Dominicans, Black Friars多米尼加

General Information一般资料

The Order of Preachers (OP), or Dominicans, was founded (1215) by Saint Dominic during his preaching tours against the Albigenses in southern France.传教士(OP),或多米尼加令,成立由圣多明(1215年)在他的说教对在法国南部的Albigenses的旅游。 The Dominicans were friars, receiving rigorous theological training in order to preach and answer objections against the Christian faith.多米尼加修士,接受严格的神学训练,以宣讲,并回答对基督教信仰的反对。They were to be poor and to travel on foot.他们是穷人和徒步旅行。The first house of friars was established at Toulouse; approval was given by Pope Honorius III.天主教方济会的第一家设在法国图卢兹,是由教皇挪三世批准。Earlier, Dominic had founded (1206) a community of nuns at Prouille, composed partly of former Albigenses.此前,多米尼克成立了(1206)在Prouille修女的社会,部分原因是前Albigenses组成。 Later in the century, the Dominican third order began among the laity; it eventually included many communities of nuns who followed the Dominican third order rule.在本世纪晚些时候,多米尼加三阶之间开始俗人,它最终包括许多社区的修女遵循多米尼加三阶规则。

The Dominicans, who were closely associated with the development of Scholasticism during the 13th century, were prominent at the great universities of Europe.多米尼加,在13世纪的经院哲学的发展密切相关的,在欧洲最好的大学突出。Saint Thomas Aquinas was one of their most important representatives.圣托马斯阿奎那是其最重要的代表之一。In medieval England, the Dominicans, dressed in a white tunic and scapular with a large black cloak and hood, were called Black Friars.在中世纪的英国,多米尼加,穿着白色中山装和肩胛带一个大型黑色斗篷和引擎盖,被称为“黑方济各会士。During the Middle Ages they were often chosen to head the Inquisition to track down heretics and bring them to trial. Today, the pope's theologian is always a Dominican. Saint Catherine of Siena was a Dominican who exerted great influence on 14th-century church history.在中世纪,他们是往往选择到头部的宗教裁判所,以跟踪下来的异端和带来他们进行审判。 今天,教宗的神学家始终是多米尼加。圣锡耶纳凯瑟琳一个多明尼加谁施加14世纪教会历史上有很大影响。Other famous Dominicans include Savonarola, Pope Pius V, Fra Angelico, St. Martin de Porres, and St. Rose of Lima.其他著名的多米尼加包括法兰克福机场Angelico的萨沃纳罗拉,教皇Pius V,圣马田德Porres,和圣玫瑰利马。

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Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴维斯,定向结构刨花板

Bibliography参考书目
Bennet, R., Early Dominicans (1937; repr. 1971); Hinnebusch, W., The History of the Dominican Order, 2 vols.老爷,R.,早期多米尼加(1937年再版1971); Hinnebusch,W.,多米尼加订购,2卷的历史。(1966-1973); Tugwell, Simon, ed., Early Dominicans: Selected Writings (1982). (1966年至1973年)Tugwell,西蒙,海关,早期多米尼加:文选(1982年)。


Dominicans多米尼加

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Dominicans or Friars Preachers are members of the Order of Preachers, a Roman Catholic religious order founded in 1214 by Saint Dominic.多米尼加或天主教方济会传教士,传教士,罗马天主教的宗教秩序,于1214年由圣多明订购的成员。With 16 disciples he founded the order at Toulouse, France, for the purpose of counteracting, by means of preaching, teaching, and the example of austerity, the heresies prevalent at the time.16弟子,他创办的顺序,在法国图卢兹,为抵消目的的说教,教学和紧缩例如的手段,在当时流行的异端邪说。The order was formally recognized in 1216, when Pope Honorius III granted the Dominicans the necessary papal confirmation.该命令是在1216年,当教皇挪第三授予多米尼加必要的教皇确认正式承认。He also granted them a number of special privileges, including the right to preach and hear confessions anywhere without obtaining local authorization.他还给予他们一些特权,包括正确的宣讲,听到任何地方未取得本地授权的自白。The necessity for such an order had become apparent to Dominic during his early attempts, about 1205, to convert the Albigenses; it was at that time that he resolved to devote his life to the evangelization of the heretical and the uneducated.在他的早期尝试,这种秩序的必要性已变得很明显,以多米尼克,1205左右,转换Albigenses;它在当时,他决心献身邪教和未受过教育的的福传。

Preachers and Upholders of Orthodoxy东正教的传教士和李家

The Dominicans insisted on absolute poverty, rejecting the possession of community property and becoming, like the Franciscans, a mendicant order.多米尼加坚持绝对贫困,拒绝社会的财产的占有,并成为像济,一个乞丐为了的。It was not until 1425 that permission to hold property was granted to certain houses by Pope Martin V; it was extended to the entire order by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477.直到1425,允许持有物业教宗马丁五世授予一定的房子,它是由教皇Sixtus IV延长到1477年整个订单。The first Dominican house was founded at the Church of Saint Romain in Toulouse, from which, in 1217, Dominic sent some of his disciples to spread the movement elsewhere in France as well as to Spain.成立于教会圣罗曼在图卢兹第一多米尼加房子,在1217年,玫瑰送到他的一些弟子传播运动在法国其他地区以及西班牙。 Within six years the order was also introduced into England, with the founding of a house in Oxford.在6年的订单也引入英国,在牛津的房子成立。In England the Dominicans acquired the name of Black Friars from the habit they wore outside the friary when preaching and hearing confessions, a black coat and hood over a white woolen tunic.在英国,多米尼加收购的习惯,他们穿的修道院外的说教和听觉的供述中,黑色外套罩在一个白色的呢子中山装时,黑方济各会士的名称。 By the end of the century 50 friaries were functioning in England, and the order had houses in Scotland, Ireland, Italy, Bohemia, Russia, Greece, and Greenland.到本世纪50 friaries月底在英国运作,并为了有房子在苏格兰,爱尔兰,意大利,波西米亚,俄罗斯,希腊,和格陵兰岛。

In accordance with the declared purpose of their foundation, the Dominicans have always been known as dedicated preachers and as combatants against any departure from the teaching of the Roman Catholic church. In the latter capacity they were entrusted with the supervision of the Inquisition as an ecclesiastical enterprise, and even in Spain, after the Inquisition became virtually a department of civil government, a Dominican was usually at its head.按照宣布其基础的目的,多米尼加共和国一直被称为专用传教士和作为战斗反对任何来自罗马天主教教会的教学出发,在后者的能力,他们是作为一个教会的宗教裁判所的监督与委托企业,即使在西班牙,宗教裁判所后几乎成为文官政府的一个部门,多米尼加通常是在其头部。 The office of master of the sacred palace, the pope's personal theologian, created for St. Dominic in 1218 and subsequently endowed with great privileges by Pope Leo X, has always been held by a member of the order.办公室掌握的神圣宫殿,教皇的个人的神学家,圣星创建于1218随后赋予很大的特权由罗马教皇利奥十,一直是为了成员举行。 After 1620, one of the duties of the position was to allow or forbid the printing of all religious books. 1620年,后位置的职责之一是允许或禁止所有宗教书籍的印刷。

Contributions to the Church and the Arts教会和艺术的贡献

Dominicans have held many high church offices; four popes - Innocent V, Benedict XI, Pius V, and Benedict XIII - and more than 60 cardinals have belonged to the order.多米尼加共和国举行了许多高教会办事处;四个教皇 - 本笃十一五,无辜的,碧岳V,和本笃十三 - 属于60多名枢机主教们的顺序。Apart from their specific work, the Dominicans have done much to aid and foster the development of art.除了从他们的具体工作,多米尼加已经做了很多援助和促进艺术的发展。Their cloisters have produced such distinguished painters as Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo.他们的回廊Angelico的法兰克福机场和法兰克福机场Bartolommeo等杰出的画家。Their contributions to literature have been chiefly in theology and philosophy, and they have produced outstanding writers such as St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Albertus Magnus.他们的贡献,文学,主要是在神学和哲学,他们生产的优秀作家,如圣托马斯阿奎那和圣阿尔伯图斯马格努斯。The important medieval encyclopedia Speculum Majus was the work of a Dominican, Vincent of Beauvais (died before 1264).重要的中世纪百科全书窥器草是一个多米尼加,圣文森特博韦(死于前1264)的工作。Also Dominicans were the German mystics Meister Eckhart, Johannes Tauler, and Heinrich Suso, as well as the Italian preacher and religious reformer Savonarola.还多米尼加德国神秘主义者迈斯特艾克哈特,约翰内斯陶勒尔,海因里希苏索,以及意大利传教士和宗教改革萨沃纳罗拉。 In the later Middle Ages the order was equaled in influence only by the Franciscans, the two orders sharing much power in the church and often in the Roman Catholic states and arousing frequent hostility on the part of the parochial clergy, whose rights often seemed to be invaded by the friars.的两份订单在中世纪晚期的顺序是影响相当于只能由方济会,在教会分享多大的力量,并经常在罗马天主教国家和调动频繁敌意教区神职人员,其权利似乎常常被入侵的修士。 The Dominicans played the leading part in the evangelization of South America; the first American saint, Rose of Lima, was a nun of the Third Order of Dominicans.多米尼加在南美洲的福传事业中发挥领导作用;美国第一圣人,利马玫瑰,多米尼加三阶尼姑。In 1805 the Dominicans introduced their order into the United States.1805年在多米尼加共和国进入美国推出他们的订单。Missionary work still remains one of the important Dominican functions.宣教工作仍然是一个重要多米尼加功能。

Auxiliary Orders辅助订单

An order of Dominican nuns was founded by Dominic in 1205, before the male branch of the order was established.多米尼加共和国的修女为了成立由Dominic在1205,男性为了分公司成立之前。They nevertheless called themselves the Second Order of St. Dominic.然而,他们称自己为二阶圣星。In 1220, to provide a constant supply of lay defenders of the church against the assaults of the Albigenses and other militant innovators, Dominic established the Militia of Jesus Christ and pledged its members to defend the church with arms and their possessions.在1220年,提供一个稳定供应奠定对Albigenses和其他激进的创新袭击教会的捍卫者,多米尼克建立民兵耶稣基督,并承诺其成员捍卫教会与武器和他们的财产。 In the late 13th century it joined with the Brothers and Sisters of the Penance of St. Dominic, another lay group vowed to piety, which was under the direction of the First Order.在13世纪末期,它的兄弟姐妹和忏悔圣星加入另一个奠定集团发誓要虔诚,这是一阶的指导下。The new body was called the Third Order of St. Dominic.新的机构被称为三阶圣星。

Today the head of the entire order is the master general, whose term of office is 12 years; his residence is at Santa Sabina, in Rome.今天整个订单的头是主一般情况下,其任期为12年,他的住所是在Santa圆柏在罗马。The order is organized into geographic provinces, each with a provincial at its head.的顺序组织成地理省,每一个省在其头部。 The chief apostolate of the order is educational.该命令的行政使徒教育。The Dominicans therefore retain their original characteristics as teachers and upholders of orthodoxy.因此,多米尼加正统的教师和李家保留其原有的特色。


Saint Dominic圣多明

General Information一般资料

Saint Dominic, bc1171, d.圣多明,bc1171,D.Aug. 6, 1221, was the founder of the Dominicans.1221年8月6日,多米尼加的创始人。A Castilian from a family of minor nobility, he received a clerical education and in his early 20s became a canon at the cathedral of Osma.卡斯蒂利亚一个从轻微的贵族家庭,他接到了一个文书的教育,并在20岁出头成为佳能在大教堂的奥萨马。Here he was ordained a priest at about the age of 28 and was named assistant prior of the chapter of canons.在这里,他被祝圣神父约28岁,前章大炮被评为助理。Dominic accompanied his bishop to Denmark on a diplomatic mission in 1203 and again in 1205.杜明陪同他的主教,丹麦在1203和1205的一个外交使团。Traveling through southern France, they saw the problems caused by the Albigenses and the military and religious efforts made to suppress their heresy.通过法国南部旅行时,他们看到Albigenses的军事和宗教压制他们的异端邪说的努力所造成的问题。With his bishop, Dominic began (c.1206) to preach to both the Albigenses and another dissident group, the Waldenses.随着他的主教,多米尼克开始(c.1206)Albigenses和其他持不同政见的团体,瓦勒度派传教。He adopted the life-style of simplicity and poverty that these groups practiced.他通过简单和贫困,这些团体实行的生活方式。

After ten years of preaching, Dominic gathered around him a community of preachers, who would be both poor and learned in theology.经过十几年的说教,多米尼克他周围聚集了一个传道人的社会,既贫困,并在神学学习。This was the beginning (1215) of the religious order that bears his name.这是他的名字命名的宗教秩序的开始(1215年)。Earlier he had organized (1206) women converts from the Albigensian movement into a religious community, the beginning of the Dominican nuns.此前,他举办了(1206)妇女转换成一个宗教社区Albigensian运动,多米尼加修女的开端。In an inaccurate tradition, Dominic is also credited with instituting the popular devotion of the Rosary. Dominic是在一个不准确的的传统,也记入实行流行的念珠奉献。In art, he is often pictured receiving a rosary from the Virgin Mary.在艺术上,他是经常图为接收来自圣母玛利亚的玫瑰园。Feast day: Aug. 8 (formerly Aug. 4).节日:8月8日(8月4日)。

Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴维斯,定向结构刨花板

Bibliography参考书目

Vicaire, Marie-Humbert, Saint Dominic and His Times, trans.Vicaire,玛丽 - 洪博达,圣多明和他的时代,跨。by Kathleen Pond (1964).凯瑟琳池(1964)。


St. Dominic圣星

Catholic Information天主教信息

Founder of the Order of Preachers, commonly known as the Dominican Order; born at Calaroga, in Old Castile, c.方正传教士,俗称为多米尼加令,命令;在Calaroga出生在旧卡斯蒂利亚,C.,1170; died 6 August, 1221. 1170;于8月6日,1221日去世。His parents, Felix Guzman and Joanna of Aza, undoubtedly belonged to the nobility of Spain, though probably neither was connected with the reigning house of Castile, as some of the saint's biographers assert.菲利克斯古斯曼和乔安娜的字,他的父母,无疑是属于西班牙的贵族,虽然可能既不是卡斯蒂利亚卫冕房子,因为一些圣人的传记作者断言。 Of Felix Guzman, personally, little is known, except that he was in every sense the worthy head of a family of saints.菲利克斯古斯曼,个人,很少有人知道,除了他在任何意义上来说是值得头一个圣人家庭。To nobility of blood Joanna of Aza added a nobility of soul which so enshrined her in the popular veneration that in 1828 she was solemnly beatified by Leo XII.血贵族字乔安娜说一个贵族的灵魂,体现在流行的崇拜,在1828年,她郑重利奥十二享福她。The example of such parents was not without its effect upon their children.这样的父母的例子也不是没有呼吁他们的子女的影响。 Not only Saint Dominic but also his brothers, Antonio and Manes, were distinguished for their extraordinary sanctity.不仅圣多明而且他的兄弟,安东尼奥和Manes认为,区分他们的非凡的神圣。Antonio, the eldest, became a secular priest and, having distributed his patrimony to the poor, entered a hospital where he spent his life ministering to the sick.安东尼奥中的长女,成为一个世俗的牧师,散发他的遗产给穷人,进入了医院,在那里度过了他一生服事病人。Manes, following in the footsteps of Dominic, became a Friar Preacher, and was beatified by Gregory XVI. Manes认为,在星脚步,成为弗莱尔布道者,由格雷戈里十六享福。

The birth and infancy of the saint were attended by many marvels forecasting his heroic sanctity and great achievements in the cause of religion.圣人的诞生和起步阶段,参加预测他的英勇的宗教事业的神圣和伟大成就的许多奇迹。From his seventh to his fourteenth year he pursued his elementary studies tinder the tutelage of his maternal uncle, the archpriest of Gumiel d'lzan, not far distant from Calaroga.从他的第七个他的第十四个年头,他追求他的小学研究火种师从他的舅父,Gumiel D' lzan主牧师,不远处从Calaroga遥远的。In 1184 Saint Dominic entered the University of Palencia.在1184圣多明进入大学帕伦西亚。Here he remained for ten years prosecuting his studies with such ardour and success that throughout the ephemeral existence of that institution he was held up to the admiration of its scholars as all that a student should be.在这里,他仍然为10个,整个该机构的短暂存在,他举起了所有的学生应在其学者的钦佩这样的热情和成功检控他的研究。Amid the frivolities and dissipations of a university city, the life of the future saint was characterized by seriousness of purpose and an austerity of manner which singled him out as one from whom great things might be expected in the future.面对一个大学城的无聊和耗散,未来圣人的生活特点是严肃的目的和方式,单挑他作为一个伟大的事情,从他们可能会在未来预期的紧缩。 But more than once he proved that under this austere exterior he carried a heart as tender as a woman's.但他不止一次地证明,在这严峻的外部作为招标的一个心脏作为一个女人的。On one occasion he sold his books, annotated with his own hand, to relieve the starving poor of Palencia.有一次,他卖掉了他的书,注明自己的手,以减轻贫困饥饿的帕伦西亚。His biographer and contemporary, Bartholomew of Trent, states that twice he tried to sell himself into slavery to obtain money for the liberation of those who were held in captivity by the Moors.他的传记和当代,巴塞洛缪的遄达,国家的两倍,他试图出售自己沦为奴隶获得解放那些被关押的摩尔人的钱。These facts are worthy of mention in view of the cynical and saturnine character which some non-Catholic writers have endeavoured to foist upon one of the most charitable of men.这些事实是值得提及的玩世不恭和忧郁的性格,一些非天主教作家努力强加于后的男人最慈善。Concerning the date of his ordination his biographers are silent; nor is there anything from which that date can be inferred with any degree of certainty.关于他的协调之日起他的传记作者是无声的,也不是有任何程度的确定性,该日期可以推断。According to the deposition of Brother Stephen, Prior Provincial of Lombardy, given in the process of canonization, Dominic was still a student at Palencia when Don Martin de Bazan, the Bishop of Osma, called him to membership in the cathedral chapter for the purpose of assisting in its reform.据兄弟斯蒂芬之前,伦巴第省册封的过程中,沉积,玫瑰仍是一个学生在帕伦西亚OSMA主教,马丁的巴桑,唐时叫他在大教堂章节成员为宗旨协助其改革。 The bishop realized the importance to his plan of reform of having constantly before his canons the example of one of Dominic's eminent holiness.主教实现了他的面前他的大炮玫瑰杰出的圣洁的例子不断的改革计划的重要性。 Nor was he disappointed in the result.他也不是在对结果感到失望。In recognition of the part he had taken in converting its members into canons regular, Dominic was appointed sub-prior of the reformed chapter.在承认他在大炮经常转换成其成员采取的一部分,多米尼克被任命为改革后的章子之前。 On the accession of Don Diego d'Azevedo to the Bishopric of Osma in 1201, Dominic became superior of the chapter with the title of prior.在加入主教于1201年的奥萨马唐圣地亚哥德阿泽维多,多米尼克成为优越的章标题前。As a canon of Osma, he spent nine years of his life hidden in God and rapt in contemplation, scarcely passing beyond the confines of the chapter house.作为佳能的奥萨马,他花了9年他的生活隐藏在上帝和凝神沉思,几乎超出本章的房子的范围传递。

In 1203 Alfonso IX, King of Castile, deputed the Bishop of Osma to demand from the Lord of the Marches, presumably a Danish prince, the hand of his daughter on behalf of the king's son, Prince Ferdinand.卡斯蒂利亚国王阿方索九,在1203写给时OSMA主教要求从游行主,大概是丹麦王子,他的女儿代表国王的儿子,王子费迪南德的手。 For his companion on this embassy Don Diego chose Saint Dominic.对于他的同伴就这个使馆唐迭戈选择了圣多明。Passing through Toulouse in the pursuit of their mission, they beheld with amazement and sorrow the work of spiritual ruin wrought by the Albigensian heresy.通过图卢兹传递在追求自己的使命,他们看见惊奇和悲伤Albigensian异端造成的精神废墟的工作。It was in the contemplation of this scene that Dominic first conceived the idea of founding an order for the purpose of combating heresy and spreading the light of the Gospel by preaching to the ends of the then known world.正是在这一幕的观照,多米尼克最初设想成立打击邪教和传播福音的光说教当时已知世界的两端的目的秩序的概念。Their mission having ended successfully, Diego and Dominic were dispatched on a second embassy, accompanied by a splendid retinue, to escort the betrothed princess to Castile.他们的任务圆满结束,迭戈和Dominic在第二使馆派出,伴随着灿烂的随从,护送订婚到卡斯蒂利亚公主。This mission, however, was brought to a sudden close by the death of the young woman in question.然而,这一使命,被带到突然关闭问题的年轻女子死亡。The two ecclesiastics were now free to go where they would, and they set out for Rome, arriving there towards the end of 1204.两个教区,现在免费去的地方他们会,他们为罗马,到达那里对1204年底。The purpose of this was to enable Diego to resign his bishopric that he might devote himself to the conversion of unbelievers in distant lands.这样做的目的是让迭戈辞去他的主教,他可能会投身到在遥远的国度不信的转换。 Innocent III, however, refused to approve this project, and instead sent the bishop and his companion to Languedoc to join forces with the Cistercians, to whom he had entrusted the crusade against the Albigenses.然而,英诺森三世,拒绝批准这个项目,并主教和他的同伴,而不是发送到朗格多克加入熙的力量,他对Albigenses委托讨伐。 The scene that confronted them on their arrival in Languedoc was by no means an encouraging one.在现场看到,面对他们对他们的到来在朗格多克绝不是一个令人鼓舞的。The Cistercians, on account of their worldly manner of living, had made little or no headway against the Albigenses.熙,他们的世俗生活的方式,取得了对Albigenses很少或根本没有进展。They had entered upon their work with considerable pomp, attended by a brilliant retinue, and well provided with the comforts of life.他们已经进入了他们的工作时具有相当的排场,辉煌的随从出席,以及提供与生活的舒适。To this display of worldliness the leaders of the heretics opposed a rigid asceticism which commanded the respect and admiration of their followers.为了达到这个世俗显示的异端领导人反对僵化的禁欲主义,指挥他们的追随者的尊重和钦佩。Diego and Dominic quickly saw that the failure of the Cistercian apostolate was due to the monks' indulgent habits, and finally prevailed upon them to adopt a more austere manner of life.迭戈和Dominic很快看到的修道院中使徒的失败是由于和尚“放纵的习惯,及后,他们终于占了上风,以采取更严峻的生活的方式。 The result was at once apparent in a greatly increased number of converts.结果是一次明显的转换大大增加。Theological disputations played a prominent part in the propaganda of the heretics.神disputations起到了突出的部分,在宣传异端。Dominic and his companion, therefore, lost no time in engaging their opponents in this kind of theological exposition.多米尼克和他的同伴,因此,不失时机地从事他们的对手,在这种神学论述的时间。Whenever the opportunity offered, they accepted the gage of battle.只要有机会,他们接受了战斗的量具。The thorough training that the saint had received at Palencia now proved of inestimable value to him in his encounters with the heretics.圣人在帕伦西亚收到的全面培训,现在证明具有不可估量的价值,他在他的遭遇与异端。Unable to refute his arguments or counteract the influence of his preaching, they visited their hatred upon him by means of repeated insults and threats of physical violence.无法反驳他的论点或抵制了他的说教影响力,他们参观了他们的仇恨,他通过反复的侮辱和身体暴力的威胁。With Prouille for his head-quarters, he laboured by turns in Fanjeaux, Montpellier, Servian, Béziers, and Carcassonne.随着他的头四分之三Prouille,他吃力轮流在Fanjeaux,蒙彼利埃,Servian,Béziers的,和卡尔卡松。 Early in his apostolate around Prouille the saint realized the necessity of an institution that would protect the women of that country from the influence of the heretics.早在他周围Prouille的使徒圣实现的一个机构,将保护异端的影响,该国妇女的必要性。Many of them had already embraced Albigensianism and were its most active propagandists.其中许多人已经接受Albigensianism和最活跃的宣传员。These women erected convents, to which the children of the Catholic nobility were often sent-for want of something better-to receive an education, and, in effect, if not on purpose, to be tainted with the spirit of heresy.这些妇女竖立修道院,天主教贵族的孩子们常常被送往想要的东西更好的接受教育,和,实际上,如果不是有目的的,要与精神的异端污染。 It was needful, too, that women converted from heresy should be safeguarded against the evil influence of their own homes.也是如此,它是needful转换从异端的妇女应该对自己家的邪恶影响力的保障。To supply these deficiencies, Saint Dominic, with the permission of Foulques, Bishop of Toulouse, established a convent at Prouille in 1206.为了提供这些缺陷,圣多明,Foulques许可,图卢兹主教,在1206成立于Prouille修道院。To this community, and afterwards to that of Saint Sixtus, at Rome, he gave the rule and constitutions which have ever since guided the nuns of the Second Order of Saint Dominic.这个社会,事后,在罗马的圣Sixtus的,他给了自从引导修女二阶圣多明规则和宪法。

The year 1208 opens a new epoch in the eventful life of the founder. 1208年打开一个新时代的创始人,在忙碌的生活。On 15 January of that year Pierre de Castelnau, one of the Cistercian legates, was assassinated.在这一年皮埃尔德卡斯泰尔诺,修道院的legates之一,1月15日被暗杀。This abominable crime precipitated the crusade under Simon de Montfort, which led to the temporary subjugation of the heretics.这可恶的罪行沉淀下西蒙de Montfort,而导致临时征服的异教徒的讨伐。Saint Dominic participated in the stirring scenes that followed, but always on the side of mercy, wielding the arms of the spirit while others wrought death and desolation with the sword.圣多明参加随后在震撼人心的场景,但总是怜悯的一面,而其他人造成的死亡和荒凉的剑挥舞的精神武器。Some historians assert that during the sack of Béziers, Dominic appeared in the streets of that city, cross in hand, interceding for the lives of the women and children, the aged and the infirm.一些历史学家断言,在Béziers的麻袋,多米尼克出现在城市的街道,交叉手,为妇女和儿童,老人和体弱者的生活祈求。 This testimony, however, is based upon documents which Touron regards as certainly apocryphal.然而,这个证词,是基于Touron肯定杜撰有关的文件。The testimony of the most reliable historians tends to prove that the saint was neither in the city nor in its vicinity when Béziers was sacked by the crusaders.最可靠的历史学家的证词往往证明是圣人,无论是在城市,也不在其附近时Béziers的是由十字军洗劫。We find him generally during this period following the Catholic army, reviving religion and reconciling heretics in the cities that had capitulated to, or had been taken by, the victorious de Montfort.我们发现他一般以下的天主教军队在此期间,在投降的城市复兴宗教和协调异端,或已胜利德蒙福特。It was probably 1 September, 1209, that Saint Dominic first came in contact with Simon de Montfort and formed with him that intimate friendship which was to last till the death of the brave crusader under the walls of Toulouse (25 June, 1218).这可能是9月1日,1209圣多明首先来到接触与西蒙de Montfort,并与他的亲密的友谊,这是勇敢的十字军在图卢兹的墙壁(6月25日,1218)的死亡,直到最后形成。We find him by the side of de Montfort at the siege of Lavaur in 1211, and again in 1212, at the capture of La Penne d'Ajen.我们发现他的Lavaur围困在1211德蒙福特方,并再次在1212,在捕获的La长通粉D' Ajen。In the latter part of 1212 he was at Pamiers labouring, at the invitation of de Montfort, for the restoration of religion and morality.在1212下半年的一部分,他是在Pamiers劳动,在德蒙福特邀请,恢复宗教和道德。 Lastly, just before the battle of Muret, 12 September, 1213, the saint is again found in the council that preceded the battle.最后,就在Muret,9月12日,1213的战斗,圣人再次发现在之前的战斗理事会。During the progress of the conflict, he knelt before the altar in the church of Saint-Jacques, praying for the triumph of the Catholic arms.在冲突的进展情况,他在圣雅各教堂祭坛前跪下,祈祷的天主教武器的胜利。So remarkable was the victory of the crusaders at Muret that Simon de Montfort regarded it as altogether miraculous, and piously attributed it to the prayers of Saint Dominic.如此显着的是十字军的胜利Muret西蒙de Montfort都把它作为完全腐朽为神奇,并虔诚地归功于它祈祷圣多明。 In gratitude to God for this decisive victory, the crusader erected a chapel in the church of Saint-Jacques, which he dedicated, it is said, to Our Lady of the Rosary.感谢上帝这一决定性的胜利,十字军圣雅各教堂建于一座小教堂,他专用,这是说,我们的念珠的夫人。It would appear, therefore, that the devotion of the Rosary, which tradition says was revealed to Saint Dominic, had come into general use about this time.因此,这样看来,奉献的念珠说,这传统是圣多明透露,曾到大约在这个时候一般使用。To this period, too, has been ascribed the foundation of the Inquisition by Saint Dominic, and his appointment as the first Inquisitor.这一时期,也已作为第一个打破砂锅冲高​​圣多明侦查的基础,他的任命。As both these much controverted questions will receive special treatment elsewhere in this work, it will suffice for our present purpose to note that the Inquisition was in operation in 1198, or seven years before the saint took part in the apostolate in Languedoc, and while he was still an obscure canon regular at Osma.由于这两个多controverted问题将得到特殊的待遇,在这项工作中,我们现在的目的就足够了,要注意1198年或7年,宗教裁判所,在操作前圣参加了在朗格多克使徒的一部分,而当他仍然是一个不起眼的佳能OSMA定期。 If he was for a certain time identified with the operations of the Inquisition, it was only in the capacity of a theologian passing upon the orthodoxy of the accused.如果他的宗教裁判所的运作,确定一定时间,它只是在一个正统被告人后的神学家的能力。Whatever influence he may have had with the judges of that much maligned institution was always employed on the side of mercy and forbearance, as witness the classic case of Ponce Roger.任何影响,他可能有那么多中伤机构的法官曾一直受雇于怜悯和宽容的一面,作为证人的庞塞罗杰的经典案例。

