, as there still remained twenty-eight houses for the Calced Carmelites to revive.罗马教廷于1640年决定前应保留占有然后他们居住的四个古老的修道院,仍然存在着Calced加尔默罗复苏二十八个房子。 No sooner had this decision reached Ireland than the Cromwell persecution put a stop to any further increase and necessitated the dissolution of the communities that had been erected.这一决定刚刚达成爱尔兰比克伦威尔迫害制止任何进一步增加,有必要解散已经竖立社区。Several friars earned the crown of martyrdom, viz.几位修士赢得冠殉难,即。Thomas Aquinas of St. Teresa, who was put to death at Ardee in 1642; Angelus of St. Joseph, cleric (George Halley), an Englishman who was shot 15 August, 1642; and Peter of the Mother of God, lay brother, who was hanged at Dublin, 25 March, 1643.托马斯阿奎那,圣德肋撒,谁是在Ardee死亡,在1642年,圣若瑟,教士(乔治哈雷),一个人被枪杀8月15日,1642年英国人安杰勒斯;和彼得的天主之母,弟弟打下,谁被处以绞刑,1643年3月25日在都柏林,。 There is reason to believe that others met with a similar fate, but no particulars have been preserved; many, however, suffered imprisonment.我们有理由相信别人会见了类似的命运,但没有资料已保存;很多,但是,遭受监禁。Such events told on the life of the province.这些事件告诉全省的生活。Canonically erected in 1638, it was dissolved in 1653 but re-established during the comparatively quiet time of the Restoration.规范竖立在1638年,它是在1653年解散,但重新建立在比较安静的恢复时间。In 1785 a chapel and convent were built near the ruins of the Abbey of Loughrea, founded in 1300, and from 1640 in the hands of the Teresian friars, who, nevertheless, were several times obliged to abandon it.在1785年的一个小教堂和修道院附近兴建1300年创立,Loughrea修道院的废墟和1640特里萨修士手中,然而,不得不放弃几次。 Further building operations were carried out in 1829 and again towards the end of the century.进一步建立业务开展于1829年再次实现本世纪末。The year 1793 witnessed the laying of the foundation stone of St. Teresa's church, Clarendon Street, Dublin. 1793年目睹圣德肋撒教堂的奠基石,克拉伦登街,都柏林的铺设。This church, which also underwent frequent alterations and enlargements, served as a meeting room during Daniel O'Connell's campaign, which ended in the Catholic Emancipation Act.这个教会,这也经历了频繁的改变和放大,担任一间会议室丹尼尔奥康的竞选期间,在天主教解放法结束。It was felt that in this case the interests of the Church were identical with those of the country.有人认为,在这种情况下,教会的利益与国家一致。A third convent was built at Donnybrook near Dublin in 1884.第三修道院始建于1884年在都柏林附近的唐尼布鲁克。

The Calced Carmelites appear to have attempted a mission in England at the beginning of the seventeenth century when George Rainer was put to death (c. 1613). Calced加尔默罗出现在英国曾试图在十七世纪初,当乔治莱纳死亡(公元前1613年)的使命。No particulars are known about his life and the missionary projects seems to have died with him.任何详情了解他的生活和传教项目似乎与他的死亡。In Ireland, however, they carried on a flourishing mission from the early part of the same century, and they have at present six convents and a college which is well attended.然而,在爱尔兰,他们进行了一个从同一个世纪的早期部分的蓬勃发展任务,以及他们目前六个修道院和一个大学生踊跃参加。 Their church in Whitefriars Street, Dublin, is well known to Catholics and is an architectural curiosity.他们在教会Whitefriars街,都柏林,是众所周知的天主教徒,是一个建筑的好奇心。Steps were taken about 1635 to make a foundation in America, and a petition was presented to the pope for approbation of the mission founded there, but for some reason or other it does not seem to have had a lasting result.采取步骤约1635在美国的基础,和教皇提交了一份请愿书,成立有使命的认同,但出于某种原因或其他它似乎不能够有一个持久的效果。 The Dutch province, however, founded houses at Leavenworth (1864) and Scipio, Anderson Co., Kansas (1865); Englewood, Bergen Co., New Jersey (1869); New Baltimore, Somerset Co., Pennsylvania (1870); Pittsburg, Pennsylvania (1870); Niagara Falls, Canada (1875); and St. Cyril's College, Illinois (1899); while the Irish Calced Carmelites settled in 1888 in New York City and at Tarrytown, New York, and the Bavarian Discalced Carmelites at Holy Hill and Fond du Lac, Wisconsin (1906).荷兰省,但是,建立在利文沃思(1864年)和西皮奥,安德森有限公司,堪萨斯州(1865年)的住房;恩格尔伍德,卑尔根有限公司,新泽西州(1869年),新的巴尔的摩,萨默塞特有限公司,宾夕法尼亚州(1870年);匹兹堡宾夕法尼亚州(1870年),尼亚加拉瀑布,加拿大(1875年);和圣西里尔学院,伊利诺伊州(1899年);而爱尔兰Calced加尔默罗于1888年定居在纽约市和塔里敦,纽约,巴伐利亚Discalced加尔默罗神圣的山丰迪拉克,威斯康星州(1906年)。

Daily Life生活

The life of a Carmelite is somewhat different according to the branch of the order to which he belongs, and the house in which he lives.圣衣的生活有所不同,根据他所属的以科,和他生活在其中的房子。The life in a novitiate, for instance, is different even for those who have taken their vows, from that in a college, or in a convent intended for the care of souls.在见习期的生活,例如,即使对那些采取了他们的誓言,在一所大学,或用于照顾的灵魂修道院不同的。It is also stricter among the Discalced Carmelites, who keep perpetual abstinence (except in the case of weakness or illness) and who rise in the night for the recitation of the Divine Office, than among the Calced Carmelites, who have adapted their rule to the needs of the times.它还之间Discalced加尔默罗,保持永久禁欲(虚弱或生病的情况下除外)和背诵神圣办公室当晚上升高于Calced加尔默罗,已经适应了自己的统治,更严格的时代的需要。 Formerly the whole Office was sung every day, but when in the sixteenth century the exercise of mental prayer became more and more universal, particularly through the influence of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross, the singing was abandoned for a recitation in monotone except on certain feasts.整个办公室的前身是传唱每天,但在十六世纪时行使精神祈祷变得更加普遍,特别是通过德兰和圣十字若望的影响,歌唱被遗弃的朗诵除了在某些节日单调。

The Calced Carmelites still adhere to the liturgy of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, a Gallo-Roman Rite, practically identical with that of Paris in the middle of the twelfth century. Calced加尔默罗仍坚持礼仪,高卢罗马的仪式,几乎与巴黎相同,在十二世纪中叶在耶路撒冷的圣墓教堂。It underwent certain changes during the Middle Ages and was completely and satisfactorily revised in 1584.在中世纪,它经历了某些变化,并完全做好1584年修订的。The Discalced Carmelites, for reasons already stated, adopted the new Roman Liturgy in 1586. Discalced加尔默罗,已经说明理由,在1586年通过了新的罗马礼仪。In all convents a certain time is given to mental prayer, both in the morning and the afternoon.在所有修道院一定的时间给予精神祈祷,无论是在早上和下午。It is generally made in common, in the choir or oratory, and is intended to impress the soul with the presence of God and the everlasting truths.它一般是共同的,在合唱团或演讲,并与神和永恒的真理的存在是为了打动灵魂。 Other religious exercises and private devotions supplement those already mentioned.其他宗教活动和私人奉献补充那些已经提到。 The rule of fasting, somewhat less severe among the Calced Carmelites, is preserved everywhere, although the church has in many respects mitigated her legislation in this matter.空腹规则,Calced加尔默罗之间少了几分严重,是满坡,虽然教会已在许多方面减轻她在这个问题上的立法。The Discalced Carmelites (Teresians) are generally barefooted; otherwise the only distinction in the habit of the two branches consists in the fashioning of the various garments.一般赤脚Discalced加尔默罗(Teresians),否则唯一的区别的两个分支的习惯,包括各类服装塑造。 The habit of the lay brothers is like that of the choir religious, except that among the Discalced Carmelites they wear a brown mantle and no hood; but in the Spanish congregation they use the hood, and, since 1744, a white mantle.奠定兄弟的习惯是合唱团的宗教一样,除了他们穿棕色的衣钵,没有罩Discalced加尔默罗;但在西班牙众,他们使用的引擎盖,自1744年,一个白色的地幔。 The correct colour of the habit has often been made the subject of somewhat animated discussions among the different branches of the order.正确的颜色的习惯经常被有些动画的顺序不同分支之间的讨论的主题。

Desert Convents沙漠修道院

A peculiar institution is that of "deserts".一个奇特的机构是“沙漠”。The recollection of Mount Carmel and the purely contemplative life, as well as the wording of the rule, which prescribes that the brothers should dwell in their cells or near them, meditating day and night on the Law of the Lord, except when other necessary occupation call them away, had awakened in many a desire for an exclusively spiritual life.圣衣和纯粹沉思的生活的回忆,以及本规则的措辞,其中规定,除了必要的占领时,其他兄弟应该在他们的细胞或靠近他们,打坐日夜纠缠于主法,叫他们走,唤醒了许多专门精神生活的渴望。 It has been noticed that some of the first generals resigned their offices in order to dedicate the remainder of their life to contemplation, and in the constitutions and other documents exceptions are sometimes made in favour of convents "situated in forests", far away from human habitations.它已注意到一些第一将军辞去他们的办公室,以献给他们的生活剩下的观照,并在宪法和其他文件的例外是有时赞成修道院“坐落在森林”,远离人力居住区。 Among such convents were, to mention only two, Hulne in England and Liedekerke in the Netherlands.在这样的修道院,只提两个在荷兰,英格兰和Liedekerke Hulne。One of the first Discalced Carmelites in Spain, Thomas of Jesus, who has already been mentioned in connection with the missions, conceived the idea of founding a "desert" where the religious should find the opportunity for devoting their whole time and energy to the cultivation of a spirit of contemplation.在西班牙的第一Discalced加尔默罗,耶稣,托马斯已经提到的任务,构思成立一个“沙漠”的想法,宗教应该找到的机会,为他们的全部时间和精力专门人才的培养观照的精神。

With the exception of four or five who were to remain there permanently, each friar was to spend but a year in the "desert", and afterwards return to the convent whence he had come, so that, the whole community being composed of strong and healthy members, no relaxation however slight should become necessary.除四个或五个永久留在那里,每个修士是花,但一年中的“沙漠”,事后回到他来到修道院何处,使,整个社会正在由强,健康的成员,但是轻微没有放松应成为必要。 After some hesitation the superiors took up the idea, and a suitable site having been found, the first "desert" was inaugurated 28 June, 1592, at Bolarque, on the banks of the Tagus in New Castile.经过一番犹豫了上级的想法,并有一个合适的地点被发现,在Bolarque成立的第一个“沙漠”是6月28日,1592年,新卡斯蒂利亚 - 塔霍银行。The result was so encouraging that it was decided to found such a house in every province, so that there have been altogether twenty-two "deserts", many of which, however, have been swept away during periods of political agitation.结果是令人鼓舞的,这是决定在每个省都发现了这样一个房子,使已有共二十二个“沙漠”,然而,其中许多已经席卷政治鼓动期间离开。 They were constructed after the manner of a charterhouse, but on a smaller scale.他们修建后的一景的方式,但规模较小。A number of cells, each forming a little house of four rooms with a garden attached, were built in the shape of a quadrangle, one wing of which contained the chapel, sacristy, library, etc. In the older "deserts" the chapel was placed in the centre of the quadrangle.一个细胞的数量,每形成了四间房的小房子,与一个附加的花园建在一个四边形的形状,一翼,其中包含在旧的“沙漠”教堂的教堂,圣器收藏室,图书馆等摆在中心的四合院。 The refectory, kitchen, robbery and other dependencies were connected with the principal cloister; all the buildings were plain, imposing on account of their austerity than their ornamental character.餐厅,厨房,抢劫和其他依赖主要回廊相连,所有的建筑是平原,其紧缩的帐户上施加比其观赏性。The manner of life, too, resembles that of the Carthusians, (NOTE: LINK WORD CARTHUSIANS TO PROPER ARTICLE "CARTHUSIAN ORDER, THE" :) but is far more severe.太多,生活的方式,类似于Carthusians,(注:LINK字CARTHUSIANS适当的文章“CARTHUSIAN令,”:),但更为严重。

The chant of the Divine Order is more solemn than in other convents; more time is devoted to mental prayer; the fast is extremely strict, the silence all but uninterrupted; only once a fortnight the hermits after the manner of the ancient anchorites, assemble for a conference on some spiritual subject; many volumes of such conferences are still preserved and some have been printed.是比其他修道院的庄严神圣秩序的咏叹;更多的时间用于精神祈祷;快是极其严格,但不间断的沉默,只有一次两周后古代anchorites方式的隐士,组装对一些精神主题的会议,这些会议的许多卷仍然保留,有的已印。 An hour's social intercourse follows the conference.一个小时的社会交往如下会议。The time not devoted to prayer and reading is spent in manual labour, the religious finding occupation in the cultivation of their gardens.不是专门用于祈祷和阅读的时间是花费在手工劳动,发现在他们的花园种植的宗教占领。Study, strictly speaking, is not allowed, lest the strain upon the mind become too severe.研究,严格来说,是不允许,以免后,心中的压力变得过于严厉。

