Christian Brothers基督教兄弟

General Information一般资料

Saint John Baptist de La Salle圣约翰浸礼会喇沙

Saint John Baptist de La Salle, b.圣约翰浸会去喇沙,B.Apr. 30, 1651, d. 4月30日,1651年,D.Apr. 7, 1719, was a French educator and the founder of the Institute of the brothers of Christian Schools, popularly known as Christian Brothers. 4月7日,1719年,是法国教育家的基督教学校,作为基督教兄弟之称的兄弟研究所的创始人。Ordained a priest in 1678, he was a canon of the cathedral at Reims until 1683, when he resigned to devote himself to organizing schools for poor children.规定了在1678年的一个牧师,他是佳能的大教堂,在兰斯,直到1683,当他辞职投身组织为贫困儿童的学校。 In 1684 he founded a religious order devoted to teaching.1684年,他成立了一个专门用于教学的宗教秩序。Distinguished as a pioneer of training colleges for teachers and in the use of the vernacular in teaching, he ranks among the outstanding educators of modern times.杰出教师培训学院的先驱,并在使用白话文教学,他跻身近代优秀教育工作者。Canonized in 1900, he is the patron saint of schoolteachers.在1900年的册封,他是学校教师的守护神。Feast day: April 7.节日:4月7日。

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Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools研究所的兄弟的基督教学校

Catholic Information天主教信息

NATURE AND OBJECT性质和OBJECT

The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor.基督教学校兄弟研究所是社会的男性宗教教会批准,但没有采取神圣的命令,并为它的对象,其成员的个人成圣和基督教青年教育,尤其是工匠的儿童和穷人。 It accepts the direction of any kind of male educational institution, provided the teaching of Latin be excluded; but its principal object is the direction of elementary gratuitous schools.它可以接受任何一种男性的教育机构的方向,提供了拉丁美洲被排除在外的教学,但其主要对象是小学无偿学校的方向。 This congregation was founded in 1680, at Reims, France, by St. John Baptist de La Salle, then a canon of the metropolitan church of that city.这个教会成立于1680年,在法国兰斯,由圣约翰浸礼会去喇沙,那么佳能的那个城市的大都会教堂。Being struck by the lamentable disorders produced among the multitude by their ignorance of the elements of knowledge, and, what was still worse, of the principles of religion, the saint, moved with great pity for the ignorant, was led, almost without a premeditated design, to take up the work of charitable schools.遭受生产之间的众多知识要素的无知可悲的障碍,究竟是什么更糟糕的宗教,圣人感动,很可惜无知的原则,率领,几乎没有一次有预谋的设计,采取了慈善学校的工作。 In order to carry out the last will of his spiritual director, Canon Roland, he first busied himself with consolidating a religious congregation devoted to the education of poor girls.为了进行最后将他的精神主任,佳能罗兰,他第一次自己忙于巩固一个宗教会众,专门用于贫困女童的教育。He then seconded the efforts of a zealous layman, M. Nyel, to multiply schools for poor children.然后,他借调一个热心的门外汉,M. Nyel,乘以学校为贫困儿童的努力。Thus guided by Providence, he was led to create an institute that would have no other mission than that of Christian education.因此,由普罗维登斯的指导下,他领导创建一个研究所,就没有其他比基督教教育的使命。

However, it would be a serious error to insinuate that until the end of the seventeenth century the Catholic Church had interested herself but little in the education of the children of the people.然而,这将是一个严重的错误,以影射,直到十七世纪末,天主教教会有兴趣,但很少在自己的人的子女的教育。From the fifth to the sixteenth century, many councils which were held, especially those of Vaison in 529 and Aachen in 817, recommended the secular clergy and monks to instruct children.从第五至十六世纪,许多议会举行的,尤其是Vaison那些在529和817亚琛,建议指导儿童的世俗教士和僧侣。 In 1179 the Third Council of Lateran ordained that the poor be taught gratuitously, and in 1547 the Council of Trent decreed that in connexion with every church, there should be a master to teach the elements of human knowledge to poor children and young students preparing for orders.在1179第三届理事会的拉特兰受戒,穷人可以无偿教,并在1547年颁布法令,在每一个教会联接,应该有一个主教人类知识的元素,贫困儿童和青年学生,准备安理会的遄达订单。 There were, therefore, numerous schools - petites écoles - for the common people in France in the seventeenth century, but teachers were few, because the more clever among them abandoned the children of the poor to teach those of the wealthier class and receive compensation for their work.因此,有许多学校 - petites ECOLES - 法国在17世纪的普通百姓,但教师很少,因为其中更聪明放弃穷人的孩子教那些富裕阶层和获得赔偿他们的工作。It was evident that only a religious congregation would be able to furnish a permanent supply of educators for those who are destitute of the goods of this world.很明显,仅仅是一个宗教众会对于那些一贫如洗的这个世界的货物能够提供一个永久性的教育工作者供给。The institutes of the Venerable César de Bus in 1592 and of St. Joseph Calasanctius (1556-1648) had added Latin to the course of studies for the poor.尊者塞萨尔在1592年的巴士和圣若瑟Calasanctius(1556年至1648年)各研究所的研究为穷人服务的过程中增加了拉美。 The tentatives made in favour of boys by St. Peter Fourier (1565-1640) and Père Barré, in 1678, failed; the work of M. Demia at Lyons in 1672 was not to spread.赞成男生由圣彼得傅立叶(1665至40年)和巴利的Père tentatives,在1678年,失败了;分枝Demia在1672年在里昂的工作没有蔓延。Then God raised up St. John Baptist de La Salle, not to create gratuitous schools, but to furnish them with teachers and give them fixed methods.神圣约翰浸礼会喇沙,而不是制造无端的学校,但要提供他们与教师,给他们固定的方法。The undertaking was much more difficult than the founder himself imagined.承诺是比自己想象的创始人困难得多。At the beginning he was encouraged by Père Barré, a Minim, who had founded a society of teaching nuns, Les Dames de Saint-Maur.在开始的时候,他感到鼓舞的Père巴雷,微量,曾成立了一个教学尼姑社会的Les Dames德圣MAUR。 The clergy and faithful applauded the scheme, but it had many bitter adversaries.神职人员和信徒的计划表示欢迎,但它有许多的苦对手。During forty years, from 1680 to 1719, obstacles and difficulties constantly checked the progress of the new institute, but by the prudence, humility, and invincible courage of its superior, it was consolidated and developed to unexpected proportions.在40年,从1680到1719年,障碍和困难,不断检查新学院的进展,但谨慎,谦卑,其优越的战无不胜的勇气,这是巩固和发展意想不到的比例。