In the meantime, the saint's increasing reputation for heroic sanctity, apostolic zeal, and profound learning caused him to be much sought after as a candidate for various bishoprics.在此期间,增加英雄的神圣性,使徒的热情,深刻学习圣人的声誉造成了他抢手各种主教候选人后。Three distinct efforts were made to raise him to the episcopate.三个不同的努力,提高他的主教。In July, 1212, the chapter of Béziers chose him for their bishop.章Béziers的选择,1212 7月,他为他们的主教。Again, the canons of Saint-Lizier wished him to succeed Garcias de l'Orte as Bishop of Comminges.同样,圣Lizier的大炮,希望他接替科曼主教Garcias DE L' ORTE。Lastly, in 1215 an effort was made by Garcias de l'Orte himself, who had been transferred from Comminges to Auch, to make him Bishop of Navarre.最后,在1215年努力Garcias DE L' ORTE自己,谁已经从科曼转移到奥赫,使他纳瓦拉主教。But Saint Dominic absolutely refused all episcopal honours, saying that he would rather take flight in the night, with nothing but his staff, than accept the episcopate.但圣多明断然拒绝所有主教荣誉,他说,他宁愿在夜间飞行,不过他的工作人员,比接受的主教。From Muret Dominic returned to Carcassonne, where he resumed his preaching with unqualified success.从Muret星返回卡尔卡松,在那里他空前成功恢复了他的说教。It was not until 1214 that he returned to Toulouse.直到1214,他返回图卢兹。In the meantime the influence of his preaching and the eminent holiness of his life had drawn around him a little band of devoted disciples eager to follow wherever he might lead.在此期间他的说教和他的生活的杰出圣洁的影响已制订专门弟子急于跟随他无论身处何地,都可能导致的一个小乐队,在他周围。 Saint Dominic had never for a moment forgotten his purpose, formed eleven years before, of founding a religious order to combat heresy and propagate religious truth.圣多明我从来没有一刻忘记了自己的目的,形成了11年之前,成立一个宗教秩序,打击邪教和传播宗教真理。The time now seemed opportune for the realization of his plan.现在的时间似乎实现他的计划的时机。With the approval of Bishop Foulques of Toulouse, he began the organization of his little band of followers.主教图卢兹Foulques批准,他开始了他的小乐队的追随者组织。That Dominic and his companions might possess a fixed source of revenue Foulques made him chaplain of Fanjeaux and in July, 1215, canonically established the community as a religious congregation of his diocese, whose mission was the propagation of true doctrine and good morals, and the extirpation of heresy.多米尼克和他的同伴可能拥有一个固定的收入Foulques来源的他Fanjeaux牧师,在1215 7月,规范建立了他的教区,其使命是传播真正的教义和良好的道德宗教众社会,和摘除的异端邪说。

During this same year Pierre Seilan, a wealthy citizen of Toulouse, who had placed himself under the direction of Saint Dominic, put at their disposal his own commodious dwelling.在这一年中,图卢兹,曾划归自己圣多明方向的富裕的公民,皮埃尔Seilan把自己掌握自己的宽敞的住宅。In this way the first convent of the Order of Preachers was founded on 25 April, 1215.在这样的传教士订购的第一修道院始建于1215年4月25日,。But they dwelt here only a year when Foulques established them in the church of Saints Romanus.但他们住在这里Foulques建立在教会的圣徒罗马努斯,他们只用了一年。Though the little community had proved amply the need of its mission and the efficiency of its service to the Church, it was far from satisfying the full purpose of its founder.虽然小社会已充分证明了它的使命和教会的服务效率的需要,这是远远满足其创始人目的。It was at best but a diocesan congregation, and Saint Dominic had dreamed of a world-order that would carry its apostolate to the ends of the earth.这是最好的,但一个教区的会众,和梦想的世界秩序将进行使徒天涯海角圣多明。But, unknown to the saint, events were shaping themselves for the realization of his hopes.但是,未知的圣人,事件塑造自己为实现他的希望。In November, 1215, an ecumenical council was to meet at Rome "to deliberate on the improvement of morals, the extinction of heresy, and the strengthening of the faith".在1215 11月,大公会议在罗马举行的“故意对道德的改善,灭绝的异端,和加强的信念”。This was identically the mission Saint Dominic had determined on for his order.这是相同的使命圣多明确定了对他的命令。With the Bishop of Toulouse, he was present at the deliberations of this council.图卢兹的主教,他目前在本会的审议。 From the very first session it seemed that events conspired to bring his plans to a successful issue.从第一届会议上,似乎事件的阴谋,使他的计划成功的问题。The council bitterly arraigned the bishops for their neglect of preaching.会恨恨提审主教忽视他们的说教。In canon X they were directed to delegate capable men to preach the word of God to the people.他们在佳能X定向,委托有能力的男人的人宣讲神的话语。Under these circumstances, it would reasonably appear that Dominic's request for confirmation of an order designed to carry out the mandates of the council would be joyfully granted.在这种情况下,合理的,它会出现玫瑰开展理事会的任务订单确认的要求,将高兴地授予。But while the council was anxious that these reforms should be put into effect as speedily as possible, it was at the same time opposed to the institution of any new religious orders, and had legislated to that effect in no uncertain terms.但是,尽管安理会是着急,这些改革应当尽快付诸实施,它是反对任何新的宗教命令机构的同时,立法在这方面毫不含糊。Moreover, preaching had always been looked upon as primarily a function of the episcopate.此外,宣讲一向瞧不起主要是功能的主教。To bestow this office on an unknown and untried body of simple priests seemed too original and too bold in its conception to appeal to the conservative prelates who influenced the deliberations of the council.赠送一个未知和未经考验的身体简单的祭司这个办公室似乎太原始,太大胆构想提出上诉的影响理事会的审议保守的主教。 When, therefore, his petition for the approbation of his infant institute was refused, it could not have been wholly unexpected by Saint Dominic.因此,当他为他的婴儿学会的认可申请被拒绝,它可能没有完全意想不到的圣多明。

Returning to Languedoc at the close of the council in December, 1215, the founder gathered about him his little band of followers and informed them of the wish of the council that there should be no new rules for religious orders.返回朗格多克,在理事会,1215 12月结束的创始人聚集他的追随者对他的小乐队,并告知安理会希望他们应该有宗教命令,没有新的规则。Thereupon they adopted the ancient rule of Saint Augustine, which, on account of its generality, would easily lend itself to any form they might wish to give it.于是他们采用了古老的圣奥古斯丁,其一般性的帐户上,会很容易地借给他们不妨给它的任何形式的规则。This done, Saint Dominic again appeared before the pope in the month of August, 1216, and again solicited the confirmation of his order.这做,圣多明又出现了,1216 8月前教皇,并再次征求了他的命令的确认。 This time he was received more favourably, and on 22 December, 1216, the Bull of confirmation was issued.这一次,他收到了更有利的是,12月22日,1216年,发出确认牛市。

Saint Dominic spent the following Lent preaching in various churches in Rome, and before the pope and the papal court.圣多明了以下借给在罗马的各教会讲道,前教皇和教皇法庭。It was at this time that he received the office and title of Master of the Sacred Palace, or Pope's Theologian, as it is more commonly called.正是在这个时候,他收到的标题和办公室主神圣的宫殿,或教皇的神学家,因为它是更俗称。 This office has been held uninterruptedly by members of the order from the founder's time to the present day.该办公室已经举行不间断地从创始人的时间到今天的顺序。On 15 August, 1217, he gathered the brethren about him at Prouille to deliberate on the affairs of the order.月15日,1217年8月,他收集关于他的弟兄们,在Prouille审议顺序的事务。He had determined upon the heroic plan of dispersing his little band of seventeen unformed followers over all Europe.他下定决心后,分散他的十七个未成形的追随者在所有欧洲的小乐队的英雄计划。The result proved the wisdom of an act which, to the eye of human prudence at least, seemed little short of suicidal.结果证明了的智慧,审慎人类的眼睛至少,似乎有点短自杀的行为。To facilitate the spread of the order, Honorius III, on 11 Feb., 1218, addressed a Bull to all archbishops, bishops, abbots, and priors, requesting their favour on behalf of the Order of Preachers.为了方便传播秩序,挪三,11 2月,1218年,一个红牛所有大主教,主教,方丈和先验,要求他们代表传教士订购的青睐。By another Bull, dated 3 Dec., 1218, Honorius III bestowed upon the order the church of Saint Sixtus in Rome.由另一个牛,3 12月,1218年,挪三后,为了赋予在罗马教会圣Sixtus日。Here, amid the tombs of the Appian Way, was founded the first monastery of the order in Rome.在这里,亚壁古道的坟墓之际,成立顺序在罗马的第一座寺院。Shortly after taking possession of Saint Sixtus, at the invitation of Honorius, Saint Dominic began the somewhat difficult task of restoring the pristine observance of religious discipline among the various Roman communities of women.不久后,在藏圣Sixtus,挪邀请,圣多明我开始有些困难的任务,对妇女的各种罗马社区之间恢复原始宗教纪律遵守。 In a comparatively short time the work was accomplished, to the great satisfaction of the pope.在比较短的时间内完成的工作,以教皇非常满意。His own career at the University of Palencia, and the practical use to which he had put it in his encounters with the Albigenses, as well as his keen appreciation of the needs of the time, convinced the saint that to ensure the highest efficiency of the work of the apostolate, his followers should be afforded the best educational advantages obtainable.他在自己的职业生涯的帕伦西亚大学,他把他的遭遇与Albigenses,以及他敏锐的时代的需要升值,它的实际使用,相信圣人,以确保最高的效率工作的使徒,他的追随者应该得到最好的教育优势索取。 It was for this reason that on the dispersal of the brethren at Prouille he dispatched Matthew of France and two companions to Paris.正是出于这个原因,他的弟兄们分散在Prouille派出马修法国和两名同伴到巴黎。A foundation was made in the vicinity of the university, and the friars took possession in October, 1217.一个基础是在大学附近,发生在藏,1217 10月的修士。Matthew of France was appointed superior, and Michael de Fabra was placed in charge of the studies with the title of Lecturer.被任命为法国马修优越,和迈克尔 - 法布拉负责研究与讲师称号。On 6 August of the following year, Jean de Barastre, dean of Saint-Quentin and professor of theology, bestowed on the community the hospice of Saint-Jaques, which he had built for his own use.次年8月6日,吉恩de Barastre,圣 - 昆廷和神学教授院长,对社会赋予圣贾克斯善终,这是他为自己所用内置。 Having effected a foundation at the University of Paris, Saint Dominic next determined upon a settlement at the University of Bologna.地解决在博洛尼亚大学后决定在巴黎大学,圣多明未来的基础。Bertrand of Garrigua, who had been summoned from Paris, and John of Navarre, set out from Rome, with letters from Pope Honorius, to make the desired foundation.贝特朗Garrigua,曾召见从巴黎,和纳瓦拉的约翰,从罗马,与来自教皇挪的信件,使所需的基础。On their arrival at Bologna, the church of Santa Maria della Mascarella was placed at their disposal.他们在博洛尼亚的到来,在圣玛丽亚德拉Mascarella教堂被放置在其处置。So rapidly did the Roman community of Saint Sixtus grow that the need of more commodious quarters soon became urgent.圣Sixtus的罗马社会发展如此迅速,需要更宽敞的宿舍很快就成为迫切的。Honorius, who seemed to delight in supplying every need of the order and furthering its interests to the utmost of his power, met the emergency by bestowing on Saint Dominic the basilica of Santa Sabina.挪,似乎喜欢在提供每一个需要的顺序和他的权力,最大限度地促进其利益,给予圣多明教堂的Santa圆柏会见了紧急情况。

Towards the end of 1218, having appointed Reginald of Orléans his vicar in Italy, the saint, accompanied by several of his brethren, set out for Spain.在接近1218年底,奥尔良他的副主教在意大利,圣人,伴随着他的弟兄们,为西班牙的几个任命雷金纳德。Bologna, Prouille, Toulouse, and Fanjeaux were visited on the way.博洛尼亚,Prouille,图卢兹,和Fanjeaux访问的方式。 From Prouille two of the brethren were sent to establish a convent at Lyons.从Prouille弟兄两个被送往建立在里昂的修道院。 Segovia was reached just before Christmas.塞戈维亚是在圣诞节前达成。In February of the following year he founded the first monastery of the order in Spain.次年2月,他创立的顺序在西班牙的第一座寺院。Turning southward, he established a convent for women at Madrid, similar to the one at Prouille.至于南下,他成立了一个妇女在马德里的修道院,类似在Prouille之一。It is quite probable that on this journey he personally presided over the erection of a convent in connexion with his alma mater, the University of Palencia.这是很可能,在这个征途上,他亲自主持竖立一个修道院,在与他的母校,帕伦西亚大学联接。At the invitation of the Bishop of Barcelona, a house of the order was established in that city.在巴塞罗那的主教的邀请,房子的顺序是建立在这个城市。Again bending his steps towards Rome he recrossed the Pyrenees and visited the foundations at Toulouse and Paris.再次弯曲他对罗马的步骤,他recrossed比利牛斯山,并参观了在图卢兹和巴黎的基础。During his stay in the latter place he caused houses to be erected at Limoges, Metz, Reims, Poitiers, and Orléans, which in a short time became centres of Dominican activity.后者造成的地方,他逗留在他的房子竖立在利摩日,梅斯,兰斯,普瓦捷,奥尔良,在很短的时间成为了多米尼加共和国的活动中心。 From Paris he directed his course towards Italy, arriving in Bologna in July, 1219.从巴黎,他执导了他对意大利的过程,在博洛尼亚,1219 7月抵达。Here he devoted several months to the religious formation of the brethren he found awaiting him, and then, as at Prouille, dispersed them over Italy.在这里,他用了几个月的弟兄们,他发现等待他的宗教的形成,然后,截至Prouille,它们分散在意大利。Among the foundations made at this time were those at Bergamo, Asti, Verona, Florence, Brescia, and Faenza.在这个时候作出的基础是在贝加莫,阿斯蒂,维罗纳,佛罗伦萨,布雷西亚和法恩莎。From Bologna he went to Viterbo.从博洛尼亚,他到维泰博。His arrival at the papal court was the signal for the showering of new favours on the order.他的到来在罗马教皇的法院,是为新的顺​​序有利于淋浴信号。Notable among these marks of esteem were many complimentary letters addressed by Honorius to all those who had assisted the Fathers in their vinous foundations.这些商标的自尊中,值得注意的是许多免费的信件,由挪给所有那些曾协助的父亲在他们的葡萄酒的基础。In March of this same year Honorius, through his representatives, bestowed upon the order the church of San Eustorgio in Milan.通过他的代表,在这同一年挪的3月,在米兰的教堂圣Eustorgio赐予的顺序。At the same time a foundation at Viterbo was authorized.与此同时,被授权在维泰博的基础。On his return to Rome, towards the end of 1219, Dominic sent out letters to all the convents announcing the first general chapter of the order, to be held at Bologna on the feast of the following Pentecost.在他返回罗马,对1219年底,玫瑰发送了信件,宣布以下五旬节盛宴上的第一章的顺序,在博洛尼亚举行的所有的修道院。 Shortly before, Honorius III, by a special Brief, had conferred upon the founder the title of Master General, which till then he had held only by tacit consent.不久之前,挪三,通过一个特殊的简介,赋予掌握一般的创始人的称号,直到那时,他只举行了默许。At the very first session of the chapter in the following spring the saint startled his brethren by offering his resignation as master general.在本章的第一次会议在次年春天的圣怔了他的弟兄们提供他的辞职作为主一般。 It is needless to say the resignation was not accepted and the founder remained at the head of the institute till the end of his life.这是不用说辞职不被接受的创始人研究所负责人,直到他生命的终结仍然的。

Soon after the close of the chapter of Bologna, Honorius III addressed letters to the abbeys and priories of San Vittorio, Sillia, Mansu, Floria, Vallombrosa, and Aquila, ordering that several of their religious be deputed to begin, under the leadership of Saint Dominic, a preaching crusade in Lombardy, where heresy had developed alarming proportions.博洛尼亚章结束后不久,挪三致函圣维托里奥,Sillia,万寿,弗洛里亚,Vallombrosa,和拉奎拉的修道院和priories,订货圣的领导下,开始他们的宗教是写给几个的,杜明,鼓吹十字军东征在伦巴第大区,其中异端制定了惊人的地步。 For some reason or other the plans of the pope were never realized.出于某种原因或其他教皇的计划从未实现。The promised support failing, Dominic, with a little band of his own brethren, threw himself into the field, and, as the event proved, spent himself in an effort to bring back the heretics to their allegiance to the Church.承诺支持失败,玫瑰,用他自己的弟兄们的小乐队,全身心地投入到该领域自己,作为事件证明,在努力使效忠教会的异端自己花。 It is said that 100,000 unbelievers were converted by the preaching and the miracles of the saint.有人说,10万不信的转换圣人的说教和奇迹。According to Lacordaire and others, it was during his preaching in Lombardy that the saint instituted the Militia of Jesus Christ, or the third order, as it is commonly called, consisting of men and women living in the world, to protect the rights and property of the Church.据拉科代尔和其他人,这是在他的说教在伦巴第大区圣提起民兵的耶稣基督,或第三顺序,因为它是俗称,活在世上的男人和妇女组成的,以保护他们的权利和财产教会。 Towards the end of 1221 Saint Dominic returned to Rome for the sixth and last time.迈向1221年底圣多明回到罗马为第六次,也是最后一次。Here he received many new and valuable concessions for the order.在这里,他收到的顺序了许多新的,有价值的让步。In January, February, and March of 1221 three consecutive Bulls were issued commending the order to all the prelates of the Church.在一月,二月,三月1221连续三个公牛发出赞扬,以所有主教的教会。The thirtieth of May, 1221, found him again at Bologna presiding over the second general chapter of the order.五卅,1221,发现在博洛尼亚主持,他再次对第二章节顺序一般。At the close of the chapter he set out for Venice to visit Cardinal Ugolino, to whom he was especially indebted for many substantial acts of kindness.在本章结束时,他为威尼斯参观枢机Ugolino,他善良的许多重大行为,特别是重债。He had scarcely returned to Bologna when a fatal illness attacked him.他很少回到博洛尼亚,当一个致命的疾病袭击了他。He died after three weeks of sickness, the many trials of which he bore with heroic patience.他去世后三个星期的疾病,许多试验,其中,他与英勇耐心孔。In a Bull dated at Spoleto, 13 July, 1234, Gregory IX made his cult obligatory throughout the Church.格雷戈里九斯波莱托,7月13日,1234年的牛市,使他的邪教整个教会的义务。

The life of St. Dominic was one of tireless effort in the, service of god.圣星的生命在上帝,服务是一个不懈努力。While he journeyed from place to place he prayed and preached almost uninterruptedly.虽然他远航从一个地方到的地方,他几乎不间断的祈祷和讲道。His penances were of such a nature as to cause the brethren, who accidentally discovered them, to fear the effect upon his life.他penances这种性质,造成的弟兄们,意外地发现他们,恐惧后,他的生活的影响。While his charity was boundless he never permitted it to interfere with the stern sense of duty that guided every action of his life.虽然他的慈善事业是无限的,他绝不允许它与干扰严厉的责任意识,指导他的生活的每一个行动。 If he abominated heresy and laboured untiringly for its extirpation it was because he loved truth and loved the souls of those among whom he laboured.如果他abominated异端和辛勤不懈其摘除,这是因为他爱真​​理和爱其中他吃力的灵魂。He never failed to distinguish between sin and the sinner.他从来没有区分罪和罪人。It is not to be wondered at, therefore, if this athlete of Christ, who had conquered himself before attempting the reformation of others, was more than once chosen to show forth the power of God.这不是不知道,因此,如果这个运动员的基督,谁征服了自己,然后再尝试别人的改革,是不止一次地选择显示出来的上帝的力量。 The failure of the fire at Fanjeaux to consume the dissertation he had employed against the heretics, and which was thrice thrown into the flames; the raising to life of Napoleone Orsini; the appearance of the annals in the refectory of Saint Sixtus in response to his prayers, are but a few of the supernatural happenings by which God was pleased to attest the eminent holiness of His servant. Fanjeaux消防失败来消耗他曾聘请反对异端,三倍的火焰抛出的论文;在回应他的外观圣Sixtus食堂的史册;提高拿波洛恩奥西尼生活祈祷,但上帝很高兴地证明他的仆人的杰出圣洁的超自然现象。 We are not surprised, therefore, that, after signing the Bull of canonization on 13 July, 1234, Gregory IX declared that he no more doubted the saintliness of Saint Dominic than he did that of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. ,因此,我们并不感到惊讶,7月13日,1234册封红牛签约后,格雷戈里九宣称,他没有更多的怀疑比他的圣彼得和圣保罗圣多明圣洁。

Publication information Written by John B. O'Connor.由约翰B奥康纳书面的公开信息。Transcribed by Martin Wallace, OP.转录马丁华莱士,OP。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积五发布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Order of Preachers传道的命令

Catholic Information天主教信息

As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we shall include under this title the two other parts of the order: the Dominican Sisters (Second Order) and the Brothers of Penitence of St. Dominic (Third Order).天主教方济会传教士秩序是整个秩序的圣星的主要组成部分,我们应包括这个标题下的其他两个部分的顺序:多米尼加共和国的姐妹(二阶)和忏悔圣星兄弟(三阶)。 First, we shall study the legislation of the three divisions of the order, and the nature of each.首先,我们应研究的三个师的顺序,每个性质的立法。Secondly, we shall give an historical survey of the three branches of the order.其次,我们应当给予历史调查的三个分支的顺序。

I. LEGISLATION AND NATURE一,立法和性质

In its formation and development, the Dominican legislation as a whole is closely bound up with historical facts relative to the origin and progress of the order.在其形成和发展,作为一个整体多米尼加立法息息相关的相对顺序的起源和进步的历史事实。Hence some reference to these is necessary, the more so as this matter has not been sufficiently studied.因此,有一定的参考这些是必要的,更是这样为此事还没有得到充分研究。For each of the three groups, constituting the ensemble of the Order of St. Dominic, we shall examine: A. Formation of the Legislative Texts; B. Nature of the Order, resulting from legislation.对于每个三组,构成圣星订购的合奏,我们应审查:A.形成的法律文本; B.自然的命令,从立法。

A. FORMATION OF THE LEGISLATIVE TEXTSA.立法文本的形成

In regard to their legislation the first two orders are closely connected, and must be treated together.前两个订单,在其立法方面是紧密相连,必须一起治疗。The preaching of St. Dominic and his first companions in Languedoc led up to the pontifical letters of Innocent III, 17 Nov., 1205 (Potthast, "Reg., Pont., Rom.", 2912).宣讲圣道和他的第一个同伴在朗格多克导致了罗马教皇英诺森三世字母,11月17日,1205(波特哈斯特,“注册,杜邦,罗”,2912)。 They created for the first time in the Church of the Middle Ages the type of apostolic preachers, patterned upon the teaching of the Gospel.他们创造了首次在中世纪的使徒传道福音的教学后的图案,教会。In the same year, Dominic founded the Monastery of Prouille, in the Diocese of Toulouse, for the women whom he had converted from heresy, and he, made this establishment the centre of union of his missions and of his apostolic works (Balme-Lelaidier, "Cartulaire ou Histoire Diplomatique de St. Dominic", Paris, 1893, I, 130sq.; Guiraud, "Cart. de Notre Dame de Prouille," Paris, 1907, I, CCCXXsq).同年,多米尼克创立的Prouille修道院,在图卢兹教区,他已经从异端转换为妇女,和他,使他的使命和他的使徒的作品建立工会中心(Balme Lelaidier ,“Cartulaire OU史外交的圣道”,巴黎,1893年,我130sq; Guiraud,“车德圣母院Prouille。”巴黎,1907年,我CCCXXsq)。St. Dominic gave to the new monastery the Rule of St. Augustine and also the special Institutions which regulated the life of the Sisters, and of the Brothers who lived near them, for the spiritual and temporal administration of the community.圣星了新的修道院的圣奥古斯丁和专门机构规定的姐妹们的生活规则,和兄弟住在附近,为社会的精神和时间管理,。 The Institutions are edited in Balme, "Cart."各院校编辑Balme,“购物车”。II, 425; "Bull. Ord. Præd.", VII, 410; Duellius, "Misc.", bk.二,425;“。公牛条例Præd。”第七章,410; Duellius,“杂项”,浅滩。 I (Augsburg, 1723), 169; "Urkundenbuch der Stadt.", I (Fribourg, Leipzig, 1883), 605.我(奥格斯堡,1723),169;“Urkundenbuch DER STADT”,我(弗里堡,莱比锡,1883年),605。On 17 Dec., 1219, Honorius III, with a view to a general reform among the religious of the Eternal City, granted the monastery of the Sisters of St. Sixtus of Rome to St. Dominic, and the Institutions of Prouille were given to that monastery under the title of Institutions of the Sisters of St. Sixtus of Rome.月17日,12月,1219年,挪三永恒之城的宗教之间的总体改革,授予罗马的圣Sixtus修女修道院圣星,Prouille机构修道院,在罗马的圣Sixtus的姐妹机构的标题。 With this designation they were granted subsequently to other monasteries and congregations of religious.有了这个称号,他们随后被授予的其他寺庙和宗教团体的。It is also under this form that we possess the primitive Institutions of Prouille, in the editions already mentioned.也正是在这种形式,我们拥有Prouille原始机构,已经提到的版本。St. Dominic and his companions, having received from Innocent III authorization to choose a rule, with a view to the approbation of their order, adopted in 1216, that of St. Augustine, and added thereto the "Consuetudines" which regulated the ascetic and canonical life of the religious.圣星和他的同伴,收到诺森三世授权认可他们的订单,选择一个规则,通过在1216年,圣奥古斯丁,并补充有关“Consuetudines”规定的苦行和规范的宗教生活。 These were borrowed in great part from the Constitutions of Prémontré, but with some essential features, adapted to the purposes of the new Preachers who also renounced private possession of property, but retained the revenues.这些都是借来的Prémontré宪法的很大一部分,但一些基本特征,适应新的传教士谁也放弃了财产的私人占有的目的,但保留的收入。 The "Consuetudines" formed the first part (prima distinctio) of the primitive Constitutions of the order (Quétif-Echard, "Scriptores Ord. Præd.", L 12-13; Denifle, "Archiv. für Literatur und Kirchengeschichte", I, 194; Balme, "Cart.", II, 18). “Consuetudines”形成的顺序(Quétif埃沙尔原始宪法的第一部分(初步distinctio),“条例Scriptores Præd。”,L 12日至13日;德尼夫勒“。论坛存档献给Literatur和Kirchengeschichte”,我, 194; Balme,“车”,二,18)。 The order was solemnly approved, 22 Dec., 1216.该命令是庄严批准,12月22日,1216。A first letter, in the style of those granted for the foundation of regular canons, gave the order canonical existence; a second determined the special vocation of the Order of Preachers as vowed to teaching and defending the truths of faith.定期大炮的基础上授予的风格的第一个字母,一声令下规范的存在;第二个决定传教士订购的特殊使命,发誓要教学和捍卫真理的信仰。 "Nos attendentes fratres Ordinis tui futuros pugiles fidei et vera mundi lumina confirmamus Ordinem tuum" (Balme, "Cart." II, 71-88; Potthast, 5402-5403).“NOS attendentes fratres Ordinis TUI futuros pugiles fidei等芦荟蒙迪管腔confirmamus Ordinem tuum”(“购物车”Balme,二,71-88;波特哈斯特,5402-5403)。(Expecting the brethren of your order to be the champions of the Faith and true lights of the world, we confirm your order.) On 15 Aug., 1217 St. Dominic sent out his companions from Prouille. (期待您的订单的弟兄的信仰和真正的世界灯的冠军,我们确认您的订单。)8月15日,1217圣星发出了从Prouille他的同伴。They went through France, Spain, and Italy, and established as principal centres, Toulouse, Paris, Madrid, Rome, and Bologna.他们经历了法国,西班牙和意大利,并确立为主要的金融中心,图卢兹,巴黎,马德里,罗马和博洛尼亚。Dominic, by constant journeyings, kept watch over these new establishments, and went to Rome to confer with the Sovereign Pontiff (Balme, "Cart." II, 131; "Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, p. 411; Guiraud, "St. Dominic", Paris, 1899, p. 95).杜明,通过不断的journeyings,不停地监视这些新机构,并前往罗马赋予与主权教宗(Balme,“车。”二,131;“纪事条例Præd。”罗马,1756年,第411页; Guiraud,“圣道”,巴黎,1899年,第95页)。In May, 1220, St. Dominic held at Bologna the first general chapter of the order.在五月,1220,圣星在博洛尼亚举行的第一顺序一般章节。This assembly drew up the Constitutions, which are complementary to the "Consuetudines" of 1216 and form the second part (secunda distinctio).大会制定了宪法,这是相辅相成的“Consuetudines”1216和形式的第二部分(塞康达distinctio)。 They regulated the organization and life of the order, and are the essential and original basis of the Dominican legislation.他们规范组织的秩序和生活,是必要的和原有的基础上,多米尼加法例。In this chapter, the Preachers also gave up certain elements of the canonical life; they relinquished all possessions and revenues, and adopted the practice of strict poverty; they rejected the title of abbey for the convents, and substituted the rochet of canons for the monastic scapular.在本章中,传教士也放弃了某些元素的规范生活,他们放弃所有的财产和收入,并通过严格的贫困的做法,他们拒绝了标题为修道院,修道院和寺院取代大炮罗歇肩胛。 The regime of annual general chapters was established as the regulative power of the order, and the source of legislative authority.政权建立年度一般章节为顺序的调控权力,立法权力的来源。("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, 20; Denifle, "Archiv.", I, 212; Balme, "Cart.", III, 575). (“条例Præd脚本。。”,我20;德尼夫勒,“论坛存档。”我,212; Balme,“购物车”,三,575)。Now that the legislation of the Friars Preachers was fully established, the Rule of the Sisters of St. Sixtus was found to be very incomplete.现在,天主教方济会传教士的立法完全建立起来,圣Sixtus的姐妹规则被认为是非常不完整。 The order, however, supplied what was wanting by compiling a few years after, the Statuta, which borrowed from the Constitutions of the Friars, whatever might be useful in a monastery of Sisters.然而,该命令提供编译几年后,Statuta,借用天主教方济会的宪法,任何可能有用的一个修道院的姐妹想什么。 We owe the preservation of these Statuta, as well as the Rule of St. Sixtus, to the fact that this legislation was applied in 1232 to the Penitent Sisters of St. Mary Magdalen in Germany, who observed it without further modification.我们有责任保护这些Statuta,以及圣Sixtus的规则,事实上,这条法例在1232圣玛丽抹大拉在德国,没有进一步修改的观察忏悔姐妹。 The Statuta are edited im Duellius, "Misc.", bk.编辑Statuta是IM Duellius,“杂项”,浅滩。I, 182.我,182。After the legislative work of the general chapters had been added to the Constitution of 1216-20, without changing the general ordinance of the primitive text, the necessity was felt, a quarter of a century later, of giving a more logical distribution to the legislation in its entirety.一般章节的立法工作后已被添加到1216至1220年的宪法,而不改变原始文本的一般条例的必要性有人认为,四分之一个世纪后,给人一种更符合逻辑分配到立法在它的全部。 The great canonist Raymond of Penaforte, on becoming master general of the order, devoted himself to this work.伟大canonist Penaforte雷蒙德成为掌握一般的顺序,献身这项工作。The general chapters, from 1239 to 1241, accepted the new text, and gave it the force of law.一般章节,从第1239到1241,接受新的文本,并赋予它的法律效力。In this form it has remained to the present time as the official text, with some modification, however, in the way of suppressions and especially of additions due to later enactments of the general chapters.在这种形式下,一直保持到现在的时间为正式文本,进行一些修改,但是,在镇压的方式,特别是由于后来的成文法的一般章节的增加。 It was edited in Denifle, "Archiv.", V, 553; "Acta Capitulorum Generalium", I (Rome, 1898), II, 13, 18, in "Monum. Ord. Præd. Hist.", bk.这是德尼夫勒编辑,“论坛存档。”V,553;“文献Capitulorum Generalium”,我(罗马,1898年),第二,13,18,在“Monum条例Præd组织胺。”BK。III.三。

