Baptist 浸会 Radical Reformation; objected to Infant Baptism; demanded Church-State separation; John Smyth, English Separatist, 1609; Roger Williams, 1638, Providence RI激进改革;反对婴儿洗礼;要求教会与国家分离;约翰史密斯,英语分裂, 1609年;罗杰威廉斯, 1638年,普罗维登斯里 Congrega- tional; each local Church is autonomous congrega题目;每一个地方教会是自主 Scripture; Southern Baptists interpret the Bible literally经文;南浸信会解释圣经字面上 Baptism, usually early teen years and afterward, by total immersion; Lord's Supper洗礼,通常是早期少女多年之后,由总浸泡;主的晚餐 Worship styles vary from very staid to evang- elistic; much Missionary activity崇拜风格不同,从很乏力,以埃旺- elistic ;得多传教活动 Usually opposed to alcohol and tobacco; often a tendency toward a perfect- ionist ethical standard通常反对酗酒和吸烟;往往倾向完美- ionist道德水平 No Creed; the true Church is of believers only, who are all exactly equal, including Clergy没有信仰;真正教会的信徒,他们都完全平等的,其中包括神职人员 Church and State separation, because no authority can stand between any believer and God.教会与国家分离的,因为没有权威经得起任何信奉上帝。
Church 教堂
of Christ 基督
(Disciples) (弟子)
from evangelical Presbyterians in KY (1804) and PA (1809); troubled over Protestant factionalism and decline in religious fervor; organized in 1832从福音presbyterians在健扬( 1804年)和PA ( 1809 ) ;困扰超过新教宗派主义和下降的宗教热情地组织在1832年 Congrega- tionalcongrega题目: Scriptures; where Scripture speaks, we speak, where Scripture is silent, we are silent经文;那里著作说,我们讲,那里的经文是无声的,我们是沉默 Adult Baptism; Lord's Supper (weekly)成人的洗礼;主的晚餐(周刊) tries to avoid any Rite not considered part of the first century Church; some Congreg- ations reject instru- mental music试图避免任何成年礼没有考虑到部分的第一世纪的教堂,有的congreg - ations拒绝文书心理音乐 Some tendency toward perfect- ionism; interest in social action programs一些倾向,完美ionism ;利益,在社会行动计划 Simple New Testament Faith; avoids any elabor- ations that are not firmly based on Scripture简单的新约圣经的信仰,避免使任何elabor - ations一些不牢固的基础上的经文 Extremely tolerant in doctrinal and religious matters; very supportive of advanced education and scholas- ticism非常宽容,教义和宗教事务;非常支持,先进的教育和scholas - ticism
Episco-episco -
palian palian
Henry VIII separated the English Catholic Church from Rome, 1534, because of political reasons; Protestant Episcopal Church founded in US in 1789.亨利八世分隔,英语天主教教会从罗马, 1534 ,是因为政治原因;新教圣公会创立于美国在1789年。 part of the Anglican Communion; Diocesan Bishops elected by Parish represent- atives部分英国圣公会;教区主教团选出,由教区代表发言 Scripture, as interpreted by Tradition, especially the 39 Articles (1563); tri-annual convention经文中,诠释传统,特别是39条( 1563 ) ;三周年公约 Infant Baptism; Eucharist; other Sacraments (taken as symbolic, but having real Spiritual effect)婴儿的洗礼;圣体圣事,其他圣礼(作为象征性的,而是具有实质精神效应) very formal, based on the Book of Common Prayer; Services range from austere and simple to extremely liturgical and structured很正式的基础上,这本书的共同祈祷;服务范围涵盖了从紧缩而简单的以极礼仪及结构 tolerant, even sometimes permissive; moderate involvement in social action programs宽容的,有时甚至是宽容;适度参与社会的行动纲领 Scripture; the Apostles, Nicene and Athan- asian Creeds; and the Book of Common Prayer; ranges from Anglo-Catholic to the low Church, with some Calvinist influences经文;使徒, nicene和athan -亚洲信条;与书本共同祈祷;不等,从盎格鲁-天主教会向低教会,有的calvinist影响 Strongly ecumen- ical; holds talks with many branches of Christianity强烈ecumen -的iCal ;举行会谈多个学科的基督教