DEVELOPMENT发展

In 1680 the new teachers began their apostolate at Reims; in 1682 they took the name of "Brothers of the Christian Schools"; in 1684 they opened their first regular novitiate. 1680年新入职的教师开始在兰斯的使徒;在1682年,他们采取了“基督教学校兄弟”的名称于1684年,他们开了第一次定期见习。In 1688 Providence transplanted the young tree to the parish of St-Sulpice, Paris, in charge of the spiritual sons of M. Olier.1688年普罗维登斯移植的幼树,巴黎的圣叙尔皮斯教区,负责Olier分枝的精神儿子。The mother-house remained in the capital until 1705.母亲的房子仍然在首都,直到1705。During this period the founder met with trials of every kind.创始人在此期间,会见了各种试验。The most painful came from holy priests whom he esteemed, but who entertained views of his work different from his own.最痛苦的是他尊敬的神圣祭司,但谁招待他的工作从他自己的不同意见。Without being in any way discouraged, and in the midst of the storms, the saint kept nearly all of his first schools, and even opened new ones.没有任何气馁的方式,在风暴中,圣人保持几乎所有他的第一所学校,甚至开辟了新的。 He reorganized his novitiate several times, and created the first normal schools under the name of "seminaries for country teachers".他几次改组他的见习期,并建立“国家教师神学院”的名称下的第一师范学校。His zeal was as broad and ardent as his love of souls.他的热情是广泛和热心为他的灵魂的爱。The course of events caused the founder to transfer his novitiate to Rouen in 1705, to the house of Saint-Yon, in the suburb of Saint-Sever, which became the centre whence the institute sent its religious into the South of France, in 1707.事件的过程中造成的创始人,他的见习期转移到鲁昂,在1705年,圣延亨默的房子,在1707年在郊区圣断绝,成为研究所发送到法国南部的宗教中心何处, 。It was at Rouen that St. John Baptist de La Salle composed his rules, convoked two general chapters, resigned his office of superior, and ended his earthly existence by a holy death, in 1719.这是在鲁昂的圣约翰浸礼会喇沙组成了他的规则,召集两个一般章节,辞去了他的上级部门,并结束了一个神圣的死亡在1719年,他的尘世存在。 Declared venerable in 1840, he was beatified in 1888, and canonized in 1900.宣布1840年尊者,他于1888年享福,并在1900年的册封。

SPIRIT OF THE INSTITUTE该研究所的精神

The spirit of the institute, infused by the example and teachings of its founder and fostered by the exercises of the religious life, is a spirit of faith and of zeal.该研究所的精神,注入的例子和它的创始人和宗教生活的练习培养的教诲,是一种信仰和热情的精神。The spirit of faith induces a Brother to see God in all things, to suffer everything for God, and above all to sanctify himself.信仰的精神诱导兄弟看到万物的上帝,遭受一切为上帝,并高于一切成圣自己。The spirit of zeal attracts him towards children to instruct them in the truths of religion and penetrate their hearts with the maxims of the Gospel, so that they may make it the rule of their conduct.热情的精神吸引了他对儿童,指示他们在宗教的真理,穿透他们的心与福音的格言,使它们可能使他们的行为规则。St. John Baptist de La Salle had himself given his Brothers admirable proofs of the purity of his faith and the vivacity of his zeal.圣约翰浸礼会喇沙曾亲自给他的兄弟令人钦佩的证明,他的信仰的纯洁性和他的热情活泼。 It was his faith that made him adore the will of God in all the adversities he met with; that prompted him to send two Brothers to Rome in 1700 in testimony of his attachment to the Holy See, and that led him to condemn openly the errors of the Jansenists, who tried in vain at Marseilles.这是他的信仰,在所有的逆境中,他会见了他崇拜的神的旨意;促使他送两兄弟在1700年到罗马,在他的依恋的证词罗马教廷,导致他公开谴责的错误詹森,妄图在马赛。 and Calais to draw him over to their party.加来绘制他交给他们的党。His whole life was a prolonged act of zeal: he taught school at Reims, Paris, and Grenoble, and showed how to do it well.他的一生是一个长期的热情的行为:他曾在兰斯,巴黎,格勒诺布尔的学校,并展示如何把它做好。He composed works for teachers and pupils, and especially the "Conduite des écoles" the "Devoirs du chrétien", and the "Règles de la bienséance et de la civilité chrétienne".他组成的教师和学生的作品,尤其是“Conduite DES ECOLES”“Devoirs杜克雷蒂安”,和“Règles DE LA bienséance等DE LA civilité chrétienne”。

The saint pointed out that the zeal of a religious educator should be exercised by three principal means: vigilance, good example, and instruction.圣指出,一个宗教教育工作者的热情,应该由三个主要手段行使:警惕,很好的例子,并指令。Vigilance removes from children a great many occasions of offending God; good example places before them models for imitation; instruction makes them familiar with what they should know, especially with the truths of religion.警惕删除从儿童的一个伟大的多次得罪上帝;很好的例子地方之前,模仿他们的模型;指令,使他们熟悉,尤其是与宗教的真理,他们应该知道什么。 Hence, the Brothers have always considered catechism as the most important subject taught in their schools.因此,兄弟一直视为最重要的课题在学校任教的教义。They are catechists by vocation and the will of the Church.他们是由职业和教会将传教员。They are, therefore, in accordance with the spirit of their institute, religious educators: as religious, they take the three usual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience; as educators, they add the vow of teaching the poor gratuitously according to the prescriptions of their rule, and the vow of remaining in their institute, which they may not leave of themselves even for the purpose of joining a more perfect order. ,因此,他们是在按照自己的研究所,宗教教育的精神:作为宗教,他们采取三个一贯的誓言贫穷,贞洁,服从,作为教育工作者,他们发誓教学穷人无偿根据处方他们的统治,并誓言留在他们的研究所,他们可能不会离开自己,即使加入一个更完美的秩序的目的。 Besides, the work appeared so very important to St. John Baptist de La Salle that, in order to attach the Brothers permanently to the education of the poor, he forbade them to teach Latin.此外,工作出现了非常重要的圣约翰浸礼会喇沙,以附加兄弟永久穷人的教育,他禁止他们教拉丁。

GOVERNMENT政府

The institute is governed by a superior general elected for life by the general chapter.该研究所是由一般章当选生活的一个优于一般。The superior general is aided by assistants, who at the present time number twelve.优于一般是助理,在目前12号是谁资助。He delegates authority to the visitors, to whom he confides the government of districts, and to directors, whom he places in charge of individual houses.他代表管理局向游客,向他倾诉的区政府,以及向董事,他地方负责个人住宅。With the exception of that of superior general, all the offices are temporary and renewable.随着优于一般的例外,所有的办公室,是暂时的和可再生。The general chapters are convoked at least every ten years.一般章节召集至少每10年。Thirty-two have been held since the foundation of the congregation.34个已举办以来,众基础。The vitality of an institute depends on the training of its members.一个研究所的生命力取决于其成员的培训。God alone is the author of vocations.只有上帝是作者召。He alone can attract a soul to a life of self-denial such as that of the Brothers.他可以吸引灵魂的自我否定,如兄弟的生活。 The mortification this life enjoins is not rigorous, but renouncement of self-will and of the frivolities of the world should gradually become complete.这辈子责成的屈辱是不严谨的,但应逐渐成为完整的自我意志,放弃世界上无聊。The usual age for admission to the novitiate of the society is from sixteen to eighteen years.通常进入社会见习年龄从十六到十八岁。Doubtless there are later vocations that are excellent, and there are earlier ones that develop the most beautiful virtues.毫无疑问,也有后来的圣召,是优秀的,有较早的发展最美丽的美德。If the aspirant presents himself at the age of thirteen or fourteen, he is placed in the preparatory or junior novitiate.如果追求者介绍自己在十三或十四岁,他是放置在筹备或初级的见习期。During two or three years he devotes himself to study, is carefully trained to the habits of piety, and instructed how to overcome himself, so as one day to become a fervent religious.在两年或三年期间,他致力于研究,认真训练的虔诚的习惯,并指示如何克服自己,所以有一天成为一个狂热的宗教。

The novitiate proper is for young men who have passed through the junior novitiate, and for postulants who have come directly from the world.适当的见习期是为已通过初中的见习期,和那些直接来自世界postulants的男青年。During a whole year they have no other occupation than that of studying the rules of the institute and applying themselves to observe them faithfully.在整整一年中,他们有没有研究的研究所,并把他们忠实地遵守规则,其他职业。At the end of their first year of probation, the young Brothers enter the scholasticate, where they spend more or less time according to the nature of the duties to be assigned to them.在其第一年缓刑结束时,年轻的兄弟进入scholasticate,在那里他们花费更多或更少的时间要分配给他们的职责的性质。 As a rule, each of the districts of the institute has its three departments of training: the junior novitiate, the senior novitiate, and the scholasticate.作为一个规则,每个研究所的地区培训​​三个部门:初中见习期,高级见习期,和scholasticate。 In community, subjects complete their professional training and apply themselves to acquire the virtues of their state.在社区,学科齐全的专业培训和适用于自己,以获得他们的状态的美德。At eighteen years of age, they take annual vows; at twenty-three, triennial vows; and when fully twenty-eight years of age, they may be admitted to perpetual profession.在18岁以下,他们采取每年誓言,在二十三个,三年期的誓言;当充分二十8岁,他们可能会承认永久界。Finally, some years later, they may be called for some months to the exercises of a second novitiate.最后,若干年后,他们可能被称为一些个月的第二个见习演习。