Each "desert" possessed extensive grounds which were laid out as forests with numerous rivulets and ponds.每一个“沙漠”拥有森林与众多的溪流和池塘奠定了广泛的理由。At equal distances from the convent and from each other there were small hermitages consisting of a cell and chapel, whither the friars retired at certain periods of the year, as Advent and Lent, in order to live in a solitude still more profound than that of the convent.从修道院,相互平等的距离有一个细胞和教堂组成的小修砌,往那在一定的时期,今年退休的修士的到来和四旬期,以生活在一个仍超过我们的深刻的孤独修道院。 There they followed all the exercises of the community, reciting their Offices at the same time and with the same solemnity as the brothers in choir, and ringing their bell in response to the church bells.在那里,他们遵循社会所有的练习,背诵他们的办公室在同一时间和相同的严肃性作为兄弟合唱团,和他们的钟声在教堂的钟声响起。 Early in the morning two neighbouring hermits served each other's Mass. On Sundays and feasts they went to the convent for Mass, chapter, and Vespers, and returned in the evening to their hermitages, with provisions for the ensuing week.一大早两个邻国隐士在星期日和节日,他们来到修道院的质量,章,和晚祷送达对方的马萨诸塞州,和随后一周的规定,在晚上他们修砌返回。 While in the hermitage they fared on bread, fruit, herbs, and water, but when in the convent their meals were less frugal, although even then the fast almost equalled that of the early monks.,虽然他们的表现在归隐面包,水果,药材,和水,但在修道院时,他们的餐不太节俭,尽管这样快,几乎相当于早期的僧侣。 Notwithstanding this rigorous observance the "deserts" were never used as places of punishment for those guilty of any fault, but on the contrary as a refuge for those aspiring after a higher life.尽管有这样严格遵守“沙漠”从来没有使用过惩罚那些犯任何过错的地方,但作为一个有志避难后一个更高的生活相反。

No one was sent to the "desert" except upon his own urgent request and even then only if his superiors judged that the applicant had the physical strength and ardent zeal to bear and to profit by the austerity of the hermit life.没有人被送往的“沙漠”,除非在他自己的的迫切要求,即使在当时只有他的上司认为,申请人的体力和殷切的热情承担和利润紧缩的隐士生活。 Among the more celebrated "deserts" should be mentioned those of San Juan Bautista, founded in 1606 at Santa Fé, New Mexico; Bussaco (1628), near Coimbra, Portugal, now a horticultural establishment and recreation ground; Massa (1682), near Sorrento, Italy, well known to visitors to Naples on account of the marvellous view of the gulfs of Naples and Salerno to be obtained from the terrace of the convent; and Tarasteix (1859), near Lourdes, France, founded by Father Hermann Cohen.其中比较著名的“沙漠”,应该提到的那些圣胡安包蒂斯塔,成立于1606年在新墨西哥州的圣达菲,Bussaco(1628),近Coimbra,葡萄牙,现在一个园艺建立和游乐场;马萨(1682),近索伦托,意大利,众所周知游客从修道院的露台获得那不勒斯和萨莱诺海湾的奇妙查看那不勒斯; Tarasteix(1859年),附近的卢尔德,法国,父亲赫尔曼科恩创办的。

The Calced Carmelites tried to introduce a similar institute but were less successful.Calced加尔默罗试图推出一个类似的研究所,但不太成功。André Blanchard obtained in 1641 the papal approbation for the foundation of a convent at La Graville near Bernos, in France, where the original rule of St. Albert, without the mitigations of Innocent IV should be kept, and the life led by the hermits on Mount Carmel copied; all went well until the arrival, in 1649, of a pseudo-mystic, Jean Labadie, formerly a Jesuit, who in an incredibly short time succeeded in so influencing the majority of the religious, that at length the bishop had to interfere and dissolve the community.安德烈布兰查德在1641年取得的香格里拉Graville附近Bernos,在法国圣伟业原来的规则,没有无辜第四的缓解措施,应保持在修道院的基础教皇的赞许,并率领由隐士的生活圣衣复制;一切顺利,直到到达,在1649年,伪神秘,让Labadie,以前是耶稣会,在极短的时间内成功在这样的影响,大多数的宗教,在长度主教干预和化解社会。 Another "desert" was founded by the Calced Carmelites in 1741 at Neti near Syracuse in honour of the Madonna della Scala.另一种“沙漠”,成立于靠近雪城Neti在麦当娜德拉Scala的荣誉,在1741年Calced加尔默罗。A suggestion made in the course of the seventeenth century to the Discalced Carmelites of the Italian congregation to introduce perpetual mental prayer after the manner in which in some convents the perpetual chant of the Divine Office, or Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament is practiced, namely by relays of religious, was decided against by the chapter as being altogether unsuitable.意大利众后引进的方式,永久的精神祈祷中,在有些修道院神圣的办公室,或永久朝拜圣体的永久诵,即实行Discalced加尔默罗在十七世纪的过程中作出的一个建议宗教继电器,决定反对是完全不适合的章节。

Exterior Occupations外部职业

Apart from the purely contemplative life led in the "deserts", and the specific religious exercises practiced in all convents (though in different measure), the chief occupation of the order consists now in the care of souls and missionary work.除了纯粹沉思的生活,在“沙漠”,和特定的宗教实践练习在所有修道院(尽管在不同的措施)领导,该命令的行政占领包括现在在照顾灵魂和宣教工作。 So long as the Carmelites occupied a well-defined position at the universities and took part in the academic work, a large number cultivated almost exclusively the higher studies.只要作为加尔默罗占领一个明确的定位,在大学,并参加了学术工作的一部分,大量耕地几乎完全较高的研究。During the Middle Ages the subjects of Carmelite writings were almost invariable, including the explanation of a certain number of Biblical writings, lectures on the various books of Aristotle, the Sentences, and canon law, and sermons De tempore and De sanctis.在中世纪的加尔默罗著作的主题几乎不变的,包括一个圣经的著作,对亚里士多德的各种书籍,句子,和佳能的法律讲座,和讲道中,临时和德桑克蒂斯一定数量的解释。 In the long list of Carmelite writings preserved by Trithemius, Bale, and others, these subjects occur over and over again.在保存Trithemius,罢了,和其他的圣衣著作长长的清单,这些科目的发生一遍又一遍。Several friars are known to have cultivated the study of astronomy, as John Belini (1370) and Nicholas de Linne (1386); others concerned themselves with the occult sciences, eg William Sedacinensis, whose great work on alchemy enjoyed considerable vogue during the Middle Ages; Oliver Golos was expelled the order on account of his too great knowledge of astrology (1500).几个修士是天文学的研究,有耕地约翰Belini(1370年)和尼古拉斯 - 林耐(1386);其他有关各方与隐匿性科学,如威廉Sedacinensis,其伟大的工作期间享有相当盛行的中世纪炼金术;奥利弗Golos被逐出了他太大的占星术知识(1500)帐户的命令。

There were poets too, within the order, but while many were justly praised for purity and elegance of style, as Lawrence Burelli (c. 1480), only one secured lasting renown, Blessed Baptista Mantuanus.也有诗人,内秩序,但尽管许多人理直气壮地称赞纯度和优雅的风格劳伦斯Burelli(约1480),只有一个担保持久的名声,有福了巴普蒂斯塔Mantuanus。 The other fine arts were also represented, painting chiefly by Philippo Lippi of Florence, whose life, unfortunately, caused him to be dismissed with dishonour.也派代表参加了其他的美术,绘画,主要是由菲利普里皮佛罗伦萨,他的生命,不幸的是,造成他与耻辱驳回。Although many friars cultivated music, no really prominent name can be mentioned.虽然许多修士文人音乐,没有真正突出的名字被提及。 In the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries allusion is frequently made to Carmelite organists serving various churches outside the order while one obtained leave from the general to repair organs wherever his services might be required.在第十五或十六世纪的典故是经常加尔默罗服务的顺序以外的各教会的管风琴而获得一般许可修理的地方,可能需要他的服务机关。

In the University在大学

When the Carmelites first appeared at the universities, the two great schools of the Dominicans and Franciscans were already formed, and there remained no room for a third.当加尔默罗第一次出现在大学,多米尼加和方济会的两个伟大的学校已经形成,仍然有没有第三个房间。Some attempts to elevate the teaching of John Baconthorpe to the rank of a theological school came to naught.一些尝试,一个神学学校的排名提升教学的约翰Baconthorpe化为泡影。The majority of lecturers and writers belonged to the Thomistic school, especially after the great controversies on grace had compelled various orders to choose sides.大多数讲师和作家属于Thomistic学校,宽限期,尤其是在很大的争议不得不各种选择双方的订单。This tendency became so intense that the Carmelite Salmanticenses made it their duty to follow the teaching of the Angelical Doctor even in the minutest details.这种倾向变得如此激烈,加尔默罗Salmanticenses他们的职责,遵循教学的天使的医生,即使在微小的细节。 Controversy was inaugurated by Guy de Perpignan, general from 1318-20, author of "Summa de hæresibus"; the subject was taken up anew at the time of the Wycliffite troubles and ultimately led to the important works of Thomas Netter de Walden, the "Doctrinale" and "De Sacramentis et Sacramentalibus", which proved a gold mine for controversialists for several centuries.从1318至20年落成的争论是,一般由盖伊 - 佩皮尼昂,“大全DE hæresibus”的作者;主体Wycliffite麻烦时重新,并最终导致托马斯内特 - 沃尔登的重要著作,“ Doctrinale“和”德Sacramentis等Sacramentalibus“,这证明了controversialists的几百年的金矿。 No epoch-making work was done at the time of the Reformation, and the order lost all its northern and the greater part of its German provinces.在时间的改革,并没有划时代的工作是为了失去其北部和其在德国的省份,大部份。 Although few Carmelite controversialists are to be found on the Catholic side (the best known being Evrard Billick), there were hardly any prominent members among those who lost their faith.,尽管很少加尔默罗controversialists天主教方(最有名的是Evrard Billick),很难有任何突出的成员在那些失去了他们的信仰。

Mystical Theology神秘神学

Although Scholastic philosophy and theology, as well as moral theology, have found some of their chief exponents among the Carmelites (eg the Salmanticenses), other branches of science being less generously cultivated, the field on which absolutely fresh ground was opened by them is mystical theology.虽然经院哲学和神学,以及道德神学,已经发现一些他们之间的加尔默罗主要指数(如Salmanticenses),科学的其他分支少慷慨地栽培,绝对新鲜地面上打开他们的领域是神秘的神学。 During the Middle Ages this subject had been treated only in so far as the ordinary course of studies required, and those of the friars who wrote on it were few and far between, nor do they seem to have exercised much influence.在中世纪,这个问题已处理只有在到目前为止的日常运作过程中需要研究,和谁写它的修士的并不多见,也没有太大的影响似乎已行使。 All this was changed with the establishment of the Teresain Reform.这一切都被改变了建立Teresain改革。As has already been said, St. Teresa was led, unknown to herself, to the highest planes of the mystical life.正如已经表示,圣德肋撒领导,自己不知道的神秘生活的最高飞机。With her marvellous gift of introspection and analysis, and her constant fear of swerving, be it ever so little, from the teaching of the Church, she subjected her own personal experiences to severe scrutiny, and ever sought the advice and direction of learned priests, chiefly of the Dominican Order.随着她的反省和分析,她的突然转向惶惶不可终日的奇妙礼物,它曾经那么一点,从教学的教会,她受到了她自己的亲身经历严格审查,并不断寻求据悉祭司的意见和方向,主要是多米尼加令。 When St. John of the Cross joined the reform, he, fresh from the lecture-rooms at Salamanca and trained in the philosophy and theology of St. Thomas, was able to give her light on the phenomena of psychology and Divine grace.圣十字若望加入改革时,他在萨拉曼卡的教室,新鲜和圣托马斯的哲学和神学训练,能够给她轻心理学和神的恩典的现象。

Both of these saints have left writings on mystical theology, Teresa recording and explaining in simple but telling words her own experiences, John taking up the matter more in the abstract sense; still some of his writings, particularly the "Ascent of Mount Carmel", might almost be considered a commentary on the life and the "Interior Castle" of St. Teresa.这些圣人都留下了神秘的神学著作,邓丽君记录和简单的解释,但说的话她自己的经验,约翰占用问题在抽象的意义;仍有一些他的著作,尤其是“上升”圣衣,几乎可以认为是一种对生活的评论和“内部城堡”圣德肋撒。 There is no evidence that he had derived his knowledge from study; he was unacquainted with the works of St. Bernard, Hugh of St. Victor, Gerson, and the Low German mystics, and knew nothing of the mystical school of the German Dominicans; he appears to have known St. Augustine and the other fathers only in so far as the Breviary and theological textbooks contained extracts from their writings.没有证据,他得出他从研究知识;他不了解圣伯纳德,休圣胜者,格尔森,低的德国神秘主义者的作品,知道德国多米尼加神秘的学校没有;他似乎只知道到目前为止,圣奥古斯丁和其他父亲的祈祷书和神学教科书载有从他们的著作中摘录。 He was therefore in no way influenced by the views of earlier mystics, and had no difficulty in keeping aloof from the beaten track, but he evolved his system from his own and St. Teresa's personal experience as seen in the light of Scholastic theology, and with constant reference to the words of Holy Scripture.因此,他丝毫不影响早期的神秘主义者的意见,并没有从因循守旧中保持超然的难度,但他从自己的院神学圣德肋撒的个人经验演变他的系统,并经常引用圣经的话。 For the analogies and allegories of previous mystics he had no taste, and nothing was farther from him than the wish to penetrate the secrets of Heaven and gaze behind Divine revelation.对于类比和以往的神秘主义者的寓言,他有没有味道,并没有从他做得比想渗透到天堂和凝视的秘密背后的神的启示。