Jehovah's 耶和华
Witnesses 证人
Founded in 1870 in PA by Charles Taze Russell; incorporated as Watchtower in 1884; named Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931成立于1870年,在坝由查尔斯taze罗素;纳入瞭望塔于1884年;名叫耶和华见证会在1931年 Each Witness is considered a Minister; each congregation under a body of Elders; a worldwide governing body in NY每名证人被认为是一个部长;每一堂下的一个机构的长者;世界范围理事机构在纽约 The Bible, a slightly different translation from other Bibles圣经略有不同,翻译,由其他本圣经 Baptism by immersion; annual Lord's Meal ceremony洗礼所浸泡;年度主餐仪式 meetings are held in Kingdom Halls and members' homes for study and worship; Very aggressive and extensive door-to-door visits to non-members举行会议,在英国会堂及成员的住所,为学习和崇拜;非常积极和广泛的逐户访问,以非会员 high moral code; stress on marital fidelity and family values; against all tobacco and blood transfusions崇高的道德守则;胁迫对婚姻忠贞和家庭观念;反对一切烟草和输血 God, through Jesus, will soon destroy all wicked- ness; 144,000 faithful will rule in Heaven with Christ, over others on a Paradise Earth上帝通过耶稣,将尽快销毁所有邪恶性; 144000忠实地将统治在天堂与基督,有超过别人对地球上的天堂 Absolute allegiance proclaimed only to God's Kingdom or Heavenly govern- ment by Christ; the Watch- tower is published in 115 languages绝对效忠宣布只向上帝的英国或天朝治- ment基督;观赏塔,是发表在115语文
Mormons 摩门教
Latter 后者
Day 一天
Saints 圣人
Joseph Smith had a vision in NY in the 1820s; he reported receiving and translating copper and golden plates斯密约瑟有一个梦想,在纽约,在1820年代,他接到举报,并翻译铜和黄金板块 Theocratic; first presidency (President and two counselors) and 12 apostles preside over worldwide Church; Local Congreg- ations headed by lay priesthood leaders神权;第一任主席(总统和两名辅导员) ,以及十二个门徒主持世界各地教会;本地congreg - ations为首奠定神职人员领导人 Revelation to a living prophet (the Church President); the Book of Mormon, the Pearl of Great Price, the Bible, and other revelations of Joseph Smith and his successors启示活先知(教会主席) ;该书的摩门经,无价的珍珠,圣经和其他启示斯密约瑟和他的接班人 Baptism at age 8; laying on of hands (which confers the gift of the Holy Spirit); Lord's Supper; temple Rites; Baptism for the dead; Marriage for eternity; others洗礼,在8岁;铺设上的手(其中赋予了圣灵的恩赐) ;主的晚餐;庙仪轨;洗礼,为死亡;婚姻永恒;他人 Simple Service and Prayers, Hymns, and Sermon; private temple ceremonies are sometimes more elaborate简单的服务,并为他们祈祷,圣歌,并讲道;私人庙会,有时更周密 Temper- ance; strict moral code; intense titheing; strong work ethic, with communal self-reliance; intense missionary activity; emphasis on family脾气-之;严格的道德准则;激烈titheing ;强有力的工作伦理,与公用自力更生;激烈的传教活动;侧重于家庭 Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the Eternal Father; Jesus' atonement saves all humans; those who are obedient to God's laws may become gods and reign with Christ in Heaven耶稣是上帝的儿子,永恒之父;耶稣的赎罪节省了所有人类,那些听话的,以上帝的法律可能成为神的统治与基督同在天上 Mormons believe that theirs is the true Church of Jesus Christ, restored by God through Joseph Smith摩门教相信,他们的教会是真实的,耶稣基督,恢复上帝通过斯密约瑟