METHODS OF TEACHING教学方法

In enjoining on his disciples to endeavour above all to develop the spirit of religion in the souls of their pupils, the founder only followed the traditions of other teaching bodies - the Benedictines, Jesuits, Oratorians, etc., and what was practised even by the teachers of the petites écoles.责令上述所有对他的弟子努力发展他们的学生的灵魂的宗教精神,创办仅跟其他教学机构的传统 - 本笃会士,耶稣会士,Oratorians等,甚至是实行教师petites ECOLES。His originality lay elsewhere.他的独创性在于别处。Two pedagogic innovations of St. John Baptist de La Salle met with approval from the beginning:教学创新的圣约翰浸礼会喇沙会见了从一开始就批准:

(1) the employment of the "simultaneous method";(1)就业的“同步法”;

(2) the employment of the vernacular language in teaching reading. (2)在阅读教学中的白话语言的就业。

They are set forth in the "Conduite des écoles", in which the founder condensed the experience he had acquired during an apostolate of forty years.载“Conduite DES ECOLES”的创始人,其中凝结着他在四十多年的使徒收购的经验。This work remained in manuscript during the life of its author, and was printed for the first time at Avignon in 1720.这项工作仍然在手稿在其作者的生活,并于1720年首次在阿维尼翁印。

(1) By the use of the simultaneous method a large number of children of the same intellectual development could thenceforward be taught together. (1)通过使用同步方法的一个大量的儿童的智力发展可能从那时起教导在一起。It is true that for ages this method had been employed in the universities, but in the common schools the individual method was adhered to.诚然,这种方法对年龄已在受聘于大学,但在普通学校的个别方法是坚持。Practicable enough when the number of pupils was very limited, the individual method gave rise, in classes that were numerous, to loss of time and disorder.足够的可行时,学生人数是非常有限的的,个别的方法产生了,在许多类,时间损失和混乱。Monitors became necessary, and these had often neither learning nor authority.显示器成为必要,而这些往往既不学习,也不权威。 With limitations that restricted its efficacy, St. Peter Fourier had indeed recommended the simultaneous method in the schools of the Congrégation de Notre-Dame, but it never extended further.限制了其疗效的局限性,圣彼得傅立叶确曾建议众圣母院学校的同步方法,但它从来没有进一步扩大。To St. John Baptist de La Salle belongs the honour of having transformed the pedagogy of the elementary school.圣约翰浸礼会喇沙属于改变小学教学法的荣誉。Here required all his teachers to give the same lesson to all the pupils of a class, to question them constantly, to maintain discipline, and have silence observed.这里要求所有教师给予同样的教训,一个类的所有学生,他们不断质疑,维持纪律,并有沉默观察。A consequence of this new method of teaching was the dividing up of the children into distinct classes according to their attainments, and later on, the formation of sections in classes in which the children were too numerous or too unequal in mental development.这种新的教学方法的一个后果是,划分成不同类别的儿童根据自己的造诣,后来就形成,在部分班级中,孩子们不胜枚举或过心理发展中的不平等。 Thanks to these means, the progress of the children and their moral transformation commanded the admiration even of his most prejudiced adversaries.这些手段的儿童和他们的道德转型的进展命令甚至他最有偏见的对手的钦佩。

(2) A second innovation of the holy founder was to teach the pupils to read the vernacular language, which they understood, before putting into their hands a Latin book, which they did not understand. (2)第二个创新是一个神圣的创始人,教给学生阅读之前把他们的手,一个拉丁美洲的书,他们不明白的白话语言,他们的理解,。It may be observed that this was a very simple matter, but simple as it was, hardly any educator, except the masters of the schools of Port-Royal in 1643, had bethought himself of it; besides, the experiments of the Port-Royal masters, like their schools, were short lived, and exercised no influence on general pedagogy.此外,它可以观察到,这是一个非常简单的事情,但简单,因为它几乎没有任何的教育家,除了港口皇家学校的主人在1643年,曾bethought它自己;港皇家实验主人,喜欢他们的学校,短命的,和普通教育学行使没有影响。 In addition to these two great principles, the Brothers of the Christian Schools have introduced other improvements in teaching.除了这两个伟大的原则,兄弟的基督教学校在教学中引入其他的改善。They likewise availed themselves of what is rational in the progress of modern methods of teaching, which their courses of pedagogy, published in France, Belgium, and Austria, abundantly prove.同样,他们利用自己在现代的教学方法,课程教学法,在法国,比利时和奥地利出版,大量证明进度什么是合理的。

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY十八世纪

At the death of its founder, the Brothers of the Christian Schools numbered 27 houses and 274 Brothers, educating 9000 pupils.在其创始人死后,兄弟的基督教学校编号的27座房屋和274兄弟,教育学生9000。Seventy-three years later, at the time of the French Revolution, the statistics showed 123 houses, 920 Brothers, and 36,000 pupils (statistics of 1790). 72三年后,在法国大革命时,统计数字显示123的房子,920兄弟,和36,000名学生(1790年统计)。During this period, it had been governed by five superiors general: Brother Barthélemy (1717-20); Brother Timothée (1720-51); Brother Claude (1751-67); Brother Florence (1767-77); and Brother Agathon (1777-98, when he died).在此期间,它一直由五个上司一般:缪兄弟(1717年至1720年);兄弟Timothée(1720年至1751年);兄弟克劳德(1751年至1767年);兄弟佛罗伦萨(1767年至1777年);和兄弟阿加(1777 -98,当他死了)。Under the administration of Brother Timothée successful negotiations resulted in the legal recognition of the institute by Louis XV, who granted it letters patent, 24 September, 1724; and in virtue of the Bull of approbation of Benedict XIII, 26 January, 1725, it was admitted among the congregations canonically recognized by the Church. Timothée兄弟的管理下成功谈判的结果在法律上承认该学院授予英皇制诰,路易十五,9月24日,1724年,凭借认同本笃十三,1月26日,1725年的牛市,这是承认在规范所承认的教会会众。 The most prominent of its superiors general in the eighteenth century was Brother Agathon.其上级一般在十八世纪最突出的是兄弟阿加。A religious of strong character, he maintained the faithful observance of the rules by the Brothers; a distinguished educator, he published the "Douze vertus d'un bon Maître", in 1785; an eminent administrator, he created the first scholasticates, in 1781, and limited new foundations to what was indispensable, aiming rather, when the storm was gathering on the horizon, to fortify an institute that had already become relatively widespread.一个性格坚强的宗教,他保持忠实遵守的规则由兄弟;一位杰出的教育家,他出版了“杜兹​​vertus D' UN苯教贝耶”,于1785年,一位杰出的管理员,他于1781年创建的第一scholasticates有限的新的基础,什么是必不可少的,而目的是,当风暴聚集在地平线上,巩固,已成为比较普遍的研究所的。 The congregation, however, was hardly known outside of France, except in Rome, 1700; Avignon, 1703; Ferrara, 1741; Maréville, 1743; Lunéville, 1749; and Morhange in Lorraine, 1761; Estavayer in Switzerland, 1750; Fort Royal, Martinique, 1777.众,然而,鲜为人知的法国以外,除了在罗马,1700;阿维尼翁,1703;费拉拉,1741,1743; Maréville; LUNEVILLE,1749;和洛林Morhange,1761; Estavayer在瑞士,1750;堡皇家,马提尼克岛,1777。