An order which gives such prominence to the contemplative life could not but take up the subject and study it under all aspects.秩序等突出沉思的生活,可以不占用主体,并根据各方面的研究。The experimental part, which of course does not depend on the will of the individual, but which, nevertheless, is assisted by a certain predisposition and preparation, found at all times a home not only in the "deserts" and the convents of Carmelite nuns, but in other houses as well; the annals of the order are full of biographies of profound mystics.实验的一部分,当然​​这并不取决于个人的意愿,但尽管如此,是由一定的倾向和准备协助,发现在任何时候,不仅在“沙漠”和加尔默罗修女的修道院的家,但在其他房屋以及顺序的史册充满了深刻的神秘主义者的传记。 Considering the danger of self-deception and diabolical illusion which necessarily besets the path of the mystic, it is surprising how free the Carmelite Order has remained from such blots.考虑到自我欺骗和恶魔般的幻觉,这一定是困扰神秘的路径危险,这是令人惊讶的如何从这样的污点仍然免费加尔默罗订购。 Rare instances are on record of friars or nuns who left the safe ground for the crooked ways of a false mysticism.极少数情况下是虚假的神秘主义的邪门歪道离开地面安全的修士或修女纪录。Much of this indemnity from error must be ascribed to the training directors of souls receive, which enables them to discern almost from the outset what is safe from what is dangerous.本赔款多大错误,必须归因于灵魂接受,这使他们能够辨别几乎从一开始就什么是什么是危险的安全培训董事。The symptoms of the influence of good and evil spirits have been explained so clearly by St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross, and a prudent reserve in all that does not tend directly to the advancement of virtue has been so urgently counselled, that error can creep in only where there is a want of openness and simplicity on the part of the subject.德兰和圣十字若望好辟邪的影响的症状已经解释这么清楚,并在所有谨慎,不容易直接推进以德治储备已如此迫切的辅导,错误可以蠕变只在那里是一个希望的开放性和简洁的主体部分。

Hence, among the great number of mystics there have been but a very few whose mysticism is open to question.因此,其中大量的神秘主义者有,但极少数的神秘主义是值得商榷的。Several great theologians endeavoured to reduce mystical theology to a science.几个伟大的神学家努力减少神秘神学一门科学。 Among these must be reckoned Jerome Gratian, the confessor and faithful companion of St. Teresa; Thomas of Jesus, who represented both sides of the Carmelite life, the active part as organizer of the missions of the Universal Church as well as of his order, and the contemplative part as founder of the "deserts".其中必须估计Gratian杰罗姆,圣德肋撒的忏悔和忠实的伴侣;耶稣的托马斯,谁代表双方加尔默罗生活,作为组织者普世教会的使命以及他的命令的积极参与,和沉思的一部分作为“沙漠”的创始人。 His great works on mystical theology were collected and printed at the bidding of Urban VIII; Philip of the Blessed Trinity (1603-71), whose "Summa theologiæ mysticæ" may be taken as the authoritative utterance of the order on this subject; Anthony of the Holy Ghost, Bishop of Angula (died 1677), author of a handbook for the use of directors of souls, entitled "Directorium mysticum"; Anthony of the Annunciation (died 1714), and, finally, Joseph of the Holy Ghost (died 1739), who wrote a large work on mystical theology in three folio volumes; all these and many more strictly adhered to the principles of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross and to the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas.神秘神学他的伟大的作品收集和城市第八招投标印刷;菲利普保佑的三位一体(1603至1671年),“大全theologiæ mysticæ”可能采取的关于这个问题的顺序的权威话语;安东尼圣灵,安古拉主教(死于1677),“灵魂董事的使用手册”的作者,题为“Directorium mysticum”的报喜安东尼(死于1714年),以及,最后,约瑟夫的圣灵(死亡1739年),他写了三个对开卷神秘神学的大量工作;所有这些和许多更严格遵守德兰和圣十字若望的原则,以及圣托马斯阿奎那的教学。 The ascetic part was not less cultivated.禁欲主义的部分不低于耕地。For elevation of principles and lucidity of exposition it would be difficult to surpass Ven.海拔的原则和洞察力的论述,这将是难以超越的尊贵。John of Jesus-Mary.约翰耶稣玛丽。The difficult art of obeying and the more difficult one of commanding have been dealt with in a masterly manner by Modestus a S. Amabili (died 1684).服从困难的艺术和指挥更困难的一年已经处理了一个巧妙的方式与Modestus一个S. Amabili(死于1684年)。 The Calced Carmelites, too, have furnished excellent works on different branches of mystical theology. Calced加尔默罗,也有神秘神学的不同分支的优秀作品布置。

Foundations of Women妇女的基础

The Carmelite nuns established by St. Teresa spread with marvellous rapidity.建立圣衣圣德肋撒修女与奇妙的迅速蔓延。Such was the veneration in which the foundress was held in Spain during her life-time that she received more requests for foundations than she could satisfy.这样的foundress在西班牙举行的崇拜在她的生活时,她收到基金会比她能满足更多的要求。Although very careful in the selection of superiors for new convents she had not always the most capable persons at her disposal and complained in several instances of the lack of prudence or the overruling spirit of some prioresses; she even found that some went so far as to tamper with the constitutions.尽管非常小心,在上级领导的新的修道院,她并不总是在她的处置能力最强的人抱怨缺乏审慎或推翻一些prioresses精神的几个实例的选择;她甚至发现,有的竟以篡改宪法。 Such incidents may be unavoidable during the first stage of a new order, but Teresa strove to counteract them by detailed instructions on the canonical visitation of her convents.此类事件可能在一个新的秩序的第一阶段是不可避免的,但邓丽君努力,以抵消规范探视她的修道院详细说明。She desired one of her favourite subjects, Ven.她想要的却是她最爱的科目之一,法师。Anne of Jesus (Lobera, born 1545; died 4 March 1621), prioress of Granada to succeed her in the position of "foundress" of the order.安妮耶稣(Lobera,生于1545,死于1621年3月4日),格拉纳达prioress接替她的位置“foundress”的顺序。

Hence, when Nicolò Doria changed the manner of government of the Discalced Carmelites, Anne of Jesus submitted the Constitutions of St. Teresa (already revised by the General Chapter of 1581) to the Holy See for approbation.因此,龙华民的Doria改变政府Discalced加尔默罗方式时,安妮耶稣圣德肋撒(修订已经由1581总章)提交的“宪法”教廷为赞许。 Certain modifications having been introduced by successive popes, Doria refused to have anything to do with the nuns.某些修改介绍,历届教皇的Doria拒绝做尼姑。His successors, however, reinstated them, but maintained the prohibition in vigour for the friars against making foundations outside Spain and the Spanish colonies.然而,他的继任者,恢复他们,但保持活力为禁止反对西班牙和西班牙殖民地以外的基础修士。A convent, however, had already been inaugurated at Genoa and another was in contemplation in Rome, where some ladies, struck with the writings of St. Teresa, formed a community on the Pincian Hill under the direction of the Oratorians, one of the members being a niece of Cardinal Baronius.然而,修道院,已经在热那亚开幕,另一个是在罗马,在圣德肋撒的著作袭击,一些女士们,下的Oratorians方向上形成的Pincian山社区,在沉思的成员之一一个红衣主教Baronius的侄女。 On the arrival of the Discalced friars in the Holy City it was found that the nuns had much to learn and more to unlearn.在圣城Discalced修士的到来,它被发现,修女们可以学到很多东西,更多的忘却。Other convents followed in rapid succession in various parts of Italy, the beatification and canonization of St. Teresa (1614 and 1622) acting as a stimulus.其他修道院随后快速连续在意大利,圣德肋撒作为一种刺激(1614年和1622年)的赐福和册封的各部分。Not all convents were under the government of the order, many having been from the first subject to the jurisdiction of the local bishop; since the French Revolution this arrangement has become the prevailing one.并非所有的修道院根据政府的命令,许多已被当地主教的管辖范围从第一个主题,自法国大革命这样的安排已成为当时的。In 1662 the number of nuns under the government of the Fathers of the Italian Congregation was 840; in 1665 it had risen to 906, but these figures, the only ones available, embrace only a very small fraction of the order. 1662年根据政府的意大利众神父修女的数量是840;在1665年上升到906人,但这些数字时,唯一可用的,拥抱,只有极小部分的顺序。

About the beginning of the seventeenth century Mme Acarie (Blessed Marie of the Incarnation, 1565-1618) was admonished in an apparition by St. Teresa to introduce her order into France.关于十七世纪夫人Acarie(有福了玛丽的化身,1565年至1618年)开始在圣德肋撒幽灵告诫她为了引入法国。 Several attempts were made to obtain some nuns trained by the holy foundress herself, but the Spanish superiors declared themselves unable to send subjects beyond the Pyrenees.作了几次尝试,以获得自己的神圣foundress训练有素的一些修女,但西班牙语上级宣布自己无法超越比利牛斯山脉发送科目。 M. (afterwards Cardinal) de Bérulle, acting on behalf of Mme Acarie and her friends, received a Brief from Rome empowering him to proceed with the foundation; but as it contained some clauses distasteful to him, eg that the new foundations should be under the government of the friars as soon as these should be established in France, and as it did not contain some others he had counted upon, he obtained through the French ambassador an order from the king commanding the general to send certain nuns to Paris. M.(事后红衣主教)Bérulle,代表夫人Acarie和她的朋友,收到了来自罗马的简介,授权他进行的基础,但因为它包含讨厌他的某些条款,例如,新的基础,应根据应法国政府的修士,只要这些成立,因为它没有包含一些他指望别人,他从国王指挥,一般要到巴黎发送一定的修女为了获得通过法国大使。

Among these were Anne of Jesus, and Ven.其中安妮的耶稣,和法师。Anne of St. Bartholomew (1549 to 7 June, 1626), then a lay sister, who had been St. Teresa's attendant during the latter years of her life.圣巴塞洛缪安妮(1549至6月7日,1626),然后打下妹妹,曾在她生命的最后几年的圣德肋撒的服务员。Altogether seven sisters left Spain for Paris, where they arrived in July, 1604, being received by Princesse de Longueville and other ladies of the Court.共有七姐妹离开巴黎,在那里他们在7月抵达,1604公主DE Longueville和法院其他女士收到了西班牙。As it soon became manifest that M. de Bérulle had his own ideas about the government of the order, which he was anxious to associate with the French Oratory founded by him, pending the establishment of an "Order of Jesus and Mary" he had in contemplation, six of the foundresses left France within a few years, while the seventh remained only under protest.它很快成为清单,M. DE Bérulle了对政府的命令,他急于联想到由他创办了法国大教堂自己的想法,建立一个“耶稣和玛丽的订单”,他在之前的沉思,在几年之内离开法国foundresses六,而第七仍然只有抗议下。

The French Carmelite nuns were placed (with few exceptions) under the government of the Oratorians, the Jesuits, and secular priests, without any official connection either with the Spanish or the Italian congregation of Discalced Carmelites, forming a congregation apart from the rest of the order.放在法国加尔默罗修女(除少数例外)下Oratorians,耶稣会士,和世俗教士政府,没有任何正式联系与西班牙或Discalced加尔默罗意大利众,形成了从一众外,其余秩序。 They spread very rapidly, being held in high esteem by the episcopate, the Court, and the people.他们的传播非常迅速,正在举行的主教,法院,人民崇高的敬意。Unfortunately the mother-house in Paris (Couvent de l'Incarnation, Rue d'Enfer) became for some years one of the centres of the Jansenists, but otherwise the French Carmelites have reflected glory on the Church.不幸的母亲在巴黎的房子(Couvent的化身,RUE D' Enfer)成为了数年的詹森的中心之一,但除此之外,法国加尔默罗反映教会的荣耀。Among the most celebrated French Carmelite nuns may be mentioned Louise de la Miséricorde (1644-1710), who as Duchesse de la Vallière had taken an unfortunate part in the court scandals under Louis XIV, which she expiated by many years of humble penance; Ven.其中最有名的法国加尔默罗修女可能会提到路易丝DE LA Miséricorde(1644年至1710年),公爵夫人DE LA━瓦莱尔采取了路易十四在法庭丑闻下一个不幸的部分,这是她多年卑微的忏悔抵偿;法师。Térèse de Saint Augustin (Mme Louis de France, 1737-87) daughter of Louis XV, notwithstanding her exalted birth, chose for herself one of the poorest convents, Saint-Denis near Paris, where she distinguished herself by the exercise of heroic virtue. Térèse德圣奥古斯丁(MME路易斯法国,1737年至1787年)路易十五的女儿,尽管她的崇高的诞生,为自己最穷的修道院,巴黎附近的圣但尼,在那里她杰出的英雄美德行使自己的选择。

During the Revolution all the communities were dissolved; one of them, that of Compiègne, endeavoured to keep up, as far as circumstances allowed, the observances prescribed by the rule, until the sixteen nuns were all apprehended, cast into prison, dragged to Paris, tried, condemned to death, and consigned to the guillotine, 17 July, 1794; they were beatified in 1906.在革命期间被解散,所有的社区,其中之一,COMPIEGNE,努力跟上,尽可能的情况下允许,所订定的规则,直到16尼姑,纪念活动所有被捕,关进监狱投,拖动到巴黎,审判,判处死刑,并委托了断头台,7月17日,1794年,他们在1906年享福。 Another Carmelite nun, Mother Camille de l'Enfant Jésus (Mme de Soyecourt) underwent with her community long imprisonment, but being at last liberated she became instrumental in re-establishing not only her own but many other convents.另一个加尔默罗修女,母亲卡米耶DE L' ENFANT耶稣(MME DE Soyecourt)接受了她的社会长期监禁,但她最后解放,成为重新建立的不只是她自己的,但许多其他修道院。When at the beginning of the twentieth century the law on religious associations was passed, there were over a hundred Carmelite convents in France with several offshoots in distant parts of the world, even Australia and Cochin China.在二十世纪初宗教协会的法律获得通过,在遥远的世界各地,甚至澳大利亚和科钦中国的几个分支,有百余名加尔默罗在法国修道院。 In consequence of the French legislation many communities took refuge in other countries, but some are still in their old convents.很多社区在法国立法的后果发生在其他国家避难,但也有一些仍然在他们的老修道院。