Lutheran 路德 Martin Luther first attempted to reform the Catholic Church around 1517, but the Pope was displeased; objection to the Catholic doctrine of Salvation by Works and to the Indulgences; break became complete in 1519马丁路德第一次试图改革天主教教会靠近1517 ,但教宗是不悦;反对将天主教教义的救恩,由工程和向indulgences ;突破,成为完整的1519 varies from congrega- tional to episcopal; in US, regional Synods and Congreg- ational polities is common不同congrega题目,以推崇,在美国,地区主教会议,并congreg -部分国家政体是常见 Scripture along; The Book of Concord (1580), is considered a correct exposition of Scripture; it also contains the three Creeds of Christianity经文沿;该书的康科德( 1580 ) ,被认为是一个正确的论断,经文中,它同时也包含了三种教义的基督教 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, with Christ's true body and blood present in, with and under the bread and the wine婴儿的洗礼;主的晚餐,与基督的真身体和血,目前在,并根据面包和酒 relatively simple, formal liturgy with an emphasis on the Sermon比较简单的,正式的礼仪中一个侧重于说教 generally conserv- ative in personal and social ethics; doctrine of Two Kingdoms (worldly and holy) supports conserv- atism in secular affairs一般conserv定在个人和社会道德;教义的两个王国(世俗和神圣的)支持conserv - atism在世俗事务 Salvation is by Grace alone, through Faith; which is a core of most Protestant beliefs救恩是由单独的恩典,透过信仰,这是一个核心的最新教信仰 there are some divisions among ethnic lines; but the primary divisions are between fundamen- talists and liberals也有一些分部各民族之间的线路,但主要是师之间fundamen - talists和自由派
Methodist 循道卫理 John Wesley began the momement in 1738, within the Church of England; In US first in Baltimore 1784.约翰韦斯利开始momement在1738年,英国教会在美国首次在巴尔的摩可以追溯到1784年。 Conference and super- intendant system会议与超intendant系统 Scripture, as interpreted by tradition, reason and experience经文中,诠释传统的,理性的和经验 Baptism of infants or adults; Lord's Supper (both com- manded); other Rites include Marriage, Ordination; Solemn- ization of personal commit- ments洗礼的婴儿或成年人;主的晚餐(均组件manded ) ,其他仪轨包括婚姻,排序;庄严化的个人承诺自1912年 worship styles vary widely, by Church and geography崇拜风格差别甚大,由教会和地理 originally pietist and perfect- ionist; always strong interest in social actions本来虔信和完善- ionist ;一向兴趣浓厚,在社会行动 no distinctive theol- ogical devel- opment; the 25 Articles (abridged from the Church of England's 39 Articles) are not binding没有鲜明的theol - ogical开发2007-4-5 14:39:51 ; 25条(节选从英国教会的39篇) ,是不具有约束力 The United Methodist Church was formed in 1968 by the combining of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church联合卫理公会成立于1968年,由相结合的循道卫理教会和福音事工促进会,美国教会弟兄
Orthodox 东正教 Began to disagree with the Catholic Church around 500 AD, primarily over the Filioque Clause the Catholic Church added to the Nicene Creed; break became complete in 1054开始不同意天主教会大约有500专案,主要是超过了filioque第天主教教会加入尼西亚;突破,成为完整的1054年 Synods of Bishops in autonomous Churches elect a Patriarch, Archbishop or Metropolitan, as the head of the Church主教会议的主教们在自主教会选出一名主教,大主教或都市圈,作为教会的头 Scripture, Tradition and the first Seven Ecumenical Councils; Bishops in Council have authority in doctrine and policy经文中,在传统与首7合一议会;主教在安理会拥有权威,在理论和政策 Generally Seven Sacraments; infant Baptism and