The reorganization of the Constitutions of the Preachers called for a corresponding reform in the legislation of the Sisters.重组的传教士宪法要求进行相应的改革,在立法的姐妹。 In his letter of 27 Aug., 1257, Alexander IV ordered Humbert of Romans, the fifth master general, to unify the Constitutions of the Sisters.在他8月27日,1257的信中,亚历山大四下令洪博达的罗马人,​​第五个掌握一般的,统一的姐妹们的“宪法”。 Humbert remodelled them on the Constitutions of the Brothers, and put them into effect at the General Chapter of Valenciennes, 1259.洪博达改造对他们兄弟的“宪法”,并把他们瓦朗谢讷,1259的总章生效。The Sisters were henceforth characterized as Sorores Ordinis Prdicatorum.从此,姐妹们Sorores Ordinis Prdicatorum特点。The Constitutions are edited in "Analecta, Ord. Præd."“宪法”中编辑“Analecta,条例。Præd,”。 (Rome, 1897), 338; Finke, "Ungedruckte Dominicanerbriefe des 13 Jahrhunderts" (Paderborn, 1891), D. 53; "Litterae Encyclicae magistrorum generalium" (Rome, 1900), in "Mon. Ord. Praed. Hist.", V, p.(罗马,1897年),338;芬克,“Ungedruckte Dominicanerbriefe DES 13 Jahrhunderts”(帕德博恩,1891年),D 53,“Litterae Encyclicae magistrorum generalium”(罗马,1900年),在“星期一条例Praed组织胺。” ,第五,第513.513。To this legislation, the provincials of Germany, who had a large number of religious convents under their care, added certain admonitiones by way of completing and definitely settling the Constitutions of the Sisters.这项法律,德国的外省人,他们的照顾下大量的宗教修道院,补充一定admonitiones完成,绝对的姐妹们解决了“宪法”的方式。 They seem to be the work of Herman of Minden, Provincial of Teutonia (1286-90).他们似乎对赫尔曼明登,Teutonia省(1286至1290年)的工作。He drew up at first a concise admonition (Denifle, "Archiv.", II, 549); then other series of admonitions, more important, which have not been edited (Rome, Archives of the Order, Cod. Ruten, 130-139).他制定了第一个简洁的训诫(德尼夫勒,“论坛存档,二,549);那么其他一系列的告诫,更重要的,没有被编辑(罗马,档案馆的命令,COD Ruten,130-139。 )。The legislation of the Friars Preachers is the firmest and most complete among the systems of law by which institutions of this sort were ruled in the thirteenth century.天主教方济会传教士的立法是最坚定,这类机构在13世纪统治之间的法律系统最完整的。Hauck is correct in saying: "We do not deceive ourselves in considering the organization of the Dominican Order as the most perfect of all the monastic organizations produced by the Middle Ages" ("Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands", part IV, Leipzig, 1902, p. 390).豪克是正确的说:“我们不要欺骗自己最完美的中世纪产生的所有寺院的组织在考虑组织多米尼加令”(“Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands”,第四部分,莱比锡,1902年,第390)。It is not then surprising that the majority of the religious orders of the thirteenth century should have followed quite closely the Dominican legislation, which exerted an influence even upon institutions very dissimilar in aim and nature.它不是那么令人惊讶的十三世纪的宗教订单大部分应该遵循相当密切多米尼加立法,后非常的宗旨和性质不同的机构甚至施加影响。 The Church considered it the typical rule for new foundations.教会认为这是典型的新的基础规则。Alexander IV thought of making the legislation of the Order of Preachers into a special rule known as that of St. Dominic, and for that purpose commissioned the Dominican cardinal, Hugh of St. Cher (3 Feb., 1255), but the project encountered many obstacles, and nothing came of it.亚历山大四圣星的一个特殊的规则的传教士订购的立法思想,并为此目的委托多米尼加枢机,圣休雪儿,1255)2月(3,但项目遇到它的许多障碍,并没有来到。 (Potthast, n. 1566; Humberti de Romanis, "Opera de vita regulari", ed., Berthier, I, Rome, 1888, n. 43) (波特哈斯特,12月31日1566; Humberti DE Romanis,“歌剧院”维他“正则”,教育署,贝蒂埃,我,罗马,1888年,N. 43。)

B. NATURE OF THE ORDER OF PREACHERSB.性质ORDER传道

(1) Its Object(1)它的对象

The canonical title of "Order of Preachers", given to the work of St. Dominic by the Church, is in itself significant, but it indicates only the dominant feature.规范“传教士”称号,由教会圣星的工作,本身显著,但它仅指示的主要特征。The Constitutions are more explicit: "Our order was instituted principally for preaching and for the salvation of souls."宪法更明确:“我们的订单主要是为拯救灵魂的说教和提起。”The end or aim of the order then is the salvation of souls, especially by means of preaching.年底或秩序的目的则是拯救灵魂,尤其是说教的方式。For the attainment of this purpose, the order must labour with the utmost zeal -- "Our main efforts should be put forth, earnestly and ardently, in doing good to the souls of our fellow-men."为了实现这一目的,必须用最热情的劳动 - “我们的主要精力应提出,认真和热烈地做好我们的同胞的亡灵。”

(2) Its Organization(2)其组织

The aim of the order and the conditions of its environment determined the form of its organization.的秩序和环境条件的目的,确定其组织形式。The first organic group is the convent, which may not be founded with less than twelve religious.第一个有机集团是修道院,这可能不会少于十二个月宗教成立。At first only large convents were allowed and these were located in important cities (Mon. Ger. Hist.: SS. XXXII, 233, 236), hence the saying:第一只被允许大修道院,这些都是重要的城市(周一德国历史。。。:SS三十二,233,​​236),因此说:

Bernardus valles, montes Benedictus amabat,Bernardus VALLES,蒙特斯Benedictus amabat

Oppida Franciscus, celebres Dominicus urbes.Oppida济,celebres Dominicus urbes。

(Bernard loved the valleys, Benediet the mountains, Francis the towns, Dominic the populous cities).(伯纳德爱山谷,Benediet山上,弗朗西斯城镇,星人口最多的城市)。

The foundation and the existence of the convent required a prior as governor, and a doctor as teacher.修道院的基础和存在的需要作为总督之前,为教师和医生。The Constitution prescribes the dimensions of the church and the convent buildings, and these should be quite plain.宪法规定的教堂和修道院建筑的尺寸,这些应该是很清楚。But in the course of the thirteenth century the order erected large edifices, real works of art.但在十三世纪的过程中,为了竖立大型华厦,真正的艺术作品。The convent possesses nothing and lives on alms.修道院拥有上没有施舍和生活。Outside of the choral office (the Preachers at first had the title of canonici) their time is wholly employed in study.他们的合唱办公室(传教士在第一canonici标题)以外的时间是全受雇于研究。The doctor gives lectures in theology, at which all the religious, even the prior, must be present, and which are open to secular clerics.医生给出的神学讲座,所有的宗教,甚至之前,必须存在,而且这是世俗教士。The religious vow themselves to preaching, both within and without the convent walls.宗教誓言自己的说教,都没有修道院的墙壁。The "general preachers" have the most extended powers.“一般传教士”最延长的权力。At the beginning of the order, the convent was called praedicatio, or sancta praedicatio.为了开始,修道院被称为praedicatio,或sancta praedicatio。The convents divided up the territory in which they were established, and sent out on preaching tours religious who remained for a longer or shorter time in the principal places of their respective districts.修道院瓜分了他们成立,并派出说教之旅宗教留一个或长或短的时间在各自地区的主要地方的领土。 The Preachers did not take the vow of stability, but could be sent from one locality to another.传教士没有采取稳定的誓言,但可以从一个地方传送到另一个。Each convent received novices, these, according to the Constitutions, must be at least eighteen years of age, but this rule was not strictly observed.每个修道院收到生手,这些,根据宪法,必须至少18岁,但是这条规则是不严格遵守。The Preachers were the first among religious orders to suppress manual labour, the necessary work of the interior of the house being relegated to lay brothers called conversi whose number was limited according to the needs of each convent.传教士的宗教教派之间的第一压制体力劳动,沦为奠定conversi兄弟,其数量根据每个修道院的需求是有限的房子内部的必要的工作。 The prior was elected by the religious and the doctor was appointed by the provincial chapter.之前当选的宗教和医生,由省级章任命。The chapter, when it saw fit, relieved them from office.章,当它认为合适的,免除职务。

The grouping of a certain number of convents forms the province, which is administered by a provincial prior, elected by the prior and two delegates from each convent.一定数量的修道院的分组形式的省,这是由省级之前,从每个修道院前,两名代表当选,管理。He is confirmed by the general chapter, or by the master general, who can also remove him when it is found expedient.他也证实了一般章节,或由主一般,也可以罢免他时,发现权宜之计。He enjoys in his province the same authority as the master general in the order; he confirms the election of conventual priors, visits the province, sees to it that the Constitutions and the ordinances are observed and presides at the provincial chapters.他喜欢在他的省,掌握一般的顺序相同的权力;他证实了选举conventual先验,参观省,看到它,遵守宪法和条例,并在省分会主持。 The provincial chapter, which is held annually, discusses the interests of the province.省一章,这是每年举行一次,讨论了全省的利益。It is composed of a provincial prior, priors from the convents, a delegate from each convent, and the general preachers.它是由一个省级之前,先验从修道院,从每个修道院的委托,和一般的传教士。The capitulants (members of the chapter), choose from among themselves, four counsellors or assistants, who, with the provincial, regulate the affairs brought before the chapter. capitulants(章),从它们之间的选择,四个辅导员或助理,与省,规范的事务,使之前的章节。The chapter appoints those who are to visit annually each part of the province.本章任命那些每年参观全省各部分。The provinces taken together constitute the order, which has at its head a master general, elected by the provincial priors and by two delegates from each province.各省一起构成的命令,在其头部有一个主一般情况下,由省级先验和从每个省的两名代表当选。For a long time his position was for life; Pius VII (1804), reduced it to six years, and Pius IX (1862) fixed it at twelve years.很长一段时间,他的立场是对生命的第七皮乌斯(1804),它减少到6年,庇护九世(1862年)固定在十二年。 At first the master general had no permanent residence; since the end of the fourteenth century, he has lived usually at Rome.起初,掌握一般没有永久居留;十四世纪末以来,他一直生活在罗马通常。He visits the order, holds it to the observance of the laws and corrects abuses.他访问的顺序,认为它的法律的遵守和纠正滥用。 In 1509, he was granted two associates (socii); in 1752, four; in 1910, five.在1509,他被授予两间联营公司(socii);在1752年,四;在1910年,五。The general chapter is the supreme authority within the order.总章内的顺序是至高无上的权威。From 1370, it was held every two years; from 1553, every three years, from 1625, every six years.从1370,这是每两年举行一次,从1553年,每隔三年,从1625开始,每六年。In the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenth century, chapters were rarely held.在十八和十九世纪初,章很少举行。At present they take place every three years.目前他们采取每三年举行一次。From 1228, for two years in succession, the general chapter was composed of definitors or delegates from the provinces, each province sending one delegate; the following year it was held by the provincial priors.从1228年,连续两年,一般章definitors或来自各省的代表组成,每个省派一名代表;次年由省级先验举行。 The chapter promulgates new constitutions, but to become law they must be accepted by three constitutive chapters.本章颁布新宪法,但要成为法律,他们必须接受由三个构章节。The chapter deals with all the general concerns of the order, whether administrative or disciplinary.本章涉及所有的订单普遍关注的问题,无论是行政或纪律处分。It corrects the master general, and in certain cases can depose him.它纠正了主一般,并在某些情况下可以罢免他。From 1220 to 1244, the chapters were held alternately at Bologna and Paris; subsequently, they passed round to all the principal cities of Europe.从1220到1244年,共举行章节轮流在博洛尼亚和巴黎,随后,他们通过一轮欧洲所有的主要城市。The generalissimo chapter acknowledged by the Constitution and composed of two definitors from each province, also of provincials, ie equivalent to three consecutive general chapters, was held only in 1228 and 1236.大元帅章承认宪法和组成两个definitors从每个省,也是外省人,即相当于三连冠的一般章节,仅在1228和1236。 The characteristic feature of government is the elective system which prevails throughout the order.政府的特点是弥漫整个顺序选课制。"Such was the simple mechanism which imparted to the Order of Friars Preachers a powerful and regular movement, and secured them for a long time a real preponderance in Church and in State" (Delisle, "Notes et extraits des mss. de la Bibl. Nat.", Paris, xxvii, 1899, 2nd part, p. 312. See the editions of the Constitutions mentioned above: "Const. Ord. Fr. Præd.", Paris, 1, 1888, "Acta Capit. Gen. Ord. Fr. Præd.", ed., Reichert, Rome, 1898, sq. 9 vols.; Lo Cicero, Const., "Declar. et Ord. Capit. Gen. OP", Rome, 1892; Humbert de Romanis, "Opera de vita regulari", ed. Berthier, Rome, 1888; Reichert, "Feier und Gesehäftsordung der Provincialkapitel des Dominikanerordens im 13 Jahrhundert" in "Römische Quart.", 1903, p. 101). “这是简单的机制,传授给订购天主教方济会传教士一个强大的和经常的运动,并获得他们很长一段时间在教会和国家的真正优势”(迪莱尔,“注意事项等extraits DES MSS。DE LA Bibl。 NAT“,巴黎,1899年,二十七,看到上面提到的”宪法“的第二部分,第312页的版本:”。。。。CONST条例神父Præd“,巴黎,1,1888年,”文献Capit将军条例神父Præd“,教育署,赖克特,罗马,1898年,平9卷;。老西塞罗,const的,”“必须等条例Capit创作品。”,罗马,1892年,洪博达DE Romanis“歌剧院“维他”正则“,ED贝蒂埃,罗马,1888年;赖克特,”飞儿和Gesehäftsordung DER Provincialkapitel DES Dominikanerordens IM 13 Jahrhundert“在”Römische夸脱“,1903年,第101页)。

(3) Forms of its Activity(3)其活动的形式

The forms of life or activity of the Order of Preachers are many, but they are all duly subordinated.传教士订购生活或活动的形式是多方面的,但他们都是正式服从。The order assimilated the ancient forms of the religious life, the monastic and the canonical, but it made them subservient to the clerical and the apostolic life which are its peculiar and essential aims.为了同化古老的宗教生活,寺院和规范的形式,但它使他们屈从于文书及使徒生活,这是其特有的和基本目标。 The Preachers adopted from the monastic life the three traditional vows of obedience, chastity, and poverty; to them they added the ascetic element known as monastic observances; perpetual abstinence, fasting from 14 Sept. until Easter and on all the Fridays throughout the year the exclusive use of wool for clothing and for the bed a hard bed, and a common dormitory, silence almost perpetual in their houses, public acknowledgment of faults in the chapter, a graded list of penitential practices, etc. The Preachers, however, did not take these observances directly from the monastic orders but from the regular canons, especially the reformed canons, who had already adopted monastic rules The Preachers received from the regular canons the choral Office for morning and evening, but chanted quickly.传教士通过从修道生活三个传统的服从,贞洁,贫穷的誓言,他们增加了禁欲主义的元素称为寺院的纪念活动;永久禁欲,从14 9月斋戒,直到复活节和一年四季的所有星期五独家使用的羊毛服装和床硬床,和一个共同的宿舍,沉默几乎永久的,在他们的房子,但是,并没有公开承认一章中,悔罪做法的分级列表,等传教士的故障采取直接从寺院的订单,但经常大炮,特别是改革大炮,他们已经通过传教士收到从早上和傍晚的​​合唱办公室定期大炮,但高喊迅速寺院规则,这些纪念活动。

They added, on certain days, the Office of the Holy Virgin, and once a week the Office of the Dead.他们补充说,若干天,圣母办公室,每周一次死者的办公室。The habit of the Preachers, as of the regular canons, is a white tunic and a black cloak.传教士的习惯,作为正规的大炮,是一个白色中山装和黑色斗篷。The rochet, distinctive of the regular canons, was abandoned by the Preachers at the General Chapter of 1220, and replaced by the scapular.罗歇,定期大炮的特色,被遗弃的传教士在1220的总章,肩胛取代。At the same time they gave up various canonical customs, which they had retained up to that period.与此同时,他们放弃了各种规范的习俗,他们保留期间。They suppressed in their order the title of abbot for the head of the convent, and rejected all property, revenues, the carrying of money on their travels, and the use of horses.他们压制在他们的订单标题头的修道院的住持,并拒绝了所有的财产,收入,他们的旅行携带的钱,和使用的马匹。The title even of canon which they had borne from the beginning tended to disappear about the middle of the thirteenth century, and the General Chapters of 1240-1251 substituted the word clericus for canonicus in the article of the Constitutions relating to the admission of novices; nevertheless the designation, "canon" still occurs in some parts of the Constitutions.他们从一开始就承担的标题,甚至佳能趋于消失大约在十三世纪中叶,和新手入场宪法​​的文章,在1240年至1251年的一般章节取代canonicus字clericus;然而,“佳能”的称号,仍然出现在“宪法”的某些部分。 The Preachers, in fact, are primarily and essentially clerics.传教士,其实主要和本质上的神职人员。The pontifical letter of foundation said: "These are to be the champions of the Faith and the true lights of the world."宗座基础的信中说:“这是信仰的冠军和世界的真正灯”。This could apply only to clerics.这可能只适用于神职人员。The Preachers consequently made study their chief occupation, which was the essential means, with preaching and teaching as the end.因此,传教士,他们的主要职业,这是必不可少的手段,作为最终的说教和教学研究。The apostolic character of the order was the complement of its clerical character.使徒字符顺序是其文职性质的补充。 The Friars had to vow themselves to the salvation of souls through the ministry of preaching and confession, under the conditions set down by the Gospel and by the example of the Apostles: ardent zeal, absolute poverty, and sanctity of life.的修士发誓自己灵魂的救赎福音和使徒的榜样的条件下通过说教和忏悔部:殷切的热情,绝对贫困和生命的神圣。

The ideal Dominicanlife was rich in the multiplicity and choice of its elements, and was thoroughly unified by its well-considered principles and enactments; but it was none the less complex, and it, full realization was difficult.理想的多米尼加生活是丰富其元素的多样性和选择,是经过深思熟虑的原则和成文法彻底统一的;但它没有那么复杂,它的充分实现是困难的。 The monastic-canonical element tended to dull and paralyze the intense activity demanded by a clerical-apostolic life.寺院的规范化元素趋于平淡和瘫痪激烈的活动,由文职使徒生活的要求。The legislators warded off the difficulty by a system of dispensations, quite peculiar to the order.立委抵御了困难的特许制度,相当奇特的顺序。At the head of the Constitutions the principle of dispensation appears jointly with the very definition of the order's purpose, and is placed before the text of the laws to show that it controls and tempers their application.豁免原则,在“宪法”的头部出现共同的定义与秩序的目的,而之前的法律文本,以显示它控制,锻炼他们的应用程序放在。 "The superior in each convent shall have authority to grant dispensations whenever he may deem it expedient, especially in regard to what may hinder study, or preaching, or the profit of souls, since our order was originally established for the work of preaching and the salvation of souls", etc. The system of dispensation thus broadly understood while it favoured the most active element of the order, displaced, but did not wholly eliminate, the difficulty. “上级在每个修道院应有权授予特许时,他可能会认为是适宜的,特别是在可能妨碍学习,或说教,或灵魂的利润,因为我们的订单说教的工作原本是为建立和拯救灵魂“等,因而从广义上理解的豁免制度,同时有利于订单的最活跃的元素,流离失所,但并没有完全消除,难度。 It created a sort of dualism in the interior life, and permitted an arbitrariness that might easily disquiet the conscience of the religious and of the superiors.它创造了一种二元论在室内生活,并允许一个随意性,很容易不安的良心,宗教和上级。The order warded off this new difficulty by declaring in the generalissimo chapter of 1236, that the Constitutions did not oblige under pain of sin, but under pain of doing penance (Acta Cap. Gen. I, 8.) This measure, however, was not heartily welcomed by everyone in the order (Humbert de Romanis, Op., II, 46), nevertheless it stood.该命令,宣布在1236大元帅章抵御了这种新的困难,“宪法”没有罪的疼痛迫使下,但根据疼痛做苦修(创我文献第8。)这项措施,然而,不由衷地欢迎大家的顺序(亨伯特DE Romanis,作品,二,46),尽管如此,它站起来。

This dualism produced on one side, remarkable apostles and doctors, on the other, stern ascetics and great mystics.这种二元论产生在一边,显着使徒和医生,另一方面,严峻的苦行者和伟大的神秘主义者。At all events the interior troubles of the order grew out of the difficulty of maintaining the nice equilibrium which the first legislators established, and which was preserved to a remarkable degree during the first century of the order's existence.为了内部的麻烦,所有事件的前身是第一立法者成立,这是保存在一世纪的秩序的存在一个相当大的程度上保持了不错的平衡的难度。 The logic of things and historical circumstances frequently disturbed this equilibrium.事物和历史条件下的逻辑经常扰乱这种平衡。The learned and active members tended to exempt themselves from monastic observance, or to moderate its strictness; the ascetic members insisted on the monastic life, and in pursuance of their aim, suppressed at different times the practice of dispensation, sanctioned as it was by the letter and the spirit of the Constitutions ["Cons".教训和积极的成员倾向于免除寺院遵守自己,或减轻其严格的苦修委员坚持对寺院生活,并根据他们的目的,在不同时期抑制免除实践,制裁,因为它由信和的“宪法”的精神[,“缺点”。 Ord.条例。Praed.", passim;. Denifle, "Die Const.Praed“,各处;德尼夫勒,”模具CONST。des Predigerordens" in "Archiv. DES Predigerordens“在”论坛存档“。f.F.Litt.利特。u.U.Kirchengesch.", I, 165; Mandonnet, "Les Chanoines -- Prêcheurs de Bologne d'après Jacques de Vitry" in "Archives de la société d'histoire du canton de Fribourg", bk. VIII, 15; Lacordaire, "Mémoire pour la restauration des Frères Prêcheurs dans la Chrétienté", Paris, 1852; P. Jacob, "Memoires sur la canonicité de l'institut de St. Dominic", Béziers, 1750, tr. into Italian under the title, "Difesa del canonicato dei FF. Kirchengesch“,我,有165个;芒多,”Chanoines - Prêcheurs DE Bologne D' apr镳雅克 - 维特里“在”档案DE LA SOCIETE D' histoire杜广德弗里堡。“第八,BK,15;拉科代尔,”备忘录倒入LA恢复DES Frères的Prêcheurs DANS LA Chrétienté“,巴黎,1852年,体育雅各”,Memoires SUR LA canonicité DE L'研究所圣道。“成意大利文的标题下,贝济耶,1750年,TR,”Difesa DEL canonicato DEI法郎。Predicatori", Venice, 1758; Laberthoni, "Exposé de l'état, du régime, de la legislation et des obligations des Frères Prêcheurs", Versailles, 1767 (new ed., 1872)].Predicatori“,威尼斯,1758; Laberthoni”揭露DE L'政变,杜制度,DE LA立法ET DES义务Frères的Prêcheurs“,凡尔赛宫,1767(1872年新的ED。)]。

(4) Nature of the Order of the Dominican Sisters(4)自然多米尼加姐妹的顺序

We have indicated above the various steps by which the legislation of the Dominican Sisters was brought into conformity with the Constitutions of Humbert of Romans (1259).我们已指出多米尼加姐妹的立法带来了罗马人(1259)亨伯特的宪法符合上述各个步骤。The primitive type of religious established at Prouille in 1205 by St. Dominic was not affected by successive legislation.原始宗教Prouille圣星成立于1205历届立法并没有受到影响。The Dominican Sisters are strictly cloistered in their monasteries; they take the three religious vows, recite the canonical Hours in choir and engage in manual labor.多米尼加姐妹都严格隐居在他们的寺庙,他们采取了三个宗教誓言,朗诵合唱团的典型小时,从事体力劳动。The eruditio litterarum inscribed in the Institutions of St. Sixtus disappeared from the Constitutions drawn up by Humbert of Romans.eruditio litterarum在圣Sixtus机构上消失,从罗马人亨伯特制定宪法。 The ascetic life of the Sisters is the same as that of the Friars.苦行生活的姐妹们是相同的修士。Each house is governed by a prioress, elected canonically, and assisted by a sub-prioress, a mistress of novices, and various other officers.每个房子是由一个prioress,当选规范,一分prioress,女主人的新手,以及其他各种人员的协助下。 The monasteries have the right to hold property in common; they must be provided with an income sufficient for the existence of the community; they are independent and are under the jurisdiction of the provincial prior, the master general, and of the general chapter.寺院有权持有主张,在共同财产,他们必须提供足够的社会存在的收入,他们是独立的的和省管辖下的前,主人一般情况下,和一般的篇章。 A subsequent paragraph will deal with the various phases of the question as to the relation existing between the Sisters and the Order of Preachers.随后段将处理修女和传教士订购之间存在的关系问题的各个阶段。 Whilst the Institutions of St. Sixtus provided a group of brothers, priests, and lay servants for the spiritual and temporal administration of the monastery, the Constitutions of Humbert of Romans were silent on these points.虽然圣Sixtus机构提供的一组的兄弟,祭司,并奠定了寺院的精神和时间管理的公务员,宪法洪博达的罗马人都沉默了在这些问题上。 (See the legislative texts relating to the Sisters mentioned above.)(见上面提到的姐妹有关的法律文本。)

(5) The Third Order(5)三阶

St. Dominic did not write a rule for the Tertiaries, for reasons which are given further on in the historical sketch of the Third Order.圣星没有写的Tertiaries规则,给出进一步三阶的历史素描的原因。However, a large body of the laity, vowed to piety, grouped themselves about the rising Order of Preachers, and constituted, to all intents and purposes, a Third Order.然而,庞大的身躯,一个俗人发誓虔诚,分组上升订购的传教士,和构成,所有意图和目的,三阶。In view of this fact and of some circumstances to be noted later on, the seventh master general of the order, Munio de Zamora, wrote (1285) a rule for the Brothers and Sisters of Penitence of St. Dominic.鉴于这一事实,和一些要注意稍后的情况下,第七届掌握一般的顺序,Munio德萨莫拉,写了(1285)的兄弟姐妹和忏悔圣星的规则。 The privilege granted the new fraternity 28 Jan., 1286, by Honorius IV, gave it a canonical existence (Potthast, 22358).特权授予新的联谊会28日1月,1286年,挪四,给它一个规范的存在(22358波特哈斯特,)。 The rule of Munio was not entirely original; some points being borrowed from the Rule of the Brothers of Penitence, whose origin dates back to St. Francis of Assisi; but it was distinctive on all essential points. Munio规则并非完全原创,从忏悔,其起源可以追溯到圣方济各亚西西的兄弟规则借来的一些点,但它是与众不同的所有要点。It is in a sense more thoroughly ecclesiastical; the Brothers and Sisters are grouped in different fraternities; their government is immediately subject to ecclesiastical authority; and the various fraternities do not form a collective whole, with legislative chapters, as was the case among the Brothers of Penitence of St. Francis.它是在一定意义上更加彻底教会的兄弟姐妹都在不同的联谊会分组,他们的政府立即受到教会权威;和各兄弟不形成一个集体的整体,与立法章节,作为兄弟之间的情况下忏悔圣弗朗西斯。 The Dominican fraternities are local and without any bond of union other than that of the Preaching Brothers who govern them.多米尼加兄弟是当地没有任何其他债券比治他们的说教兄弟工会和。Some characteristics of these fraternities may be gathered from the Rule of Munio de Zamora. Munio德萨莫拉的规则可能会聚集了来自这些兄弟的一些特征。The Brothers and Sisters, as true children of St. Dominic, should be, above all things, truly zealous for the Catholic Faith.兄弟姐妹,作为圣星的真实儿童,应该是,以上所有的东西,真正的天主教信仰的热忱。Their habit is a white tunic, with black cloak and hood, and a leathern girdle.他们的习惯是白色中山装,黑色斗篷和引擎盖,和皮具腰带。After making profession, they cannot return to the world, but may enter other authorized religious orders.后界,他们不能重返世界,但可以进入其他授权的宗教命令。They recited a certain number of Paters and Aves, for the canonical Hours; receive communion at least four times a year, and must show great respect to the ecclesiastical hierarchy.他们背诵一定数量的Paters和鸟类,规范小时;收到共融每年至少四次,而且必须表现出极大的尊重教会的层次结构。 They fast during Advent, Lent, and on all the Fridays during the year, and eat meat only three days in the week, Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday.他们在临快,封斋期,年内在所有星期五,吃肉在本周仅三天,周日,周二和周四。They are allowed to carry arms only in defense of the Christian Faith.他们都不准携带武器,只有在基督教信仰辩护。They visit sick members of the community, give them assistance if necessary, attend the burial of Brothers or Sisters and aid them with their prayers.他们访问生病的社会成员,向他们提供协助,如果必要的话,参加埋葬的兄弟或姐妹,与他们的祈祷和援助。The head or spiritual director is a priest of the Order of Preachers, whom the Tertiaries select and propose to the master general or to the provincial; he may act on their petition or appoint some other religious.头部或精神上的导演是一个传教士,Tertiaries选择和掌握一般或到省提出订购的牧师,他可根据他们的请愿书或任命一些其他宗教。 The director and the older members of the fraternity choose the prior or prioress, from among the Brothers and Sisters, and their office continues until they are relieved.导演和老成员的友爱选择事前或prioress,从兄弟姐妹,和自己的办公室继续进行,直到他们都松了一口气。 The Brothers and the Sisters have, on different days, a monthly reunion in the church of the Preachers, when they attend Mass, listen to an instruction, and to an explanation of the rule.兄弟姐妹,在不同的日子,每月团聚在教会的传教士,他们望弥撒时,听指令,并以规则的解释。The prior and the director can grant dispensations; the rule, like the Constitutions of the Preachers, does not oblige under pain of sin.之前和导演的,可以授予特许;像传教士的宪法规则,不迫使根据疼痛的罪过。

The text of the Rule of the Brothers of the Penitence of St. Dominic is in "Regula S. Augustini et Constitutiones FF. Ord. Praed."忏悔圣星兄弟的规则文本“雷古拉S. Augustini等Constitutiones法郎。条例。Praed。”(Rome, 1690), 2nd pt. (罗马,1690年),第二PT。p.39; Federici, "Istoria dei cavalieri Gaudent" (Venice, 1787), bk.39; Federici,“Istoria dei Cavalieri为Gaudent”(威尼斯,1787年),BK。II, cod.二,鳕鱼。diplomat., p.外交官。页28; Mandonnet, "Les règles et le gouvernement de l'Ordo de Poenitentia au XIIIe siècle" (Paris, 1902); Mortier, "Histoire des Maîtres Généraux des Frères Prêcheurs", II (Paris, 1903), 220.28;芒多,“règles ET LE政府DE L'奥DE Poenitentia坳XIIIe世纪末”(巴黎,1902年); Mortier,“史Maîtres Généraux DES Frères的Prêcheurs”,二(巴黎,1903年),220。

II.二。HISTORY OF THE ORDER历史的顺序

A. THE FRIARS PREACHERS答:天主教方济会传教士

Their history may be divided into three periods: (1) The Middle Ages (from their foundation to the beginning of the sixteenth century); (2) The Modern Period up to the French Revolution; (3) The Contemporaneous Period.他们的历史可分为三个时期:(1)中世纪(从十六世纪初的基础);(2)现代时期法国大革命(3)同期期。In each of these periods we shall examine the work of the order in its various departments.在每个时期,我们应审查的顺序,在各部门的工作。