Quitting Paris for Brussels, Ven.退出巴黎布鲁塞尔长老。Anne of Jesus became the foundress of the Belgian Carmel.安妮耶稣成为比利时焦糖foundress。At her instigation the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia called the friars from Rome, with the result that foundations increased rapidly.在她的怂恿下,Infanta伊莎贝尔圣克拉拉欧亨尼娅呼吁从罗马的修士,基金会迅速增加的结果。 One of these, at Antwerp, was due to Ven.其中之一,在安特卫普,由于法师。Anne of St. Bartholomew, who, while in France, had been promoted from lay sister to prioress, having learned to write by a miracle; she was instrumental in delivering Antwerp from a siege.圣巴塞洛缪,安妮的人,而在法国,已经提拔奠定妹妹prioress,学会写一个奇迹,她是在提供安特卫普从围困。The Belgian Carmel sent out colonies to other countries, Germany and Poland, where Mother Teresa of Jesus (Marchocka, 1603-52) became celebrated.比利时焦糖派出殖民地到其他国家,德国和波兰,母亲耶稣修女(Marchocka 1603至52年)成为庆祝。Another convent was founded at Antwerp for English ladies (1619), who were reinforced by Dutch sisters; in 1623 it was detached from the order and placed under the bishop, and in its turn made foundations at Lierre in 1648, and Hoogstraeten in 1678, all of which became the abode of many noble English ladies during the times of penal laws.另一个修道院是在安特卫普成立英女士(1619年),由荷兰姐妹钢筋;在1623年脱离的顺序置于主教之下,并反过来在Lierre在1648年的基础,并Hoogstraeten在1678年,所有这一切都在刑法时代成为许多高尚的英国淑女的居留权。

At the outbreak of the French Revolution the nuns had to flee the country.在法国大革命爆发的修女已经逃离了这个国家。After a short stay in the neighbourhood of London the community of Antwerp divided into two sections, one proceeding to America, the other settling ultimately at Lanherne in Cornwall, whence they sent out an offshoot which finally settled at Wells in Somerset (1870); the community of Lierre found a home at Darlington, Co. Durham (1830), and that of Hoogstraeten, after much wandering, settled at last at Chichester, Co. Sussex, in 1870.在伦敦附近的安特卫普社会划分成两部分,一个出发,美国,其他解决Lanherne最终在康沃尔郡的一个短暂停留后,他们从那里发出了一个分支,最终定居在井在Somerset(1870年);在达灵顿,公司达勒姆(1830)Hoogstraeten Lierre社会发现一个家,经过多次徘徊,去年在奇切斯特,苏塞克斯有限公司,于1870年落户。Not counting the French refugees, there are at present seven convents of Carmelite nuns in England.不计数的法国难民,还有目前在英格兰的加尔默罗修女的修道院。An earlier project for a convent in London, with Mary Frances of the Holy Ghost (Princess Elénore d'Este, 1643-1722, aunt of the Queen of James II) as prioress, came to naught owing to the Orange Revolution, but it appears that about the same time a community was established at Loughrea in Ireland.在伦敦修道院的早期项目,与玛丽弗朗西丝的圣灵(公主Elénore D' Este的,1643年至1722年,阿姨詹姆斯二世女王)作为prioress,来到化为乌有,由于“橙色革命”,但它似乎大约在同一时间Loughrea社区成立于爱尔兰。 At times the nuns found it difficult to comply with all the requirements of the rule; thus they were often compelled to lay aside the habit and assume secular dress.有时,修女们发现很难遵守规则的所有要求,因此他们经常被迫放下的习惯,并承担世俗礼服。Several convents were established in Ireland in the eighteenth century, but in some cases it became necessary for the nuns to accommodate themselves so far to circumstances as to open schools for poor children.在18世纪在爱尔兰建立了几个修道院,但在某些情况下,它成为必要的修女,以适应自己到目前为止的情况下打开学校为贫困儿童。 There are at present twelve convents in Ireland, mostly under episcopal jurisdiction.目前在爱尔兰的12个修道院,大部分是根据主教的管辖范围。

The second section of the English community at Antwerp, consisting of Mother Bernardine Matthews as prioress and three sisters, arrived at New York, 2 July, 1790, accompanied by their confessor, Rev. Charles Neale, and Rev. Robert Plunkett.第二部分的英国社会,在安特卫普,母亲伯纳迪恩马修斯作为prioress和三姐妹组成的,抵达纽约,7月2日,1790年,伴随着他们的忏悔,牧师查尔斯尼尔和罗伯特宾吉牧师。 On the feast of St. Teresa, 15 October of the same year, the first convent, dedicated to the Sacred Heart, was inaugurated on the property of Mr. Baker Brooke, about four miles from Port Tobacco, Charles Co., Maryland.在10月15日,圣德肋撒同年,第一个女修道院,圣心,盛宴开始了贝克先生布鲁克的财产,从港口烟草,查尔斯有限公司,马里兰州约四英里。 Want of support compelled the sisters to seek a more convenient site, and on 29 September, 1830, the foundation-stone was laid for a convent in Aisquith Street, Baltimore, whither the community migrated the following year, Mother Angela of St. Teresa (Mary Mudd) being then prioress.想迫使姐妹们寻求一个更方便的网站的支持,并在9月29日,1830年,奠定的基石是一个修道院在Aisquith街,巴尔的摩,向何处去社区迁移次年,母亲安吉拉的圣德肋撒(玛丽穆德)然后prioress。 In 1872, during the priorship of Mother Ignatius (Amelia Brandy), the present (1908) convent, corner of Caroline and Briddle Streets was inaugurated. 1872年,目前(1908年)的修道院,卡罗琳和Briddle街道角落的母亲依纳爵(阿米莉亚白兰地),priorship期间正式成立。This community made a foundation at St. Louis, 2 October, 1863, first established at Calvary Farm, and since 1878 within the city.这个社区在圣路易斯,10月2日,1863年,第一次在各各农场建立了基础,1878以来在全市范围内。The foundation at New Orleans dates back to 1877, when Mother Teresa of Jesus (Rowan) and three nuns took a house in Ursuline Street, pending the construction of a convent in Barrack Street, which was completed on 24 November, 1878.在新奥尔良的基础可以追溯到1877年,特蕾莎修女的耶稣(罗文)和三个尼姑了乌尔苏拉街的房子时,等候在营房街修道院,这是11月24日完成,1878年建设。

The convent at Boston was founded 28 August, 1890, and in its turn established that of Philadelphia, 26 July, 1902, Mother Gertrude of the Sacred Heart being the first prioress.修道院在波士顿成立,1890年8月28日,并在其转成立,1902年7月26日,费城,圣心,母亲格特鲁德第一prioress。 In May, 1875, some nuns from Reims arrived at Quebec and found a convenient place at Hochelaga near Montreal, where they established, the convent of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart. ,1875年5月,一些修女从兰斯抵达魁北克省和蒙特利尔,在那里他们建立,圣母圣心修道院附近发现了一个在Hochelaga方便的地方。Another Canadian foundation attempted from Baltimore in the same year was unsuccessful, and had to be given up after a few years.试图从巴尔的摩在同年的另一家加拿大的基础是不成功的,要几年后。

Life of the Nuns尼姑的生活

The life of a Carmelite nun is somewhat different from that of a friar, as there is an essential difference between the vocation of a priest and that of a lay person.一个加尔默罗修女的生活是从一个修道士的有所不同,因为有一个牧师的天职和一个外行的人之间的本质区别。Active work, such as nursing the sick and teaching, are out of the question in a cloistered convent.积极的工作,如护理病人和教学,在一个与世隔绝的修道院的问题。The Carmelite sister leads a contemplative life, a considerable portion of her time being devoted to Divine service, meditation and other pious exercises, the rest occupied with household work and other occupations.加尔默罗姐姐带领一个沉思的生活,她的时间有相当一部分正在致力于神服务,打坐和其他虔诚的演习外,其余被占领的家务劳动和其他职业。 The life is necessarily strict, the fasting severe, and there are many opportunities for exercising virtue.生活必然是严格的,空腹严重,并有很多机会行使凭借。

Various Carmelite Institutions各种加尔默罗机构

Several religious institutions have gathered round Carmel.一些宗教机构聚集一轮卡梅尔。In the Middle Ages we find attached to many convents and churches anchorages, that is, hermitages for recluses who at their own request were walled up by the bishop and who exercised a great influence over the populace by reason of their example, their austerities, and their exhortations.在中世纪,我们发现许多修道院和教堂碇泊处,就是山人修砌谁是自己要求壁由主教,谁对民众行使了很大的影响原因,他们的榜样,他们的苦行,他们的嘱托。 Among the more celebrated Carmelite recluses may be mentioned Thomas Scrope of Bradley, at Norwich, afterwards titular Bishop of Dromore in Ireland and Apostolic legate in Rhodes; and Blessed Jane of Toulouse (beginning of the fifteenth century) whose cultus was approved by Leo XIII.在庆祝加尔默罗山人中可能会提及布拉德利托马斯Scrope,事后挂名Dromore主教在爱尔兰和使徒的legate在Rhodes在诺威治;和祝福简图卢兹(15世纪初),其是由利奥十三世批准礼拜。

Probably ever since the coming of the friars to Europe, founders of convents and benefactors were admitted to the order under the title of Confratres, which gave them a right to participation in the prayers and good works of a section or of the entire order, and to suffrages after their death.也许自从欧洲来的修道士,修道院和恩人的创始人被录取的顺序Confratres,这使他们有权参与的一个部分或整个秩序的祈祷和优秀作品的标题下,并到suffrages后,他们的死亡。 Neither such Confratres, nor even the text of confraternity letters, contain any mention of obligations incumbent on them.Confratres都不如,甚至也不是帮会字母的文字,包含任何提及他们义不容辞的义务。The letters were at first granted only after mature consideration, but from the end of the fifteenth century it was less difficult to obtain them; in many cases the general handed numerous blank forms to provincials and priors to be distributed by them at their own discretion.字母在第一次被授予后,才考虑成熟,但是从十五世纪末,它是很难获得他们在许多情况下,一般把许多空白表格外省人和先验分布在被他们自己决定。 Out of this confraternity, which stood in no organic connection with the order, arose in the sixteenth century, according to all probability, the Confraternity of the Scapular.这个帮会,在没有秩序的有机连接,,出现在16世纪,根据所有的可能性,帮会的肩胛骨。

Another confraternity was a guild established in 1280 at Bologna, and perhaps elsewhere, which held its meetings in the Carmelite church and from time to time made an offering at a certain altar, but otherwise was entirely independent of the order.另一个是1280年在博洛尼亚成立公会帮会,或许在其他地方,这在加尔默罗教堂举行的会议上,不时在一定坛祭,但在其他方面是完全独立的顺序。 As has been seen, some communities of Beguines in the Netherlands asked, in 1452, for affiliation to the order, and thus gave rise to the first convents of Carmelite nuns.我们已经看到,在荷兰Beguines的一些社区要求,在1452,隶属关系的顺序,从而产生了第一加尔默罗修女修道院。 At a later period Herman of St. Norbert (died 1686), preaching in 1663 at Termonde, determine five Beguines, among them Anne Puttemans (died 1674), to sell their property and found the congregation of Maricoles or Maroles, which was aggregated to the order 26 March, 1672; they occupy themselves with the education of poor girls and with the care of the sick in their own homes, and have still many convents in the Dioceses of Mechlin, Ghent, and especially Bruges.在圣诺伯特后期赫尔曼(死于1686年)于1663年在特尔蒙德传道,,确定5个Beguines,其中安妮Puttemans(死于1674),以出售其财产和发现,这是汇总到众Maricoles或Maroles第26年3月,1672年,他们占据着贫困女童的教育,病在自己家中照顾自己,Mechlin,根特,尤其是布鲁日教区仍有许多修道院。 A community of thirty-seven hermits living in various hermitages in Bavaria and the Tyrol having asked for aggregation, the General Chapter of the Discalced Carmelites of 1689 granted their wish under certain conditions, among others that not more than four or five should live in each hermitage, but the decree was rescinded in 1692, for what reason is not known, and all connection between these hermits and the order was severed.一个社区的三十七个隐士生活在各种修砌在巴伐利亚和蒂罗尔聚合要求,1689年Discalced加尔默罗章一般在一定条件下授予他们的愿望等等,不超过4个或5应该生活在每一个归隐,但该法令在1692年撤销,不知道是什么原因,所有这些隐士和秩序之间的连接被切断。