anointing; Eucharist, Ordination, Penance; Marriage; anointing of the sick一般七个圣礼;婴儿洗礼和anointing ;圣体圣事,排序,忏悔;婚姻; anointing的患病 Very elaborate liturgy, usually in the local language; extremely traditional; the liturgy is the essence of the Orthodox Church; extensive veneration of icons非常复杂,礼仪中,通常是在当地语言;极其传统;礼仪的本质是东正教教堂;广泛敬仰的图标 most are tolerant, less so regarding Russian Orthodox; little interest in social action; divorce and remarriage are sometimes permitted; Bishops are celibate; Priests do not need to be最宽容的,那么对于俄罗斯东正教;兴趣不大,在社会行动;离婚和再婚,有时准许;主教都是celibate ;祭司,并不需要受 Emphasis on Christ's Resur- rection, rather than the Crucifixion; the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father only强调基督的resur - rection ,而不是在十字架上;圣灵收益来自父亲只 The Orthodox Church in America was originally under the Patriarch of Moscow; granted autonomy in 1970; Greek Orthodox do not recognize this autonomy东正教在美国本来是根据元老的莫斯科;给予自主权,在1970年希腊东正教不承认这种自主权
Pente-pente -
costal 肋骨
Disappointed with loss of religious fervor in Methodist Churches; began in Topeka, KS 1901 and Los Angeles 1906失望与损失的宗教热情,在循道卫理教会;开始在托皮卡,有KS 1901年洛杉矶1906年 Originally a movement and not a formal organization; now has a variety of organized forms and also continues as a Movement原本是一个运动,而不是一个正式的组织,现在有各种组织形式的,也仍然是作为一个运动 Scripture, and the leadership of individual Charismatic leaders, and the teachings of the Holy Spirit经文中,领导的个人魅力的领袖,并遗训圣灵 Spirit Baptism, specifically as demon- strated by Speaking in Tongues, or by Healing ability, or sometimes by Exorcism ability; adult Baptism; Lord's Supper精神的洗礼,特别是恶魔- strated发言,在舌头,或愈合能力,或有时由驱魔能力;成人洗礼;主的晚餐 rather loosely-structured Service, with rousing hymns and Sermons, culminating in Spirit Baptism; Members regularly interrupt the Service by outbursts of Tongues而不是松散的结构式服务,鼓劲的圣歌和说教,最终出现了精神的洗礼;成员经常中断服务爆发舌头 usually, emphasis on perfect- ionism; varying degrees of tolerance, sometimes none一般情况下,重点放在完善- ionism ;不同程度的容忍,有时无 simple tradit- ional beliefs, usually Protestant, with emphasis on the immediate Presence of God in the Holy Spirit传统的简单- ional信念,通常是新教徒,并侧重于即时在场的上帝圣灵 Pente- costals were once confined to lower-class holy-rollers types of Churches; it now has established middle-class congreg- ations; aspects of Pentecos- talism have appeared in mainline Churchespente - costals一度被局限在较低级的圣地-罗拉类型的教堂,它现在已经建立了中产阶层congreg - ations ;方面pentecos - talism也出现在主教堂
Presby-presby -
terian 泰利安
came out of 16-cent Calvinist reformation; differed with Lutherans over Sacraments and Church government; John Knox started Scottish Presbyterian Church around 1560出来的16美分calvinist改造;分歧lutherans超过圣礼和教会的政府;约翰诺克斯开始苏格兰长老教会约1560 Very structured represent- ational system of Ministers and lay persons (Presbyters) in local, regional and national Synods很有条理代表-部分国家体系的部长和非法律专业人士(长老) ,在地方,区域和全国主教会议 Scripture经文 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine symbolize Christ's Spiritual Presence婴儿的洗礼;主的晚餐,那里的面包和酒象征基督的精神风貌 very simple and sober Service, with the Sermon central in it很简单,和清醒的服务,与讲道,在中环,它 