(1) The Middle Ages(1)中世纪

The thirteenth century is the classic age of the order, the witness to its brilliant development and intense activity.十三世纪,是为了经典的时代,见证其辉煌的发展和激烈的活动。 This last is manifested especially in the work of teaching.这最后的表现,尤其是在教学工作。By preaching it reached all classes of Christian society, fought heresy, schism, paganism, by word and book, and by its missions to the north of Europe, to Africa, and Asia, passed beyond the frontiers of Christendom.鼓吹它达到了基督教社会中的所有类,争取通过文字和书,异教,异端,分裂,欧洲北部,非洲和亚洲,超越基督教的前沿传入的任务。 Its schools spread throughout the entire Church its doctors wrote monumental works in all branches of knowledge and two among them, Albertus Magnus, and especially Thomas Aquinas, founded a school of philosophy and theology which was to rule the ages to come in the life of the Church.学校传遍整个教会其医生写在其中所有的知识和两个分支机构的不朽著作,阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,特别是托马斯阿奎那,创立了学校的哲学和神学,这是规则的年龄来生活在教会。 An enormous number of its members held offices in Church and State -- as popes, cardinals, bishops, legates, inquisitors, confessors of princes, ambassadors, and paciarii (enforcers of the peace decreed by popes or councils).其成员数目庞大,在教会和国家的办事处 - 作为教皇,枢机主教,主教,使节,调查官,诸侯忏悔,大使,并paciarii(由教皇或议会颁布的和平执法人员)。The Order of Preachers, which should have remained a select body, developed beyond bounds and absorbed some elements unfitted to its form of life.订购的传教士,这应该仍然是一个专责机构,超越边界和吸收到其生命形式unfitted的某些元素。A period of relaxation ensued during the fourteenth century owing to the general decline of Christian society.一个放松期,随后在14世纪,由于基督教社会的普遍下降。The weakening of doctrinal activity favoured the development here and there of the ascetic and contemplative life and there sprang up, especially in Germany and Italy, an intense and exuberant mysticism with which the names of Master Eckhart, Suso, Tauler, St. Catherine of Siena are associated.理论活动的减弱主张苦行和沉思的生活在这里和那里的发展和兴起,尤其是在德国和意大利,一个强烈和旺盛的的神秘主义大师艾克哈特,苏索,陶勒尔,圣凯瑟琳锡耶纳的名称有关联。 This movement was the prelude to the reforms undertaken, at the end of the century, by Raymond of Capua, and continued in the following century.这个运动的承诺,在本世纪末Capua的雷蒙德,改革的序幕,并在下一世纪继续。It assumed remarkable proportions in the congregations of Lombardy and of Holland, and in the reforms of Savonarola at Florence.它假定了显着的比例,在伦巴第大区和荷兰众和在佛罗伦萨的萨沃纳罗拉改革。At the same time the order found itself face to face with the Renaissance.同时为了符合本身面对面与文艺复兴时期。It struggled against pagan tendencies in Humanism, in Italy through Dominici and Savonarola, in Germany through the theologians of Cologne but it also furnished Humanism with such advanced writers as Francis Colonna (Poliphile) and Matthew Brandello.异教倾向斗争中的人文主义,通过Dominici和萨沃纳罗拉在意大利,在德国科隆的神学家,但它也配有先进的作家弗朗西斯科隆纳(Poliphile)和马修Brandello等人文精神。 Its members, in great numbers, took part im the artistic activity of the age, the most prominent being Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolomeo.它的成员,在巨大的数字,IM年龄的艺术活动的一部分,最突出的是Angelico的法兰克福机场和法兰克福机场巴托洛梅奥。

(a) Development and Statistics(一)发展和统计

When St. Dominic, in 1216, asked for the official recognition of his order, the first Preachers numbered only sixteen.当圣星,1216年,正式承认他的命令要求,第一传教士人数只有十六。At the general Chapter of Bologna, 1221, the year of St. Dominic's death, the order already counted some sixty establishments, and was divided into eight provinces: Spain, Provence, France, Lombardy, Rome, Teutonia, England, and Hungary.在博洛尼亚,1221年一年的玫瑰死亡章,订单已算有六间,并划分成八个省份:西班牙,普罗旺斯,法国,伦巴第大区,罗马,Teutonia,英国和匈牙利。 The Chapter of 1228 added four new provinces: the Holy Land, Greece, Poland, and Dacia (Denmark and Scandinavia).1228章增加了4个新的省份:圣地,希腊,波兰和达契亚(丹麦和斯堪的纳维亚)。Sicily was separated from Rome (1294), Aragon from Spain (1301).西西里岛是分离从罗马(1294),阿拉贡,西班牙(1301)。In 1303 Lombardy was divided into Upper and Lower Lombardy; Provence into Toulouse and Provence; Saxony was separated from Teutonia, and Bohemia from Poland, thus forming eighteen provinces. 1303年,伦巴第大区是分为上,下的伦巴第大区,从Teutonia分离到图卢兹和普罗旺斯普罗旺斯;萨克森州是来自波兰的波希米亚,从而形成了十八个省。 The order, which in 1277 counted 404 convents of Brothers, in 1303 numbered nearly 600.秩序,1277算1303年的404修道院的兄弟,有近600名。The development of the order reached its height during the Middle Ages; new houses were established during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but in relatively small numbers As to the number of religious only approximate statements can be given.为了发展达到其高度在中世纪;新房是建立在第十四和第十五世纪,但在相对较小的数字,宗教只是近似报表,可以给予的。 In 1256, according to the concession of suffrages granted by Humbert of Romans to St. Louis, the order numbered about 5000 priests; the clerks and lay brothers could not have been less than 2000. 1256年,根据罗马书亨伯特圣路易斯的顺序编号约5000祭司授予的特许权suffrages;办事员奠定兄弟已经不能低于2000。Thus towards the middle of the thirteenth century it must have had about 7000 members (de Laborde, "Layette du trésor des chartes", Paris 1875, III, 304).据此制定十三世纪中叶,它必须有大约7000名成员(拉沃尔德,“全套服装杜TRESOR DES chartes”,巴黎1875年,三,304)。According to Sebastien de Olmeda, the Preachers, as shown by the census taken under Benedict XII, were close on to 12,000 in 1337.据塞巴斯蒂安 - Olmeda,传教士,根据本笃第十二采取普查显示,在1337至12000接近。 (Fontana, "Monumenta Dominicana", Rome, 1674, pp. 207-8).(丰塔纳,“多米尼加纪念馆”,罗马,1674年,页207-8)。This number was not surpassed at the close of the Middle Ages; the Great Plague of 1348, and the general state of Europe preventing a notable increase, The reform movement begun in 1390 by Raymond of Capua established the principle of a twofold arrangement in the order.在中世纪的结束,这个数字是不超过1348大瘟疫,以及欧洲的一般状态,防止显着增加,改革运动开始于1390 Capua的雷蒙德在为了建立一个双重安排的原则。For a long time it is true, the reformed convents were not separate from their respective provinces; but with the foundation of the congregation of Lombardy, in 1459, a new order of things began.改革修道院很长一段时间,这是事实,不是独立于各自的省份,但与众的伦巴第大区的基础,在1459,一个事物的新秩序的开始。 The congregations were more or less self-governing, and, according as they developed, overlapped several provinces and even several nations.会众或多或少的自治,并根据他们开发,重叠的几个省甚至几个国家。There were established successively the congregations of Portugal (1460), Holland (1464), Aragon, and Spain (1468), St. Mark in Florence (1493), France (1497), the Gallican (1514).有葡萄牙(1460年),荷兰(1464),阿拉贡和西班牙(1468),在佛罗伦萨圣马克(1493),法国(1497),高卢(1514)先后成立的会众。 About the same time some new provinces were also established: Scotland (1481), Ireland (1484), Bétique or Andalusia (1514), Lower Germany (1515).关于同时也建立了一些新的省份:苏格兰(1481),爱尔兰(1484),Bétique或安达卢西亚(1514),德国下(1515)。 (Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Praed.", I, p. 1-15; "Anal. Ord. Praed.", 1893, passim; Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres Généraux", IV, passim). (Quétif埃沙尔,“条例脚本Praed。。”,我,第1-15页;“。肛门条例Praed。”,1893年,各处; Mortier“。组织胺DES Maîtres Généraux”,四,各处)。

(b) Administration(b)行政

The Preachers possessed a number of able administrators among their masters general during the Middle Ages, especially in the thirteenth century.传教士拥有一些能够管理员之间在中世纪的主人一般,尤其是在13世纪。St. Dominic, the creator of the institution (1206-1221), showed a keen intelligence of the needs of the age.圣星,机构(1206年至1221年)的创建者,表现出敏锐的智力年龄的需求。He executed his plans with sureness of insight, firmness of resolution, and tenacity of purpose.他执行他的计划,踏实的洞察力,决议的坚定,坚韧的目的。Jordan of Saxony (1222-1237) sensitive, eloquent, and endowed with rare powers of persuasion, attracted numerous and valuable recruits.约旦萨克森州(1222年至1237年)敏感,雄辩,并拥有罕见的权力说服,吸引了许多宝贵的新兵。 St. Raymond of Penaforte (1238-1240), the greatest canonist of the age, ruled the order only long enough to reorganize its legislation.圣雷蒙德Penaforte(1238年至1240年),年龄最大canonist的,只有足够长的时间来重组其立法裁定的顺序。 John the Teuton (1241-1252), bishop and linguist, who was associated with the greatest personalities of his time pushed the order forward along the line of development outlined by its founder.约翰日耳曼(1241年至1252年),主教和语言学家,谁是他那个时代最伟大的人物推的顺序沿着线的发展概述其创始人。 Humbert of Romans (1254-1263), a genius of the practical sort, a broad-minded and moderate man, raised the order to the height of its glory, and wrote manifold works, setting forth what, in his eyes, the Preachers and Christian society ought to be.洪博达的罗马人(1254年至1263年),一个心胸宽广,温和的人,一个天才的实际排序,提出为了它的荣耀的高度,并写了多方面的工程,规定什么,在他眼里,传教士和基督教社会应该。 John of Vercelli (1264-1283), an energetic and prudent man, during his long government maintained the order in all its vigor.韦尔切利(1264年至1283年),一个充满活力的和谨慎的人,约翰在他漫长的政府保持的顺序,在其所有的活力。The successors of these illustrious masters did their utmost in the discharge of their duty, and in meeting the situations which the state of the Church and of society from the close of the thirteenth century rendered more and more difficult.这些杰出的大师的接班人没有履行其职责,他们尽最大的努力,并在会议的情况下,从十三世纪结束时的状态,教会和社会提供越来越多的困难。 Some of them did no more than hold their high office, while others had not the genius of the masters general of the golden age [Balme-Lelaidier, "Cart. de St. Dominic"; Guiraud, "St. Dominic" (Paris, 1899); Mothon, "Vie du B. Jourdain de Saxe" (Paris, 1885); Reichert, "Des Itinerar des zweiten Dominikaner-generals Jordanis von Sachsen" in "Festschrift des Deutschen Campo Santo in Rom" (Freiburg, 1897) 153; Mothon, "Vita del B. Giovanini da Vecellio" (Vecellio 1903); Mortier, "Histoire des Maîtres Généraux", IV].其中有些人不超过持有其高的办公室,而其他人不是天才大师一般的黄金时代[Balme Lelaidier,“车德圣道。”; Guiraud,“圣道”(巴黎, 1899年); Mothon,“VIE杜B.茹尔丹的萨克斯”(巴黎,1885年);赖克特,“德Itinerar DES zweiten Dominikaner将军Jordanis冯萨克森”中的“纪念论文集DES Deutschen坎普圣多明各在ROM”(弗赖堡,1897年)153 Mothon,“维塔DEL B. Giovanini DA Vecellio”(Vecellio 1903年); Mortier,“Histoire DES Maîtres Généraux”,四]。The general chapters which wielded supreme power were the great regulators of the Dominican life during the Middle Ages.执掌最高权力的一般章节伟大的监管多米尼加生活在中世纪。They are usually remarkable for their spirit of decision, and the firmness with which they ruled.它们通常是为他们的决定精神,并排除与他们的坚定性显着。They appeared even imbued with a severe character which, taking no account of persons, bore witness to the importance they attached to the maintenance of discipline.他们甚至出现严重的,没有考虑到的人的性格充满的见证,他们很重视维护纪律的重要性。(See the Acta Cap. Gen. already referred to.)(见文献第将军已经提到。)

(c) Modification of the Statute(三)修改“规约”

We have already spoken of the chief exception to be taken to the Constitution of the order, the difficulty of maintaining an even balance between the monastic and canonical observances and the clerical and apostolical life.我们已经谈过的行政异常,将要采取的宪法秩序,难以维持之间的寺院和规范的纪念活动和文书及使徒生活甚至平衡。The primitive régime of poverty, which left the convents without an assured income, created also a permanent difficulty.贫困的原始制度,没有保证收入离开修道院,创建一个永久的困难。Time and the modifications of the state of Christian society exposed these weak points.基督教社会状态的时间和修改暴露了这些薄弱点。Already the General Chapters of 1240-1242 forbade the changing of the general statutes of the order, a measure which would indicate at least a hidden tendency towards modification (Acta, I, p. 14-20). 1240至42年的一般章节已经禁止一般法规的秩序,这一措施至少将表明对修改(文献,我,第14-20页)隐藏倾向的变化。Some change seems to have been contemplated also by the Holy See when Alexander IV, 4 February, 1255, ordered the Dominican cardinal, Hugh of Saint Cher, to recast the entire legislation of the Preachers into a rule which should be called the Rule of St. Dominic (Potthast, 156-69).一些变化似乎已经拟由罗马教廷也看到,当亚历山大四,2月4日,1255,下令多米尼加枢机,圣雪儿休,改写成它应该被称为圣规则的规则的整个立法的传教士多米尼克(波特哈斯特,156-69)。 Nothing came of the project, and the question was broached again about 1270 (Humbert de Romanis, "Opera", I, p. 43).无疾而终项目,并再次触及约1270(DE Romanis亨伯特,“歌剧”,我,第43页)的问题。It was during the pontificate of Benedict XII, (1334-1342), who undertook a general reform of the religious orders, that the Preachers were on the point of undergoing serious modifications in the secondary elements of their primitive statute.这是在教宗的本笃十二,(1334年至1342年),进行了全面改革的宗教命令,传教士发生严重的次要元素在其原始章程修改。 Benedict, desiring to give the order greater efficiency, sought to impose a régime of property-holding as necessary to its security and to reduce the number of its members (12,000) by eliminating the unfit etc.; in a word, to lead the order back to its primitive concept of a select apostolic and teaching body.本笃十六世,希望给予更高的效率,寻求对持物业的制度,必要时其安全性,并消除不适宜等,以减少其成员数目(12000);一个字,导致订单回的一个选择的使徒和教学机构的原始概念。 The order, ruled at that time by Hugh de Vansseman (1333-41), resisted with all its strength (1337-40).休De Vansseman(1333年至1341年),当时的统治秩序,抵制其所有的实力(1337至1340年)。This was a mistake (Mortier, op. cit., III, 115).这是一个错误“(Mortier,同上,第三,115)。As the situation grew worse, the order was obliged to petition Sixtus IV for the right to hold property, and this was granted 1 June, 1475.随着形势的恶化了,订单被迫上访持有财产的权利Sixtus IV,被授予6月1日,1475。 Thence forward the convents could acquire property, and perpetual rentals (Mortier, IV, p. 495).那里的修道院可能获得的财产,和永久的租金(Mortier,第四,第495页)。This was one of the causes which quickened the vitality of the order in the sixteenth century.这是加快在16世纪的秩序的生命力的原因之一。

The reform projects of Benedict XII having failed, the master general, Raymond of Capua (1390) sought to restore the monastic observances which had fallen into decline.本笃第十二改革项目失败了,掌握一般,卡普阿雷蒙德(1390)试图恢复已下降到下降的寺院纪念活动。He ordered the establishment in each province of a convent of strict observance, hoping that as such houses became more numerous, the reform would eventually permeate the entire province.他下令建立在每个省的一个修道院的严格遵守,希望这样的房子变得越来越多,改革将最终渗透到全省。This was not usually the case.这不是通常的情况下。These houses of the observance formed a confederation among themselves under the jurisdiction of a special vicar.遵守这些房子形成一个特殊的副主教管辖下彼此之间的邦联。However, they did not cease to belong to their original province in certain respects, and this, naturally gave rise to numerous conflicts of government.然而,他们没有不再属于自己在某些方面的原省,这一点,自然引起了政府的许多冲突。During the fifteenth century, several groups made up congregations, more or less autonomous; these we have named above in giving the statistics of the order.在15世纪,几个团体组成的毕业典礼,更多或更少的自治;这些问题,我们有一个名为给予的秩序统计以上。The scheme of reform proposed by Raymond and adopted by nearly all who subsequently took up with his ideas, insisted on the observance of the Constitutions ad unguem, as Raymond, without further explanation, expressed it.改革计划提出的雷蒙德和几​​乎所有后来与他的想法,通过坚持在遵守宪法广告unguem,作为雷蒙德,没有进一步的解释,表示它。 By this, his followers, and, perhaps Raymond himself, understood the suppression of the rule of dispensation which governed the entire Dominican legislation.受此影响,他的追随者,也许雷蒙德自己,了解管整个多米尼加立法的豁免规则的抑制。"In suppressing the power to grant and the right to accept dispensation, the reformers inverted the economy of the order, setting the part above the whole, and the means above the end" (Lacordaire, "Mémoire pour la restauration des Frères L Prêcheurs dans la chrétienité", new ed., Dijon, 1852, p. 18). “在镇压的权力授予和有权接受配药,改革者倒置的经济顺序,结束以上设置上述整体的一部分,其手段”(拉科代尔,“备忘录POUR LA恢复DES Frères的大号Prêcheurs DANS LA chrétienité“,新,第戎,1852年,第18页)。The different reforms which originated within the order up to the nineteenth century, began usually with principles of asceticism, which exceeded the letter and the spirit of the original constitutions.内以十九世纪起源,不同的改革开始,通常与禁欲主义的原则,超出了原宪法的文字和精神。This initial exaggeration was, under pressure of circumstances, toned down, and the reforms which endured, like that of the congregation of Lombardy, turned out to be the most effectual.这最初的夸张,在压力的情况下,淡化下,改革忍受像伦巴第大区的众,竟然是最行之有效的。Generally speaking, the reformed communities slackened the intense devotion to study prescribed by the Constitutions; they did not produce the great doctors of the order, and their literary activity was directed preferably to moral theology, history, subjects of piety, and asceticism.一般来说,改革社区放缓,强烈的奉献精神,以学习“宪法”所订明的,他们没有生产订单的伟大的医生,以及他们的文学活动是最好的道德神学,历史,虔诚的科目,和禁欲主义。 They gave to the fifteenth century many holy men (Thomae Antonii Senesis, "Historia disciplinæ regularis instaurata in Cnobiis Venetis Ord. Præd." in Fl. Cornelius, "Ecclesiæ Venetæ", VII, 1749, p. 167; Bl. Raymond of Capua, "Opuscula et Litterae", Rome, 1899; Meyer, "Buch der Reformacio Predigerordens" in "Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte des Dominikanerordens in Deutschland", II, III, Leipzig 1908-9; Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres Généraux", III, IV).他们给了第十五个世纪许多(Thomae Antonii Senesis“Historia disciplinæ Cnobiis Venetis条例Præd。regularis instaurata。”在佛罗里达州科尼利厄斯,“,该书Venetæ”,第七章,1749,第167页圣人;。“基本法”雷蒙德的卡普阿“Opuscula等Litterae”,罗马,1899年,迈尔,“布赫DER Reformacio Predigerordens”在“Quellen和Forschungen楚历史DES在德国Dominikanerordens”,二,三,莱比锡1908-9; Mortier,“组织胺DES Maîtres Généraux” ,三,四)。

(d) Preaching and Teaching(四)讲道和教导

Independently of their official title of Order of Preachers, the Roman Church especially delegated the Preachers to the office of preaching.独立于他们的传教士的官方订购冠军,罗马教会,尤其是委派传教士的说教办公室。It is in fact the only order of the Middle Ages which the popes declared to be specially charged with this office (Bull. Ord. Præd., VIII, p. 768).其实,这是唯一的中世纪教皇宣布将专门办公室(Bull.条例。Præd,第八条,第768)收取秩序。Conformably to its mission, the order displayed an enormous activity.整合到自己的使命,为了显示一个巨大的活动。The "Vitæ Fratrum" (1260) (Lives of the Brothers) informs us that many of the brothers refused food until they had first announced the Word of God (op. cit., p. 150). “简历Fratrum”(1260)(兄弟的生命)告诉我们,许多兄弟拒绝进食,直到他们首先宣布神(同上,第150页)的话。In his circular letter (1260), the Master General Humbert of Romans, in view of what had been accomplished by his religious, could well make the statement: "We teach the people, we teach the prelates, we teach the wise and the unwise, religious and seculars, clerics and laymen, nobles and peasants, lowly and great."在他的通函(1260),掌握一般洪博达的罗马人,​​已完成他的宗教,可能作出的声明说:“我们教的人,我们教的主教,我们教明智的不明智,宗教和seculars,神职人员和外行,贵族和农民,卑微和伟大。“ (Monum. Ord. Præd. Historia, V, p. 53).(Monum.条例。Præd。Historia,第五,第53页)。Rightly, too, it has been said: "Science on one hand, numbers on the other, placed them [the Preachers] ahead of their competitors in the thirteenth century" (Lecoy de la Marche, "La chaire française au Moyen Age", Paris, 1886, p. 31). ,正确地说:“科学,一方面,对其他的数字,放在他们的传教士]领先其竞争对手在十三世纪”(Lecoy DE LA马尔凯,“chaire法语坳中沙时代”,巴黎,1886年,第31页)。The order maintained this supremacy during the entire Middle Ages (L. Pfleger, "Zur Geschichte des Predigtwesens in Strasburg", Strasburg, 1907, p. 26; F. Jostes, "Zur Geschichte der Mittelalterlichen Predigt in Westfalen", Münster, 1885, p. 10).为了保持这一霸主地位,在整个中世纪(L. Pfleger,“楚历史DES Predigtwesens在斯特拉斯堡,斯特拉斯堡,1907年,第26页; F. Jostes,”楚历史DER Mittelalterlichen Predigt在威斯特法伦“,明斯特,1885年,第10页)。During the thirteenth century, the Preachers in addition to their regular apostolate, worked especially to lead back to the Church heretics and renegade Catholics.在13世纪,传教士,除了自己定期使徒的工作,特别是领导教会异教徒和叛徒天主教徒。An eyewitness of their labours (1233) reckons the number of their converts in Lombardy at more than 100,000 ("Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, col. 128).目击者,他们的劳动(1233)在伦巴第大区的转换数量估计超过10万(“纪事条例。Præd”,罗马,1756年,128栏)。 This movement grew rapidly, and the witnesses could scarcely believe their eyes, as Humbert of Romans (1255) informs us (Opera, II, p. 493).这一运动迅速发展,证人几乎无法相信自己的眼睛,洪博达的罗马人(1255)告诉我们(歌剧院,第二,第493页)。At the beginning of the fourteenth century, a celebrated pulpit orator, Giordano da Rivalto, declared that, owing to the activity of the order, heresy had almost entirely disappeared from the Church ("Prediche del Beato Fra Giordano da Rivalto", Florence, 1831, I, p. 239).在十四世纪初,一个著名的讲坛演说家,DA Rivalto,佐丹奴宣布,由于秩序的活动,异端已几乎完全消失,从教会(“Prediche DEL Beato FRA佐丹奴DA Rivalto”,佛罗伦萨,1831 ,我,第239页)。

The Friars Preachers were especially authorized by the Roman Church to preach crusades, against the Saracens in favour of the Holy Land, against Livonia and Prussia, and against Frederick II, and his successors (Bull. OP, XIII, p. 637).天主教方济会传教士,尤其是授权由罗马教会鼓吹十字军东征,对撒拉逊人赞成的圣地,对利沃尼亚和普鲁士,和对腓特烈二世和他的继任者(Bull. OP,十三,第637页)。This preaching assumed such importance that Humbert of Romans composed for the purpose a treatise entitled, "Tractatus de prædicatione contra Saracenos infideles et paganos" (Tract on the preaching of the Cross against the Saracens, infidels and pagans).这说教承担如此重要的一篇论文题为“为目的组成的罗马人亨伯特,”逻辑哲学论prædicatione禁忌Saracenos infideles等paganos“(对撒拉逊人,异教徒和异教徒的十字架的说教道)。This still exists in its first edition in the Paris Bibliothèque Mazarine, incunabula no.这仍然存在,在其第一版在巴黎国家图书馆的深蓝色,incunabula没有。259; Lecoy de la Marche, "La prédication de la Croisade au XIIIe siècle" in "Rev. des questions historiques", 1890, p.259; Lecoy DE LA马尔凯,“香格里拉预测DE LA Croisade坳XIIIe SIECLE”“牧师问题historiques”,1890年,第5).5)。In certain provinces, particularly in Germany and Italy, the Dominican preaching took on a peculiar quality, due to the influence of the spiritual direction which the religious of these provinces gave to the numerous convents of women confided to their care.在某些省份,尤其是在德国和意大利,多米尼加说教了一个奇特的质量,由于这些省份的宗教了众多的修道院妇女的倾诉给他们照顾的精神方向的影响。 It was a mystical preaching; the specimens which have survived are in the vernacular, and are marked by simplicity and strength (Denifle, "Uber die Anfänge der Predigtweise der deutschen Mystiker" in "Archiv. f. Litt. u. Kirchengesch", II, p. 641; Pfeiffer, "Deutsche Mystiker des vierzehnten Jahrhundert", Leipzig, 1845; Wackernagel, "Altdeutsche Predigten und Gebete aus Handschriften", Basle, 1876).这是一个神秘的说教;生存的标本是在白话,简单性和强度(德尼夫勒,“尤伯杯死Anfänge DER Predigtweise德国Mystiker”在“论坛存档F.利特U. Kirchengesch。”第二标记第641;菲佛,“德意志Mystiker DES vierzehnten Jahrhundert”,莱比锡,1845年;瓦克纳格尔,“Altdeutsche Predigten和Gebete澳Handschriften”,巴塞尔,1876年)。Among these preachers may be mentioned: St. Dominic, the founder and model of preachers (d. 1221); Jordan of Saxony (d. 1237) (Lives of the Brothers, pts. II, III); Giovanni di Vincenza, whose popular eloquence stirred Northern Italy during the year 1233 -- called the Age of the Alleluia (Sitter, "Johann von Vincenza und die Italiensche Friedensbewegung", Freiburg, 1891); Giordano da Rivalto, the foremost pulpit orator in Tuscany at the beginning of the fourteenth century [d.在这些传教士中,可能会提到:玫瑰,传道(卒于1221)的创始人和模型;约旦萨克森(卒于1237)(兄弟的生命,分二,三。);乔瓦尼迪Vincenza,其流行口才激起的1233年在意大利北部的 - 所谓的哈里路亚时代(保姆,“约翰冯Vincenza与Italiensche Friedensbewegung”,弗赖堡,1891年);佐丹奴DA Rivalto,第十四开始在托斯卡纳最重要的讲坛演说者世纪[D。1311 (Galletti, "Fra Giordano da Pisa", Turin, 1899)]; Johann Eckhart of Hochheim (d. 1327), the celebrated theorist of the mystical life (Pfeiffer, "Deutsche Mystiker", II, 1857; Buttner, "Meister Eckharts Schriften und Predigten", Leipzig, 1903); Henri Suso (d. 1366), the poetical lover of Divine wisdom (Bihlmeyer, "Heinrich Seuse Deutsche Schriften", Stuttgart, 1907); Johann Tauler (d. 1361), the eloquent moralist ("Johanns Taulers Predigten" ed. T. Harnberger, Frankfort, 1864); Venturino la Bergamo (d. 1345), the fiery popular agitator (Clementi, "Un Santo Patriota, Il B. Venturino da Bergamo", Rome, 1909); Jacopo Passavanti (d. 1357), the noted author of the "Mirror of Penitence" (Carmini di Pierro, "Contributo alla Biografia di Fra Jacopo Passavanti" in "Giornale storico della letteratura italiana", XLVII, 1906 p. 1); Giovanni Dominici (d. 1419), the beloved orator of the Florentines (Gallette, "Una Raccolta di Prediche volgari del Cardinale Giovanni Dominici" in "Miscellanea di studi critici publicati in onore di G. Mazzoni", Florence, 1907, I); Alain de la Rochei (d. 1475), the Apostle of the Rosary (Script. Ord. Præd., I, p. 849); Savonarola (d. 1498), one of the most powerful orators of all times (Luotto, "II vero Savonarola", Florence, p. 68). 1311(Galletti,“DA比萨FRA佐丹奴”,都灵,1899年)];约翰Hochheim艾克哈特(卒于1327年),著名理论家的神秘生活(菲佛,“Mystiker德意志”,二,1857年; Buttner,“梅斯特Eckharts Schriften和Predigten“,莱比锡,1903年);亨利苏索(卒于1366),神圣智慧(Bihlmeyer,诗意的情人”海因里希Seuse德意志Schriften“,斯图加特,1907年);约翰陶勒尔(卒于1361),雄辩卫道士(“”约翰斯Taulers Predigten版T. Harnberger,法兰克福,1864年。);,火热流行搅拌器(金文泰,“元城主帕特里奥塔,金正日B.里诺DA贝加莫”,罗马,1909年里诺LA贝加莫(卒于1345) );雅格布Passavanti(卒于1357)指出,“忏悔的镜报”(Carmini DI Pierro,“Contributo ALLA Biografia DI FRA雅格布Passavanti”中的“Giornale storico德拉letteratura意大利”,四十七,1906年第1作者)乔瓦尼Dominici(卒于1419年),佛罗伦萨敬爱的演说家(Gallette,“UNA Raccolta DI Prediche volgari DEL汀娜乔瓦尼Dominici”“杂记DI studi critici publicati onore DI G.崇义”,佛罗伦萨,1907年,我)阿兰DE LA Rochei,使徒的玫瑰(条例Præd Script.,我,第849。)(卒于1475);萨沃纳罗拉(卒于1498),所有时代的最有力的演说家之一(Luotto “第二VERO萨沃纳罗拉”,佛罗伦萨,第68页)。