Carmelite Tertiaries加尔默罗Tertiaries

Tertiaries or members of the Third or Secular Order may be divided into two classes, those living in their own homes and those living in community.可分为两个班,那些生活在自己家里和那些生活在社会Tertiaries或第三或世俗秩序的成员。The former class is first met with in the middle of the fifteenth century, when the Holy See granted permission to the Carmelites to institute a Third Order of secular persons, after the model of similar institutions attached to other mendicant orders.前级是第一次见面,在十五世纪中叶,罗马教廷授予权限的加尔默罗建立一个世俗的人的三阶连接到其他乞丐订单的类似机构的模式后,。 The oldest printed Missals and Breviaries contain the rite of admission of such persons; these were then known by the term of bizzoche, which has since acquired a somewhat unpleasant meaning.最古老的印刷Missals和Breviaries包含等人入场仪式,然后由bizzoche,任期以来已收购了几分不愉快的意义。 They were found to recite certain prayers (in the Teresian Reform also to practice meditation), to keep certain fasts and abstinences, refrain from worldly amusements, and to live under obedience to the superiors of the order; they might wear a distinctive habit resembling that of the friars or nuns.他们发现,背诵某些祈祷(在特里萨的改革也禅修),保持一定的斋戒和abstinences,不要世俗的娱乐,并服从现场的秩序上级,他们可能会穿一个与众不同的习惯,类似修士或修女。 Tertiaries living in community observe a rule similar to, but less austere than, that of the friars; there are two communities of Tertiary brothers in Ireland, one at Clondalkin, where they have a boarding-school established previous to 1813, and another, in charge of an asylum for the blind, at Drumcondra near Dublin. Tertiaries生活在社会遵守的规则类似,但比少严峻,修士;有两个社区的大专兄弟在爱尔兰,在Clondalkin之一,他们以前为1813设立的一个寄宿学校,和其他,负责为盲人的庇护,在都柏林附近的Drumcondra。 There are also Tertiary fathers (natives) in the Archdiocese of Verapoly in India, established 1855, who serve a number of missions.也有大专父亲(土人)在印度的Verapoly大主教管区,建立了1855,谁服务的使命。

Tertiary sisters have a convent in Rome founded by Livia Vipereschi for the education of girls; they were approved by Clement IX in 1668.第三姐妹们在罗马修道院利维娅Vipereschi成立对女孩的教育,他们是由克莱门特九1668年批准。The Austrian congregation has had, since 1863, ten houses partly for educational purposes, partly for the care of servants.奥地利众了,自1863年10房屋部分用于教育目的,部分为公务员护理。In India, too, there are native Tertiary sisters in Verapoly and Quilon with thirteen houses, boarding schools, and orphanages.在印度,也有本土三级姐妹Verapoly和Quilon 13的房子,寄宿制学校和孤儿院。A Tertiary convent was founded in Luxemburg in 1886.在卢森堡成立于1886年,是一所专上修道院。Finally, mention must be made of the Carmelite Tertiaries of the Sacred Heart lately established in Berlin, with orphanages and kindergartens in various parts of Germany, Holland, England, Bohemia, and Italy.最后,必须提到最近在柏林建立了圣心加尔默罗Tertiaries,在德国,荷兰,英国,波希米亚,和意大利的各个部分与孤儿院和幼儿园。

Statistics统计

At the present time (1908) there are about 80 convents of Calced Carmelite friars, with about 800 members and 20 convents of nuns; 130 convents of Discalced Carmelite friars, with about 1900 members; the number of convents of nuns, including the French previous to the passing of the Association law, was 360.在目前的时间(1908年),有大约80 Calced圣衣修士的修道院,与约800名成员和20修道院的修女; 130 Discalced圣衣修士的修道院,约1900名成员;修女修道院的数量,包括法国以前通过协会的法律,是360。

Publication information Written by Benedict Zimmerman.本笃齐默尔曼编写的出版物信息。Dedicated to St. Teresa of Jesus The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.专门到圣德肋撒的耶稣天主教百科全书,第三卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat,1908年11月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

A considerable portion of this article being based on unpublished material, the following notices are necessarily incomplete, and to a large extent antiquated.以下的注意事项上的这篇文章中的相当一部分未发表的材料为基础,必然是不完整的,并在相当大的程度上过时。

GENERAL SOURCES: MIGNE, Dict.一般来源:米涅,快译通。des ordres religieux, I, 635 sqq.; Bullarium Carmelitanum, vols.DES ordres宗教,我,​​635 SQQ; Bullarium Carmelitanum,二卷。I and II, ed.第一和第二,主编。 MONSIGNANUS (Rome, 1715, 1718), vols.MONSIGNANUS(罗马,1715年,1718年),第一卷和第二卷。III and IV (Rome, 1768), ed. III和IV(罗马,1768),主编。XIMENES (Rome, 1768); RIBOTI, Speculum Carmelitarium, ed.希梅内斯(罗马,1768); RIBOTI,窥器Carmelitarium。CATHANEIS (Venice, 1507), ed. CATHANEIS(威尼斯,1507),主编。DANIEL A VIRGINE MARIA (2 vols. in fol., Antwerp, 1680), containing the Corpus of medieval Carmelite historians together with numerous dissertations and polemical writings, and practically superseding such authors as: FALCONE, Chronicon Carmelitarium (Placenza, 1545); BRUSSELA, Compendio historico Carmelitano (Florence, 1595); BOLARQUEZ, Chronicas dell' Orden del Monte Carmelo melitano (Palermo, 1600); AUBERTUS MIRæUS, Carmelit.丹尼尔一个VIRGINE玛丽亚“​​(2卷FOL,安特卫普,1680年),其中包含的许多论文和论辩著作,几乎取代这些作者中世纪加尔默罗历史学家语料库:法尔科内,Chronicon Carmelitarium(Placenza 1545); BRUSSELA Compendio historico Carmelitano(佛罗伦萨,1595); BOLARQUEZ,戴尔Chronicas“勋章德尔蒙特卡梅隆melitano(巴勒莫,1600); AUBERTUS MIRæUS,Carmelit。Ordinis origo (Antwerp, 1610); J. DE CARTHAGENA, De antiquitate Ordin.Ordinis ORIGO(安特卫普,1610年)的J. DE CARTHAGENA,德antiquitate Ordin。BMV de Monte Carm. BMV蒙地CARM。(Antwerp, 1620).(安特卫普,1620年)。DOMINICUS A JESU, Spicilegium episcoporum, Ordin.DOMINICUS一个JESU,Spicilegium episcoporum,Ordin。 Carmel.卡梅尔。(Paris, 1638); DANIEL A VIRG. (巴黎,1638年);丹尼尔VIRG。MARIA, Vinea Carmeli (Antwerp, 1662), with a synchronological table embracing the events during the lifetime of St. Simon Stock (1165-1265) by SEGHERUS PAULI, which the student will do well to handle critically.玛丽亚,Vinea Carmeli(安特卫普,1662年),与synchronological拥抱在圣西门股票(1165年至1265年)SEGHERUS圣保利的一生中,学生将做好审慎处理的事件表。 The first three vols.第3卷。 of LEZANA, Annales sacri prophetici et Eliani Ord.LEZANA,年鉴牺牲prophetici等Eliani条例。(4 vols., Rome, 1645, 1650, 1653, and 1656), contain the life of the Prophet Elias, the history of the order during the Old Law, at the coming of Christ, and during the Middle Ages as far as 1140; the fourth vol., which might have permanent value as it embraces the period from 1140 till 1515, is in many respects unsatisfactory and superficial. (4卷,罗马,1645年,1650年,1653年和1656年),包含生活的先知埃利亚斯,在旧法的历史顺序,在基督的来临,并尽量在中世纪作为1140第四卷,其中可能有永久的价值,因为它包含了从1140至1515期间,在许多方面并不理想,肤浅的。 PHILIPPUS A SS. PHILIPPUS一个SS。TRINITATE, Compendium historiæ Carmelitarum (Lyons, 1656); IDEM, Theologia Carmelitana (Rome, 1665); IDEM, Decor Carmeli (Lyons, 1665); HAITZE D' ACHE wrote against this work Les moines empruntés, to which JEAN DE VAUX replied by Réponse pour les Religiuex Carmes au livre intitulé: Les moines empr. TRINITATE,汇编十年史料Carmelitarum(里昂,1656年);同上,Theologia Carmelitana(罗马,1665年);同上,装饰Carmeli(里昂,1665年); HAITZE D“疼痛对这项工作的Les得梅因empruntés写道,这让VAUX回答魏疆POUR LES Religiuex Carmes坳livre intitulé:LES得梅因empr。(Cologne, 1697). (科隆,1697)。LOUIS DE STE THÉRÉSE, La succession du S. prophète Elie (Paris, 1662); JOHANNES-NEPOMUCENUS A S. FAMILIA, vere PETRUS RENERUS, Histoire de l'Ordre de ND du Mont Carmel sous ses neuf premiers généraux (Maastricht, 1798), published anonymously; this author frankly adopts the thesis of the Bollandists.路易斯de STE苔蕾丝,拉继承杜S. prophète埃利(巴黎,1662年);约翰内斯- NEPOMUCENUS一个S.的福美来,严重佩特鲁斯RENERUS,史DE L'勋章的ND杜山卡梅尔SOUS SES NEUF总理généraux(马斯特里赫特,1798)匿名发表;该作者坦言采用的Bollandists论文。ALEXIS-LOUIS DE S. JOSEPH, Histoire sommaire de l'Odre de ND du Mont Carmel (Carcassonne, 1855); FERDINAND DE STE THÉRÉSE, Ménologe du Carmel (3 vols., Lille, 1879), not always reliable; CAILLAUD, Origine de l'Ordre du Carmel (Limoges, 1894); ZIMMERMAN, Monumenta historica Carmelitana (Lérins, 1907), so far only one vol., containing the oldest constitutions, acts of general chapters, biographical and critical notes on the first generals, lists of the Masters of Paris, and various collections of letters.ALEXIS - 路易斯de S.约瑟夫史sommaire DE L' Odre的ND杜山卡梅尔(卡尔卡松,1855年);费迪南德DE科技教育苔蕾丝,Ménologe杜佳美(3卷,里尔,1879年)。,并不总是可靠; CAILLAUD,Origine DE L'勋章杜佳美(利摩日,1894年);。齐默尔曼,纪念馆史馆Carmelitana(L​​érins,1907年),迄今只有一个卷,最古老的宪法,一般章节的行为,传记和评注,包含在第一将军名单巴黎大师赛,以及各种集合的字母。 No critical history, however compendious, has as yet been attempted, although there is no lack of material in public archives as well as in those of the various branches of the order简明,但没有重要的历史,尚未尝试,虽然有没有在公共档案材料以及缺乏在该命令的各分支机构

ORIGINS: The bibliography of the controversy about the antiquity of the order is extremely lengthy, but of no general interest; the principal works are: (1) in favour of the traditional view: DANIEL A VIRGINE MARIA, op.起源:关于古代的顺序争议的书目是非常漫长的,但没有普遍关心的主要作品有:(1)中,传统的观点:赞成,丹尼尔VIRGINE玛丽亚,同。 cit.; SEBASTIANUS A S. PAULO, Exhibitio errorum (Cologne, 1693); (2) against the tradition: Acta SS., April, I, 764-99, May, II, Commentar.企业所得税; SEBASTIANUS一个S.,Exhibitio圣保罗errorum(科隆,1693);(2)对传统文献SS,四月,我,764-99,五月,第二,Commentar。 apologet., 709-846; PAPEBROCH, Responsio ad Exhib.apologet,709-846。PAPEBROCH,Responsio广告Exhib。 error.错误。(3 vols., Antwerp, 1696); IDEM, Elucidtio.; REUSCH, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher (Bonn, 1885), II, 267 sqq.(3卷,安特卫普,1696年),同上,Elucidtio; REUSCH,明镜指数DER verbotenen图书(波恩,1885年),二,267 SQQ。

GENERAL HISTORY OF THE ORDER: GULIELMUS DE SANVICO (1291), TRITHEMIUS, De ortu et progressu; de viris illustribus; PALæONYDORUS, Fasciculus trimerestus (Mainz, 1497; Venice, 1570), reprinted in DANIEL A VIRGINE MARIA, op.通史顺序为:DE SANVICO GULIELMUS(1291),TRITHEMIUS,ortu等progressu; viris illustribus; PALæONYDORUS,束trimerestus(美因茨,1497;威尼斯,1570),丹尼尔VIRGINE玛丽亚,同重印。cit.; LUCIUS, Bibliotheca Carmel.企业所得税;卢修斯,书目卡梅尔。(Florence, 1593); COSME DE VILLIERS DE S. ETIENNE, Bibliotheca Carmelitana (2 vols., Orléans, 1752), which whould be compared with the MSS.(佛罗伦萨,1593); COSME DE VILLIERS DE S. Etienne的书目Carmelitana(2卷,奥尔良,1752),这whould与MSS相比。corrections and additions of NORBERTUS A S. JULIANA in the Royal Library at Brussels. NORBERTUS一个S.任慧芬更正和补充,在布鲁塞尔皇家图书馆。DE SMEDT, Introductio general. DE SMEDT,Introductio一般。ad histor.广告histor。eccles.埃克尔斯。(Ghent, 1876); HURTER, Nomenclator (Innsbruck, 1893); CHEVALIER, Rép.(根特,1876年); HURTER,Nomenclator(因斯布鲁克,1893年),富安,REP。topo-bibliogr., sv; KOCH, Die Karmelitenklöster der niederdeutschen Provinz (Freiburg im Br., 1889); ZIMMERMAN, Die heil.TOPO - bibliogr,SV;科赫,模具Karmelitenklöster DER niederdeutschen Provinz(,1889弗莱堡BR);齐默尔曼,模具万岁Einsiedeleien im Karmeliten-Orden, in Stimmen v. Berge Karmel (Graz, 1898-1900); IDEM, Die englischen Karmelitenklöster (Graz, 1901-1903).Einsiedeleien IM Karmeliten勋章,Stimmen诉贝格Karmel(格拉茨,1898年至一九○○年),同上,模具englischen Karmelitenklöster(格拉茨,1901年至1903年)。