Whilst adhering to their methods of teaching during the eighteenth century, the Brothers knew how to vary their application.坚持在18世纪的教学方法的同时,兄弟知道如何改变他们的应用程序。 The superiors general insisted on having the elementary schools gratuitous and by far the more numerous.坚持上级一般具有小学无偿远越多。In accordance with the course of studies set down in the "Conduite des écoles", the Brothers applied themselves to teach very thoroughly reading, writing, the vernacular, and especially the catechism.按照与研究“Conduite DES ECOLES”当然,兄弟申请自己阅读,写作,白话,尤其是教义教得很透彻。 The boarding school of St-Yon at Rouen, established in 1705 by St. John Baptist de La Salle himself, served as a model for like institutions: Marseilles in 1730, Angers in 1741, Reims in 1765, etc. It was proper that in these houses the course of studies should differ in some respects from that in the free schools. ST延亨默在鲁昂成立于1705年由圣约翰浸礼会德拉萨自己,寄宿制学校担任类似机构的典范:1730年的马赛,昂热在1741年,1765年兰斯等,这是正确的,在这些房子的研究过程中,应在免费学校在某些方面有所不同。 With the exception of Latin, which remained excluded, everything in the course of studies of the best schools of the time was taught: mathematics, history, geography, drawing, architecture, etc. In the maritime cities, such as Brest, Vannes, and Marseilles, the Brothers taught more advanced courses in mathematics and hydrography.随着拉丁美洲,它仍然无法的异常,在时间上最好的学校的研究过程中的一切教导:在海上的城市,如布雷斯特,瓦纳,数学,历史,地理,绘画,建筑等,并马赛,兄弟教授在数学和水文更高级的课程。 Finally, the institute accepted the direction of reformatory institutions at Rouen, Angers, and Maréville.最后,该研究所在鲁昂,昂热和Maréville接受感化机构的方向。It was this efflorescence of magnificent works that the French Revolution all but destroyed forever.正是这一宏伟的作品,法国大革命,但永远摧毁风化。

THE BROTHERS DURING THE REVOLUTION在革命的兄弟

The revolutionary laws that doomed the monastic orders on 13 February, 1790, threatened the institute from 27 December, in the same year, by imposing on all teachers the civic oath voted on 27 November.威胁,注定在1790年2月13日,寺院订单的革命法律研究所从12月27日,在同一年,所有教师实行公民投票于11月27日的宣誓。 The storm was imminent.风暴是迫在眉睫。Brother Agathon, the superior general endeavoured to establish communities in Belgium, but could organize only one, at St-Hubert in 1791, only to be destroyed in 1792.兄弟阿加,优于一般努力建立社区在比利时,但可能只有一个组织,在圣休伯特在1791年,仅在1792年销毁。The Brothers refused to take the oath, and were everywhere expelled.兄弟拒绝宣誓,到处都是被驱逐。The institute was suppressed in 1792, after it had been decreed that it "had deserved well of the country".该研究所于1792年被镇压后,已颁布的“国家当之无愧的好”。The storm had broken upon the Brothers.风暴爆发后,兄弟。They were arrested, and more than twenty were cast into prison.他们被拘捕,和二十多个被关进监狱投的。Brother Salomon, secretary general, was massacred in the Carmes (the Carmelite monastery of Paris); Brother Agathon spent eighteen months in prison; Brother Moniteur was guillotined at Rennes in 1794; Brother Raphael was put to death at Uzès; Brother Florence, formerly superior general, was imprisoned at Avignon; eight Brothers were transported to the hulks of Rochefort, where four died of neglect and starvation in 1794 and 1795.所罗门兄弟,秘书长,被屠杀在Carmes(巴黎加尔默罗修道院);兄弟阿加在狱中度过了18个月内;在雷恩的兄弟箴言在1794年被送上断头台兄弟拉斐尔在Uzès死亡;兄弟佛罗伦萨,以前优越一般情况下,被关押在阿维尼翁;八个兄弟被运送到罗什福尔,在1794年和1795四个忽视和饥饿死亡的废船。

All the schools were closed and the young Brothers enrolled in the army of the Convention.所有学校都关闭了,和年轻的兄弟,在参加“公约”的军队。At the peril of their lives some of the older Brothers continued to teach at Elbeuf, Condrieux, Castres, Laon, Valence, and elsewhere, to save the faith of the children.在自己的生命危险的哥哥继续任教Elbeuf,Condrieux,CASTRES,拉昂,价,和其他地方,以挽救孩子的信仰。 The Brothers of Italy had received some of their French confrères at Rome, Ferrara, Orvieto, and Bolsena.意大利的兄弟在罗马,费拉拉,奥维多,和博尔塞纳收到一些法国confrères。During this time, Brother Agathon, having left his prison, remained hidden at Tours, whence he strove to keep up the courage, confidence in God, and zeal of his dispersed religious.在这段时间内,兄弟阿加,留下了他的监狱,仍然隐藏在游,从那里,他努力跟上的勇气,在上帝的信心,和他的分散的宗教热情。 On 7 August, 1797, Pope Pius VI appointed Brother Frumence vicar-general of the congregation. 8月7日,1797年,教皇庇护六世任命众兄弟Frumence副主教一般。In 1798 the Italian Brothers were in their turn driven from their houses by the armed forces of the Directory. 1798年,意大利的兄弟们在轮到他们从自己的房子驱动目录军队。The institute seemed ruined; it reckoned only twenty members wearing the religious habit and exercising the functions of educators.学院似乎毁了,估计只有二十名成员穿着的宗教习惯和教育工作者的职能行使。

RESTORATION OF THE INSTITUTE.恢复研究所。1802-18101802年至一八一○年

In July, 1801, the First Consul signed the concordat with Pius VII.在1801年7月,第一领事与碧岳第七签署的协约。For the Church of France this was the spring of a new era; for the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools it was a resurrection.对于法国的教会,这是一个新时代的春天,为兄弟的基督教学校的研究所,它是一个复活。 If at the height of the storm some Brothers continued to exercise their holy functions, they were only exceptional cases.如果在风暴的高度有些兄弟继续行使自己的神圣职责,他们只有在特殊情况下。The first regular community reorganized at Lyons in 1802; others in 1803, at Paris, Valence, Reims, and Soissons.第一次定期社会于1802年在里昂重组;他人于1803年,在巴黎,威龙,兰斯和苏瓦松。Everywhere the municipalities recalled the Brothers and besought the survivors of the woeful period to take up the schools again as soon as possible.到处直辖市回忆兄弟和哀求的幸存者前景堪忧期间占用的学校尽快再次。 The Brothers addressed themselves to Rome and petitioned the Brother Vicar to establish his abode in France.兄弟罗马和请愿兄弟的教区牧师,以建立他在法国的居留权。Negotiations were begun, and thanks to the intervention of his uncle, Cardinal Fesch, Bonaparte authorized the re-establishment of the institute, on 3 December, 1803, provided their superior general would reside in France.谈判已经开始,并感谢他的叔叔,红衣主教Fesch的干预,波拿巴授权重新建立研究所,于12月3日,1803年,提供其优于一般居住在法国。 In November, 1804, the Brother Vicar arrived at Lyons, and took up his residence in the former petit collège of the Jesuits.,1804年11月,兄弟副主教抵达里昂,并在他的住所前佩蒂特的耶稣会学院。The institute began to live again.该研究所开始重新生活。Nothing was more urgent than to reunite the former members of the congregation.没有更迫切,比众团聚的前成员。An appeal was made to their faith and good will, and they responded.上诉是他们的信念和良好的意愿,和他们的反应。Shortly after the arrival of Brother Frumence at Lyons, the foundation of communities began.兄弟Frumence在里昂的到来后不久,社区的基础开始。There were eight new ones in 1805, and as many in 1806, four in 1807, and five in 1808.有8个新的在1805年,并于1806年,在1807年,并于1808年5的4。Brother Frumence dying in January, 1810, a general chapter, the tenth since the foundation, was assembled at Lyons on 8 September following, and elected Brother Gerbaud to the highest office in the institute. Frumence兄弟在1810年1月死亡,一般章,自成立以来的第十位,被组装在里昂9月8日以下,并当选兄弟Gerbaud研究所的最高职位。 Brother Gerbaud governed until 1822.兄弟Gerbaud管辖,直到1822。His successors were Brother Guillaume de Jésus (1822-30); Brother Anaclet (1830-38); Brother Philippe (1838-74); Brother Jean-Olympe (1874-75); Brother Irlide (1875-84); Brother Joseph (1884-97); and Brother Gabriel-Marie elected in March, 1897.他的继任者是兄弟纪尧姆DE JESUS​​(1822至1830年);兄弟Anaclet(1830至1838年);兄弟菲利普(1838年至1874年);兄弟让 - 奥林普(1874年至1875年);兄弟Irlide(1875年至1884年);兄弟约瑟夫( 1884年至1897年)和兄弟加布里埃尔 - 玛丽,1897年3月当选。He is the thirteenth successor of St. John Baptist de La Salle.他是圣约翰浸礼会喇沙第十三继任者。