(e) Academic Organization(五)学术组织

The first order instituted by the Church with an academic mission was the Preachers.由教会与学术使命提起的第一顺序是传教士。The decree of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) requiring the appointment of a master of theology for each cathedral school had not been effectual.第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)的法令,要求每个大教堂学校的神学大师的任命并未有效的。The Roman Church and St. Dominic met the needs of the situation by creating a religious order vowed to the teaching of the sacred sciences.罗马教会和圣星会见了形势的需要,通过创建一个宗教秩序发誓神圣的科学的教学。To attain their purpose, the Preachers from 1220 laid down as a fundamental principle, that no convent of their order could be founded without a doctor (Const., Dist. II, cog. I).为了达到他们的目的,从1220传教士奠定了作为一项基本原则,没有医生,没有他们的订单修道院可以成立(“组织法”,区,COG,我)。 From their first foundation, the bishops, likewise, welcomed them with expressions like those of the Bishop of Metz (22 April, 1221): "Cohabitatio ipsorum non tantum laicis in praedicationibus, sed et clericis in sacris lectionibus esset plurimum profutura, exemplo Domini Papæ, qui eis Romæ domum contulit, et multorum archiepiscoporum ac episcoporum" etc. (Annales Ord. Præd. I, append., col. 71).从他们第一次的基础上,主教们,也同样欢迎他们与梅斯(1221)4月22日,主教的表达式:“Cohabitatio ipsorum非tantum laicis在praedicationibus,SED等clericis在sacris lectionibus esset plurimum profutura,示例多米尼Papæ归仁EIS Romæ domum contulit,等multorum archiepiscoporum AC episcoporum“等(年鉴条例Præd我,追加,山口71)。(Association with them would be of great value not only to laymen by their preaching, but also to the clergy by their lectures on sacred science, as it was to the Lord Pope who gave them their house at Rome, and to many archbishops and bishops.) This is the reason why the second master general, Jordan of Saxony, defined the vocation of the order: "honeste vivere, discere et docere", ie upright living, learning and teaching (Vitæ Fratrum, p. 138); and one of his successors, John the Teuton, declared that he was "ex ordine Praedicatorum, quorum proprium esset docendi munus" (Annales, p. 644). (协会与他们有很大的价值不仅外行他们的说教,但也给他们神圣的科学讲座的神职人员,因为它是主教皇在罗马谁给了他们自己的房子,和许多大主教和主教。)这是一个原因为什么第二个掌握一般,约旦萨克森州,定义的顺序职业:“honeste vivere,discere等docere”,即正直的生活,学习和教学(简历Fratrum,第138页);约翰日耳曼,宣布他的继任者,他是“前ordine Praedicatorum法定人数proprium esset docendi munus”(年鉴,第644页)。(Of the Order of Preachers whose proper function was to teach.) In pursuit of this aim the Preachers established a very complete and thoroughly organized scholastic system, which has caused a writer of our own times to say that "Dominic was the first minister of public instruction in modern Europe" (Larousse, "Grand Dictionnaire; Universel du XIXe Siècle", sv Dominic). (传教士其应有的功能是教订购。)在追求这个目标的传教士建立一个非常完整和周密组织的学术体系,这已经引起了我们自己的时代的作家说:“玫瑰是第一部长公众在现代欧洲“(拉鲁斯,”大辞典; Universel杜XIXe SIECLE“,SV多米尼克)的指令。

The general basis of teaching was the conventual school.一般的教学基础conventual学校。It was attended by the religious of the convent, and by clerics from the outside; the teaching was public.修道院的宗教,并从外面的神职人员出席了会议;教学是公开的。The school was directed by a doctor, called later, though not in all cases, rector.这所学校是由医生的指示,叫后,虽然不是在所有情况下,校长。His principal subject was the text of Holy Scripture, which he interpreted, and in connection with which he treated theological questions.他的主要议题是,他解释圣经的文本,并在连接与他对待神学问题。The "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, the "History" of Peter Comestor, the "Sum" of cases of conscience, were also, but secondarily, used as texts.伦巴底彼得,彼得Comestor,“萨姆”良心案件,“历史记录”的“句子”也,但其次,作为文本使用。In the large convents, which were not called studia generalia, but were in the language of the times studia solemnia, the teaching staff was more complete.在大修道院,不叫studia generalia,但在时代studia solemnia的语言,教学人员更完整。There was a second master or sub-rector, or a bachelor, whose duty it was to lecture on the Bible and the "Sentences".是第二个主,分校长,或学士学位,其职责是讲授“圣经”和“刑罚”。This organization somewhat resembled that of the studia generalia.这个组织有点类似studia generalia。The head master held public disputations every fortnight.头主每两周举行公众disputations。Each convent possessed a magister studentium, charged with the superintendence of the students, and usually an assistant teacher.每个修道院拥有一个魔导师studentium,与学生监管局的收费,通常是助理教师。These masters were appointed by the provincial chapters, and the visitors were obliged to report each year to the chapter on the condition of academic work.这些大师被任命的省分会,和游客有义务报告每年一章对学术工作的条件。Above the conventual schools were the studia generalia.以上conventual学校studia generalia。The first studium generale which the order possessed was that of the Convent of St. Jacques at Paris.为了拥有的第一studium兴业圣雅克在巴黎的修道院。In 1229 they obtained a chair incorporated with the university and another in 1231. 1229,他们获得了与大学和另一个在1231年成立的椅子。Thus the Preachers were the first religious order that took part in teaching at the University of Paris, and the only one possessing two schools.因此,传教士的宗教秩序,参加了在巴黎大学在教学中的一部分,只有一个拥有两所学校。In the thirteenth century the order did not recognize any mastership of theology other than that received at Paris.在13世纪的顺序不承认任何其他神学比在巴黎收到的主控权。Usually the masters did not teach for any length of time.通常的主人没有教任何时间的长短。After receiving their degrees, they were assigned to different schools of the order throughout the world.获得学位后,他们被分配到不同学校的整个世界秩序。The schools of St. Jacques at Paris were the principal scholastic centres of the Preachers during the Middle Ages.圣雅克在巴黎的学校,在中世纪的传教士的主要学术中心。

In 1248 the development of the order led to the erection of four new studia generalia -- at Oxford, Cologne, Montpellier, and Bologna.在1248年,为了发展竖立四个新studia generalia - 在牛津大学,科隆,蒙彼利埃和博洛尼亚。When at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century several provinces of the order were divided, other studia were established at Naples, Florence, Genoa, Toulouse, Barcelona, and Salamanca.当结束的13世纪14几个省的顺序开始出现了分化,其他studia建立在那不勒斯,佛罗伦萨,热那亚,图卢兹,巴塞罗那,萨拉曼卡。 The studium generale was conducted by a master or regent, and two bachelors who taught under his direction. studium兴业是由船长或摄政王,和两个单身汉,在他的领导下,教进行。The master taught the text of the Holy Scripture with commentaries.主教导圣经与评论的文字。The works of Albert the Great and St. Thomas Aquinas show us the nature of these lessons.伟业大和圣托马斯阿奎那的作品向我们展示了这些经验教训的性质。Every fifteen days the master held a debate upon a theme chosen by himself.主每十五天举行辩论后,由他自己选择了一个主题。 To this class of exercises belong the "Quæstiones Disputatæ" of St. Thomas, while his "Quaestiones Quodlibeticae" represent extraordinary disputations which took place twice a year during Advent and Lent and whose subject was proposed by the auditors.要属于这一类的练习“Quæstiones Disputatæ”圣托马斯,而他的“Quaestiones Quodlibeticae”代表了每年两次的来临和四旬期期间,其主体是由核数师提出的非凡disputations的。One of the bachelors read and commentated the Book of Sentences.单身汉之一读取和commentated句子的书。The commentaries of Albert and Thomas Aquinas on the Lombard are the fruit of their two-year baccalaureate course as sententiarii.伦巴第阿尔伯特和托马斯阿奎那的评论是他们为期两年的学士学位课程作为sententiarii的水果。 The biblicus lectured on the Scriptures for one year before becoming a sententiarius.圣经一年之前成为一个sententiarius biblicus演讲。He did not commentate, but read and interpreted the glosses which preceding ages had added to the Scriptures for better understanding of the text.他不释,但阅读和解释前面的年龄增加了更好地理解文本的“圣经”敷衍了事。The professors of the studia generalia were appointed by the general chapters, or by the master general, delegated for the purpose.一般章节studia generalia教授被任命,或由主一般,委派的目的。Those who were to teach at Paris were taken indiscriminately from the different provinces of the order.任教于巴黎的那些随意从不同省份的秩序。

The conventual schools taught only the sacred sciences, ie Holy Scripture and theology. conventual学校教导只有神圣的科学,即圣经和神学。At the beginning of the thirteenth century neither priest nor religious studied or taught the profane sciences As it could not set itself against this general status the order provided in its constitutions, that the master general, or the general chapter, might allow certain religious to take up the study of the liberal arts Thus, at first, the study of the arts, ie of philosophy was entirely individual.在十三世纪初,既不是牧师,也不是宗教研究或教亵渎科学,因为它不能设置本身对这个一般状态,在其宪法秩序,掌握一般,或一般的篇章,可能会允许某些宗教采取了文科,因此在第一,研究,艺术的研究,即哲学是完全个人的。 As numerous masters of arts entered the order during the early years, especially at Paris and Bologna, it was easy to make a stand against this private teaching.由于众多的艺术大师在早年进入的顺序,尤其是在巴黎和博洛尼亚,很容易对这种私人教学的立场。However, the development of the order and the rapid intellectual progress of the thirteenth century soon caused the organization -- for the use of religious only -- of regular schools for the study of the liberal arts.然而,发展的秩序和十三世纪的知识产权进展迅速,很快引起的组织 - 学习文科的正规学校 - 宗教只使用。Towards the middle of the century the provinces established in one or more of their convents the study of logic; and about 1260 the studia naturalium, ie courses in natural science.迈向本世纪中叶,在一个或多个他们的修道院学习逻辑成立的省份;约1260 studia naturalium,即在自然科学课程。The General Chapter of 1315 commended the masters of the students to lecture on the moral sciences to all the religious of their convents; ie on the ethics, politics, and economics of Aristotle.1315赞扬了学生的主人,其修道院的宗教道德的科学讲座的第一章,即亚里士多德的道德,政治和经济上的。 From the beginning of the fourteenth century we find also some religious who gave special courses in philosophy to secular students.从十四世纪初,我们还发现了一些宗教人士了哲学的特殊课程,以世俗的学生。In the fifteenth century the Preachers occupied in several universities chairs of philosophy, especially of metaphysics.在15世纪的传教士在几所大学的椅子,尤其是形而上学的哲学,占领。Coming in contact as it did with barbaric peoples -- principally with the Greeks and Arabs -- the order was compelled from the outset to take up the study of foreign languages.在接触,因为它没有与野蛮的人民 - 主要是与希腊人和阿拉伯人 - 为了从一开始就被迫采取了外语的学习。 The Chapter Generalissimo of 1236 ordered that in all convents and in all the provinces the religious should learn the languages of the neighbouring countries. 1236章总司令下令,在所有在所有省份的修道院和宗教应借鉴周边国家的语言。The following year Brother Phillippe, Provincial of the Holy Land, wrote to Gregory IX that his religious had preached to the people in the different languages of the Orient, especially in Arabic, the most popular tongue, and that the study of languages had been added to their conventual course.次年兄弟菲利普,省的圣地,写信给格雷戈里九,在东方的不同语言的人宣扬他的宗教,尤其是在阿拉伯语中,最流行的舌头,和语言的研究已加入他们conventual课程。 The province of Greece furnished several Hellenists whose works we shall mention later.全省希腊提供的工程,我们将在稍后提到的几个Hellenists。The province of Spain, whose population was a mixture of Jews and Arabs, opened special schools for the study of languages.西班牙,其人口是犹太人和阿拉伯人的混合物,省开辟特殊学校学习语言。About the middle of the thirteenth century it also established a studium arabicum at Tunis; in 1259 one at Barcelona; between 1265 and 1270 one at Murcia; in 1281 one at Valencia.关于十三世纪中叶,它也建立在突尼斯一个studium arabicum; 1259在巴塞罗那之一,1265和1270之间在穆尔西亚;在1281在瓦伦西亚之一。The same province also established some schools for the study of Hebrew at Barcelona in 1281, and at Jativa in 1291.希伯来文在巴塞罗那的研究在1281同一省还建立了一些学校,并在Jativa 1291。Finally, the General Chapters of 1310 commanded the master general to establish, in several provinces, schools for the study of Hebrew, Greek, and Arabic, to which each province of the order should send at least one student.最后,一​​般章节1310指挥大师一般,在几个省,建立学校,学习希伯来语,希腊语和阿拉伯语,每个省的顺序应派至少一名学生。 In view of this fact a Protestant historian, Molmier, in writing of the Friars Preachers, remarks: "They were not content with professing in their convents all the divisions of science, as it was then understood; they added an entire order of studies which no other Christian schools of the time seem to have taught, and in which they had no other rivals than the rabbis of Languedoc and Spain" ("Guillem Bernard de Gaillac et l'enseignement chez les Dominicains", Paris, 1884, p. 30).鉴于这一事实的一个新教史学家,Molmier,天主教方济会传教士,备注中写道:“他们不是与自称在他们的修道院所有部门的科学,因为它是那么理解的内容;他们增加了一个研究的整个订单没有其他基督教学校的时间似乎都教,和他们有没有其他竞争对手比朗格多克和西班牙的拉比“(”纪莲伯纳德Gaillac等L' ENSEIGNEMENT桑切斯LES Dominicains“,巴黎,1884年,第30页)。

This scholastic activity extended to other fields, particularly to the universities which were established throughout Europe from the beginning of the thirteenth century; the Preachers took a prominent part in university life.这在学术上的活动扩展到其他领域,特别是从十三世纪初,在整个欧洲建立的大学,传教士在大学生活中的一个突出的部分。Those universities, like Paris, Toulouse etc., which from the beginning had chairs of theology, incorporated the Dominican conventual school which was patterned on the schools of the studia generalia.像巴黎,图卢兹等高校,从一开始的神学椅子,成立多米尼加conventual学校studia generalia学校图案。When a university was established as in a city -- as was usually the case -- after the foundation of a Dominican convent which always possessed a chair of theology, the pontifical letters granting the establishment of the university made no mention whatever of a faculty of theology.当一所大学被确定为是通常情况下在一个城市 - - 一个多米尼加修道院总是拥有椅子的神学的基础后,给予宗座大学成立字母没有提到任何一个教师神学。The latter was considered as already existing by reason of the Dominican school and others of the mendicant orders, who followed the example of the Preachers.后者被认为是已经存在的,乞讨的订单,其次传教士例如多米尼加学校和其他的原因。For a time in the Dominican theological schools were simply in juxtaposition to the universities, which had no faculty of theology.对于在多米尼加神学学校时简单地并列的大学,没有神学系。When these universities petitioned the Holy See for a faculty of theology, and their petition was granted, they usually incorporated the Dominican school, which thus became a part of the theological faculty.当这些大学请愿教廷的神学系,并授予他们的请愿书,他们通常会纳入多米尼加学校,从而成为一个神学系的一部分。This transformation began towards the close of the fourteenth and lasted until the first years of the sixteenth century.这种转变开始对第十四密切和持续,直到十六世纪的最初几年。Once established, this state of things lasted until the Reformation in the countries which became Protestant, and until the French Revolution and its spread in the Latin countries.一旦建立,这个国家的事情成为新教在国家的持续,直到宗教改革,直到法国大革命和拉美国家在其传播。

The archbishops, who according to the decree of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) were to establish each metropolitan church a master of theology, considered themselves dispensed from this obligation by reason of the creation of Dominican schools open to the secular clergy.大主教,根据第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)的法令,建立各大都市教会的神学大师,认为自己从这一义务免除由多米尼加共和国的学校开放给世俗的神职人员创造的原因。 However, when they thought it their duty to apply the decree of the council, or when later they were obliged by the Roman Church to do so, they frequently called in a Dominican master to fill the chair of their metropolitan school.然而,当他们认为他们有责任申请理事会的法令,或后来他们被罗马教会有义务这样做时,他们通常被称为在多米尼加主站,以填补其大都市的学校的椅子。 Thus the metropolitan school of Lyons was entrusted to the Preachers, from their establishment in that city until the beginning of the sixteenth century (Forest, "L'école cathédrale de Lyon", Paris-Lyons, 1885, pp. 238, 368; Beyssac, "Les Prieurs de Notre Dame de Confort", Lyons, 1909; "Chart. Univer. Paris", III, p. 28).因此,里昂大都市学校委托的传教士,他们建立在这个城市,直到十六世纪初(森林,“L' ECOLE大教堂的里昂”,巴黎,里昂,1885年,第238,368; Beyssac “Prieurs DE巴黎圣母院CONFORT”,里昂,1909年,“图Univer巴黎。”第三,第28页)。The same arrangement, though not so permanent, was made at Toulouse, Bordeaux, Tortosa, Valencia, Urgel, Milan etc. The popes, who believed themselves morally obligated to set an example regarding the execution of the scholastic decree of the Lateran Council, usually contented themselves during the thirteenth century with the establishment of schools at Rome by the Dominicans and other religious orders.同样的安排,虽然不是永久性的,是在图卢兹,波尔多,托尔托萨,瓦伦西亚,Urgel,米兰等教皇,他认为自己在道义上有义务以身作则拉特兰会议学术法令的执行,通常在13世纪与学校建立在罗马由多米尼加共和国和其他宗教的订单自得。 The Dominican masters who taught at Rome or in other cities where the sovereign pontiffs took up their residence, were known as lectores curiae.多米尼加的主人,谁教在罗马或在其他城市的主权教宗了他们的住处,被称为lectores友。However, when the popes, once settled at Avignon, began to require from the archbishops the execution of the decree of Lateran, they instituted a theological school in their own papal palace; the initiative was taken by Clement V (1305-1314).然而,当教皇在阿维尼翁,一旦定居,开始要求从大主教的拉特兰法令的执行,他们建立了自己的教皇宫殿的神学院;克莱门特五(一三零五年至1314年)所采取的主动。 At the request of the Dominican, Cardinal Nicolas Alberti de Prato (d. 1321), this work was permanently entrusted to a Preacher, bearing the name of Magister Sacri Palatii.在多米尼加,枢机主教尼古拉阿尔贝蒂普拉托(卒于1321)的要求,这项工作是长期托付给一个牧师,轴承魔导师牺牲Palatii的名称。 The first to hold the position was Pierre Godin, who later became cardinal (1312).皮埃尔戈丁,后来成为枢机主教(1312)首次召开的位置。The office of Master of the Sacred Palace, whose functions were successively increased, remains to the present day the special privilege of the Order of Preachers (Catalani, "De Magistro Sacri Palatii Apostolici", Rome, p. 175).神圣的宫殿,其功能相继增加,硕士办公室至今仍然传教士订购(卡塔拉尼,“德Magistro牺牲Palatii Apostolici”,罗马,第175页)的特权。

Finally, when towards the middle of the thirteenth century the old monastic orders began to take up the scholastic and doctrinal movement, the Cistercians, in particular, applied to the Preachers for masters of theology in their abbeys ("Chart. Univ Paris", I, p. 184).最后,十三世纪中叶时对老寺院订单开始采取了学术和理论的运动,熙,特别是神学大师的传教士在他们的修道院(“图。大学巴黎”,我,第184页)。 During the last portion of the Middle Ages, the Dominicans furnished, at intervals, professors to the different orders, not themselves consecrated to study (Denifle, "Quellen zur Gelehrtengeschichte des Predigerordens im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert" in "Archiv." II, p.165; Mandonnet, "Les Chanoines Prêcheurs de Bologne", Fribourg, 1903; Douais, "Essai sur l'organisation des études dans l'Ordre des Frères-Prêcheurs", Paris, 1884; Mandonnet, "De l'incorporation des Dominicains dans l'ancienne Université de Paris" in "Revue Thomiste", IV 1896, p. 139; Denifle, "Die Universitäten des Mittelalters", Berlin, 1885; I, passim; Denifle-Chatelain, "Chart. Univ., Paris", 1889, passim; Bernard, "Les Dominicains dans l'Université de Paris", Paris, 183; Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant et l'averroisme Latin au XIIIe siècle", Louvain, 1911, I, n. 30-95).在中世纪的最后一部分,多米尼加提供的时间间隔,教授不同的订单,而不是自己神圣的研究(德尼夫勒“Quellen楚Gelehrtengeschichte Predigerordens IM 13。UND 14。Jahrhundert”在“论坛存档”。“二,第165页;芒多,“Chanoines Prêcheurs DE Bologne”,弗里堡,1903年; Douais,“Essai SUR L'组织画稿DANS L'勋章DES Frères的Prêcheurs”,巴黎,1884年;芒多,“DE L'纳入DES Dominicains DANS L'安西安娜巴黎大学“在”杂志Thomiste“1896年,第139页,第四;德尼夫勒,”模具Universitäten DES Mittelalters“,柏林,1885年,我,各处;德尼夫勒Chatelain,”图大学。巴黎“,1889年,各处;伯纳德,”Dominicains DANS大学巴黎“,巴黎,183;芒多,”Siger的布拉班特ET L' averroisme拉丁美洲坳XIIIe SIECLE“,鲁汶,1911年,我,N. 30 - 95)。The legislation regarding studies occurs here and there in the constitutions, and principally in the "Acta Capitularium Generalium", Rome, 1898, sq. and Douais, "Acta Capitulorum Provincialium" (Toulouse, 1894).立法方面​​的研究,发生在这里和那里的宪法,主要是在“文献Capitularium Generalium”,罗马,1898年,平和Douais,“文献Capitulorum Provincialium”(图卢兹,1894年)。

The teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organization placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages.的秩序和学术组织的教学活动放在传教士在中世纪的知识分子的生活的前列。They were the pioneers in all directions as one may see from a subsequent paragraph relative to their literary productions.他们在各个方向的先驱,人们可以看到从其后段相对他们的文学作品。We speak only of the school of philosophy and of theology created by them in the thirteenth century which has been the most influential in the history of the Church.我们只会说他们在13世纪已经教会的历史中最有影响力的创建的哲学和神学学校。At the beginning of the thirteenth century philosophical teaching was confined practically to the logic of Aristotle and theology, and was under the influence of St. Augustine; hence the name Augustinism generally given to the theological doctrines of that age.在十三世纪的哲学教学开始几乎是密闭的亚里士多德和神学的逻辑,圣奥古斯丁的影响下,故名Augustinism一般给这个年龄的神学教义。 The first Dominican doctors, who came from the universities into the order, or who taught in the universities, adhered for a long time to the Augustinian doctrine.第一多米尼加医生,从大学开始的顺序,或在大学教奥古斯丁的教义很长一段时间的坚持,。Among the most celebrated were Roland of Cremona, Hugh of Saint Cher, Richard Fitzacre, Moneta of Cremona, Peter of Tarentaise, and Robert of Kilwardby.其中最有名的是罗兰的克雷莫纳,圣雪儿,理查德Fitzacre,克雷莫纳莫尼塔,彼得的塔朗泰斯基尔沃比罗伯特休。 It was the introduction into the Latin world of the great works of Aristotle, and their assimilation, through the action of Albertus Magnus, that opened up in the Order of Preachers a new line of philosophical and theological investigation.这是引入到亚里士多德的伟大工程的拉丁世界,和他们同化,通过阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,打开传教士一个新的哲学和神学调查令的行动。 The work begun by Albertus Magnus (1240-1250) was carried to completion by his disciple, Thomas Aquinas (qv), whose teaching activity occupied the last twenty years of his life (1245-1274).阿尔伯图斯马格努斯(一二四〇年至1250年)开始的工作是由他的弟子,托马斯阿奎那(QV),其教学活动占据了他的生活(1245年至1274年)的最后20年完成。 The system of theology and philosophy constructed by Aquinas is the most complete, the most original, and the most profound, which Christian thought has elaborated, and the master who designed it surpasses all his contemporaries and his successors in the grandeur of his creative genius.阿奎那兴建的神学和哲学的系统是最完整,最原始,最深刻,阐述基督教思想,和高手们设计的,它超越了他的创作天才的宏伟他同时代和他的继任者。 The Thomist School developed rapidly both within the order and without.托马斯主义学校内的秩序,没有发展迅速。The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries witnessed the struggles of the Thomist School on various points of doctrine.第十四和第十五世纪见证的托马斯主义学派的斗争中各点的学说。The Council of Vienne (1311) declared in favour of the Thomistic teaching, according to which there is but one form in the human composition, and condemned as heretical any one who should deny that "the rational or intellective soul is per se and essentially the form of the human body".赞成Thomistic教学维埃纳会(1311)宣布,根据该是有的,但在人体的组成形式,并为邪教的任何一个人应该拒绝“理性或智力的灵魂,是每SE和本质上的谴责人体“的形式。 This is also the teaching of the Fifth Lateran Council (1515).这也是第五次拉特兰会议(1515)的教学。See Zigliara, "De Mente Concilii Viennensis", Rome, 1878, pp. 88-89.见Zigliara,“Mente Concilii山楂”,罗马,1878年,页88-89。

The discussions between the Preachers and the Friars on the poverty of Christ and the Apostles was also settled by John XXII in the Thomistic sense [(12 Nov., 1323), Ehrle, "Archiv. f. Litt. u Kirchengesch.", III, p.传教士和基督和使徒的贫困的修士之间的讨论也落户Thomistic感(11月12,1323),Ehrle,“论坛存档。F.利特。ü Kirchengesch约翰二十二。”,三,第517; Tocco, "La Questione della povertà nel Secolo XIV", Naples, 1910].517;托科,“LA Questione德拉povertà NEL Secolo十四”,那不勒斯,1910]。The question regarding the Divinity of the Blood of Christ separated from His Body during His Passion, raised for the first time in 1351, at Barcelona, and taken up again in Italy in 1463, was the subject of a formal debate before Pius II.有关神基督的血从他的身体分离,在他的激情,1351年首次提出,在巴塞罗那,并在意大利再次在1463,是前碧岳二世正式辩论的主题。 The Dominican opinion prevailed; although the pope refused a sentence properly so called (Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres Généraux", III, p. 287, IV, p. 413; G. degli Agostini, "Notizie istorico-critiche intorno la vita e le opere degli scrittori Viniziani", Venice, 1752, I, p. 401. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the Thomist School had to make a stand against Nominalism, of which a Preacher had been one of the protagonists. The repeated sentences of the universities and of princes slowly combatted this doctrine (De Wulf, "Histoire de la philosophic médiévale", Louvain-Paris, 1905, p. 453).多米尼加的意见占了上风,虽然教皇拒绝所谓正确的句子(Mortier,“组织胺DES Maîtres Généraux”,第三,第287页,第四,第413页; G. degli阿戈斯蒂尼,“Notizie istorico - critiche intorno LA VITA发送勒opere degli scrittori Viniziani“,威尼斯,1752年,我,第401页。在第十四和第十五世纪的托马斯主义的学校,使立场,反对唯名,其中一位牧师的主角之一。重复的句子王子大学和缓慢combatted这一学说(德沃尔夫,“史DE LA哲学médiévale”,鲁汶 - 巴黎,1905年,第453页)。

The Averroism against which Albert the Great and especially Aquinas had fought so energetically did not disappear entirely with the condemnation of Paris (1277), but survived under a more or less attenuated form. Averroism对伟业大,特别是阿奎那战斗大力并没有完全消失谴责巴黎(1277),但存活下更多或更少衰减的形式。At the beginning of the sixteenth century the debates were renewed, and the Preachers found themselves actively engaged therein in Italy where the Averroist doctrine had reappeared.在十六世纪初的辩论续约,和传教士发现自己积极参与其中在意大利Averroist学说再现。The General of the Dominicans, Thomas de Vio (Cajetan) had published his commentaries on the "De Anima" of Aristotle (Florence, 1509), in which, abandoning the position of St. Thomas, he contended that Aristotle had not taught the individual immortality of the soul, but affirming at the same time that this doctrine was philosophically erroneous.一般的多米尼加,托马斯de比奥(Cajetan)出版了他的评论亚里士多德的“谕德”(佛罗伦萨,1509年),其中,放弃圣托马斯的位置,他争辩说,亚里士多德没有教导个别不朽的灵魂,但在同一时间,这一学说是哲学上的错误的肯定。 The Council of Lateran, by its Decree, 19 Dec., 1513, not only condemned the Averroistic teaching, but exacted still further that professors of philosophy should answer the opposing arguments advanced by philosophers -- a measure which Cajetan did not approve (Mansi, "Councils", I, 32, col. 842).拉特兰会议通过法令,1513年12月19日,中,不仅谴责Averroistic教学,但付出还在进一步的哲学教授应该回答的哲学家先进的反对论据 - Cajetan不赞成的措施(曼西, “议会”,我,32,山口842)。Pietro Pomponazzi, having published at Bologna (1516) his treatise on the immortality of the soul in the Averroistic sense, while making an open profession of faith in the Christian doctrine, raised numerous polemics, and was held as a suspect.彼得罗蓬波纳齐,他的论文发表在博洛尼亚(1516)Averroistic感的灵魂不死,同时在一个开放的专业信仰基督教的教义,提出了无数的论战,并作为犯罪嫌疑人举行。 Chrysostom Javelli, regent of theology at the Convent of St. Dominic, in agreement with the ecclesiastical authority, and at the request of Pomponazzi, sought to extricate him from this difficulty by drawing up a short theological exposé of the question which was to be added in the future to the work of Pomponazzi.金口Javelli,摄政的神学修道院的圣星,与教会权威的协议,并在蓬波纳齐的要求,力求摆脱这种困难,他制定了一个简短的神学揭露的问题,这是要添加在未来的蓬波纳齐工作。 But this discussion did not cease all at once.但这种讨论没有停止一次。Several Dominicans entered the lists.几个多米尼加人进入名单。Girolamo de Fornariis subjected to examination the polemic of Pomponazzi with Augustin Nifi (Bologna, 1519); Bartolommeo de Spina attacked Cajetan on one article, and Pomponazzi in two others (Venice, 1519); Isidore of Isolanis also wrote on the immortality of the soul (Milan, 1520); Lucas Bettini took up the same theme, and Pico della Mirandola published his treatise (Bologna, 1523); finally Chrysostom Javelli himself, in 1523, composed a treatise on immortality in which he refuted the point of view of Cajetan and of Pomponazzi (Chrysostomi Javelli, "Opera", Venice, 1577, I-III, p. 52).吉罗拉莫DE Fornariis受到检查的蓬波纳齐奥古斯丁Nifi(博洛尼亚,1519)的论战; Bartolommeo DE脊柱攻击Cajetan上的一篇文章,并在另外两个蓬波纳齐(威尼斯,1519); Isolanis伊西多尔还写了不朽的灵魂(AC米兰,1520),卢卡斯Bettini了相同的主题,和碧德拉米兰多拉发表他的论文(博洛尼亚,1523);终于金口Javelli自己,在1523年,谱写了不朽论文中,他驳斥Cajetan点蓬波纳齐(Chrysostomi Javelli,“歌剧”,威尼斯,1577,I - III第52页)。Cajetan, becoming cardinal, not only held his position regarding the idea of Aristotle, but further declared that the immortality of the soul was an article of faith, for which philosophy could offer only probable reasons ("In Ecclesiasten", 1534, cap. iv; Fiorentino, "Pietro Pomponazzi", Florence, 1868). Cajetan,成为枢机主教,不仅举行了他的位置有关亚里士多德的思想,但进一步宣布,不朽的灵魂,一篇文章的信仰,哲学只能提供可能的原因(“Ecclesiasten”,1534年,第四章佛罗伦萨,“彼得蓬波纳齐”,佛罗伦萨,1868年)。

(f) Literary and Scientific Productions(F)文学和科学的制作

During the Middle Ages the order had an enormous literary output, its activity extending to all spheres.在中世纪,为了有一个巨大的文学输出,其活动延伸到各个领域。The works of its writers are epoch-making in the various branches of human knowledge.作家的作品是具有划时代意义的人类知识的各个分支。