REFORMS: Reform of Mantua: PENSA, Teatro degli uomini illustri della famiglia di Mantova (Mantua, 1618); FELLINI, Sacrum musæum s.改革:改革曼图亚​​:PENSA,剧院degli uomini illustri德拉famiglia DI曼托瓦(曼图亚,1618);费里尼,骶骨musæum号Congreg.Congreg。Mantuanæ (Bologna, 1691); VAGHI, Commentarium fratrum et sororum Ordin.Mantuanæ(博洛尼亚,1691); VAGHI,Commentarium fratrum等sororum Ordin。BVM de Monte Carm. BVM蒙地CARM。Congreg. Congreg。Mantuan. Mantuan。(Parma, 1725).(帕尔马,1725年)。On the reform of Touraine (Rennes), LEO A S. JOHANNE, L'esprit de la réforme des Carmes en France (Bordeaux, 1666); SERNIN-MARIE DE S. ANDRÉ, Vie du Ven.在图海纳(雷恩),利奥A S.约翰,欧莱雅ESPRIT DE LA改革DES Carmes法国(波尔多,1666年)的改革; SERNIN汤池DE S.安德烈,争夺杜法师。Fr.神父Jean de S. Samson (Paris, 1881).吉恩de S.大力士(巴黎,1881年)。Reform of St. Teresa, (1) Spain: Besides her own writings, FRANCISCUS A S. MARIA and others: Reforma de los Descalços (6 vols., Madrid, 1644); part of this work, which is partisan, in favour of Doria and against St. John of the Cross and Jerome Gratian, has been translated into Italian (Genoa, 1654) and French (Paris, 1665; Lérins, 1896); GRÉGOIRE DE S. JOSEPH, Le Pére Gratien et ses juges (Rome, 1904), also tr.圣德肋撒的改革,(1)西班牙:除了她自己的著作中,弗朗西斯一个S. Maria和其他改革德洛斯Descalços(6卷,马德里,1644年);这项工作,这是党派的一部分,在赞成的Doria,对圣十字和杰罗姆Gratian约翰已被翻译成意大利(热那亚,1654)和法国(巴黎,1665; Lérins,1896年);格雷瓜尔DE S.约瑟,乐的Père格拉蒂安卡等SES juges(罗马, 1904年),也TR。It.它。and Sp.; IDEM., Peregrinación de Anastasio (Burgos, 1905), published anonymously.和SP;同上,Peregrinación阿纳斯塔西奥(布尔戈斯,1905年),匿名发表。(2) Portugal: MELCHIOR A S. ANNA and others, Chronica de Carmelitas Descalços (3 vols., Lisbon, 1657). (2)葡萄牙:梅尔基奥尔一个S.安娜和其他人,Chronica DE Carmelitas Descalços(3卷,里斯本,1657)。 (3) Italy and other countries: ISIDOR A S. JOSEPH.(3)意大利和其他国家:伊西A S.约瑟。and PETRUS A S. ANDREA, Historia generalis fratrum discalceator.佩特鲁斯一个S.安德烈,Historia generalis fratrum discalceator。(2 vols., Rome, 1668, 1671); EUSEBIUS AB OMNIBUS SANCTIS, Enchiridion chronologicum Carmel.(2卷,罗马,1668,1671);尤西比乌斯AB公共汽车SANCTIS,便览chronologicum卡梅尔。 Discalceat.Discalceat。 (Rome, 1737); LOUIS DE STE THÉRÉSE, Annales des Carmes déchaussés de France (Paris, 1666; Laval, 1891); HENRICUS-MARIA A SS.(罗马,1737年);路易斯de STE贷瑞莎,年鉴DES Carmes déchaussés法国(巴黎,1666;拉瓦尔,1891年); HENRICUS玛丽亚一个SS。SACRAMENTO, Collectio scriptorum Ord.萨克拉门托,Collectio scriptorum条例。Carmel.卡梅尔。Excalceat.Excalceat。 (2 vols., Savona, 1884), superficial.(2卷,萨沃纳,1884年)的,肤浅的。On the missions: JOH.在任务:荷兰Joh。A JESU-MARIA, Liber seu historia missionum (1730); PAULINUS A S. BARTHOLOMæO, Opera (Rome, 1790); BERTHOLDE-IGNACE DE S. ANNE, Hist.一个JESU玛丽亚,LIBER SEU historia missionum(1730); PAULINUS一个S. BARTHOLOMæO,歌剧“(罗马,1790年); BERTHOLDE IGNACE DE S.安妮,组织胺。de l'éstablissement de la mission de Perse (Brussels, 1886); ALBERT-MARIE DU S. SAUVEUR, Le sanctuaire du Mont Carmel (Tournai, 1897), the original edition published without acknowledgment, by JULIEN DE STE THÉRÉSE (Marseilles, 1876); HENRICUS A S. FAMILIA, Leven der gelukzaligen Dionysius en Redemptus (Ypres, 1900); RUSHE, Carmel in Ireland (Dublin, 1897; supplement, 1903); ZIMMERMAN, Carmel in England (London, 1899).DE L' éstablissement DE LA使命的Perse(布鲁塞尔,1886年);杜伟业 - 玛丽S. Sauveur的,乐sanctuaire杜山卡梅尔(图尔奈,1897年),由Julien DE STE贷瑞莎(马赛,1876年出版未经确认的原版, ); HENRICUS一个S.福美来,利文DER gelukzaligen修斯EN Redemptus(伊普尔,1900年); RUSHE,佳美在爱尔兰(都柏林,1897年的补充,1903年);齐默尔曼,卡梅尔在英国(伦敦,1899年)。

CARMELITE NUNS: HOUSSAYE, M. de Bérulle et les Carmélites de France (Paris, 1872); GRAMIDON, Notices historiques sur les origines (Paris, 1873); HOUSSAYE, Les Carmélites de France et les constitutions (Brussels, 1873); ALBERT-MARIE DU S. SAUVEUR, Les Carmes déchaussés de France (3 vols., Paris, 1886) with a supplement on the Jansenist troubles in the convent of the Incarnation at Paris; Mémoire sur la fondation, le gouvernement et l'observance des Carmélites déchaussées (2 vols., Reims, 1894), anonymous, by the Carmelite nuns of the Rue d'Enfer, Paris, with a valuable bibliography; Chroniques de l'ordre des Carmélites (9 vols., partly at Troyes, 1846; partly at Poitiers, 1887); BERTHOLD-IGNACE DE STE ANNE, Vie de la Mère Anne de Jésus (2 vols., Mechlin, 1876, 1882); La vie et les instructions de la Vén.加尔默罗会修女HOUSSAYE,M. DE Bérulle ET LES加尔默罗法国(巴黎,1872年); GRAMIDON,声明historiques SUR LES origines(巴黎,1873年); HOUSSAYE,法国的Les加尔默罗ET LES宪法(布鲁塞尔,1873年);伟业MARIE的杜S. Sauveur的,莱斯Carmes déchaussés法国(3卷,巴黎,1886年)在巴黎修道院的化身简森派麻烦的补充;备忘录SUR LA基金会,政府等L'遵守加尔默罗déchaussées (2二卷,兰斯,1894年),匿名,通过了一个宝贵的书目,巴黎的Rue D' Enfer加尔默罗修女; Chroniques DE L'公共秩序DES加尔默罗(9卷,部分在特鲁瓦,1846;部分在普瓦捷,1887年); Mechlin,贝特霍尔德- IGNACE DE科技教育安妮,VIE DE LA只是安妮DE JESUS​​(2卷,1876年,1882年);的La Vie ET LES指令DE LA VEN。anne de S. Barthélémy (anonymous, by a solitary of the "Desert" of Marlaigne), (new ed., Paris, 1895); SYLVAIN, View du P. Hermann (Paris, 1881), tr.安妮DE S.巴泰勒米(匿名,由一个单独的“沙漠”的Marlaigne),(新的ED,巴黎,1895年); SYLVAIN,查看杜P.赫尔曼(巴黎,1881年),TR。Germ.胚芽。and It.; Carmel in India (anonymous) (London, 1895); IGNACE DE S. JEAN L'VANGÉLISTE, Vie et vertus héroiques de la Mère Thérèse de Jésus (Marchocka) (Lillie, 1906); Vie de la R. Mère Camille de l'Enfant Jésus née de Soyecourt (anonymous), ed.和;卡梅尔(匿名)在印度(伦敦,1895年); IGNACE DE S.让欧莱雅VANGÉLISTE,VIE等vertus héroiques DE LA仅仅贷瑞莎DE JESUS​​(Marchocka)(Lillie,1906年); VIE DE LA R.单纯卡米尔DE L' ENFANT耶稣娘家姓的Soyecourt(匿名),主编。D'HULST (Paris, 1898); BEDINGFIELD, Life of Margaret Mostyn (London, 1884); HUNTER, An English Carmelite: Life of Catherine Burton (London, 1876); CURRIER, Carmel in America (Baltimore, 1890). HULST德(巴黎,1898年),玛格丽特Mostyn(伦敦,1884年)的生活BEDINGFIELD;猎人,一个英语加尔默罗:凯瑟琳伯顿(伦敦,1876年)的生活; CURRIER,佳美在美国(巴尔的摩,1890年)。


St. Teresa of Avila圣德肋撒的阿维拉

Catholic Information天主教信息

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada邓丽君桑切斯‧西佩达达维拉Ÿ阿乌马达

Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at Alba de Tormes, 4 Oct., 1582.出生在阿维拉,旧卡斯蒂利亚,3月28日,1515;阿尔巴DE Tormes,10月,1582年4死亡。

The third child of Don Alonso Sanchez de Cepeda by his second wife, Doña Beatriz Davila y Ahumada, who died when the saint was in her fourteenth year, Teresa was brought up by her saintly father, a lover of serious books, and a tender and pious mother.唐阿隆索桑切斯德‧西佩达的第三个孩子,他的第二任妻子,唐娜比阿特丽斯达维拉Ÿ阿乌马达,谁死在她14年的圣德肋撒是带来了她的圣洁之父,一个严重的图书爱好者,招标和虔诚的母亲。 After her death and the marriage of her eldest sister, Teresa was sent for her education to the Augustinian nuns at Avila, but owing to illness she left at the end of eighteen months, and for some years remained with her father and occasionally with other relatives, notably an uncle who made her acquainted with the Letters of St. Jerome, which determined her to adopt the religious life, not so much through any attraction towards it, as through a desire of choosing the safest course.她去世后,她大姐的婚姻,邓丽君是她的教育,在阿维拉的奥古斯丁修女发送,但由于生病,她在18个月内结束左,和一些年来保持与她的父亲,偶尔与其他亲属,尤其是一个人她熟悉圣杰罗姆,确定她采取的宗教生活,与其说通过任何对待它的吸引力,通过选择最安全的的愿望,“英皇的叔叔。 Unable to obtain her father's consent she left his house unknown to him on Nov., 1535, to enter the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation at Avila, which then counted 140 nuns.无法获得她的父亲的同意,她离开他的房子在11月,1535未知的他,在阿维拉,然后计数140修女进入加尔默罗女修道院的化身。 The wrench from her family caused her a pain which she ever afterwards compared to that of death.扳手从她的家庭造成了她,她以往事后相比,死亡的痛苦。

However, her father at once yielded and Teresa took the habit.然而,她的父亲在一次取得了特里萨了习惯。

After her profession in the following year she became very seriously ill, and underwent a prolonged cure and such unskillful medical treatment that she was reduced to a most pitiful state, and even after partial recovery through the intercession of St. Joseph, her health remained permanently impaired.她在次年的专业后,她变得十分病重,并经历了长时间的治疗和不熟练的医疗待遇,她是减少到最可怜的状态,甚至通过圣若瑟的代祷部分恢复后,她的健康仍然是永久受损。 During these years of suffering she began the practice of mental prayer, but fearing that her conversations with some world-minded relatives, frequent visitors at the convent, rendered her unworthy of the graces God bestowed on her in prayer, discontinued it, until she came under the influence, first of the Dominicans, and afterwards of the Jesuits.在这些年的痛苦,她开始了实践的精神祈祷,但担心她的谈话,与一些世界志同道合的亲戚,在修道院的经常访港旅客,使她不配上帝赐予她在祈祷,终止它的石榴裙下,直到她来到的影响下,首先的多米尼加人,后来耶稣会士。 Meanwhile God had begun to visit her with "intellectual visions and locutions", that is manifestations in which the exterior senses were in no way affected, the things seen and the words heard being directly impressed upon her mind, and giving her wonderful strength in trials, reprimanding her for unfaithfulness, and consoling her in trouble.与此同时,神已经开始访问她的“智力远见和locutions”,即是表现在外部感官没有办法影响,听到看到的东西的话直接在她的脑海留下深刻印象,并给予她在美妙的强度试验,谴责她的不忠,并安慰她麻烦。 Unable to reconcile such graces with her shortcomings, which her delicate conscience represented as grievous faults, she had recourse not only to the most spiritual confessors she could find, but also to some saintly laymen, who, never suspecting that the account she gave them of her sins was greatly exaggerated, believed these manifestations to be the work of the evil spirit.无法调和与她的缺点,她娇嫩的良心代表为严重故障等的青睐,她不得不求助于不仅是她能找到的最有灵性的忏悔,但还的人,从来没有怀疑的帐户,她给了他们一些圣洁的外行,被大大夸大了她的罪,相信这些表现是邪恶的精神的工作。 The more she endeavoured to resist them the more powerfully did God work in her soul.她越努力,以抵制他们更有力,神在她的灵魂。 The whole city of Avila was troubled by the reports of the visions of this nun.全市的阿维拉是困扰这个尼姑的愿景报告。It was reserved to St. Francis Borgia and St. Peter of Alcantara, and afterwards to a number of Dominicans (particularly Pedro Ibañez and Domingo Bañez), Jesuits, and other religious and secular priests, to discern the work of God and to guide her on a safe road.这是保留给圣弗朗西斯波吉和圣彼得的阿尔坎塔拉,事后的多米尼加(尤其是佩德罗瓦涅斯和多明戈Bañez),耶稣会士,和其他宗教和世俗教士,辨别神的工作,并引导她一个安全的道路上。