THE INSTITUTE FROM 1810 TO 1874从1810年到1874年,学院

After 1810 communities of the Brothers multiplied like the flowers of the fields in spring-time after the frosts have disappeared. 1810兄弟社区像花朵在春天时的霜冻后乘以后消失了。Fifteen new schools were opened in 1817, twenty-one in 1818, twenty-six in 1819, and twenty-seven in 1821.在1817年开设了15所新学校,二十一,在1818年,在1819年,二十个,并于1821年21个。It was in this year that the Brother Superior General, at the request of the municipality, took up his residence in Paris, with his assistants.这是今年兄弟总会长,在全市的要求,讨论了他在巴黎的住所与他的助手。The institute then numbered 950 Brothers and novices, 310 schools, 664 classes, and 50,000 pupils.该研究所然后编号为950的兄弟和新手,310所学校,664班,和50,000名学生。Fifteen years had sufficed to reach the same prosperous condition in which the Revolution found it in 1789. 15年足以达到相同的繁荣革命的条件,其中在1789年发现。It must not, however, be admitted that, in consequence of the services rendered by the Brothers to popular education, they always enjoyed the favour of the Government.然而,它不能被录取,后果的兄弟提供普及教育的服务,他们总是喜欢赞成政府。From 1816 to 1819, Brother Gerbaud, the superior general, had to struggle vigorously for the preservation of the traditional methods of the congregation.从1816年到1819年,兄弟Gerbaud,优于一般,大力斗争为保全众传统方法。The mutual or Lancasterian method had just been introduced into France, and immediately the powerful Société pour l'Instruction Elémentaire assumed the mission of propagating it.相互或Lancasterian方法刚刚被引进到法国,并立即强大的兴业POUR L'指令Elémentaire承担传播的使命。 At a time when teachers and funds were scarce, the Government deemed it wise to pronounce in favour of the mutual school, and recommended it by an ordinance in 1818.在教师和资金匮乏的时候,政府认为明智的做法是赞成相互学校的发音,并建议于1818年通过一项法令,。The Brothers would not consent to abandon the "simultaneous method" which they had received from their founder, and on this account they were subjected to many vexations.兄弟不会同意放弃“同步法”,他们从他们的创始人,并在此帐户收到他们受到很多的烦恼。During forty years the supporters of the two methods were to contend, but finally the "simultaneous" teachers achieved the victory.在四十多年中,这两种方法的支持者们抗衡,但最后的“同步”的教师取得了胜利。By holding fast to their traditions and rules the Brothers had saved elementary teaching in France.坚守自己的传统和规则兄弟保存在法国的小学教学。

The expansion of the Christian schools was not arrested by these struggles.这些斗争,扩大基督教学校没有被捕。In 1829 there were 233 houses, including 5 in Italy, 5 in Corsica, 5 in Belgium, 2 in the Island of Bourbon, and 1 at Cayenne; in all, 955 classes and 67,000 pupils. 1829年有233的房子,其中包括意大利5,在科西嘉岛5,5,2个在比利时的波旁岛,并在卡宴1,在所有955类,67000名学生。But the Government of Louis-Philippe obstructed this benevolent work by suppressing the grants made to certain schools: eleven were permanently closed, and twenty-nine were kept up as free schools by the charity of Catholics.但路易 - 菲利普政府阻挠这项德政工作通过抑制某些学校的补助:11个被永久封闭,二十九个保持免费学校由天主教徒的慈善机构。The hour had now come for a greater expansion.现在是一个更大的扩展小时了。Fortified and rejuvenated by trial, fixed for a long time on the soil of France, augmented by yearly increasing numbers, the institute could, without weakening itself, send educational colonies abroad.设防和重新焕发活力,通过反复试验,固定为法国的土壤上长的时间,每年越来越多的增强,研究所,又不削弱本身,送教育殖民地国外。 Belgium received Brothers at Dinant in 1816; the Island of Bourbon, 1817; Montreal, 1837; Smyrna, 1841; Baltimore, 1846: Alexandria, 1847; New York, 1848; St. Louis, 1849; Kemperhof, near Coblenz, 1851; Singapore, 1852; Algiers, 1854; London, 1855; Vienna, 1856; the Island of Mauritius, 1859; Bucharest, 1861; Karikal, India, 1862; Quito, 1863.比利时在迪南兄弟在1816年,波旁岛,1817,1837年蒙特利尔;士麦那,1841年,巴尔的摩,1846年:亚历山大,1847年,纽约,1848年,圣路易斯,1849; Kemperhof,附近Coblenz,1851年,新加坡,1852;阿尔及尔,1854年,伦敦,1855年,维也纳,1856年,1859年毛里求斯岛,布加勒斯特,1861年,1862年,印度Karikal;基多,1863年。 In all of these places, the number of houses soon increased, and everywhere the same intellectual and religious results proved a recommendation of the schools of the Brothers.在所有这些地方,房屋的数量很快增加,而且到处都是相同的智力和宗教的结果证明了兄弟学校的建议。The period of this expansion is that of the generalship of Brother Philippe, the most popular of the superiors of teaching congregations in the nineteenth century at the time of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71.这种扩张的时期,是兄弟菲利普,在19世纪的教学众的1870年至1871年的普法战争时的上司最流行的大将。Under his administration, the institute received its most active impetus.在他的管理之下,该研究所收到其最活跃的动力。When Brother Philippe was elected superior general, in 1838, the number of schools and of Brothers was already double what it was in 1789; when he died, in 1874, it had increased in entirely unexpected proportions.当兄弟菲利普当选优于一般,在1838年,学校和一些兄弟已经是它在1789年的两倍,当他死了,在1874年,它已经完全出乎意料的比例增加。 The venerable superior saw the number of houses rise from 313 to 1149; that of the Brothers from 2317 to 10,235; that of their pupils from 144,000 to 350,000.古老的优越看到房子上升的数量从313到1149的兄弟,从2317到10235;他们的学生,从144000到350000。 And as in France, and through the benevolence of the hierarchy, Belgium, North America, the Indies, and the Levant multiplied Christian schools.如在法国,通过层次结构的仁,北美,比利时,印度,地中海东部乘以基督教学校。 Assuredly, Brother Philippe was aware that, for a religious institute, the blessing of numbers is less desirable than the progress of the religious in the spirit of their vocation.稳妥,兄弟菲利普知道,一个宗教研究所,数字的祝福是较可取的宗教在他们的职业精神的进展。In order to strengthen them therein, the superior general composed seven volumes of "Meditations", and a large number of instructive "Circular Letters", in which are explained the duties of the Brothers as religious and as educators.为了加强它们所组成的7卷“沉思”,优于一般,和大量的启发“通函”,其中解释兄弟作为宗教和作为教育工作者的职责。 Every year at the time of the retreats, until he was eighty years of age, he travelled all over France, and spoke to his Brothers in most ardent language, made still more impressive by the saintly example of this venerable old man.每一年在闭关的时间,直到他八十岁,他前往法国各地,和他的兄弟中最殷切的语言发言,提出了这个历史悠久的老男人的圣洁的例子更令人印象深刻。