(i) Works on the Bible.(一)在“圣经”。-- The study and teaching of the Bible were foremost among the occupations of the Preachers, and their studies included everything pertaining to it.- 其中最重要的职业传教士的“圣经”的研究和教学,以及他们的研究,包括有关的一切。They first undertook correctories (correctoria) of the Vulgate text (1230-36), under the direction of Hugh of Saint Cher, professor at the University of Paris.他们首先进行的武加大文本(1230至36年)correctories(correctoria),根据圣雪儿,在巴黎大学教授休的方向。 The collation with the Hebrew text was accomplished under the sub-prior of St-Jacques, Theobald of Sexania, a converted Jew.希伯来文的排序规则下的圣 - 雅克,醒觉Sexania,一辆经过改装的的犹太人分前完成。Two other correctories were made prior to 1267, the first called the correctory of Sens. Again under the direction of Hugh of Saint Cher the Preachers made the first concordances of the Bible which were called the Concordances of St. Jacques or Great Concordances because of their development.其他correctories 1267之前,第一个叫圣雪儿休的指导下,参议员correctory再次传教士,因为他们的“圣经”而被称为圣雅克或大语词索引语词索引的第一个语词索引发展。 The English Dominicans of Oxford, apparently under the direction of John of Darlington, made more simplified concordances in the third quarter of the thirteenth century.牛津英语多米尼加共和国,显然根据达林顿约翰的方向,在十三世纪的第三季度更简化的语词索引。At the beginning of the fourteenth century a German Dominican, Conrad of Halberstadt simplified the English concordances still more; and John Fojkowich of Ragusa, at the time of the Council of Basle, caused the insertion in the concordances of elements which had not hitherto been incorporated in them.在十四世纪初的德国多明尼加,哈尔伯施塔特康拉德简化英语语词索引仍然较多;和约翰Fojkowich拉古萨在巴塞尔委员会的时间,造成了迄今为止尚未纳入的元素的语词索引的插入在其中。 The Dominicans, moreover, composed numerous commentaries on the books of the Bible.此外,多米尼加,组成的“圣经”的书籍上的众多评论。That of Hugh of Saint Cher was the first complete commentary on the Scriptures (last ed., Venice, 1754, 8 vols. in fol.).圣雪儿休上的第一个完整的“圣经”的评论(最后版,威尼斯,1754年,8卷。FOL)。The commentaries of Bl. “基本法”的评论。Albertus Magnus and especially those of St. Thomas Aquinas are still famous.阿尔伯图斯马格努斯,尤其是那些多瑪斯仍然著名。With St. Thomas the interpretation of the text is more direct, simply literal, and theological.与圣托马斯对文本的解释是更直接,简单的文字,和神学。These great Scriptural commentaries represent theological teaching in the studia generalia.这些伟大的“圣经”的评论代表studia generalia的神学教学。The lecturae on the text of Scripture, also composed to a large extent by Dominicans, represent scriptural teaching in the other studia of theology.圣经文本lecturae,在很大程度上也由多米尼加共和国组成,代表在神学的其他studia圣经教学。St. Thomas undertook an "Expositio continua" of the four Gospels now called the "Catena aurea", composed of extracts from the Fathers with a view to its use by clerics.圣托马斯承诺“Expositio连续”四福音现在被称为“卡泰纳黄花”,从父亲的提取物组成,其使用由神职人员。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century Nicholas of Trevet did the same for all the books of the Bible.在十四世纪初的尼古拉的Trevet所有书籍的圣经。The Preachers were also engaged in translating the Bible into the vernacular.传教士还从事“圣经”翻译成白话文。In all probability they were the translators of the French Parisian Bible during the first half of the thirteenth century, and in the fourteenth century they took a very active share in the translation of the celebrated Bible of King John.他们在所有的概率是法国巴黎圣经翻译,在上半年的13世纪,在14世纪,他们采取了一个非常活跃的份额,在著名的圣经约翰国王翻译。 The name of a Catalonian Dominican, Romeu of Sabruguera, is attached to the first translation of the Scriptures into Catalonian.一个加泰罗尼亚多米尼加,Sabruguera罗梅乌的名称是第一次翻译圣经到加泰罗尼亚。The names of Preachers are also connected with the Valencian and Castilian translations, and still more with the Italian (FL Mannoci, "Intorno a un volgarizzamento della Biblia attribuita al B. Jacopo da Voragine" in "Giornale storico e letterario della Liguria", V, 1904, p. 96).传教士的名字也与瓦伦西亚和卡斯蒂利亚翻译,仍然与意大利(佛罗里达州Mannoci,“Intorno联合国volgarizzamento德拉Biblia attribuita人B.雅格布DA Voragine”,在“发送Giornale storico letterario德拉利古里亚”,第五1904年,第96页)。The first pre-Lutheran German translation of the Bible, except the Psalms, is due to John Rellach, shortly after the middle of the fifteenth century.先预路德圣经中的诗篇除外德语翻译,由于约翰Rellach,十五世纪中叶后不久。Finally the Bible was translated from Latin into Armenian about 1330 by B. Bartolommeo Parvi of Bologna, missionary and bishop in Armenia.最后,“圣经”被翻译成约1330亚美尼亚B. Bartolommeo Parvi博洛尼亚,传教士和主教在亚美尼亚从拉丁美洲。These works enabled Vercellone to write: "To the Dominican Order belongs the glory of having first renewed in the Church the illustrious example of Origen and St. Augustine by the ardent cultivation of sacred criticism" (P. Mandonnet "Tràvaux des Dominicains sur les Saintes Ecritures" in "Dict. de la Bible", II, col. 1463; Saul, "Des Bibelstudium im Predigerorden" in "Der Katholik", 82 Jahrg, 3 f., XXVII, 1902, a repetition of the foregoing article).这些作品使Vercellone写道:“多米尼加令首先重新在教会的荣耀属于奥利和圣奥古斯丁的杰出范例殷切栽培神圣的批评”(体育芒多内“准备DES Dominicains SUR LES桑特“”快译通Ecritures DE LA圣经“,第二,列1463;扫罗,”德Bibelstudium IM Predigerorden“”明镜Katholik“,82 Jahrg,3楼,二十七,1902年,上述文章的重复)。

(ii) Philosophical works.(二)哲学著作。-- The most celebrated philosophical works of the thirteenth century were those of Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas Aquinas.- 十三世纪最著名的哲学著作阿尔伯图斯Magnus和圣托马斯阿奎那。The former compiled on the model of Aristotle a vast scientific encyclopedia which exercised great influence on the last centuries of the Middle Ages ("Alberti Magni Opera", Lyons, 1651, 20 vols. in fol.; Paris, 1890, 38 vols. in 40; Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 37, n. 3).前者编制的。巴黎,1890年,38卷;亚里士多德一个巨大的科学百科全书行使上个世纪,中世纪(“阿尔贝蒂马尼歌剧”,里昂,1651年,20卷FOL很大的影响力模型40;芒多,“Siger DE布拉班特”,我,37,3)。Thomas Aquinas, apart from special treatises and numerous philosophical sections in his other works, commentated in whole or in part thirteen of Aristotle's treatises, these being the most important of the Stagyrite's works (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas d'Aquin", 2nd ed., p. 104, Opera, Paris, 1889, XXII-XVI).托马斯阿奎那,除了特殊的论文和在他的其他作品中的许多哲学部分,commentated全部或部分十三亚里士多德的论文,Stagyrite的作品最重要的(芒多内,这些“德écrits authentiques的圣托马斯D'阿坎“第2版,第104页,歌剧院,巴黎,1889年,第XXII -十六)。Robert of Kilwardby (d. 1279) a holder of the old Augustinian direction, produced numerous philosophical writings.罗伯特基尔沃比(卒于1279年)持有的老奥古斯丁方向,产生了大量的哲学著作。His "De ortu et divisione philosophiae" is regarded as "the most important introduction to Philosophy of the Middle Ages" (Baur "Dominicus Gundissalinus De divisione philosophiae", Münster, 1903, 368).他的“德ortu等divisione哲学的”被视为“最重要的中世纪哲学介绍”(鲍尔“Dominicus Gundissalinus德divisione哲学的”,明斯特,1903年,368页)。At the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century, Dietrich of Vriberg left an important philosophical and scientific work (Krebs, "Meister Dietrich, sein Leben, seine Werke, seine Wissenschaft", Münster, 1906). Vriberg迪特里希在第十三和十四世纪初结束,留下一个重要的哲学和科学的工作(克雷布斯,“梅斯特迪特里希,盛别人的生活,塞纳河Werke公司,塞纳河Wissenschaft”,明斯特,1906年)。 At the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century the Dominicans composed numerous philosophical treatises, many of them bearing on the special points whereon the Thomistic School was attacked by its adversaries ("Archiv f. Litt. und Kirchengesch.", II, 226 sqq.).结束的第十三和十四世纪初多米尼加组成无数的哲学论文,其中许多特殊点whereon Thomistic学校被攻击对手(轴承“论坛存档F.利特和Kirchengesch。”第二226 SQQ)。

(iii) Theological works.(三)神学作品。-- In importance and number theological works occupy the foreground in the literary activity of the order.- 占据的重要性和数量神学作品在文学活动的秩序的前景。Most of the theologians composed commentaries on the "Sentences" of Peter Lombard, which was the classical text in theological schools.大多数的神学家组成的“句子”,这是彼得隆巴德在神学院的经典文本的评论。Besides the "Sentences" the usual work of bachelors in the Universities included Disputationes and Quodlibeta, which were always the writings of masters.除了“刑罚”的单身汉在大学的平时的工作中包括Disputationes和Quodlibeta,总是大师的著作。 The theological summae set forth the theological matter according to a more complete and well-ordered plan than that of Peter Lombard and especially with solid philosophical principles in which the books of the "Sentences" were wanting.神学summae提出的神学问题,根据一个比彼得隆巴德,尤其是具有坚实的哲学原则,“刑罚”的书是想更完整,有序的计划。 Manuals of theology and more especially manuals, or summae, on penance for the use of confessors were composed in great numbers.由大量的神学和特别是手册,或summae上使用的忏悔苦修,使用手册。The oldest Dominican commentaries on the "Sentences" are those of Roland of Cremona, Hugh of Saint Cher, Richard Fitzacre, Robert of Kilwardby and Albertus Magnus.多米尼加“刑罚”的最古老的评论是罗兰的克雷莫纳,圣雪儿,理查德Fitzacre罗伯特基尔沃比和阿尔伯图斯马格努斯休。 The series begins with the year 1230 if not earlier and the last are prior to the middle of the thirteenth century (Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 53).该系列始于1230年,如果不早,最后是前十三世纪中叶(芒多,“Siger布拉班特”,我53)。The "Summa" of St. Thomas (1265-75) is still the masterpiece of theology.“大全”的圣托马斯(1265年至1275年)仍是神学的杰作。 The monumental work of Albertus Magnus is unfinished.阿尔伯图斯马格努斯是未完成的巨著。The "Summa de bono" of Ulrich of Strasburg (d. 1277), a disciple of Albert is still unedited, but is of paramount interest to the historian of the thought of the thirteenth century (Grabmann, "Studien ueber Ulrich von Strassburg" in "Zeitschrift für Kathol. Theol.", XXIX, 1905, 82). “大全德博诺”乌尔里希的斯特拉斯堡(卒于1277),阿尔伯特的弟子仍是未经编辑的,但想到十三世纪的历史学家最感兴趣的是(Grabmann“(研究)ueber乌尔里希冯斯特拉斯堡” “(杂志)献给Kathol Theol。”二十九,1905年,82)。The theological summa of St. Antoninus is highly esteemed by moralists and economists (Ilgner, "Die Volkswirtschaftlichen Anschaungen Antonins von Florenz", Paderborn, 1904).圣安东尼神学大全是道德家和经济学家(Ilgner,“模具Volkswirtschaftlichen Anschaungen Antonins冯Florenz”,帕德博恩,1904年)备受敬重。The "Compendium theologicæ veritatis" of Hugh Ripelin of Strasburg (d. 1268) is the most widespread and famous manual of the Middle Ages (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas", Fribourg, 1910, p. 86).“汇编theologicæ veritatis”休斯特拉斯堡Ripelin(卒于1268)是最广泛和最有名的中世纪手册(芒多内,“德écrits authentiques的圣托马斯”,弗里堡,1910年,第86页)。The chief manual of confessors is that of Paul of Hungary composed for the Brothers of St. Nicholas of Bologna (1220-21) and edited without mention of the author in the "Bibliotheca Casinensis" (IV, 1880, 191) and with false assignment of authorship by R. Duellius, "Miscellan. Lib."行政手册的忏悔是圣尼古拉斯的博洛尼亚(一二二〇年至1221年)和编辑的“书目Casinensis”(四,1880年,191)中没有提及作者的兄弟和以虚假的转让由匈牙利保罗由R. Duellius的作者,“Miscellan。LIB。”(Augsburg, 1723, 59). (奥格斯堡,1723年,59)。The "Summa de Poenitentia" of Raymond of Pennafort, composed in 1235, was a classic during the Middle Ages and was one of the works of which the manuscripts were most multiplied. “大全Poenitentia”彭纳福特雷蒙德,在1235组成,是一个典型的在中世纪的作品的手稿最乘以之一。The "Summa Confessorum" of John of Freiburg (d. 1314) is, according to F. von Schulte, the most perfect product of this class of literature.弗赖堡约翰(卒于1314)的“大全Confessorum”是根据楼冯舒尔特最完美的产品,这一类的文学。 The Pisan Bartolommeo of San Concordio has left us a "Summa Casuum" composed in 1338, in which the matter is arranged in alphabetical order.圣Concordio披散Bartolommeo已经离开了我们在1338组成一个“大全Casuum”,无论是按字母顺序排列。 It was very successful in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.在第十三和第十四世纪,它是非常成功的。The manuals for confessors of John Nieder (d. 1438), St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence (d. 1459), and Girolamo Savonarola (d. 1498) were much esteemed in their time (Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Praed.", I, passim; Hurter, "Nomenclator literarius; aetas media", Innsbruck, 1906, passim; F. von Schulte, "Gesch. der Quellen und Literatur des canonischen Rechts", Stuttgart, II, 1877, p. 410 sqq.; Dietterle, "Die Summæ confessorum . . . von ihren Anfängen an bis zu Silvester Prierias" in "Zeitschrift für Kirchengesch.", XXIV, 1903; XXVIII, 1907).约翰Nieder(卒于1438),圣安东尼(卒于1459),佛罗伦萨的大主教,并吉罗拉莫萨沃纳罗拉(卒于1498)忏悔的手册,远在他们的时间的尊敬(Quétif埃沙尔,“脚本”。条例。 Praed“,我各处; Hurter”。Nomenclator literarius; aetas媒体“,因斯布鲁克,1906年,各处; F.冯舒尔特,”Gesch DER Quellen和Literatur DES canonischen Rechts“,斯图加特,二,1877年,第410页SQQ; Dietterle,“模具Summæ confessorum冯ihren Anfängen之二祖西尔维斯特Prierias。。”“(杂志)毛皮Kirchengesch。”二十四,1903年,二十八,1907年)。

(iv) Apologetic works.(四)护教作品。-- The Preachers, born amid the Albigensian heresy and founded especially for the defense of the Faith, bent their literary efforts to reach all classes of dissenters from the Catholic Church.- 传道人,生于中的Albigensian异端,是为捍卫信仰而创立的,弯曲自己的文学的努力达到的持不同政见者从天主教教会的所有类。They produced by far the most powerful works in the sphere of apologetics.他们生产的护领域最强大的作品。The "Summa contra Catharos et Valdenses" (Rome, 1743) of Moneta of Cremona, in course of composition in 1244, is the most complete and solid work produced in the Middle Ages against the Cathari and Waldenses. “禁忌大全Catharos等Valdenses”克雷莫纳莫尼塔(罗马,1743年)在1244组成的过程中,是最完整和扎实的工作,在中世纪对卡塔利和瓦勒度派产生。 The "Summa contra Gentiles" of St. Thomas Aquinas is one of that master's strongest creations. “禁忌大全外邦人”多瑪斯是,主人的最强的创作之一。It is the defense of the Christian Faith against Arabian philosophy.它是基督教信仰对阿拉伯哲学的国防。Raymond Marti in his "Pugio fidei", in course of composition in 1278 (Paris, 1642; 1651: Leipzig, 1687), measures arms with Judaism.(巴黎,1642; 1651:莱比锡,1687年)Raymond在他的“Pugio fidei”,当然在1278组成马蒂,措施与犹太教的武器。This work, to a large extent based on Rabbinic literature, is the most important medieval monument of Orientalism (Neubauer, "Jewish Controversy and the Pugio Fidei" in "The Expositor", 1888, p. 81 sqq.; Loeb, "La controverse religieuse entre les chrétiens et les Juifs au moyen-âge en France et en Espagne" in "Revue de l'histoire des religions", XVIII, 136).这项工作,在很大程度上基于拉比文学,是最重要的东方中世纪纪念碑(纽鲍尔,“犹太人的争议和Pugio Fidei”中的“解释者”,1888年,第81页SQQ。勒布的“La controverse religieuse之间LES chrétiens ET LES Juifs AU中沙年龄连接法国与Espagne“,在”杂志DE L'历史DES宗教“,十八,136页)。The Florentine, Riccoldo di Monte Croce, a missionary in the East (d. 1320), composed his "Propugnaculum Fidei" against the doctrine of the Koran.佛罗伦萨,Riccoldo DI,蒙特卡洛克罗齐,在东方传教(卒于1320),组成他的“Propugnaculum Fidei”对“古兰经”的教义。It is a rare medieval Latin work based directly on Arabian literature.这是一种罕见的的中世纪拉丁语工作的基础上直接对阿拉伯文学。Demetrius Cydonius translated the "Propugnaculum" into Greek in the fourteenth century and Luther translated it into German in the sixteenth (Mandonnet, "Fra Riccoldo di Monte Croce, pélerin en Terre Sainte et missionnaire en Orient" in "Revue Biblique", I, 1893, 44; Grabmann, "Die Missionsidee bei den Dominikanertheologien des 13. Jahrhunderts" in "Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft", I, 1911, 137).德米特里Cydonius译成希腊文“Propugnaculum”在14世纪和路德翻译成16为德国(芒多,“法兰克福机场Riccoldo DI蒙特卡罗克罗齐,培勒林山EN渔村圣等missionnaire EN”东方“杂志Biblique”,我,1893年,44; Grabmann,“模具Missionsidee北书房Dominikanertheologien DES 13 Jahrhunderts。”在“献给Missionswissenschaft”(杂志),我,1911年,137页)。

(v) Educational literature.(五)教育文学。-- Besides manuals of theology the Dominicans furnished a considerable literary output with a view to meeting the various needs of all social classes and which may be called educational or practical literature.- 除了神学手册多米尼加配备了相当的文学输出,以满足社会各阶层,这可称之为教育或实用文学作品的各种需求。They composed treatises on preaching, models or materials for sermons, and collections of discourses.他们组成的说教,型号或材料的布道,话语集合的论文。Among the oldest of these are the "Distinctiones" and the "Dictionarius pauperum" of Nicholas of Biard (d. 1261), the "Tractatus de diversis materiis prædicabilibus" of Stephen of Bourbon (d. 1261), the "De eruditione prædicatorum" of Humbert of Romans (d. 1277), the "Distinctiones" of Nicholas of Goran (d. 1295), and of Maurice of England [d.这些最古老的是“Distinctiones”和“Dictionarius pauperum”Biard尼古拉(卒于1261),“逻辑哲学论diversis materiis prædicabilibus”波旁斯蒂芬(卒于1261),“德eruditione prædicatorum”洪博达的罗马人(卒于1277),“Distinctiones”戈兰尼古拉(卒于1295年),和莫里斯英格兰[D. circa 1300; (Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Præd.", II, 968; 970; Lecoy de la Marche, "La chaire française au moyen âge", Paris, 1886; Crane, "The exempla or illustrative stories from the 'Sermones vulgares' of Jacques de Vitry", London, 1890)].大约1300;(Quétif -埃沙尔“。脚本条例Præd。”二,968,970; Lecoy DE LA马尔凯,“chaire法语坳中沙时代”,巴黎,1886年;起重机,“exempla或说明的故事,从“Sermones vulgares”雅克 - 维特里“,伦敦,1890年)]。The Preachers led the way in the composition of comprehensive collections of the lives of the saints or legendaries, writings at once for the use and edification of the faithful.传教士带领圣人或legendaries,文字的使用和熏陶的忠实一次生活的全面集合的组成方式。Bartholomew of Trent compiled his "Liber epilogorum in Gesta Sanctorum" in 1240.巴塞洛缪编译的遄达在1240他的“Gesta Sanctorum LIBER epilogorum”。After the middle of the thirteenth century Roderick of Cerrate composed a collection of "Vitæ Sanctorum" (Madrid University Library, cod. 146).在十三世纪的Cerrate罗德里克中组成的“个人简历Sanctorum”(马德里大学图书馆,鳕鱼146)的集合。 The "Abbreviatio in gestis et miraculis sanctorum", composed in 1243 according to the "Speculum historiale" of Vincent of Beauvais, is the work of Jean de Mailly.“Abbreviatio在gestis等miraculis sanctorum”,根据“窥historiale”博韦文森特在1243组成,是让马伊工作。The "Legenda Sanctorum" of Jacopo de Voragine (Vorazze) called also the "Golden Legend", written about 1260, is universally known.“Legenda Sanctorum”雅格布DE Voragine(Vorazze)也称为“黄金传奇”,写约1260,是举世皆知。"The success of the book," writes the Bollandist, A. Poncelet, "was prodigious; it far exceeded that of all similar compilations."“”书的成功,写道:“Bollandist答:蓬斯莱,巨大的;它远远超过了所有类似汇编的。” It was besides translated into all the vernaculars of Europe.它除了被翻译成所有的欧洲方言。The "Speculum Sanctorale" of Bernard Guidonis is a work of a much more scholarly character. “窥Sanctorale”伯纳德Guidonis是一个更学术的字符的工作。The first three parts were finished in 1324 and the fourth in 1329.前三部分完成于1324和1329的第四位。About the same time Peter Calo (d. 1348) undertook under the title of "Legenda sanctorum" an "immense compilation" which aimed at being more complete than its predecessors (A. Poncelet, "Le légendier de Pierre Calo" in "Analecta Bollandiana", XXIX, 1910, 5-116).大约在同一时间,彼得卡洛(卒于1348)“Legenda sanctorum”,目的是完成超过它的前辈(A.蓬斯莱,“乐légendier德皮埃尔卡洛”在“Analecta Bollandiana一个”巨大的汇编“的标题下的承诺“,二十九,1910年,5-116)。

Catechetical literature was also early taken in hand.教理讲授文学也早在手。In 1256-7 Raymond Marti composed his "Explanatio symboli ad institutionem fidelium" ("Revue des Bibliothèques", VI, 1846, 32; March, "La 'Explanatio Symboli', obra inedita de Ramon Marti, autor del 'Pugio Fidei"', in "Anuari des Institut d'Estudis Catalans", 1908, and Bareclona, 1910).1256-7雷蒙德马蒂组成他的“Explanatio symboli广告institutionem fidelium”(“杂志Bibliothèques”,第六,1846年,32 3月,“香格里拉Explanatio Symboli”,obra inedita DE拉蒙马蒂,作者DEL“Pugio Fidei”“ “Anuari研究所D' Estudis加泰罗尼亚人”,1908年,和Bareclona,1910年)。Thomas Aquinas wrote four small treatises which represent the contents of a catechism as it was in the Middle Ages: "De articulis fidei et Ecclesiae Sacramentis"; "Expositio symboli Apostolorum"; "De decem præceptis et lege amoris"; "Expositio orationis dominicae".托马斯阿奎那写道四个代表,因为它在中世纪的教义内容的小论文:“德articulis fidei等,该书Sacramentis”;“Expositio symboli Apostolorum”;“德decem præceptis等罪amoris”;“Expositio orationis dominicae” 。Several of these writings have been collected and called the catechism of St. Thomas.这些著作已收集和所谓的圣托马斯的教义。(Portmann-Kunz, "Katechismus des hl. Thomas von Aquin", Lucerne, 1900.) In 1277 Laurent d'Orléans composed at the request of Philip the Bold, whose confessor he was, a real catechism in the vernacular known as the "Somme le Roi" (Mandonnet, "Laurent d'Orléans l'auteur de la Somme le Roi" in "Revue des langues romanes", 1911; "Dict. de théol. cath.", II, 1900).(波特曼 - 库斯,“Katechismus DES HL。托马斯冯阿坎”,卢塞恩,1900年)在1277洛朗德奥尔良菲利普要求的大胆,他们的忏悔他,被称为一个真正的白话教义组成“索姆河勒的投资回报率“(芒多,”洛朗奥尔良L'导演DE LA索姆乐ROI“在”杂志LANGUES romanes“,1911年”。快译通去théol导管“,第二,1900年)。At the beginning of the fourteenth century Bernard Guidonis composed an abridgment of Christian doctrine which he revised later when he had become Bishop of Lodève (1324-31) into a sort of catechism for the use of his priests in the instruction of the faithful ("Notices et extraits de la Bib. Nat.", XXVII, Paris, 1879, 2nd part, p. 362, C. Douais, "Un nouvel écrit de Bernard Gui. Le synodal de Lodève, "Paris, 1944 p. vii).在十四世纪初,陈智思Guidonis组成的基督教教义的删节,他修改后,当他的教义在他的忠实指令的祭司使用的排序(已成为Lodève(1324年至1331年)的主教“告示等extraits DE LA背带裤。NAT“,二十七,巴黎,1879年,第二部分,第362页,C. Douais,”联合国努维尔écrit的伯纳德桂勒主教会议的Lodève,“巴黎,1944年第vii页)。The "Discipulus" of John Hérolt was much esteemed in its day (Paulus, "Johann Hérolt und seine Lehre. Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. des religiosen Volksunterichte am Ausgang des Mittelalters" in "Zeitsch. für kath. Theol.", XXVI, 1902, 417). “Discipulus”约翰Hérolt在其每天的尊敬(“约翰Hérolt和塞纳河Lehre。艾因Beitrag楚Gesch。DES religiosen Volksunterichte输出端DES Mittelalters”在“Zeitsch。献给凯丝。Theol。”二十六,1902年保卢斯,417)。

The order also produced pedagogical works.该命令还产生了教学工程。William of Tournai composed a treatise "De Modo docendi pueros" (Paris, Bib. Nat. lat. 16435) which the General Chapter of 1264 recommended, as well as one on preaching and confession for school children.图尔奈威廉组成一个论文“德MODO docendi pueros”(巴黎,背带裤。NAT。纬度16435)1264总章建议,以及说教和学童的自白。("Act. Cap. Gen." I, 125; "Script. Ord. Præd.", I, 345).(“法”第将军。“我,125;”。脚本条例Præd“,我,345)。Vincent of Beauvais wrote especially for the education of princes.博韦文森特,尤其是对诸侯教育中写道。He first composed his "De eruditione filiorum regalium" (Basle, 1481), then the "De eruditione principum", published with the works of St. Thomas, to whom as well as to Guillaume Perrault it has been incorrectly ascribed; finally (c. 1260) the "Tractatus de morali principis institutione", which is a general treatise and is still unedited ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, 239; R. Friedrich, "Vincentius von Beauvais als Pädagog nach seiner Schrift De eruditione filiorum regalium", Leipzig, 1883).他首先组成他的“德eruditione filiorum regalium”(巴塞尔,1481),那么“德eruditione principum”,发表与圣托马斯的作品,给谁以及纪尧姆Perrault被错误地归因;最后(C 1260)“逻辑哲学论morali principis institutione”,这是一般的论文,仍是未经编辑的(“条例Præd脚本。。”,我,239; R.弗里德里希,“冯博韦ALS Vincentius Pädagog nach围网渔船Schrift德eruditione filiorum regalium“,莱比锡,1883年)。Early in the fifteenth century (1405) John Dominici composed his famous "Lucula noctis", in which he deals with the study of pagan authors in the education of Christian youth.早在15世纪(1405)约翰Dominici组成了著名的“Lucula noctis”,其中他与异教作者在基督教青年教育研究。This is a most important work, written against the dangers of Humanism ("B. Johannis Dominici Cardinalis S. Sixti Lucula Noctis", ed. R. Coulon, Paris, 1908).这是一个最重要的工作,对人文精神(“B Johannis Dominici Cardinalis S. Sixti Lucula Noctis”。R. Coulon,巴黎,1908年)的危险。Dominici is also the author of a much esteemed work on the government of the family ("Regola del governo di cure familiare dal Beato Giovanni Dominici", ed. D. Salve, Florence, 1860). Dominici也是非常尊敬的工作对家庭的政府(“Regola DEL governo DI治愈familiare DAL Beato乔瓦尼Dominici”,ED。D.慰藉,佛罗伦萨,1860年)的作者。St. Antoninus composed a "Regola a ben vivere" (ed. Palermo, Florence, 1858).圣安东尼组成一个“Regola一个本vivere”(主编巴勒莫,佛罗伦萨,1858)。Works on the government of countries were also produced by members of the order; among them are the treatises of St. Thomas "De rege et regno", addressed to the King of Cyprus (finished by Bartolommeo of Lucca), and the "De regimine subditorum", composed for the Countess of Flanders.顺序的成员也产生了对各国政府的工程,其中圣托马斯的“德雷杰等regno”的论文,给塞浦路斯的国王(卢卡Bartolommeo完成),和“德regimine subditorum“伯爵夫人佛兰德组成。At the request of the Florentine Government Girolamo Savonarola drew up (1493) his "Trattati circa il reggimento e governo della cittá di Firenze" (ed. Audin de Rians, Florence, 1847) in which he shows great political insight.吉罗拉莫萨沃纳罗拉在佛罗伦萨政府的要求制定了他的“Trattati大约IL reggimento发送governo德拉Città酒店DI佛罗伦萨”(主编Audin去图书馆员,佛罗伦萨,1847年)(1493)中,他显示出巨大的政治洞察力。