The account of her spiritual life contained in the "Life written by herself" (completed in 1565, an earlier version being lost), in the "Relations", and in the "Interior Castle", forms one of the most remarkable spiritual biographies with which only the "Confessions of St. Augustine" can bear comparison.她的精神的生活“由她自己编写的生活”(于1565年完成,失去了早期版本)中的“关系”,和“内政部城堡”所载的帐户,形式最显着的精神传记之一其中仅“圣奥古斯丁忏悔录”,可以承受比较。 To this period belong also such extraordinary manifestations as the piercing or transverberation of her heart, the spiritual espousals, and the mystical marriage.这一时期属于她的心脏穿孔或transverberation的精神espousals,和神秘的婚姻也如此非凡的表现。 A vision of the place destined for her in hell in case she should have been unfaithful to grace, determined her to seek a more perfect life.视野的地方,注定在地狱里对她的情况下,她应该已经不忠实的恩典确定她寻求一个更完美的生活。 After many troubles and much opposition St. Teresa founded the convent of Discalced Carmelite Nuns of the Primitive Rule of St. Joseph at Avila (24 Aug., 1562), and after six months obtained permission to take up her residence there.经过许多麻烦,很多人反对圣德肋撒创办Discalced加尔默罗修道院,阿维拉的原始规则“(1562年8月,24),圣若瑟修女,后6个月内获得批准占用她的住所。 Four years later she received the visit of the General of the Carmelites, John-Baptist Rubeo (Rossi), who not only approved of what she had done but granted leave for the foundation of other convents of friars as well as nuns.四年后,她收到一般的加尔默罗访问,约翰 - 浸会Rubeo(罗西),不仅她做了什么,但批准授予的其他修道院的修士以及修女基础离开。In rapid succession she established her nuns at Medina del Campo (1567), Malagon and Valladolid (1568), Toledo and Pastrana (1569), Salamanca (1570), Alba de Tormes (1571), Segovia (1574), Veas and Seville (1575), and Caravaca (1576).在连续快速,她建立了她的修女在梅迪纳del Campo广场(1567),马拉贡和巴拉多利德(1568),托莱多和帕斯特拉纳(1569),萨拉曼卡(1570年),阿尔巴DE Tormes(1571),塞哥维亚(1574),Veas和塞维利亚( 1575年),和卡拉瓦卡(1576)。In the "Book of Foundations" she tells the story of these convents, nearly all of which were established in spite of violent opposition but with manifest assistance from above.在“图书的基础”,她告诉这些修道院的故事,几乎所有的成立,尽管激烈的反对,但与从上面的清单援助。Everywhere she found souls generous enough to embrace the austerities of the primitive rule of Carmel.她发现到处都慷慨地拥抱焦糖的原始规则的苦行的灵魂。Having made the acquaintance of Antonio de Heredia, prior of Medina, and St. John of the Cross, she established her reform among the friars (28 Nov., 1568), the first convents being those of Duruelo (1568), Pastrana (1569), Mancera, and Alcalá de Henares (1570).作出埃雷迪亚相识的安东尼奥,麦地那之前,和圣十字若望,她的修士之间建立了她的改革(11月28日,1568),第一修道院Duruelo(1568),帕斯特拉纳(1569 ),Mancera,阿尔卡拉(1570年)。

A new epoch began with the entrance into religion of Jerome Gratian, inasmuch as this remarkable man was almost immediately entrusted by the nuncio with the authority of visitor Apostolic of the Carmelite friars and nuns of the old observance in Andalusia, and as such considered himself entitled to overrule the various restrictions insisted upon by the general and the general chapter.杰罗姆Gratian宗教入口进入一个新的时代开始,因为这个杰出的男子几乎立即与权威的圣衣修士和修女在安达卢西亚的旧遵守使徒的游客教廷大使的委托,如认为自己有权推翻的各种限制,坚持由秘书长和章。 On the death of the nuncio and the arrival of his successor a fearful storm burst over St. Teresa and her work, lasting four years and threatening to annihilate the nascent reform.在与大使的死亡和他的继任者害怕风暴爆裂超过圣德肋撒和她的工作,历时四年,并威胁要消灭新生的改革的到来。The incidents of this persecution are best described in her letters.这场迫害的事件是最好的描述,在她的信件。The storm at length passed, and the province of Discalced Carmelites, with the support of Philip II, was approved and canonically established on 22 June, 1580.长度风暴过去了,Discalced加尔默罗省与菲利普二世的支持,批准和规范建立6月22日,1580。St. Teresa, old and broken in health, made further foundations at Villnuava de la Jara and Palencia (1580), Soria (1581), Granada (through her assiatant the Venerable Anne of Jesus), and at Burgos (1582).Villnuava DE LA哈拉和帕伦西亚(1580年),索里亚(1581年),格拉纳达(通过她assiatant耶稣尊者安妮)圣德肋撒,老断在健康,进一步奠定基础,并在布尔戈斯(1582年)。 She left this latter place at the end of July, and, stopping at Palencia, Valldolid, and Medina del Campo, reached Alba de Torres in September, suffering intensely.七月底,她离开了后者的地方,并停在帕伦西亚,Valldolid和Medina del Campo广场达到阿尔巴托雷斯在九月,强烈的痛苦。Soon she took to her bed and passed away on 4 Oct., 1582, the following day, owing to the reform of the calendar, being reckoned as 15 October.不久,她就把她的床上,并于4 10月,1582年,翌日逝世,由于改革的日历,10月15日计算。After some years her body was transferred to Avila, but later on reconveyed to Alba, where it is still preserved incorrupt.若干年后,她的身体被转移到阿维拉,但后来reconveyed阿尔巴,它仍然保留廉洁。 Her heart, too, showing the marks of the Transverberation, is exposed there to the veneration of the faithful.她的心脏,也显示Transverberation标记,是有接触的忠实的崇拜。She was beatified in 1614, and canonized in 1622 by Gregory XV, the feast being fixed on 15 October.于1614年,她是享福,并在1622年册封格雷戈里十五,宴定于10月15日。

St. Teresa's position among writers on mystical theology is unique.圣德肋撒神秘神学作家之间的地位是独一无二的。In all her writings on this subject she deals with her personal experiences, which a deep insight and analytical gifts enabled her to explain clearly.在她所有关于这一问题的著作,她处理她的亲身经历,一个深刻的洞察力和分析的礼物,使她解释清楚。The Thomistic substratum may be traced to the influence of her confessors and directors, many of whom belonged to the Dominican Order.Thomistic基质可追溯到她的忏悔和董事,其中不少属于多米尼加令的影响。She herself had no pretension to found a school in the accepted sense of the term, and there is no vestige in her writings of any influence of the Areopagite, the Patristic, or the Scholastic Mystical schools, as represented among others, by the German Dominican Mystics.她自己也没有发现一所学校在长期接受感的预紧力,有任何的Areopagite影响,教父,或经院的神秘学校等等为代表,由德国多明尼加,她的著作中是没有痕迹神秘主义者。 She is intensely personal, her system going exactly as far as her experiences, but not a step further.她强烈的个性,她的系统,据她的经验完全一样,但不是一步。

A word must be added on the orthography of her name.一个字必须添加上她的名字拼写法。It has of late become the fashion to write her name Teresa or Teresia, without "h", not only in Spanish and Italian, where the "h" could have no place, but also in French, German, and Latin, which ought to preserve the etymological spelling.它的后期成为时尚,写她的名字修女或Teresia没有“H”,不仅在西班牙和意大利,其中的“H”可能没有地方,但也是在法语,德语,和拉丁美洲,这应该保存词源拼写。 As it is derived from a Greek name, Tharasia, the saintly wife of St. Paulinus of Nola, it should be written Theresia in German and Latin, and Thérèse in French. ,因为它是从一个希腊名字,Tharasia,圣洁的妻子圣诺拉Paulinus派生的,它应该写在法国Theresia德语和拉丁语,贷瑞莎。

Publication information Written by Benedict Zimmerman.本笃齐默尔曼编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Marie Jutras.转录由Marie Jutras。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


St. John of the Cross圣约翰的十字架

Catholic Information天主教信息

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b.方正(圣德肋撒)Discalced加尔默罗,医生神秘神学,B.at Hontoveros, Old Castile, 24 June, 1542; d.在Hontoveros,旧卡斯蒂利亚,6月24日,1542年; D.at Ubeda, Andalusia, 14 Dec., 1591.在乌韦达,安达卢西亚,14 12月,第1591。John de Yepes, youngest child of Gonzalo de Yepes and Catherine Alvarez, poor silk weavers of Toledo, knew from his earliest years the hardships of life.约翰 - 耶佩斯,年龄最小的孩子贡萨洛 - 耶佩斯和凯瑟琳阿尔瓦雷斯,托莱多的穷人丝绸织工,知道从他的早年生活的艰辛。The father, originally of a good family but disinherited on account of his marriage below his rank, died in the prime of his youth; the widow, assisted by her eldest son, was scarcely able to provide the bare necessities.父亲,原本是一个良好的家庭,但他的排名低于他婚姻剥夺继承权,在他的青年时期的首要死亡的寡妇,她的长子的协助下,几乎能够提供必需品。 John was sent to the poor school at Medina del Campo, whither the family had gone to live, and proved an attentive and diligent pupil; but when apprenticed to an artisan, he seemed incapable of learning anything.约翰被送到贫困学校在Medina del Campo广场,往那家庭已经住了,被证明是一个细心和勤勉的学生,但工匠学徒时,他似乎不能学点东西。Thereupon the governor of the hospital of Medina took him into his service, and for seven years John divided his time between waiting on the poorest of the poor, and frequenting a school established by the Jesuits.于是,总督麦地那的医院到了他的服务他,7年约翰之间瓜分他的时间,等待上最贫穷的人,并经常由耶稣会建立了学校。 Already at that early age he treated his body with the utmost rigour; twice he was saved from certain death by the intervention of the Blessed Virgin.已经在早期的年龄,他最严厉对待自己的身体;两次,他是从某一死亡保存圣母干预。Anxious about his future life, he was told in prayer that he was to serve God in an order the ancient perfection of which he was to help bring back again.关于他今后的生活着急,他告诉记者,在祈祷,他是为上帝在古代完善的订单,他是为了帮助再次带回。The Carmelites having founded a house at Medina, he there received the habit on 24 February, 1563, and took the name of John of St. Matthias.创立的加尔默罗在麦地那的房子,他有于1563年2月24日,收到的习惯,并参加了圣马提亚约翰的名字。After profession he obtained leave from his superiors to follow to the letter the original Carmelite rule without the mitigations granted by various popes.界后,他得到了他的上司离开原加尔默罗规则要遵循的信中没有各种教皇授予的缓解措施。He was sent to Salamanca for the higher studies, and was ordained priest in 1567; at his first Mass he received the assurance that he should preserve his baptismal innocence.他被送往萨拉曼卡为高等研究,并于1567年被祝圣司铎在他的第一次大规模的他获得了保证,他应该保持他的洗礼无罪。 But, shrinking from the responsibilities of the priesthood, he determined to join the Carthusians.但是,萎缩的神职人员的职责,他决心加入Carthusians。

However, before taking any further step he made the acquaintance of St. Teresa, who had come to Medina to found a convent of nuns, and who persuaded him to remain in the Carmelite Order and to assist her in the establishment of a monastery of friars carrying out the primitive rule.然而,在采取任何进一步的步骤,他结识,人已经到了麦地那发现了一个修道院的修女圣德肋撒,谁劝他留在加尔默罗订购,并协助她建立一个修道院的修士开展原始规则。 He accompanied her to Valladolid in order to gain practi cal experience of the manner of life led by the reformed nuns.他陪着她到巴利亚多利德,以获得实际CAL的生活,改革修女领导方式的经验。A small house having been offered, St. John resolved to try at once the new form of life, although St. Teresa did not think anyone, however great his spirituality, could bear the discomforts of that hovel.已经提供了一间小房子,圣约翰决心尝试一次新的生命形式,虽然圣德肋撒没想到的人,然而伟大的他的灵性,可以承受的小屋的不适。 He was joined by two companions, an ex-prior and a lay brother, with whom he inaugurated the reform among friars, 28 Nov., 1568.他的两个同伴,当然事先和奠定的兄弟加入,与他宣誓就职之间的修士的改革,1568年11月28日。St. Teresa has left a classical dscription of the sort of life led by these first Discalced Carmelites, in chaps.圣德肋撒留下了古典的生活,这些Discalced加尔默罗领导的排序dscription,皲裂。xiii and xiv of her "Book of Foundations".第十三和第十四她的“书的基础”。John of the Cross, as he now called himself, became the first master of novices, and laid the foundation of the spiritual edifice which soon was to assume majestic proportions.约翰的十字架,因为他现在自称,成为新手的第一高手,并奠定了的精神大厦,很快就被承担雄伟的比例的基础。 He filled various posts in different places until St. Teresa called him to Avila as director and confessor to the convent of the Incarnation, of which she had been appointed prioress.他充满了各个岗位在不同的地方,直到圣德肋撒叫他阿维拉主任和忏悔修道院的化身,她已被任命为prioress。 He remained there, with a few interruptions, for over five years.他在那里停留,与几个中断,超过五年。Meanwhile, the reform spread rapidly, and, partly through the confusion caused by contradictory orders issued by the general and the general chapter on one hand, and the Apostolic nuncio on the other, and partly through human passion which sometimes ran high, its existence became seriously endangered.同时,改革迅速蔓延,部分是通过一方面一般和一般章节发出矛盾的订单,以及其他教廷大使所造成的混乱,部分通过人的激情,有时高涨,它的存在成为严重危害。