THE INSTITUTE FROM 1874 TO 1908从1874年到1908年,学院

The generalship of Brother Irlide was marked by two principal orders of facts: a powerful effort to increase the spiritual vigour of the institute by introducing the Great Exercises or retreats of thirty days; and the reorganization as free schools of the French schools which the laicization laws from 1879 to 1886 deprived of the character of communal schools.兄弟Irlide大将的主要标志是两个主要的订单的事实:一个强大的,努力提高研究所的精神活力,通过引进三十天大演习或务虚;免费学校,法国学校的重组laicization法律从1879年到1886年,剥夺了社区学校的性质。 This period witnessed, especially in two regions, the establishment and multiplication of Brothers' schools.这一时期,尤其是在两个地区,兄弟学校的建立和乘法。The districts of Ireland and Spain, where such fine work is going on, were organized under the administration of Brother Irlide.爱尔兰和西班牙,这种精细的做工是怎么回事,该地区组织管理下的兄弟Irlide。Indefatigable in the fight, he asserted the rights of his institute against the powerful influence which strove to set them aside.不知疲倦的斗争中,他宣称他的研究所对强大的影响力,努力将它们设置预留的权利。He had broad and original views which he carried out with a strong, tenacious will.他广泛和独到的见解,他与一个强大的,顽强的意志进行。What his predecessor had accomplished by indomitable energy, Brother Joseph, superior general from 1884 to 1897, maintained by the ascendency of his captivating goodness.不屈不挠的能量完成他的前任,兄弟约瑟夫,优于一般从1884年到1897年,保持着他迷人的善良的优越。He was an educator of rare distinction and exquisite charm.他是一个难得的区别和精湛的魅力的教育家。He had received from Pope Leo XIII the important mission of developing in the institute the works of Christian perseverance, so that the faith and morals of young men might be safeguarded after leaving school.他收到了由教皇利奥十三世在基督教的毅力学会工程发展的重要使命,使信仰和道德的青年男子可能是离开学校后的保障。 One of his great delights was to transmit this direction to his Brothers and to see them work zealously for its attainment.他的伟大的乐趣之一是传输这个方向,他的兄弟们,看​​到他们的工作热忱为实现这个目标。Patronages, clubs, alumni associations, boarding-houses, spiritual retreats, etc., were doubtless already in existence; now they became more prosperous. Patronages,俱乐部,校友会,寄宿房子,灵修等,无疑已经存在,现在他们变得更加繁荣。For many years the alumni associations of France had made their action consist in friendly but rare reunions.多年来,法国校友会取得了他们的行动包括在友好的,但难得的团聚。The legal attempts against liberty of conscience forced the members into the Catholic and social struggle.对信教自由的法律企图强行进入天主教和社会的斗争的成员。They have formed themselves into sectional unions; they have an annual meeting, and have created an active movement in favour of persecuted Catholic education.他们已经形成了自己分段工会,他们有一个年度会议,并创建了积极的运动赞成迫害的天主教教育。The alumni associations of the Brothers in the United States and Belgium have their national federation and annual meeting.兄弟的校友协会在美国和比利时全国工商联和年度会议。

It is especially in France that the work of the spiritual retreats, of which the chief centre has been the Association of St. Benoit-Joseph Labre, has been developed.尤其是在法国,它是精神务虚会的工作,其中行政中心一直是圣伯努瓦 - 约瑟夫Labre协会,已发展。Founded in Paris in 1883, it had, twenty-five years later, brought together 41,600 young Parisians at the house of retreat, at Athis-Mons.它,成立于1883年在巴黎,二十五年后,汇聚在撤退的房子41600青少年巴黎人,在Athis蒙斯。About the same time, "retreats previous to graduation" were gradually introduced in the schools of all countries with the view of the perseverance in their religious practices of the graduates entering upon active life.大约在同一时间,“务虚到毕业前”逐渐被引入所有国家的学校在后,活跃的生活进入毕业生他们的宗教习俗的毅力。During the administration of Brother Gabriel-Marie, and until 1904, the normal progress of the congregation was not obstructed.在加布里埃尔 - 玛丽兄弟的管理,直到1904年,众的正常进展,不妨碍。The expansion of its divers works attained its maximum.扩大其潜水员工程达到了最大值。Here are the words of one of the official reports of the Universal Exposition of Paris in 1900: "The establishments of the Institute of Brothers of the Christian Schools, spread all over the world, number 2015. They comprise 1500 elementary or high schools; 47 important boarding-schools; 45 normal schools or scholasticates for the training of subjects of the institute, and 6 normal schools for lay teachers; 13 special agricultural schools, and a large number of agricultural classes in elementary schools; 48 technical and trade schools; 82 commercial schools or special commercial courses."以下是在1900年的巴黎世界博览会的正式报告之一的话:“基督教学校兄弟研究所的机构,在世界各地蔓延,数量2015包括1500小学或中学; 47。重要的寄宿学校,45个普通学校或培训科目,研究所和6个普通学校奠定教师scholasticates; 13个特殊的农业学校,以及大量的农业类小学,48个技术和贸易学校82商业学校或特殊的商业课程。“

Such was the activity of the Institute of St. John Baptist de La Salle when it was doomed in France by the legislation that abolished teaching by religious.这样的圣约翰浸礼会喇沙学院的活动,当它被注定在法国通过立法,废除了宗教教职。Not the services rendered, nor the striking lustre of its success, nor the greatness of the social work it had accomplished, could save it.不提供服务,也不引人注目的光泽,其成功的,也不是伟大的社会工作已经完成,可以将它保存。Its glory, which was to render all its schools Christian, was imputed to it as a crime.它的荣耀,这是使所有的学校,基督教,就算把它作为一个犯罪。In consequence of the application of the law of 7 July, 1904, to legally authorized teaching congregations, 805 establishments of the Brothers were closed in 1904, 196 in 1905, 155 in 1906, 93 in 1907, and 33 in 1908.在1904年7月7日,法的应用程序,合法授权的教学众的后果,在1904年,196关闭了805的兄弟机构在1907年,1906年,93和33,在1908年于1905年,155。 Nothing was spared.什么也没有幸免。The popular and free schools to the number of more than a thousand; the boarding and half-boarding schools such as Passy in Paris, those at Reims, Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles, etc.; the cheap boarding schools for children of the working class, such as the admirable houses of St. Nicholas, the technical and trade schools of Lyons, Saint-Etienne, Saint-Chamond, Commentry, etc.; the agricultural institutions of Beauvais, Limoux, etc. - all were swept away.千余流行和自由的学校;寄宿制和半寄宿制学校,如帕西在巴黎,兰斯,里​​昂,波尔多,马赛等;工人阶级儿童廉价的寄宿学校,如圣尼古拉斯,里昂,圣艾蒂安,圣Chamond,特里等技术和贸易学校的令人钦佩的房子;博韦的农业院校,Limoux等 - 所有被洪水冲走。The blows were severe, but the beautiful tree of the institute had taken root too firmly in the soil of the whole Catholic world to have its vitality endangered by the lopping off of a principal branch.严重的冲击,但在整个天主教世界的土壤研究所的美丽的树采取了过于牢牢扎根濒危lopping的一个主要分支有它的生命力。 The remaining branches received a new afflux of sap, and on its vigorous trunk there soon appeared new branches.其余分行收到了SAP新的汇流,并积极的树干上很快出现了新的分支机构。From 1904 to 1908, 222 houses have been founded in England, Belgium, the islands of the Mediterranean, the Levant, North and South America, the West Indies, Cape Colony, and Australia.从1904年到1908年,222间房屋已成立于英国,比利时,地中海,地中海东部地区,北美和南美,西印度群岛,开普殖民地,和澳大利亚的岛屿。