(vi) Canon law.(六)佳能法律。-- St. Raymond of Pennafort was chosen by Gregory IX to compile the Decretals (1230-34); to his credit also belong opinions and other works on canon law.- 选择由格雷戈里九圣彭纳福特雷蒙德编译Decretals(1230年至1234年);到他的信用也属于教会法的意见和其他工程。Martin of Troppau, Bishop of Gnesen, composed (1278) a "Tabula decreti" commonly called "Margarita Martiniana", which received wide circulation.马丁Gnesen Troppau,主教组成(1278)“Tabula decreti”俗称“玛格丽塔Martiniana”,获得广泛流通。Martin of Fano, professor of canon law at Arezzo and Modena and podeatà of Genoa in 1260-2, prior to entering the order, wrote valuable canonical works.法诺,马丁教授在阿雷佐,摩德纳和podeatà热那亚教会法在1260-2,之前进入的顺序,写了宝贵的典型作品。 Nicholas of Ennezat at the beginning of the fourteenth century composed tables on various parts of canon law. Ennezat尼古拉在十四世纪初教会法的各个部分组成的表。During the pontificate of Gregory XII John Dominici wrote copious memoranda in defense of the rights of the legitimate pope, the two most important being still unedited (Vienna, Hof-bibliothek, lat. 5102, fol. 1-24).在教皇格雷戈里第十二约翰Dominici丰富的备忘录中写道的合法教皇的权利辩护,两个最重要的仍然未经编辑(维也纳霍夫- bibliothek,纬度5102 FOL 1-24)。About the middle of the fifteenth century John of Torquemada wrote extensive works on the Decretals of Gratian which were very influential in defense of the pontifical rights.关于15世纪中叶托尔克马达约翰写道Gratian Decretals在罗马教皇的权利辩护非常有影响力的的广泛的作品。 Important works on inquisitorial law also emanated from the order, the first directories for trial of heresy being composed by Dominicans.也从命令所产生的纠问式诉讼的法律上的重要作品,异端审判的第一个目录由多米尼加共和国组成。The oldest is the opinion of St. Raymond of Pennafort [1235 (ed. in Bzovius, "Annal. eccles." ad ann. 1235 "Monum. Ord. Præd. Hist.", IV, fasc. II, 41; "Le Moyen Age", 2nd series III, 305)].是最古老的圣彭纳福特[1235(在Bzovius编,雷蒙德认为广告ANN 1235“Monum条例Præd历史。。。”,二,四,FASC 41“的记录埃克尔斯。”;。“乐中沙时代“,第二辑第三,305)]。The same canonist wrote (1242) a directory for the inquisitions of Aragon (C. Douais, "L'Inquisition", Paris, I, 1906, p. 275).相同canonist写道(1242),阿拉贡(C. Douais,“欧莱雅宗教裁判所”,巴黎,我,1906年,第275页)的宗教裁判目录。About 1244 another directory was composed by the inquisitors of Provence ("Nouvelle revue historique du droit français et étranger", Paris, 1883, 670; E. Vacandard, "L'Inquisition", Paris, 1907, p. 314).关于1244另一个目录普罗旺斯(“新志historique法法语等étranger”,巴黎,1883年,670; E. Vacandard,“欧莱雅宗教裁判所”,巴黎,1907年,第314页)的调查官组成。But the two classical works of the Middle Ages on inquisitorial law are that of Bernard Guidonis composed in 1321 under the title of "Directorium Inquisitionis hereticae pravitatis" (ed. C. Douais Paris, 1886) and the "Directorium Inquisitorum" of Nicholas Eymerich [(1399) "Archiv für Literatur und Kirchengeschechte"; Grahit, "El inquisidor F. Nicholas Eymerich", Girona, 1878; Schulte, "Die Gesch. der Quellen und Literatur des Canonischen Rechts", II, passim].但是,这两个中世纪纠问式诉讼法律的经典作品是伯纳德Guidonis,在1321下“Directorium Inquisitionis hereticae pravitatis”(主编C. Douais巴黎,1886年)和“Directorium Inquisitorum”尼古拉Eymerich的标题组成[ (1399)“论坛存档献给Literatur和Kirchengeschechte”; Grahit,“厄尔尼诺inquisidor楼尼古拉Eymerich”,赫罗纳,1878;舒尔特,“模具Gesch DER Quellen和Literatur DES Canonischen Rechts”,二,各处]。

(vii) Historical Writings.(七)历史著作。-- The activity of the Preachers in the domain of history was considerable during the Middle Ages.- 在历史领域的传教士的活动在中世纪相当。Some of their chief works incline to be real general histories which assured them great success in their day.他们的一些行政工作倾斜,向他们保证在他们日常的巨大成功,是真正的通史。The "Speculum Historiale" of Vincent of Beauvais (d. circa 1264) is chiefly, like the other parts of the work, of the nature of a documentary compilation, but he has preserved for us sources which we could never otherwise reach (E. Boutarie, "Examen des sources du Speculum historiale de Vincent de Beauvais", Paris, 1863). “窥Historiale”的博韦(D.大约1264)文森特是主要的,其他部分的工作性质的纪录片编译,像,但他却为我们保留,否则我们永远无法到达(E. Boutarie,“审查源杜窥器historiale的圣文森特德博韦”,巴黎,1863年)。Martin the Pole, called Martin of Troppau (d. 1279), in the third quarter of the thirteenth century composed his chronicles of the popes and emperors which were widely circulated and had many continuators ("Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script.", XXII).马丁极点,在十三世纪的第三季度,由教皇和皇帝被广为流传,并有许多continuators(他的编年史所谓Troppau马丁(卒于1279年),“周一胚芽组织胺:。。脚本” ,二十二)。The anonymous chronicles of Colmar in the second half of the thirteenth century have left us valuable historical materials which constitute a sort of history of contemporary civilization (Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script., XVII).科尔马在下半年十三世纪的匿名编年史给我们留下宝贵的构成一种现代文明的历史史料(周一胚芽组织胺。脚本,第十七条)。 The chronicle of Jacopo da Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa (d. 1298) is much esteemed ("Rer. Ital. Script."; Mannucci, "La Cronaca di Jacopo da Voragine", Genoa, 1904).雅格布DA Voragine,热那亚大主教(卒于1298)纪事尊敬(“RER Ital脚本。。”; Mannucci,“LA Cronaca DI雅格布DA Voragine”,热那亚,1904年)。Ptolemy of Lucca and Bernard Guidonis are the two great ecclesiastical historians of the early fourteenth century.卢卡和伯纳德Guidonis托勒密十四世纪初两位伟大的教会历史学家。The "Historia ecclesiastica nova" of the former and the "Flores cronicorum seu cathalogus pontificum romanorum" of the latter contain valuable historical information.“Historia ecclesiastica新星”前,“弗洛雷斯cronicorum SEU cathalogus pontificum romanorum”,后者含有珍贵的历史资料。But the historical activity of Bernard Guidonis far exceeded that of Ptolemy and his contemporaries; he is the author of twenty historical publications, several of which, such as his historical compilation on the Order of Preachers, are very important in value and extent.但历史活动的伯纳德Guidonis远远超过了托勒密和他同时代的的,他是20个历史出版物的作者,其中有几个,如他的传教士订购的历史编纂,是非常重要的价值和程度的。 Bernard Guidonis is the first medieval historian who had a wide sense of historical documentation ("Rer. Ital. Script.", XI K. Krüger, "Des Ptolemäus Lucensis Leben und Werke", Göttingen, 1874; D. König, "Ptolemaus von Lucca und die Flores Chronicorum des B. Guidonis", Würzburg, 1875, Idem, "Tolomeo von Lucca", Harburg, 1878; Delisle, "Notice sur les manuscrits de Bernard Gui" in "Notices et manuscrits de la Bib. Nat.", XVII, pt. II, 169-455; Douais, "Un nouveau manuscrit de Bernard Gui et de ses chroniques des papes d'Avignon" in "Mém. soc. Archéol. Midi", XIV, 1889, p. 417, Paris, 1889; Arbellot, "Etude biographique et bibliographique sur Bernard Guidonis", Paris-Limoges, 1896).伯纳德Guidonis是第一个中世纪历史学家,曾广泛的意义上的历史文献(“RER Ital脚本。。”,第十一K.克鲁格,“德Ptolemäus Lucensis别人的生活和Werke公司”,哥廷根,1874年; D.柯尼希,“Ptolemaus冯卢卡与弗洛雷斯Chronicorum DES B. Guidonis“,维尔茨堡,1875年,同上,”Tolomeo冯卢卡。“Harburg,1878年;迪莱尔,”公告“SUR LES manuscrits的伯纳德桂”在“注意事项等manuscrits DE LA背带裤纳特”第十七PT二,169-455。Douais,“联合国暴发户manuscrit - 伯纳德桂ET DE SES chroniques DES papes德阿维尼翁”在“MEM SOC Archéol MIDI。。”,第十四条,1889年,第417页,巴黎,1889; Arbellot,“练习曲biographique等bibliographique河畔伯纳德Guidonis”,巴黎的利摩日,1896年)。 The fourteenth century beheld a galaxy of Dominican historians, the chief of whom were: Francesco Pipini of Bologna (d. 1320), the Latin translator of Marco Polo and the author of a "Chronicon" which began with the history of the Franks (L. Manzoni, "Di frate Francesco Pipini da Bologna, storico, geografo, viaggiatore del sec. XIV", Bologna, 1896); Nicholas of Butrinto (1313), author of the "Relatio de Henrici VII imperatoris itinere italico" (ed. Heyck, Innsbruck, 1888); Nicholas Trevet, compiler of the "Annales sex regum Angliæ" (ed. T. Hog, London, 1845); Jacopo of Acqui and his "Chronicon imaginis mundi" [(1330); Monumenta historiæ patriæ, script." III, Turin, 1848]; Galvano Fiamma (d. circal 1340) composed various works on the history of Milan (Ferrari, "Le cronache di Galvano Flamma e le fonti della Galvagnana" in "Bulletino dell' Istituto Storico Italiano", Rome, 1891); John of Colonna (c. 1336) is the author of a "De viris illustribus" and a "Mare Historiarum" (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de St. Thomas d'Aquin", Fribourg, 2nd ed., 1910, p. 97). In the second half of the fourteenth century Conrad of Halberstadt wrote a "Chronographia summorum Pontificum et Imperatorum romanorum (Merck, "Die Chronographia Konrads von Halberstadt" etc. in "Forsch. deutsch. Gesch." XX, 1880, 279); Henry of Hervordia (d. 1370) wrote a "Liber de rebus memorabilibus" (ed. Potthast, Göttingen, 1859); Stefanardo de Vicomercato is the author of the rhythmical poem "De gestis in civitate Mediolani" (in "Script. Rer. Ital.", IX; G. Calligaris, "Alcune osservazioni sopra un passo del poema 'De gestis in civitate Mediolani' di Stefanardo" in "Misc. Ceriani", Milan, 1910).十四世纪看见一个多米尼加共和国的历史学家的星系,其中长分别为:弗朗西斯Pipini博洛尼亚(卒于1320),马可波罗的拉丁翻译和直率的历史(长开始“Chronicon”作者。曼佐尼,“迪弗朗切斯科frate Pipini DA博洛尼亚,storico,geografo,viaggiatore DEL秒第十四”,博洛尼亚,1896年); Butrinto尼古拉(1313),“Relatio Henrici第七imperatoris itinere italico”(主编Heyck作者因斯布鲁克,1888年);尼古拉Trevet;雅格布阿奎和他的“Chronicon imaginis蒙迪”[(1330);纪念馆十年史料patriæ,脚本,编译器的“年鉴性regum Angliæ”(主编T.猪,伦敦,1845年) “三,都灵,1848年];恒流Fiamma(四circal 1340)由米兰历史上的各种工程(法拉利,”乐cronache迪恒流Flamma发送Le Fonti酒店德拉Galvagnana“中的”Bulletino Dell“因诺琴蒂基金会Storico意大利语”,罗马,1891年);科隆纳约翰(约1336)是“viris illustribus”的作者和“母马Historiarum”(芒多内,“德écrits authentiques圣托马斯D'阿坎”,弗里堡,第二版。 1910年,第97页)。哈尔伯施塔特康拉德下半年在十四世纪写的“Chronographia summorum Pontificum等Imperatorum romanorum(默克,”模具Chronographia Konrads冯哈尔伯施塔特“等在”Forsch。德语。Gesch。“XX 1880年,第279页); Hervordia亨利(卒于1370年)写了一个“LIBER的情势memorabilibus”(主编波特哈斯特,哥廷根,1859年); Stefanardo DE Vicomercato的节奏的诗“在civitate Mediolani gestis”的作者(在“脚本RER Ital。。”,第九章; G. Calligaris,“Alcune osservazioni SOPRA联合国帕苏DEL POEMA”德gestis civitate Mediolani“迪Stefanardo”在“杂项Ceriani。”,米兰,1910年)。At the end of the fifteenth century Hermann of Lerbeke composed a "Chronicon comitum Schauenburgensium" and a "Chronicon episcoporum Mindensium" (Eckmann, "Hermann von Lerbeke mit besonderer Berücksichtigung seines Lebens und der Abfassungszeit seiner Schriften" (Hamm, 1879); Hermann Korner left an important "Chronica novella" (ed. J. Schwalm, Göttingen 1895; cf. Waitz, "Ueber Hermann Korner und die Lübecker Chronikon", Göttingen, 1851). The "Chronicon" or "Summa Historialis" of St. Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence, composed about the middle of the fifteenth century is a useful compilation with original data for the author's own times (Schaube, "Die Quellen der Weltchronik des heil. Antonin Erzbischofs von Florenz" Hirschberg, 1880). Felix Fabri (Schmid, d. 1502) left valuable historical works; his "Evagatorium in Terræ Sanctæ, Arabiæ et Aegypti peregrinationem" (ed., Hassler, Stuttgart, 1843) is the most instructive and important work of this kind during the fourteenth century. He is also the author of a "Descriptio Sueviæ" ("Quellen zer Schweizer Gesch.", Basle, 1884) and a "Tractatus de civitate Ulmensi" (Litterarischesverein in Stuttgart, no. 186, Tübingen, 1889, ed. G. Veesenmeyer; cf., under the names of these writers, Quétif-Echard, "Script. Ord. Præd", Chevalier, "Répertoire . . . du moyen-âge; Bio-Bibl.", Paris, 1907, Potthast "Bib. Hist. Medii Ævi", Berlin, 1896; Hurter, "Nomenclator Lit.", II, 1906).在15世纪的Lerbeke赫尔曼结束“Chronicon comitum Schauenburgensium”和“Chronicon episcoporum Mindensium”(Eckmann,“赫尔曼冯Lerbeke麻省理工学院besonderer Berücksichtigung围网Lebens和DER Abfassungszeit围网渔船Schriften”(哈姆,1879年),赫尔曼克尔纳组成离开了一个重要的“Chronica中篇小说”(主编Schwalm研究,哥廷根1895;比照Waitz“Ueber赫尔曼克尔纳与Lübecker Chronikon”,哥廷根,1851年)。“Chronicon”或“大全Historialis”圣安东尼,大主教佛罗伦萨,关于十五世纪中叶的组成是一个作者的自己的时间原始数据(Schaube,“模具Quellen DER Weltchronik DES万岁。安东尼Erzbischofs冯Florenz”Hirschberg,1880)有用的汇编。菲利克斯飞达(施密德, D. 1502)留下了宝贵的历史著作,他的“Terræ Evagatorium Sanctæ,Arabiæ等埃及伊蚊peregrinationem”(主编,哈斯勒,斯图加特,1843年)是在14世纪的这种启发性和最重要的工作,他也是。作者“Descriptio Sueviæ”(“Quellen ZER施韦策Gesch”,巴塞尔,1884年)和“逻辑哲学论civitate Ulmensi”(Litterarischesverein斯图加特,没有186,蒂宾根大学,1889年,主编G. Veesenmeyer;。比照在这些作家的名字,Præd Quétif埃沙尔,“。脚本条例”,富安,“剧目杜中沙年龄;。生物Bibl”,巴黎,1907年,波特哈斯特“围脖组织胺Medii Ævi。” ,柏林,1896年; Hurter,“Nomenclator点燃了。”二,1906年)。

(viii) Miscellaneous works.(八)杂项工程。-- Being unable to devote a section to each of the different spheres wherein the Preachers exercised their activity, we shall mention here some works which obtained considerable influence or are particularly worthy of attention The "Specula" ("Naturale", "doctrinale", "historiale"; the "Speculum morale" is apocryphal) of Vincent of Beauvais constitute the largest encyclopedia of the Middle Ages and furnished materials for many subsequent writers (Vogel, "Literar-historischen Notizen über den mittelalterlichen Gelehrten Vincenz von Beauvais", Freiburg, 1843; Bourgeat, "Etudes sur Vincent de Beauvais", Paris, 1856).- 无法投入一节,其中传教士行使他们的活动的每一个不同的领域,我们将在这里提到的一些作品,其中获得相当大的影响力,或者是特别值得关注的“镜面”(“Naturale”,“doctrinale” “historiale”,“窥士气”是杜撰的)博韦文森特构成了中世纪和装饰材料大百科全书,许多后来的作家(傅高义“的Literar historischen Notizen黚巢穴mittelalterlichen Gelehrten Vincenz冯博韦”,弗赖堡, 1843; Bourgeat,“练习曲河畔圣文森特德博韦”,巴黎,1856年)。The work of Humbert of Romans, "De tractandis in concilio generali", composed in 1273 at the request of Gregory X and which served as a programme to the General Council of Lyons in 1274, contains the most remarkable views on the condition of Christian society and the reforms to be undertaken (Mortier, "Hist. des Maîtres généraux de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs", I, 88).罗马书亨伯特的工作,“德tractandis concilio忠”,1273格雷戈里X和要求组成一个里昂总理事会的计划在1274年,基督教社会条件下的最显着的意见改革进行(Mortier,“组织胺。DES Maîtres généraux DE L'公共秩序DES Frères的Prêcheurs”,我88)。The treatise is edited in full only in Brown "Appendix ad fasc. rerum expectandarum et fugendarum" (London, 1690, p. 185).该论文被编辑在全只在布朗“附录广告FASC。rerum expectandarum等fugendarum”(伦敦,1690年,第185页)。Burchard of Mount Sion with his "Descriptio Terræ Sanctae" written about 1283, became the classic geographer of Palestine during the Middle Ages (JCM Laurent, "Peregrinatores medii ævi quatuor", Leipsig, 1873).Peregrinatores medii ævi quatuor“,Leipsig,1873年),”与他的“Descriptio Terræ Sanctae”写约1283,锡安山Burchard成为巴勒斯坦在中世纪的经典地理学(JCM洛朗。William of Moerbeke, who died as Archbishop of Corinth about 1286, was the revisor of translations of Aristotle from the Greek and the translator of portions not hitherto translated.威廉Moerbeke,科林斯大主教死于1286左右,是从希腊文翻译的亚里士多德revisor,和以前未曾翻译部分的翻译。 To him are also due translations of numerous philosophical and scientific works of ancient Greek authors (Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 40).他也由于众多的哲学和科学的古希腊作家的作品翻译(芒多,“Siger布拉班特”,我,40)。The "Catholicon" of the Genoese John Balbus, completed in 1285, is a vast treatise on the Latin tongue, accompanied by an etymological vocabulary. “灵丹妙药”的热那亚约翰Balbus,在1285完成的舌头拉丁词源的词汇的陪同下,对广大论文。It is the first work on profane sciences ever printed.这是亵渎科学以往印刷的第一部作品。It is also famous because in the Mainz edition (1460) John Guttenberg first made use of movable type ("Incunabula xylographica et typographica", 1455-1500, Joseph Baer Frankfort, 1900, p. 11).这也是著名的,因为在美因茨版(1460年)约翰Guttenberg首先使用活字印刷(“Incunabula xylographica等typographica”,1455年至1500年,巴尔约瑟夫法兰克福,1900年,第11页)。The "Philobiblion" edited under the name of Richard of Bury, but composed by Robert Holcot (d. 1349), is the first medieval treatise on the love of books (ed. Cocheris, Paris, 1856; tr. Thomas, London, 1888). “Philobiblion”编辑下埋葬理查德的名称,但罗伯特Holcot(卒于1349)组成,是爱书(主编Cocheris,巴黎,1856;。TR托马斯,伦敦,1888年的第一个中世纪的论文)。 John of Tambach (d. 1372), first professor of theology at the newly-founded University of Prague (1347), is the author of a valuable work, the "Consolatio Theologiæ" (Denifle, "Magister Johann von Dambach" in "Archiv für Litt. u. Kirchengesch" III, 640).约翰Tambach(卒于1372),布拉格(1347)新成立的大学神学教授是一个有价值的工作的作者,“Consolatio Theologiæ”(德尼夫勒,“魔导师约翰冯Dambach”在“论坛存档毛皮利特。U. Kirchengesch“三,640)。Towards the end of the fifteenth century Frederico Frezzi, who died as Bishop of Foligno (1416), composed in Italian a poem in the spirit of the "Divine Commedia" and entitled "Il Quadriregio" (Foligno, 1725); (cf. Canetti, "Il Quadriregio", Venice, 1889; Filippini, "Le edizioni del Quadriregio" in "Bibliofilia", VIII, Florence, 1907).迈向福利尼奥(1416)组成,在意大利,在“神州神曲”的精神,诗,题为“金正日Quadriregio”(佛利诺1725年),作为主教去世的15世纪弗雷德里科Frezzi,结束;(参见卡内蒂“IL Quadriregio”,威尼斯,1889年;菲利皮尼,“乐edizioni DEL Quadriregio”在“Bibliofilia”,第八,佛罗伦萨,1907年)。The Florentine Thomas Sardi (d. 1517) wrote a long and valued poem, "L'anima peregrina", the composition of which dates from the end of the fifteenth century (Romagnoli "Frate Tommaso Sardi e il suo poema inedito dell' anima peregrine" in "Il propugnatore", XVIII, 1885, pt. II, 289).佛罗伦萨托马斯SARDI(卒于1517年)写了一个漫长而有价值的诗,“”灵魂peregrina“,其中的组成日期从十五世纪的结束(Romagnoli”百富勤Frate托马索SARDI发送IL锁POEMA inedito戴尔灵​​魂“”IL propugnatore“,十八,1885年,二角,289)。

(ix) Liturgy.(九)礼仪。-- Towards the middle of the thirteenth century the Dominicans had definitely established the liturgy which they still retain.- 迈向十三世纪中叶,多米尼加绝对成立的礼仪,他们仍然保留。The final correction (1256) was the work of Humbert of Romans.最后的修正(1256)是罗马人亨伯特的工作。It was divided into fourteen sections or volumes.它被分为14个部分或卷。The prototype of this monumental work is preserved at Rome in the general archives of the order ("Script. Ord. Præd." I, 143; "Zeitschr. f. Kathol. Theol.", VII, 10).这一巨著的原型是保存在罗马,在该命令的一般档案(“脚本条例Præd。”我,143“。Zeitschr F.​​ Kathol Theol。”第七章,10条)。A portable copy for the use of the master general, a beautiful specimen of thirteenth-century book-making, is preserved in the British Museum, no. ,没有一个便携使用的主人一般,一个美丽的标本,13世纪的书副本保存在大英博物馆。23,935 (JW Legg, "Tracts on the Mass", Bradshaw Society, 1904; Barge, "Le Chant liturgique dans 1'Ordre de Saint-Dominique" in "L'Année Dominicaine", Paris, 1908, 27; Gagin, "Un manuscrit liturgique des Frères Prêcheurs antérieur aux réglements d Humbert de Romans" in "Revue des Bibliothèques", 1899, p. 163; Idem, "Dominicains et Teutoniques, conflit d'attribution du 'Liber Choralis'" no. 182 du catalogue 120 de M. Ludwig Rosenthal" in "Revue des Bibliothèques", 1908). Jerome of Moravia, about 1250, composed a "Tractatus de Musica" (Paris, Bib. Nat. lat. 16,663), the most important theoretical work of the thirteenth century on liturgical chant, some fragments of which were placed as preface to the Dominican liturgy of Humbert of Romans. It was edited by Coussemaker in his "Scriptores de musica medii ævi", I (Paris, 1864). (Cf. Kornmüller "Die alten Musiktheoretiker XX. Hieronymus von Mären" in "Kirchenmusikalisehes Jahrbueh", IV, 1889, 14.) The Preachers also left numerous liturgical compositions, among the most renowned being the Office of the Blessed Sacrament by St. Thomas Aquinas, one of the masterpieces of Catholic liturgy (Mandonnet, "Des écrits authentiques de S. Thomas d'Aquin", 2nd ed. p. 127). Armand du Prat (d. 1306) is the author of the beautiful Office of St. Louis, King of France. His work, selected by the Court of Philip the Bold, came into universal use in France ("Script. Ord. Præd." I, 499; "Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bib. Nat.", XXVII, 11th pt., 369, n. 6). The "Dies Iræ" has been attributed to Cardinal Latino Malabranca who was in his time a famous composer of ecclesiastical chants and offices ("Scritti vari di Filologia", Rome, 1901, p. 488). 23935(JW美,“大片地下”,布拉德肖协会,1904年;驳船,“咏乐liturgique DANS 1'Ordre圣多米尼克”在“欧莱雅ANNEE Dominicaine”,巴黎,1908年,第27条; Gagin,“联合国manuscrit liturgique Frères的Prêcheurs antérieur AUX réglements ð亨伯特DE入乡随俗“,在”DES Bibliothèques杂志“,1899年,第163页;同上,”Dominicains等Teutoniques,冲突德归属杜“LIBER Choralis”120 - 182杜目录。 M.路德维希罗森塔尔“在”杂志Bibliothèques“,1908年)。杰罗姆摩拉维亚,约1250,组成一个”逻辑哲学论DE MUSICA“(巴黎,背带裤。NAT。纬度16663),十三世纪最重要的理论工作礼仪高唱,其中一些碎片被放在序言罗马书亨伯特多米尼加礼仪,正是在他的“Scriptores DE MUSICA medii ævi”,我(巴黎,1864年)(见Kornmüller“模具alten Coussemaker编辑Musiktheoretiker XX。海欧纳莫斯冯麻仁丸“”Kirchenmusikalisehes Jahrbueh“,IV,1889年,14。)传道人也留下了无数的礼仪组成,其中最负盛名的的圣体多瑪斯的杰作之一办公室天主教的礼仪(芒多内,“德écrits authentiques DE S.托马斯D'阿坎”,第2版第127页)。阿尔芒杜宝勒(卒于1306)是法国国王圣路易斯漂亮的办公室,作者。由法院的菲利普大胆选择,他的工作,开始在法国普遍使用(的我,499“脚本条例Præd。”;“告示等extraits DES manuscrits DE LA背带裤NAT。。”,二十七,第11 PT。 369注6)。“模具Iræ”已被归因于枢机拉丁裔Malabranca谁在他的时间是教会圣歌和办事处(“Scritti变量DI Filologia”,罗​​马,1901年,第488页)的著名作曲家。

(x) Humanistic works.(X)人文工程。-- The order felt more than is commonly thought the influence of Humanism and furnished it with noteworthy contributions.- 为了感觉比一般认为是人文精神的影响,并配有突出贡献。This influence was continued during the following period in the sixteenth century and reacted on its Biblical and theological compositions.这种影响继续在下列期限在16世纪,对圣经和神学作品的反应。Leonardo Giustiniani, Archbishop of Mytilene, in 1449, composed against the celebrated Poggio a treatise "De vera nobilitate", edited with Poggio's "De nobilitate" (Avellino, 1657).莱昂纳多Giustiniani,大主教米蒂利尼,1449年,对著名的波焦一篇论文组成的“德芦荟nobilitate”,编辑与波焦的“德nobilitate”(阿韦利诺,1657年)。 The Sicilian Thomas Schifaldo wrote commentaries on Perseus about 1461 and on Horace in 1476.西西里托马斯Schifaldo写在1476年约1461英仙座和贺拉斯的评论。He is the author of a "De viris illustribus Ordinis Prædicatorum", written in humanistic style, and of the Office of St. Catherine of Siena, usually but incorrectly ascribed to Pius II (Cozzuli "Tommaso Schifaldo umanista siciliano del sec. XV", Palermo, 1897, in "Documenti per servire alla storia di Sicilia", VI).他是“viris illustribus Ordinis Prædicatorum”写在人文风格,圣凯瑟琳锡耶纳办公室的作者,通常,但错误地归因于碧岳二世(Cozzuli“托马索Schifaldo umanista西西利亚诺DEL秒第十五”巴勒莫,1897年,在“Documenti每servire ALLA走势图历史西西里”,第六章)。 The Venetian Francesco Colonna is the author of the celebrated work "The Dream of Poliphilus" ("Poliphili Hypnerotomachia, ubi humane omnia non nisi somnium esse docet", Aldus, Venice, 1499; cf. Popelin, "Le songe de Poliphile ou hypnerotomachia de Frère Francesco Colonna", Paris, 1880).威尼斯人弗朗切斯科科隆纳是著名的作品“梦Poliphilus”(“绮梦Hypnerotomachia,UBI人道OMNIA非暂准somnium ESSE docet”,Aldus,威尼斯,1499的作者。比照Popelin,“乐songe DE Poliphile OU hypnerotomachia DE弗里尔弗朗切斯科科隆纳“,巴黎,1880年)。Colonna's work aims to condense in the form of a romance all the knowledge of antiquity.科隆纳的工作,目的是凝聚在一个浪漫的形式,所有古代的知识。It gives evidence of its author's profound classical learning and impassioned love for Græco-Roman culture.它赋予其作者深厚的古典希腊罗马文化的学习和慷慨激昂的爱的证据。The work, which is accompanied by the most perfect illustrations of the time, has been called "the most beautiful book of the Renaissance" (Ilg, "Ueber den kunsthistorisches werth der Hypnerotomachia Poliphili", Vienna, 1872; Ephrusi, "Etudes sur le songe de Poliphile" in "Bulletin de Bibliophile" 1887, Paris, 1888; Dorez, "Des origines et de la diffusion du songe de Poliphile" in "Revue des Bibliothèques", VI, 1896, 239; Gnoli "Il sogno di Polifilo, in "Bibliofila", 1900, 190; Fabrini, "Indagini sul Polifilo" in "Giorn. Storico della letteratura Italiana", XXXV, 1900, I; Poppelreuter, "Der anonyme Meister des Polifilo" in "Zur Kunstgesch. des Auslandes", XX, Strassburg, 1904; Molmenti, "Alcuni documenti concernenti l'autore della (Hypnerotomachia Poliphili)" in "Archivio storico italiano", Ser. V, XXXVIII (906, 291). Tommaso Radini Todeschi (Radinus Todischus) composed under the title "Callipsychia" (Milan, 1511) an allegorical romance in the manner of Apuleius and inspired by the Dream of Poliphilus. The Dalmatian, John Polycarpus Severitanus of Sebenico, commentated the eight parts of the discourse of Donatus and the Ethics of Seneca the Younger (Perugia, 1517; Milan, 1520; Venice, 1522) and composed "Gramatices historicæ, methodicæ et exegeticæ" (Perugia, 1518). The Bolognese Leandro Alberti (d. 1550) was an elegant Latinist and his "De viris illustribus ordinis praedicatorum" (Bologna, 1517), written in the humanistic manner, is a beautiful specimen of Bolognese publishing ("Script. Ord. Præd.", II, 137; Campori, "Sei lettere inedite di Fra Leandro Alberti" in "Atti e memorie della Deput. di Storia patria per le prov. Modenesi e Parmensi", I, 1864, p. 413). Finally Matteo Bandello (d. 1555), who was called the "Dominican Boccacio", is regarded as the first novelist of the Italian Cinquecento and his work shows what an evil influence the Renaissance could exert on churchmen (Masi "Matteo Bandello o vita italiana in un novelliere del cinquecento", Bologna, 1900).这项工作,这是伴随着时间的最完美的插图,被称为“文艺复兴时期的最美丽的书”(ILG,“Ueber书斋艺术史werth DER Hypnerotomachia绮梦”,维也纳,1872年; Ephrusi,“练习曲SUR LE songe Poliphile“在”通报的藏书家“1887年,巴黎,1888年; Dorez,”德origines ET DE LA扩散杜songe DE Poliphile“在”杂志Bibliothèques“,第六,1896年,239; Gnoli”IL sogno DI Polifilo在“Bibliofila”,1900年,190; Fabrini的“Indagini扎Polifilo”在“Giorn Storico德拉letteratura意大利。”第三十五卷,1900年,我Poppelreuter,“明镜anonyme梅斯特Polifilo”在“楚Kunstgesch DES Auslandes”托马索Radini Todeschi XX,斯特拉斯堡,1904年;。Molmenti,“Alcuni documenti concernenti L' autore德拉(Hypnerotomachia绮梦)”“Archivio storico意大利语”,V辑,第三十八(906,291)(Radinus Todischus)组成的标题下“Callipsychia”(米兰,1511)Apuleius方式寓意浪漫和灵感Poliphilus梦。达尔马提亚,约翰Polycarpus Severitanus Sebenico八个部分commentated那图斯的话语和伦理塞涅卡雅戈尔(佩鲁贾,1517米兰,1520;威尼斯,1522),并组成“Gramatices historicæ,methodicæ等exegeticæ”(佩鲁贾,1518)博洛尼亚莱安德罗德阿尔贝蒂(卒于1550)是一个优雅的Latinist和他的“德viris illustribus ordinis praedicatorum” (博洛尼亚,1517年),在人文的方式写的,是一个美丽的标本波洛尼亚出版(“条例Præd脚本。。”,第二,137; Campori,“SEI lettere inedite DI FRA莱安德罗德阿尔贝蒂”“态度发送memorie德拉Deput。DI走势图历史帕特里亚每勒省Modenesi发送Parmensi“,1864年,第413页)。利玛窦Bandello(卒于1555年),谁被称为”多米尼加Boccacio“,最后是作为第一个小说家的意大利16世纪意大利和他的作品显示了文艺复兴时期的牧师(玛斯“利玛窦Bandello Ø VITA意大利在联合国novelliere DEL 16世纪意大利”,博洛尼亚,1900年)施加什么邪恶的影响。