traditionally, a tendency toward strictness, with firm Church- and self- discipline; otherwise reasonably tolerant传统上,其倾向从严治党,以坚定的教会和廉洁自律意识,否则就有理由宽容 emphasis on the sover- eignty and justice of God; no longer dogmatic; Belgic Confession (1561); Heidelberg Catechism (1563); Canons of Dort (1619)侧重于sover - eignty和正义的上帝;不再教条化; belgic自白( 1561 ) ;海德堡问答( 1563 ) ;大炮的dort ( 1619 ) originally, predest- ination was a central belief (where God had pre- ordained Salvation for certain Elect); this is no longer a central element in most Presby- terian Churches本来, predest -转归是一个中央信念(如上帝已预先注定得救某些选出) ,这已经不再是一个核心要素最presby -泰利安教堂
Reformed 改革
Church 教堂
traditionally said to have formed from the work of Zwingli in Zurich and Calvin in Geneva;传统上说已经形成了从工作的zwingli在苏黎世和卡尔文在日内瓦举行; usually Presbyterian in structure通常长老会在结构 Scripture经文 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper, where the bread and wine symbolize Christ's Spiritual Presence婴儿的洗礼;主的晚餐,那里的面包和酒象征基督的精神风貌 . strongly in favor of education of Church members;极力主张教育的教会成员; Belgic Confession (1561); Heidelberg Catechism (1563); Canons of Dort (1619)belgic自白( 1561 ) ;海德堡问答( 1563 ) ;大炮的dort ( 1619 )
Roman 罗马
Catholic 天主教
traditionally founded by Jesus, with Peter named first leader; difficult first centuries, until Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity 312; then became the official religion of the Roman Empire传统上创办的耶稣,与彼得命名的第一位领导人;困难首先几百年,直到皇帝君士坦丁皈依基督教的312名;遂成为官方宗教的罗马帝国 Supreme power in one Pope, elected by College of Cardinals; Councils of Bishops advise him on matters of doctrine and policy最高权力,在一个教皇,选出由学院的红衣主教;议会主教向他提供意见,对事情的理论和政策 The Pope (on matters of Faith and morals), and Tradition (expressed in Church Councils and in part contained in Scripture教宗(事宜的信仰和道德的) ,与传统的(表现在教会议会及部分载于经文 Mass; Seven Sacraments, Baptism, Reconcil- iation, Eucharist, Confirm- ation, Marriage, Ordination, and Unction or the anointing of the sick质量;七个圣礼,洗礼, reconcil - iation ,圣体圣事,证实- ,用,婚姻,工作,并unction或anointing的患病 Rather elaborate and very ritual, centered on the Mass; Rosary recitations; Novenas; etc相当详细和非常的仪式中,围绕群众;念珠朗读; novenas ;等 traditionally extremely strict, but becoming more tolerant in practice; divorce and remarriage not accepted; annulments sometimes granted; celibate clergy, except in Eastern Rite Churches传统上极为严格,但变得更宽容,在实践中;离婚和再婚不接受;废止有时理所当然; celibate神职人员,除了在东部教会礼仪 highly elaborated, Salvation by merit (Good Works) gained through Grace; extremely dogmatic; special veneration of the Virgin Mary; veneration of many Saints高度阐述的,由救国优异(好工程) ,通过获得的宽限期;极为教条化;特别敬仰的圣母玛利亚;敬仰的许多圣徒 extremely slow to ever change, except after Vatican II; Mass is now in local languages and no longer in Latin; increasing interest in social action, tolerance and ecumenism极其缓慢的,以人改变的,除非梵蒂冈第二;大规模正处在当地语言,并不再在拉丁语;越来越大的兴趣,在社会行动,宽容和基督信仰合一
United 美国
Church 教堂
of Christ 基督