SCHOOLS OF EUROPE AND THE EAST欧洲和东方学校

When their schools were suppressed by law in France, the Brothers endeavoured with all their might to assure to at least a portion of the children of the poor the religious education of which they were about to be deprived.当他们的学校被压制在法国的法律,努力与他们所有的可能,以保证穷人的宗教教育,他们被剥夺的儿童至少有部分兄弟。 At the same time the institute established near the frontiers of Belgium and Holland, of Spain and Italy, ten boarding-schools for French boys.同时,该研究所成立靠近比利时和荷兰的边境,西班牙和意大利,法国男孩的寄宿学校10。The undertaking was venturesome, but God has blessed it, and these boarding-schools are all flourishing.承诺是冒险的,但上帝的祝福,这些寄宿学校都蓬勃。Belgium has 75 establishments conducted by the Brothers, comprising about 60 popular free schools, boarding-schools, official normal schools, and trade schools known as St. Luke schools.比利时兄弟进行的75个机构,包括约60个流行的免费学校,寄宿学校,普通学校官方,和被称为圣卢克学校,贸易学校。 There are 32 houses in Lorraine, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Rumania.在洛林,奥地利,匈牙利,波希米亚,加利西亚,阿尔巴尼亚,保加利亚,和罗马尼亚有32个房屋。Spain, including the Canaries and the Balearic Isles, has 100 houses of the institute, of which about 80 are popular gratuitous schools.西班牙,加那利群岛,巴利阿里群岛,有100座房屋研究所,其中约80流行的无偿学校。In Italy there are 34 houses, 9 of which are in Rome.在意大利,有34家,其中9个是在罗马。The Brothers have been established over fifty years in the Levant, Turkey, Syria, and Egypt.兄弟已经建立了超过50年在地中海东部,土耳其,叙利亚和埃及。The 50 houses which they conduct are centres of Christian education and influence, and are liberally patronized by the people of these countries. 50所房屋,他们的行为是基督教的教育和影响中心,和宽松的光顾这些国家的人民。The district of England and Ireland comprises 25 houses, the Brothers for the most part being engaged in the "National" schools.英国和爱尔兰地区有25所房屋,大部分从事“国家”的学校的兄弟。In London they direct a college and an academy; in Manchester, an industrial school; and in Waterford, a normal school or training college, the 200 students of which are King's scholars, who are paid for by a grant from the British Government.他们直接在伦敦大学和学院;在曼彻斯特,工业学校;在沃特福德,一个正常的学校或培训学院,其中200名学生是国王的学者,谁是从英国政府给予支付。 In India, the Brothers have large schools, most of which have upwards of 800 pupils.在印度,兄弟有大的学校,其中大部分有800名学生以上。Those of Colombo, Rangoon, Penang, Moulmein, Mandalay, Singapore, Malacca, and Hong Kong in China, stand high in public estimation.科伦坡,仰光,槟城,毛淡棉,曼德勒,新加坡,马六甲,并在中国香港的人,站在公众估计的高。 They are all assisted by government grants.他们都是由政府补助协助。

SCHOOLS IN AMERICA在美国的学校

The institute has already established 72 houses in Mexico, Cuba, Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Argentina, and Chile.该研究所已经建立了在墨西哥,古巴,厄瓜多尔,哥伦比亚,巴拿马,阿根廷,和智利72所房屋。 When Brother Facile was appointed visitor of North America in 1848, he found in Canada 5 houses, 56 Brothers and 3200 pupils in their schools.当兄弟的简易于1848年被任命为北美的旅客,他发现在加拿大的5座庄园,56个兄弟和在学校3200名学生。In 1908, the statistics show 48 houses, and nearly 20,000 pupils.在1908年的统计数据显示48的房子,和近20000名学生。The parochial schools are gratuitous, according to the constant tradition of the institute.教会学校是无偿的,根据该研究所的不断的传统。The most important boarding-school is Mount St. Louis, Montreal.最重要的寄宿学校是摩圣路易斯,蒙特利尔。At the request of the Most Reverend Samuel Eccleston, Brother Philippe, superior general, sent three brothers to Baltimore in 1846.在要求最牧师塞缪尔埃克莱斯顿,兄弟菲利普,优于一般,派出三兄弟在1846年到巴尔的摩。 The district of which Baltimore has become the centre now contains 24 houses, the Brothers of which for the most part are engaged in gratuitous parochial schools; they also conduct five colleges; a protectory; and the foundations of the family of the late Francis Anthony Drexel of Philadelphia, namely, St. Francis Industrial School, at Eddington, Pa.; the Drexmor, a home for working boys at Philadelphia; and the St. Emma Industrial and Agricultural College of Belmead, Rock Castle, Va., for coloured boys.其中巴尔的摩已成为中心区包含24个房屋,兄弟,其中大部分从事无偿教会学校,他们也进行五个学院; protectory;和已故的弗朗西斯安东尼德雷克塞尔家庭的基础费城,即圣弗朗西斯工业学校,爱丁顿,宾夕法尼亚州; Drexmor,一个男孩在费城的家;和圣爱玛工业和农业Belmead,岩堡,弗吉尼亚州,有色男孩学院。The district of New York is the most important in America.纽约地区是美国最重要的。It comprises 38 houses, most of the Brothers of which are engaged in teaching parochial gratuitous schools.它包括38个房子,其中从事教学狭隘的无偿学校的兄弟。In addition to these they conduct Manhattan College, the De La Salle Institute, La Salle Academy, and Clason Point Military Academy, in New York City, and academies and high schools in other important cities.除了这些,他们的行为德拉萨学院,曼哈顿学院,喇沙学院,并在纽约市Clason点军校,并在其他重要城市的院校和高中。 The New York Catholic Protectory, St. Philip's Home, and four orphan asylums and industrial schools under their care contain a population of 2500 children.纽约天主教Protectory,圣菲的主页,和四个孤儿收容所和工业学校的照顾下,包含了2500名儿童的人口。