St. John was ordered by his provincial to return to the house of his profession (Medina), and, on his refusing to do so, owing to the fact that he held his office not from the order but from the Apostolic delegate, he was taken prisoner in the night of 3 December, 1577, and carried off to Toledo, where he suffered for more than nine months close imprisonment in a narrow, stifling cell, together with such additional punishment as might have been called for in the case of one guilty of the most serious crimes.他下令由他省圣约翰返回到他的职业(麦地那)的房子,而且,他拒绝这样做,因为事实上,他不从订单,但是从宗座代表举行了他的办公室,在12月3日,1577日晚的囚犯,并进行托莱多,在那里他遭受密切监禁超过9个月在一个狭窄的,令人窒息的细胞,这种额外的惩处一起,有可能被称为一例犯的最严重的罪行。 In the midst of his sufferings he was visited with heavenly consolations, and some of his exquisite poetry dates from that period.在他的痛苦之中,他参观了天上的安慰,并从这一时期他的一些精美的诗歌日期。He made good his escape in a miraculous manner, August, 1578.他做了一个奇迹般的方式,八月,1578的好他的逃命。During the next years he was chiefly occupied with the foundation and government of monasteries at Baeza, Granada, Cordova, Segovia, and elsewhere, but took no prominent part in the negotiations which led to the establishment of a separate government for the Discalced Carmelites.巴埃萨,格拉纳达,科尔多瓦,塞哥维亚,和其他地方的寺庙的基础和政府在未来几年中,他是主要占领,但参加谈判从而导致建立一个独立的政府Discalced加尔默罗的没有突出的部分。 After the death of St. Teresa (4 Oct.,1582), when the two parties of the Moderates under Jerome Gratian, and the Zelanti under Nicholas Doria struggled for the upper hand, St. John supported the former and shared his fate.圣德肋撒(4 10月,1582年),当双方根据杰罗姆Gratian的温和派,并根据尼古拉斯的Doria Zelanti挣扎上风去世后,圣约翰支持前,并分享了他的的命运。For some time he filled the post of vicar provincial of Andalusia, but when Doria changed the government of the order, concentrating all power in the hands of a permanent committee, St. John resisted and, supporting the nuns in their endeavour to secure the papal approbation of their constitutions, drew upon himself the displeasure of the superior, who deprived him of his offices and relegated him to one of the poorest monasteries, where he fell seriously ill.一段时间以来,他充满了安达卢西亚省副主教的职位,但时的Doria改变政府的命令,集中在一个常设委员会手中的所有电源,圣约翰抵制,支持修女在他们的努力,以确保教皇其宪法的认可,提请上级的不满,谁剥夺了他的办公室,并在自己身上退居他其中一个最贫穷的寺院,他得了重病。 One of his opponents went so far as to go from monastery to monastery gathering materials in order to bring grave charges against him, hoping for his expulsion from the order which he had helped to found.他的对手之一,竟然去,从寺院到寺院收集材料,以带来严重指控他,希望他帮助发现顺序将他驱逐出境。

As his illness increased he was removed to the monastery of Ubeda, where he at first was treated very unkindly, his constant prayer, "to suffer and to be despised", being thus literally fulfilled almost to the end of his life.由于他的疾病的增加,他辗转来到修道院乌韦达,他起初是非常不友好的对待,他不断的祈祷,“受苦,被人鄙视”,因此从字面上履行几乎到了他生命的终结。 But at last even his adversaries came to acknowledge his sanctity, and his funeral was the occasion of a great outburst of enthusiasm.但最后连他的对手来承认他的神圣性,而他的葬礼是一个极大的热情爆发之际。The body, still incorrupt, as has been ascertained within the last few years, was removed to Segovia, only a small portion remaining at Ubeda; there was some litigation about its possession.身体,仍然廉洁,已确定在过去几年内,辗转塞哥维亚,只有一小部分留在乌韦达;有一些关于其拥有的诉讼。A strange phenomenon, for which no satisfactory explanation has been given, has frequently been observed in connexion with the relics of St. John of the Cross: Francis de Yepes, the brother of the saint, and after him many other persons have noticed the appearance in his relics of images of Christ on the Cross, the Blessed Virgin, St. Elias, St. Francis Xavier, or other saints, according to the devotion of the beholder.没有得到令人满意的解释,有一个奇怪的现象,经常被观察到的圣十字架的约翰遗物在Connexion:弗朗西斯德耶佩斯,圣人的兄弟,和许多其他人后,他已经注意到外观在他的遗物,基督在十字架上的图像,圣母,圣埃利亚斯,圣弗朗西斯泽维尔,或其他圣人,仁者见仁奉献。 The beatification took place on 25 Jan., 1675, the translation of his body on 21 May of the same year, and the canonization on 27 Dec., 1726.赐福了25日举行,1675 1月,他的身体21的翻译,同年5月,册封,1726年12月27日。

He left the following works, which for the first time appeared at Barcelona in 1619.他留下了以下的作品,首次出现在1619年在巴塞罗那。

"The Ascent of Mount Carmel", an explanation of some verses beginning: "In a dark night with anxious love inflamed".“卡梅尔山晋”,解释一些经文的开头:“在一个漆黑的夜晚,急爱发炎”。This work was to have comprised four books, but breaks off in the middle of the third.这项工作包括四书,但在中间的第三休息。

"The Dark Night of the Soul", another explanation of the same verses, breaking off in the second book.“灵魂的黑夜”,打破另一个相同的经文解释,在第二本书。Both these works were written soon after his escape from prison, and, though incomplete, supplement each other, forming a full treatise on mystic theology.这些作品都被写入后不久,他从监狱逃跑,虽然不完整,互为补充,形成了一个充满神秘神学论文。

An explanation of the "Spiritual Canticle", (a paraphrase of the Canticle of Canticles) beginning "Where hast Thou hidden Thyself?" “精神的颂歌”(意译canticle的canticles)的说明开始“祢隐藏你自己呢?”composed part during his imprisonment, and completed and commented upon some years later at the request of Venerable Anne of Jesus.在他被监禁组成部分,并完成谈及一些年后在耶稣安妮尊者的要求。

An explanation of a poem beginning: "O Living Flame of Love", written about 1584 at the bidding of Dona Ana de Penalosa.写了一首诗开始的解释:“啊,生活的爱的火焰”,1584多纳安娜 - Penalosa招标。

Some instructions and precautions on matters spiritual.的说明和注意事项事项精神。

Some twenty letters, chiefly to his penitents.二十几个字母,主要是他的忏悔。Unfortunately the bulk of his correspondence, including numerous letters to and from St. Teresa, was destroyed, partly by himself, partly during the persecutions to which he fell a victim.不幸的是,大部分他的信件,其中包括许多信件和圣德肋撒,被摧毁,部分原因是由他本人,部分原因是在他摔了受害者的迫害。

"Poems", of which twenty-six have been hitherto published, viz., twenty in the older editions, and recently six more, discovered partly at the National Library at Madrid, and partly at the convent of Carmelite nuns at Pamplona. “诗”,其中二十六个已迄今出版的,即,在旧版本20,和最近六,发现部分在马德里的国家图书馆,以及部分在潘普洛纳加尔默罗修女修道院。

"A Collection of Spiritual Maxims" (in some editions to the number of one hundred, and in others three hundred and sixty-five) can scarcely count as an independent work, as they are culled from his writings. “精神格言的集合”(在一些版本的一百年,而在其他三个一百六十五个的),几乎无法计数作为一个独立的工作,因为它们是从他的著作中精选出的。

It has been recorded that during his studies St. John particularly relished psychology; this is amply borne out by his writings.据记载,在他的研究圣约翰特别津津乐道的心理,这是充分证明他的著作。He was not what one would term a scholar, but he was intimately acquainted with the "Summa" of St. Thomas Aquinas, as almost every page of his works proves.他不是什么人会长期的一个学者,但他密切熟悉的圣托马斯阿奎那的“大全”,因为他的作品几乎每一个页面证明。Holy Scripture he seems to have known by heart, yet he evidently obtained his knowledge more by meditation than in the lecture room.圣经,他似乎有已知的心脏,但他显然获得沉思他的知识多在演讲室。But there is no vestige of influence on him of the mystical teaching of the Fathers, the Areopagite, Augustine, Gregory, Bernard, Bonaventure, etc., Hugh of St. Victor, or the German Dominican school.但有没有影响他的痕迹的父亲神秘的教学,Areopagite,奥古斯丁,格雷戈里,伯纳德,文德等,休圣维克托,或​​德国多米尼加学校。 The few quotations from patristic works are easily traced to the Breviary or the "Summa".少数报价教父的作品很容易追查到的​​祈祷书或“大全”。In the absence of any conscious or unconscious influence of earlier mystical schools, his own system, like that of St. Teresa, whose influence is obvious throughout, might be termed empirical mysticism.在没有任何早期的神秘学校,他自己的系统,有意识或无意识像圣德肋撒,其影响是显而易见的整个,可称为实证神秘主义的影响。 They both start from their own experience, St. Teresa avowedly so, while St. John, who hardly ever speaks of himself, "invents nothing" (to quote Cardinal Wiseman), "borrows nothing from others, but gives us clearly the results of his own experience in himself and others. He presents you with a portrait, not with a fancy picture. He represents the ideal of one who has passed, as he had done, through the career of the spiritual life, through its struggles and its victories".他们都从自己的经验,圣德肋撒公然如此,而圣约翰未落自己说话“,发明了什么”(报价枢机怀斯曼),“借用别人的,但给了我们明确的结果他提出了一个人像你,不是一个花哨的图片。他代表一个理想的人已通过,像他那样,通过职业生涯的精神生活,通过它的斗争和胜利自己的经验,在自己和他人。 “。

His axiom is that the soul must empty itself of self in order to be filled with God, that it must be purified of the last traces of earthly dross before it is fit to become united with God.他的格言是灵魂空本身的自我,以充满神,它必须是尘世的糟粕的痕迹纯化之前,它是适合美国成为与神。 In the application of this simple maxim he shows the most uncompromising logic.在这个简单的格言应用,他显示了最不妥协的逻辑。 Supposing the soul with which he deals to be habitually in the state of grace and pushing forward to better things, he overtakes it on the very road leading it, in its opinion to God, and lays open before its eyes a number of sores of which it was altogether ignorant, viz.假如灵魂与他交易习惯性地在国家的宽限期,并推进到更好的东西,他非常领先的IT道路上赶超,在上帝的意见,并规定它的眼睛前开放了其中的疮这是完全无知的,即。 what he terms the spiritual capital sins.他所说的精神资本的罪孽。Not until these are removed (a most formidable task) is it fit to be admitted to what he calls the "Dark Night", which consists in the passive purgation, where God by heavy trials, particularly interior ones, perfects and completes what the soul had begun of its own accord.直到这些被删除(最艰巨的任务),是适合被录取到他所谓的“黑暗之夜”,包括在被动的下法,神沉重的试验,特别是室内的,完善和完成什么灵魂开始了自己的。 It is now passive, but not inert, for by submitting to the Divine operation it co-operates in the measure of its power.现在是被动的,但没有惰性,提交在其权力的措施合作经营,以神圣的操作。Here lies one of the essential differences between St. John's mysticism and a false quietism.这里位于圣约翰的神秘主义和虚假的清静无为之间的本质区别之一。The perfect purgation of the soul in the present life leaves it free to act with wonderful energy: in fact it might almost be said to obtain a share in God's omnipotence, as is shown in the marvelous deeds of so many saints.的灵魂在现在的生活完美的下法,离开自由行动与奇妙的能量,事实上,它几乎可以说,在上帝的全能获得一个份额,因为在这么许多圣人奇妙的事迹。 As the soul emerges from the Dark Night it enters into the full noonlight described in the "Spiritual Canticle" and the "Living Flame of Love".作为灵魂从黑暗的夜晚出现,它进入到在“精神的颂歌”和“生活的爱的火焰”中描述的全部noonlight。St. John leads it to the highest heights, in fact to the point where it becomes a "partaker of the Divine Nature".圣约翰导致它的最高高度,在事实上成为一个“神圣的性质有份”的地步。It is here that the necessity of the previous cleansing is clearly perceived the pain of the mortification of all the senses and the powers and faculties of the soul being amply repaid by the glory which is now being revealed in it.正是在这里,前清洗的必要性,显然是认为所有的感官,这是现在在它揭示的荣耀偿还被充分的权力和院系的灵魂屈辱的痛苦。

St. John has often been represented as a grim character; nothing could be more untrue.圣约翰经常被作为一个严峻的字符表示,没有什么可以更不真实。He was indeed austere in the extreme with himself, and, to some extent, also with others, but both from his writings and from the depositions of those who knew him, we see in him a man overflowing with charity and kindness, a poetical mind deeply influenced by all that is beautiful and attractive.在与自己的极端,他确实是严峻的,在一定程度上也与其他人,但无论是从他的著作,并从那些知道他的的供词中,我们看到在他一个人,慈善和善良,一个诗意的心灵满溢深受影响,是美丽的,有吸引力的。

Publication information Written by Benedict Zimmerman.本笃齐默尔曼编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Marie Jutras.转录由Marie Jutras。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The best life of St. John of the Cross was written by JEROME DE SAN JOSÉ (Madrid, 1641), but, not being approved by the superiors, it was not incorporated in the chronicles of the order, and the author lost his position of annalist on account of it.圣十字若望写的最好的生活是由Jerome DE圣何塞(马德里,1641年),但没有被上级批准,这是不纳入该命令的编年史,作者失去了他的位置在它的帐户的编年史。



Also, see:此外,见:
Mysticism 神秘主义
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Benedictines benedictines
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Cistercians cistercians
Trappists trappists
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html