formed by ecumenical union of Congrega- tionalists, Evangelicals and Reformed in 1957; represents both Calvinist and Lutheran traditions形成了由基督教联盟的congrega - tionalists ,新教徒和改革在1957年;既是calvinist和路德传统 Congrega- tional; a general Synod, represent- ative of all congreg- ations, sets general policycongrega题目;一般主教,代表定的所有congreg - ations ,集一般政策 Scripture经文 Infant Baptism; Lord's Supper婴儿的洗礼;主的晚餐 Usually very simple Services with an emphasis on the Sermon通常是很简单的服务,并着重就讲道 tolerant; moderate social action efforts宽容;温和的社会行动的努力 standard Protestant; Statement of Faith (1959) is not binding标准是新教徒声明的信仰( 1959 ) ,是不具有约束力 the two main Churches that joined in 1957 were already combin- ations of Churches from many parts of Protestant Denomin- ations两个主要的教堂,参加了在1957年已经组合- ations教堂由许多部分新教denomin - ations
Indep- endentindep - endent Arise from nearly all Denom- inations; either a new combin- ation of two existing Churches' beliefs; or some new and unique approach to Christianity; can sometimes lead to formation of cults引起几乎所有denom - inations ;要么一个新的组合- ,用现有的两个教会的信仰;或一些新的和独特的方法,以基督教;有时也可能导致形成的邪教 Independent独立 Scripture alone唯独圣经 Baptism; Lord's Supper, the two Sacraments mentioned in the Bible洗礼;主的晚餐,两个圣礼中提到的圣经 Quite variable; music and even bands often participate in the Service; many have very unique present- ations of the Service不少变数;音乐乃至乐队经常参加服务的,很多都非常独特,现在的ations的服务 Generally good; often influenced by the personal attitudes of its Minister总体上是好的;往往受个人的态度,其部长 generally there is a Statement of Faith, which expresses the exact beliefs and doctrines of that specific Church一般来说,是一份声明中的信仰,它体现了确切的信仰和教义的具体教堂 Extremely variable, generally dependent on the attitude and personality of the Minister; almost no limits seem to exist, and some such Churches are commonly seen as cults极变,一般依赖于态度与个性的部长职务,几乎没有任何限制,似乎存在,而一些诸如教会普遍被视为邪教
Non-
Denomi-denomi -
national 全国
Generally form as Independent Churches, bothered by the divis- iveness of many Churches; attempt to Teach only core Christian beliefs in order to attract and welcome people from all forms of Christ- ianity一般形式为独立教会,烦,由divis - iveness的许多教堂;企图教导只有核心的基督教信仰,为了吸引并欢迎市民免受一切形式的基督- ianity Independent, usually with attempts to structure as based on Scriptures from the Bible独立的,通常与企图结构作为基于圣经,从圣经 Scripture alone唯独圣经 Baptism; Lord's Supper; as being the only Sacraments actually mentioned in the Bible; other Sacraments are all respected, and observed as desired by individuals洗礼;主的晚餐;作为唯一圣礼其实刚才在圣经其他圣礼都尊重,遵守的期望相比个人 Quite variable; often like the Service of Indepen- dent Churches above.不少变数,很多都是一样的服务,独立-凹痕教堂以上。 What Would Jesus Do?什么耶稣会做什么呢?(WWJD)( wwjd ) generally there is a Statement of Faith, which expresses the exact beliefs and doctrines of that specific Church; What Would Jesus Do?一般来说,是一份声明中的信仰,它体现了确切的信仰和教义的具体教会;会有什么耶稣做什么?(WWJD)( wwjd ) Non- Denomin- ational Churches rarely have Crosses or Crucifixes displayed anywhere, partly because some possible attendees might have attitudes against icons.非denomin -部分国家教会很少有十字架或十字架显示在任何地方,这部分是因为一些可能的与会者可能有态度对图标。A rather simple and central present- ation of the Bible's Christ- ianity一个比较简单和中央当前,用圣经中的基督- ianity