The district of St. Louis contains 19 houses, the majority of the Brothers of which are doing parochial school work.圣路易斯区包含19个房子,大多数其中教区学校工作的兄弟。They conduct large colleges at St. Louis and Memphis, and important academies and high schools at Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth , St. Joseph and Santa Fé.他们在芝加哥进行大学院在圣路易斯和孟菲斯,以及重要的院校和高中,德卢斯,明尼阿波利斯,圣保罗,圣若瑟和圣达菲。They also have charge of the Osage Nation School for Indian boys at Gray Horse, Oklahoma.灰马,俄克拉何马州的印第安男孩,他们也有奥沙民族学院负责。The district of San Francisco comprises 13 houses, and as in the other districts, the Brothers are largely engaged in parochial schools; but they also conduct St. Mary's College at Oakland, the Sacred Heart College at San Francisco, and the Christian Brothers' College at Sacramento, together with academies at Berkeley, Portland, Vancouver, and Walla Walla, and the St. Vincent Orphan Asylum, Marin Co., California, which contains 500 boys.旧金山地区包括13个房子,和在其他地区,兄弟主要从事教会学校,但他们也进行圣玛丽学院在奥克兰,在旧金山的圣心学院,和基督教兄弟学院在萨克拉门托,连同大学伯克利分校,波​​特兰,温哥华,并沃拉沃拉,以及圣文森特孤儿庇护,美国加利福尼亚州Marin有限公司,其中包含500男孩院校。 The total number of pupils of the Brothers in the United States is thirty thousand.在美国兄弟的学生总数为三万。 Their 94 houses are spread over 33 archdioceses and dioceses.他们94的房子分布在33个archdioceses和教区。It would not be possible in such an article as this to recall the memory of all the religious who, during the last sixty years, figured prominently in this development of their institute.它不可能在这样一个如本文召回所有的宗教,在过去60多年以来,“在这种发展研究所中突出的记忆。Among those who have been called to their reward, we may however mention the revered names of Brothers Facile and Patrick, assistants to the superior general.在那些被称为他们的报酬,不过,我们可以提到兄弟的简易和帕特里克,优于一般助理崇敬的名字。

INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY智力活动

The Brothers of the Christian Schools are too much absorbed by the work of teaching to devote themselves to the writing of books not of immediate utility in their schools.基督教学校兄弟太多吸收的教学工作,潜心编写的书籍,在学校的即时效用。But, for the use of their pupils, they have written a large number of works on all the specialities in their courses of studies.但是,对于他们的学生使用,他们写了大量作品中的所有研究课程的特色。Such works have been written in French, English, German, Italian, Spanish Flemish, Turkish, Annamite, etc. The Brothers' schoolbooks treat of the following subjects: Christian doctrine, reading, writing, arithmetic, geometry, algebra, trigonometry, mechanics, history, geography, agriculture, physics, chemistry, physiology, zoology, botany, geology, the modern languages, grammar, literature, philosophy, pedagogy, methodology, drawing, shorthand, etc.这些工程已在法语,英语,德语,意大利语,西班牙语佛兰芒语,土耳其语,Annamite,等书面兄弟的下列科目的教科书治疗:基督教的教义,阅读,写作,算术,几何,代数,三角学,力学,历史,地理,农业,物理,化学,生理学,动物学,植物学,地质学,现代语言,文法,文学,哲学,教育学,方法,绘画,速记等。

Publication information Written by Brother Paul Joseph.兄弟保罗约瑟夫编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.致力于向圣母玛利亚天主教百科全书,第八卷的无玷圣心。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Annales de l'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1883); Essai historique sur la maison mère de l'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1905); DUBOIS-BERGERSON, Les nouvelles écoles à la Lancaster comparées avec l'enseignement des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1817); La vérité sur l'enseignement mutuel (Paris, 1821); RENDU, L'association en général, et particulièrement l'association charitable des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1845); D'ARSAC, Les frères des écoles chrétiennes pendant la guerre franco-allemande de 1870-1871 (Paris, 1872); Rapport de l'académie française sur le prix de Boston, décerné à l'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1872); American Catholic Quarterly Review (October, 1879); Reports of the universal exhibitions of Paris, Vienna, Chicago, etc.; CAISSE, L'institut des frères des écoles chrétiennes, son origine, son but et ses œuvres (Montreal, 1883); CHEVALIER, Les frères des écoles chrétiennes et l'enseignement primaire (Paris, 1887); RENDU, Sept ans de guerre à l'enseignement libre (Paris, 1887); Catholic World (August, 1900; September, 1901); DES CILLEULS, Histoire de l'enseignement primaire (Paris, 1908); AZARIAS, Educational Essays (Chicago, 1896); GOSOOT, Essai critique sur l'enseignement primaire en France (Paris, 1905); JUSTINUS, Déposition dans l'enguête sur l'enseignement secondaire (Paris, 1899); CAlL, Rapport sur l'enseignement technique dans les écoles catholiques en France (Paris, 1900); Autour de l'enseignement congréganiste (Paris, 1905); VESPEYREN, La lutte scolaire en Belgique (Brussels, 1906); Bulletin de l'œuvre de Saint Jean Baptiste de La Salle; Bulletin des écoles chrétiennes; Bulletin de l'œuvre de la jeunesse; L'éducation chrétienne; Bulletins of the Various alumni associations formed by graduates of the Brothers' Schools; Bulletins and reports published by colleges, normal schools, etc.; Biographies of Brothers Irénée, Salomon, Philippe, Joseph, Scubilion, Exupérien, Auguste-Hubert, Alpert, Léon de Jésus etc.; Directoire pédagogique a l'usage des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1903); Conduite à l'usage des écoles chrétiennes (Paris, 1903); Eléments de Pédagogie pratique (Paris, 1901); Traité théorique et pratique de Pédagogie (Namur, 1901); Manuel de Pédagogie à l'usage des écoles primaires catholiques (Paris, 1909).年鉴DE L' INSTITUT DES Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎,1883年); Essai historique SUR LA MAISON仅仅DE L' INSTITUT DES Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎,1905年); DUBOIS BERGERSON,“新生力量ECOLES一拉兰卡斯特comparées AVEC升“ENSEIGNEMENT DES Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎,1817年);”真理报河畔L' ENSEIGNEMENT彩池(巴黎,1821年);任督,L'协会EN一般,particulièrement L'协会等慈善DES Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎,1845年) ;德ARSAC的Les Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes挂件LA guerre佛朗哥阿勒曼德DE 1870-1871(巴黎,1872年);融洽的学院的国际法语SUR LE大奖赛的波士顿,décerné单L' INSTITUT DES Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎1872年),美国天主教季刊(,1879年10月),巴黎,维也纳,芝加哥等普遍展览的报告;储蓄银行,L' INSTITUT DES Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes,origine儿子,儿子,但等SES小菜(蒙特利尔,1883),富安,莱斯Frères的DES ECOLES chrétiennes等L' ENSEIGNEMENT PRIMAIRE(巴黎,1887年);任督,九月ANS战争à L' ENSEIGNEMENT自由(巴黎,1887年);天主教世界(8月,1900年九月,1901) DES CILLEULS史DE L' ENSEIGNEMENT PRIMAIRE(巴黎,1908年);阿扎里亚斯鲁,教育论丛“(芝加哥,1896年); GOSOOT,Essai批判河畔L' ENSEIGNEMENT PRIMAIRE EN法国(巴黎,1905年); JUSTINUS,沉积DANS L' enguête SUR L' ENSEIGNEMENT SECONDAIRE(巴黎,1899年);调用,融洽SUR L' ENSEIGNEMENT技术DANS LES ECOLES CATHOLIQUES EN法国(巴黎,1900年); Autour DE L' ENSEIGNEMENT congréganiste(巴黎,1905年); VESPEYREN,LUTTE scolaire比利时(布鲁塞尔,1906年);公告DE L'小菜圣让巴蒂斯特的喇沙;公告DES ECOLES chrétiennes;通报DE L'菜DE LA青年;教育chrétienne兄弟毕业生组成的各种校友会公告“学校公告和高校,普通学校等公布的报告; Irénée兄弟,所罗门,菲利普,约瑟夫,Scubilion,Exupérien,奥古斯特休伯特,阿尔珀特,莱昂DE JESUS​​等列传; Directoire pédagogique一个L'用法ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎,1903年); Conduite单“的使用DES ECOLES chrétiennes(巴黎,1903年);元素Pédagogie无疫通行证”(巴黎,1901年);条约théorique等无疫通行证Pédagogie(那慕尔,1901年);曼努埃尔 - Pédagogie A L“使用DES ECOLES色法原色CATHOLIQUES(巴黎,1909年)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


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