(g) The Preachers and Art(G)的传教士和艺术

The Preachers hold an important place in the history of art.传教士认为在艺术史上的一个重要的地方。 They contributed in many ways to the artistic life of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.他们在艺术生活和中世纪,文艺复兴时期的许多方面作出了贡献。Their churches and convents offered an extraordinary field of activity to contemporary artists, while a large number of the Preachers themselves did important work in the various spheres of art.他们的教堂和修道院的当代艺术家提供了一个非凡的活动领域,而大量的传教士自己在艺术的各个领域的重要工作。Finally by their teaching and religious activity they often exercised a profound influence on the direction and inspiration of art.最后通过自己的教学和宗教活动,他们经常行使的方向和艺术灵感产生深远的影响。Primarily established under a regime of evangelic poverty, the order took severe measures to avoid in its churches all that might suggest luxury and wealth.福音贫困的制度主要是根据建立,以便采取严厉的措施,以避免在其教会所有可能建议奢侈品和财富。Until the middle of the thirteenth century its constitutions and general chapters energetically legislated against anything tending to suppress the evidence of poverty ("Archiv. f. Litt.-und Kirchgesch.", I, 225, "Acta Cap. Gen.", I, passim).直到十三世纪中叶,它的宪法和一般章节大力立法禁止任何倾向抑制贫困的证据(“论坛存档。F. Litt.和Kirchgesch。”我,225,“文献章将军”,我,各处)。But the order's intense activity, its establishment in large cities and familiar contact with the whole general movement of civilization triumphed over this state of things.但秩序的剧烈活动,其设立在大城市和熟悉的接触与整个文明的一般运动战胜了这个国家的事情。As early as 1250, churches and convents appeared called opus sumptuosum (Finke, "Die Freiburger Dominikaner und der Münsterbau", Freiburg, 1901 p. 47; Potthast, op. cit., 22,426).早在1250年,教堂和修道院出现所谓OPUS sumptuosum(芬克,“模具Freiburger Dominikaner和DER Münsterbau”,弗赖堡,1901第47;。波特哈斯特,同上,22426)。They were, however, encouraged by ecclesiastical authority and the order eventually relinquished its early uncompromising attitude.然而,他们鼓励教会权威和秩序最终放弃了早期的不妥协的态度。Nevertheless ascetic and morose minds were scandalized by what they called royal edifices (Matthew Paris, "Hist. maj.", ad. ann. 1243; d'Achéry, "Spicelegium", Paris, 1723, II, 634; Cocheris "Philobiblion", Paris, 1856, p. 227).不过苦行和郁闷的头脑是反感他们所谓的皇家华厦(马修巴黎,“组织胺少校。”广告ANN 1243;。D' Achéry,“Spicelegium”,巴黎,1723年,第二,634; Cocheris“Philobiblion”巴黎,1856年,第227页)。The second half of the thirteenth century saw the beginning of a series of monuments, many of which are still famous in history and art." The Dominicans," says Cesare Cantù, "soon had in the chief towns of Italy magnificent monasteries and superb temples, veritable wonders of art. Among others may be mentioned: the Church of Santa Maria Novella, at Florence; Santa Maria Sopra Minerva, at Rome; St. John and St. Paul, at Venice; St. Nicholas, at Treviso; St. Dominic, at Naples, at Perugia, at Prato, and at Bologna, with the splendid tomb of the founder, St. Catherine, at Pisa; St. Eustorgius and Sta Maria delle Grazie, at Milan, and several others remarkable for a rich simplicity and of which the architects were mostly monks" ("Les Hérétiques de l'Italie", Paris, 1869, I, 165; Berthier, "L'église de Sainte Sabine à Rome", Rome, 1910; Mullooly, "St. Clement, Pope and Martyr, and his Basilica in Rome", Rome, 1873; Nolan, "The Basilica of St. Clement in Rome" Rome, 1910; Brown, "The Dominican Church of Santa Maria Novelli at Florence, An historical, architectural and artistic study", Edinburgh, 1902; Berthier, "L'église de la Minerve à Rome, Rome: 1910; Marchese, "San Marco convento dei Padri Predicatori in Firenze", Florence, 1853; Malaguzzi, "La chiesa e il convento di S. Domenico a Bologna secondo nuove richerche" in "Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft", XX, 1897, 174; Caffi, "Della chiesa di Sant' Eustorgio in Milano", Milan, 1841; Valle, "S. Domenico Maggiore di Napoli", Naples, 1854; Milanese, "Le Chiesa monumentale di S. Nicolò in Treviso", Treviso, 1889; Mortier, "Notre Dame de la Guercia" Paris, 1904; Ital. tr. Ferretti, Florence, 1904; Oriandini, "Descrizione storica della chiesa di S. Domenico di Perugia", Perugia, 1798; Biebrach, "Die holzgedeckten Franziskaner und Dominikanerkirchen in Umbrien und Toskana", Berlin, 1908).十三世纪的下半年,开始了一系列古迹,其中有许多仍然是著名的历史和艺术。“多米尼加,”切萨雷坎说,“很快在意大利宏伟的寺庙和高超的寺庙主要城镇名副其实的奇观,除其他艺术可能会提到:在佛罗伦萨的Santa Maria Novella教堂,圣玛利亚SOPRA密涅瓦,在罗马,圣约翰和保罗,在威尼斯,圣尼古拉斯,在特雷维索;圣多米尼克,在那不勒斯,佩鲁贾,在普拉托,在博洛尼亚,与灿烂的创始人,圣凯瑟琳,在比萨墓;阿尔圣Eustorgius和玛丽亚站Grazie,在米兰,和其他几个显着的丰富的简单并其中的建筑师大多是和尚“(”“Hérétiques DE L' Italie广场”,巴黎,1869年,我,165;贝蒂埃,“L' église德圣萨宾罗马的”,罗马,1910年; Mullooly,“圣克莱门特教皇和烈士,他的教堂在罗马“,罗马,1873年;诺兰,”在罗马的圣克莱门特教堂“罗马,1910年,布朗,”佛罗伦萨的圣玛丽亚诺维利多米尼加教堂,历史,建筑和艺术研究“,爱丁堡,1902年;贝蒂埃,”L' église DE LA Minerve酒店罗马的,罗马:1910;马尔凯塞,“圣马可convento DEI Padri Predicatori”在佛罗伦萨,佛罗伦萨,1853年; Malaguzzi,“基耶萨发送IL convento DI多梅尼科一个博洛尼亚secondo nuove richerche“中的”Repertorium献给Kunstwissenschaft“,XX,1897年,174 S.; Caffi,”德拉基耶萨DI桑特“Eustorgio在米兰”,米兰,1841年;山谷,“S多梅尼科焦雷DI那不勒斯”那不勒斯,1854年,米兰,“乐基耶萨纪念碑DI S.龙华民在特雷维索”,特雷维索,1889年; Mortier,“巴黎圣母院Guercia”巴黎,1904年;。Ital TR法拉,佛罗伦萨,1904年; Oriandini,“Descrizione storica德拉基耶萨DI S.多梅尼科DI佩鲁贾“,佩鲁贾,1798年; Biebrach,”模具holzgedeckten Franziskaner和Dominikanerkirchen在Umbrien和Toskana“,柏林,1908年)。

France followed in Italy's footsteps.法国随后在意大利的后尘。Here mention must be made of the Jacobins of Toulouse (Carrière, "Les Jacobins de Toulouse", 2nd ed., Toulouse, sd); St. Jacques de Paris (Millie, "Antiquités rationales", Paris, 1790, III, 1); St. Maximin in Provence (Rostan, "Notice sur l'église de Saint-Maximin", Brignoles, 1859); Notre-Dame-de-Confort at Lyons (Cormier, "L'ancien couvent des Dominicains de Lyon", Lyons, 1898).这里提到必须图卢兹的雅各宾派(Carrière,“雅各宾派的图卢兹”,第二版,图卢兹,SD。)圣雅克巴黎(米莉,“Antiquités理由”,巴黎,1790年,三,1)圣极大极小在普罗旺斯(Rostan,“L' église公告河畔圣极大极小”,Brignoles,1859年);里昂巴黎圣母院- DE - CONFORT(Cormier的“L' ancien couvent DES Dominicains里昂,里昂,1898年)。A comprehensive account of the architectural work of the Dominicans in France may be found in the magnificent publication of Rohault de Fleury, "Gallia Dominicana, Les couvents de Saint-Dominique en France au moyen-âge" (Paris, 1903, 2 vols. in 4).多米尼加在法国的建筑设计工作的一个综合考虑,可能会发现在罗奥 - 弗勒里的宏伟出版,“Gallia多米尼加,莱斯couvents圣多米尼克EN法国欧中沙时代”(巴黎,1903年,2卷。 4)。Spain was also covered with remarkable monuments: St. Catherine of Barcelona and St. Thomas of Madrid were destroyed by fire; S. Esteban at Salamanca, S. Pablo and S. Gregorio at Valladolid, Santo Tomas at Avila, San Pablo at Seville and at Cordova.西班牙也布满了显着的古迹:圣凯瑟琳巴塞罗那和马德里圣托马斯被大火烧毁;埃斯特万在萨拉曼卡巴勃罗及S.格雷戈里奥在巴利亚多利德,城主在阿维拉托马斯,在塞维利亚圣巴勃罗在科尔多瓦。 S. Cruz at Granada, Santo Domingo at Valencia and Saragossa (Martinez-Vigil, "La orden de Predicadores", Barcelona, 1886). S.克鲁兹在格拉纳达,瓦伦西亚和萨拉戈萨在圣多明各圣多明各(马丁内兹,守夜,“香格里拉勋章Predicadores”,巴塞罗那,1886年)。 Portugal also had beautiful buildings.葡萄牙也有漂亮的建筑。The church and convent of Batalha are perhaps the most splendid ever dwelt in by the order (Murphy, "Plans, elevations, sections and views of the Church of Batalha", London, 1795; de Condeixa, "O mosteiro de Batalha em Portugal", Paris, 1892; Vascoucellos, "Batalha. Convento de Santa Maria da Victoria", Porto, 1905).巴塔利亚教会和修道院也许是最辉煌的秩序(墨菲,“平面图,立面图,剖面和意见巴塔利亚教会”,伦敦,1795年曾经住在DE Con​​deixa,“O mosteiro DE巴塔利亚EM葡萄牙”巴黎,1892年; Vascoucellos,“巴塔利亚Convento圣玛丽亚DA维多利亚”,波尔图,1905年)。Germany had beautiful churches and convents, usually remarkable for their simplicity and the purity of their lines (Scherer, "Kirchen und Kloster der Franziskaner und Dominikaner in Thuringen", Jena, 1910; Schneider, "Die Kirchen der Dominikaner und Karmeliten" in "Mittelalterliche Ordensbauten in Mainz", Mainz, 1879; "Zur Wiederherstellung der Dominikanerkirche in Augsburg" in "Augsburger Postzeitung", 12 Nov., 1909; "Des Dominikanerkloster in Eisenach", Eisenach, 1857; Ingold, "Notice sur l'église et le couvent des Dominicains de Colmar", Colmar, 1894; Burckhardt-Riggenbach, "Die Dominikaner Klosterkirche in Basel", Basle, 1855; Stammler, "Die ehemalige Predigerkirche in Bern und ihre Wandmalerein" in "Berner Kunstdenkmaler", III, Bern, 1908).德国美丽的教堂和修道院,通常显着为他们的简单和其生产线的纯度(舍雷尔,“Kirchen和克洛斯特DER Franziskaner和Dominikaner”在图林根州耶拿,1910年,施耐德,“模具Kirchen DER Dominikaner和Karmeliten”“Mittelalterliche Ordensbauten在美因茨,美因茨,1879年,“楚Wiederherstellung DER Dominikanerkirche在奥格斯堡”“Augsburger Postzeitung”,1909年11月12,“德Dominikanerkloster在埃森纳赫”,埃森纳赫,1857年; INGOLD,“通知河畔L' église ET LE couvent DES Dominicains科尔马“,科尔马,1894年;布克哈特- Riggenbach,”模具在巴塞尔Dominikaner Klosterkirche“,巴塞尔,1855年; Stammler,”模具“伯尔尼Kunstdenkmaler”,三,伯尔尼,1908年的伯尔尼和ihre Wandmalerein“Predigerkirche ehemalige )。

Whatever may be said to the contrary the Dominicans as well as other mendicant orders created a special architectural art.不管,可以说是相反的多米尼加以及其他乞讨订单创建了一个特殊的建筑艺术。 They made use of art as they found it in the course of their history and adapted it to their needs.他们的艺术,因为他们发现在他们的历史过程和适应自己的需要。They adopted Gothic art and assisted in its diffusion, but they accepted the art of the Renaissance when it had supplanted the ancient forms.他们通过哥特式艺术,并协助其扩散,但他们接受了文艺复兴时期的艺术时,它已取代了古老的形式。Their churches varied in dimensions and richness, according to the exigencies of the place.不同尺寸和丰富他们的教会,根据地方的迫切需要。They built a number of churches with double naves and a larger number with open roofs.他们建立了双殿和一个开放的屋顶大量的一些教堂。The distinct characteristic of their churches resulted from their sumptuary legislation which excluded decorated architectural work, save in the choir.禁止奢侈立法排除装饰建筑工作的显着特点,他们的教堂,保存在合唱团。Hence the predominance of single lines in their buildings.因此,在其建筑物的单线条的优势。This exclusivism, which often went as far as the suppression of capitals on the columns, gives great lightness and elegance to the naves of their churches.这种排外,经常去尽可能制止列首都,给人极大的轻盈和优雅殿教堂。While we lack direct information concerning most of the architects of these monuments, there is no doubt that many of the men who supervised the construction of its churches and convents were members of the order and they even assisted in works of art outside of the order.虽然我们缺乏直接的信息,关于这些古迹的建筑师最,这是毫无疑问,许多的人监督建造的教堂和修道院的顺序的成员,他们甚至在艺术作品以外的顺序协助。

Thus we know that Brother Diemar built the Dominican church of Ratisbon (1273-77) (Sighart, "Gesch. d. bildenden Künste im Kgn. Bayern", Munich, 1862).因此,我们知道弟兄Diemar内置的拉蒂斯邦多米尼加教堂(1273年至1277年)(Sighart,“Gesch。D. bildenden Künste IM KGN。拜仁慕尼黑,1862年)。Brother Volmar exercised his activity in Alsace about the same time and especially at Colmar (Ingold, op. cit.).兄弟Volmar行使在阿尔萨斯大约在同一时间,他的活动,特别是在科尔马(INGOLD,同上)。Brother Humbert was the architect of the church and convent of Bonn, as well as of the stone bridge across the Aar, in the Middle Ages the most beautiful in the city (Howard, "Des Dominikaner-Kloster in Bern von 1269-1400", Bern, 1857).兄弟亨伯特是在中世纪最美丽的城市(霍华德,“1269至1400年在伯尔尼冯德Dominikaner -克洛斯特”,波恩的教堂和修道院的建筑师,以及整个AAR的石桥,伯尔尼,1857年)。In Italy architects of the order are known to fame, especially at Florence, where they erected the church and cloisters of S. Maria Novella, which epitomize the whole history of Florentine art (Davidsohn, "Forschungen zur Gesch. von Florenz", Berlin, 1898, 466; Marchese, "Memorie dei più insigni pittori, scultori e architetti domenicani", Bologna, 1878, I).在意大利建筑师的顺序是已知的声名鹊起,特别是在佛罗伦萨,他们在那里竖立S. Maria Novella的集大成整个佛罗伦萨艺术历史(Davidsohn,“Forschungen楚Gesch。冯Florenz”,柏林的教堂和修道院, 1898年,466;马尔凯塞,“Memorie DEI往来文章insigni pittori scultori发送architetti domenicani”,博洛尼亚,1878年,我)。At first the order endeavoured to banish sculpture from its churches, but eventually accepted it and set the example by the construction of the beautiful tomb of St. Dominic at Bologna, and of St. Peter of Verona at the Church of St. Eustorgius at Milan.起初,为了努力从教堂中驱逐出去的雕塑,但最终接受了它,并设置由建设美丽墓圣星在博洛尼亚的例子,并在圣彼得的维罗纳在米兰的圣Eustorgius教会。 A Dominican, William of Pisa, worked on the former (Berthier, "Le tombeau de St. Dominique", Paris, 1895; Beltrani, "La cappella di S. Pietro Martire presso la Basilica di Sant Eustorgio in Milano" in "Archivio storico dell' arte", V, 1892).多米尼加,威廉的比萨,工作前(贝蒂埃,“德圣乐tombeau多米尼克”,巴黎,1895年; Beltrani,“清唱DI S.彼得罗Martire presso LA大殿DI桑特Eustorgio在米兰”,在“Archivio storico戴尔“ARTE”,第五,1892年)。Brother Paschal of Rome executed interesting sculptural works, eg his sphinx of Viterbo, signed and dated (1286), and the paschal candlestick of Sta.罗马兄弟逾越节执行有趣的雕塑作品,如他的狮身人面像维泰博,签名并注明日期(1286年),和站逾越节的烛台。Maria in Cosmedin, Rome ("Römische Quartalschrift", 1893, 29).玛丽亚在Cosmedin,罗马(“Römische Quartalschrift”,1893年,29)。

There were many miniaturists and painters among the Preachers.有许多miniaturists和传教士之间的画家。As early as the thirteenth century Hugh Ripelin of Strasburg (d. 1268) was renowned as a painter (Mon. Germ. Hist.: SS., XVII, 233).早在十三世纪的休斯特拉斯堡Ripelin(卒于1268)是著名的画家(周一胚芽组织胺,SS,第十七条,233)。 But the lengthy list is dominated by two masters who overshadow the others, Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo.但冗长的名单主要是由两个主人,谁掩盖了其他人,Angelico的法兰克福机场和法兰克福机场Bartolommeo。 The work of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (d. 1455) is regarded as the highest embodiment of Christian inspiration in art (Marchese, "Memorie", I, 245; Tumiàti, "Frate Angelico", Florence, 1897; Supino "Beato Angelico", Florence, 1898; Langton Dougias, "Fra Angelico", London, 1900; Wurm, "Meister und Schülerarbeit in Fra Angelicos Werk", Strasburg, 1907; Cochin, "Le Bienheureux Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole", Paris, 1906; Schottmuller, "Fra Angelico da Fiesole", Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1911 (Fr. ed., Paris, 1911). Fra Bartolommeo belongs to the golden age of the Italian Renaissance. He is one of the great masters of drawing. His art is scholarly, noble and simple and imbued with a tranquil and restrained piety (Marchese, "Memorie", II, 1; Franz, "Fra Bartolommeo della Porta", Ratisbon, 1879; Gruyer, "Fra Bartolommeo della Porta et Mariotto Albertinelli", Paris-London, sd; Knapp, "Fra Bartolommeo della Porta und die Schule von San Marco", Halle, 1903). The order also produced remarkable painters on glass: James of Ulm (d. 1491), who worked chiefly at Bologna and William of Marcillat (d. 1529), who in the opinion of his first biographer was perhaps the greatest painter on glass who ever lived (Marchese, "Memorie", II; Mancini, "Guglielmo de Marcillat francese insuperato pittore sul vetro", Florence, 1909). As early as the fourteenth century Dominican churches and convents began to be covered with mural decorations. Some of these edifices became famous sanctuaries of art, such as S. Maria Novella and S. Marco of Florence. But the phenomenon was general at the end of the fifteenth century, and thus the order received some of the works of the greatest artists, as for instance the "Last Supper" of Leonardo da Vinci (1497-98) in the refectory of S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan (Bossi, "Del cenacolo di Leonardo daVinci", Milan, 1910; Sant' Ambrogio, "Note epigrafiche ed artistiche intorno alla sale del Cenacolo ed al tempio di Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milano" in "Archivio Storico Lombardo", 1892).法兰克福机场乔瓦尼Angelico的DA菲耶索莱(卒于1455)的工作被视为最高的艺术体现基督教的启示(侯爵,“Memorie”,我245; Tumiàti,“Frate Angelico的”,佛罗伦萨,1897年; Supino“Beato Angelico的“,佛罗伦萨,1898年,兰顿Dougias,”法兰克福机场Angelico的“,伦敦,1900年,亚龙,”梅斯特和Schülerarbeit在法兰克福机场Angelicos WERK“,斯特拉斯堡,1907年,科钦,”乐Bienheureux FRA乔瓦尼Angelico的DA菲耶索莱“,巴黎,1906年; Schottmuller,“法兰克福机场Angelico的DA菲耶索莱”,斯图加特和莱比锡,1911年(Fr.,巴黎,1911年)。法兰克福机场Bartolommeo属于意大利文艺复兴时期的黄金时代,他是绘画大师之一,他的艺术是学术,高贵和简单,处处洋溢着一个平静和克制的虔诚(侯爵,“Memorie”,二,1;弗兰兹,“法兰克福机场Bartolommeo德拉PORTA”,拉蒂斯邦,1879年; Gruyer,“法兰克福机场Bartolommeo德拉Porta等Mariotto Albertinelli”,巴黎伦敦,SD;纳普,“法兰克福机场Bartolommeo德拉PORTA和死亡学派冯圣马可”,哈雷,1903年)在玻璃上也产生了显着画家的顺序为:詹姆斯乌尔姆(卒于1491),曾在博洛尼亚和威廉主要Marcillat(卒于1529年),谁在他的第一个传记作者认为,或许是在玻璃上最伟大的画家曾经住(马尔凯塞,“Memorie”,第二;曼奇尼,“Guglielmo Marcillat弗朗西斯insuperato pittore扎vetro”,佛罗伦萨,始于1909年),早在十四世纪多米尼加教堂和修道院壁画装饰覆盖。这些华厦有的成了著名的避难所艺术,如S. Maria Novella的佛罗伦萨和S.马可波罗,但这种现象一般在十五世纪末,为了获得最伟大的艺术家的作品为实例,“最后的晚餐”达芬奇(1497年至1498年)在食堂的S.玛丽亚阿尔在米兰Grazie(博西,“DEL cenacolo DI莱昂纳多达芬奇”,米兰,1910年,桑特“Ambrogio,”注意epigrafiche版artistiche intorno ALLA销售DEL Cenacolo ED AL坦皮奥DI圣玛丽亚阿尔在米兰Grazie“中的”Archivio Storico隆巴多“,1892年)。

The Preachers exercised a marked influence on painting.传教士行使上画一个显着的影响。The order infused its apostolic zeal and theological learning into the objects of art under its control, thus creating what may be called theological painting.为了注入其使徒到在其控制下的艺术的对象和神学的学习热情,从而创造什么可称为神学画。The decoration of the Campo Santo of Pisa, Orcagna's frescoes in the Strozzi chapel and the Spanish chapel at S. Maria Novella, Florence, have long been famous (Michel, "Hist. de l'art depuis les premiers temps chrétiens jusqu'à nos jours", Paris, II, 1908; Hettner, "Die Dominikaner in der Kunstgesch. des l4. und 15. Jahrhunderts" in "Italienische Studien zur Gesch. der Renaissance", Brunswick, 1879, 99; "Renaissance und Dominikaner Kunst" in "Hist.-polit. Blatter", LXXXXIII, 1884; Perate, "Un Triomphe de la Mort de Pietro Lorenzetti", Paris, 1902; Bacciochi, "Il chiostro verde e la cappella degli Spagnuoli", Florence; Endres, "Die Verherrlichung des Dominikanerordens in der Spanischen Kapelle an S. Maria Novella zu Florenz" in "Zeitschr. f. Christliche Kunst", 1909, p. 323).坎普圣多明各的比萨装饰,长期以来一直在Orcagna Strozzi教堂和西班牙教堂S. Maria Novella的,佛罗伦萨的壁画,著名的(米歇尔,“历史。DE L'艺术depuis LES总理临时工chrétiens jusqu'à NOS jours“,巴黎,II,1908年;赫特纳,”模具DER Kunstgesch DES L4 Dominikaner UND 15 Jahrhunderts“”Italienische家庭研究楚Gesch DER文艺复兴“,不伦瑞克,1879年,99”。。文艺复兴和Dominikaner孔斯特“ “。Hist. - polit布拉特”,LXXXXIII,1884年; Perate,“取消凯旋门德拉莫尔的彼得罗Lorenzetti”,巴黎,1902年; Bacciochi“IL chiostro豪园发送LA清唱degli Spagnuoli”,佛罗伦萨;恩德雷斯,“模具Verherrlichung DES Dominikanerordens DER Spanischen卡佩勒安南玛利亚祖Florenz“”Zeitschr。F. Christliche孔斯特“,1909年,第323页)。To the same causes were due the numerous triumphs of St. Thomas Aquinas (Hettner, op. cit.; Berthier, "Le triomphe de Saint Thomas dans la chapelle des Espagnols à Florence", Fribourg, 1897; Ucelli, "Dell' iconografia di s. Tommaso d'Aquino", Naples, 1867).同样的原因,是由于无数胜利的圣托马斯阿奎那(赫特纳,同上;。贝蒂埃,“乐凯旋圣托马斯DANS拉沙佩勒DES Espagnols单佛罗伦萨”,弗里堡,1897年; Ucelli,“戴尔”iconografia DI第托马索D'阿基诺“,那不勒斯,1867年)。The influence of Savonarola on the artists and the art of his time was profound (Gruyer, "Les illustrations des écrits de Jérôme Savonarole et les paroles de Savonarole sur l'art", Paris, 1879; Lafenestre, "Saint François d' Assise et Savonarole inspirateurs de l'art Italien", Paris, 1911).萨沃纳罗拉对他那个时代的艺术家和艺术的影响是深远的(Gruyer,“插图DES écrits的杰罗姆Savonarole ET LES假释的Savonarole SUR L'艺术”,巴黎,1879年; Lafenestre,“D”圣弗朗索瓦Assise等Savonarole inspirateurs DE L'艺术义大利“,巴黎,1911年)。 The Dominicans also frequently furnished libretti, ie dogmatic or symbolic themes for works of art.多米尼加也经常提供艺术作品libretti,即教条主义的或​​象征性的主题。They also opened up an important source of information to art with their sanctoriaux and their popularizing writings.他们还开辟了一个重要的信息来源,艺术与sanctoriaux和普及著作。Artistic works such as the dances of death and sybils allied with the prophets are greatly indebted to them (Neale, "L'art religieux du XIIIe siècle", Paris, 1910; Idem, "L'art religieux de la fin du moyen-âge en France", Paris, 1910). ,如与先知的死亡和专职sybils舞蹈的艺术作品,极大地感谢他们(尼尔,“L'艺术宗教杜XIIIe SIECLE”,巴黎,1910年;同上,“L'艺术宗教DE LA鳍杜中沙年龄EN法国“,巴黎,1910年)。Even the mystical life of the order, in its way, exercised an influence on contemporary art (Peltzer, "Deutsche Mystik und deutsche Kunst", Strassburg, 1899; Hintze, "Der Einfluss des mystiken auf die ältere Kölner Malerschule", Breslau, 1901).即使该命令的神秘生活,在它的方式,行使对当代艺术的影响(Peltzer,“德意志Mystik和德意志孔斯特”,斯特拉斯堡,1899年; Hintze,“明镜Einfluss mystiken AUF死ältere科隆Malerschule”,布雷斯劳,1901年)。Its saints and its confraternities, especially that of the Rosary, inspired many artists (Neuwbarn, "Die Verherrlichung des hl. Dominicus in der Kunst", 1906).其圣人和confraternities,尤其是念珠,启发许多艺术家(Neuwbarn,“模具Verherrlichung DES HL。Dominicus DER孔斯特”,1906年)。

(h) The Preachers and the Roman Church(H)传教士和罗马教会

The Order of Preachers is the work of the Roman Church.订购的传教士,是罗马教会的工作。She found in St. Dominic an instrument of the first rank.她发现在圣星第一流的仪器。But it was she who inspired the establishment of the order, who loaded it with privileges, directed its general activity, and protected it against its adversaries.但它是她启发建立的秩序,装有特权,指示其一般性的活动,和保护,以防止它的对手。From Honorius III (1216) till the death of Honorius IV (1287) the papacy was most favourable to the Preachers.从挪III(1216),直到挪四(1287)死亡教皇是最有利的传教士。Innocent IV's change of attitude at the end of his pontificate (10 May, 1254), caused by the recriminations of the clergy and perhaps also by the adhesion of Arnold of Trier to Frederick II's projects of anti-ecclesiastical reform, was speedily repaired by Alexander IV [22 Dec., 1254; ("Chart Univ. Paris", I, 263, 276; Winckelmann, "Fratris Arnoldi Ord. Præd. De correctione Ecclesiae Epistola", 1863; "Script. Ord. Praed.", II, 821 b)].诺森四的态度改变在他结束教皇(5月10日,1254),由神职人员的指责和或许还通过了特里尔阿诺德附着力抗-教会改革的弗雷德里克二世的项目引起的,是迅速修复亚历山大四,[22 12月,1254;(“图巴黎大学”,我,263,276;温克尔曼,“Fratris Arnoldi条例Præd correctione,该书Epistola。”,1863年;“。脚本条例Praed”,二, 821 B)]。But as a general thing during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the popes remained much attached to the order, displaying great confidence in it, as is made manifest by the "Bullarium" of the Preachers.但作为一般的东西在第十四和第十五世纪的教皇仍然眷恋的顺序,显示了很大的信心,它是由清单“Bullarium”的传教士。 No other religious order, it would seem, ever received eulogies from the papacy like those addressed to it by Alexander IV, 23 May, 1257 (Potthast, op cit., 16,847).没有其他宗教秩序,看来,曾收到来自教皇亚历山大四,5月23日,1257“(波特哈斯特,同上,16847)的颂词。 The order co-operated with the Church in every way, the popes finding in its ranks assistants who were both competent and devoted.为了与以各种方式教会合作经营,教皇在其职级的助理主管和专门的调查结果。Beyond doubt through its own activity, its preaching and in instruction, it was already a powerful agent of the papacy; nevertheless the popes requested of it a universal co-operation.除了通过自己的活动,其说教和指令的疑问,这是已经是一个强​​大的罗马教廷代理,但教皇的一种普遍的合作要求。 Matthew Paris states in 1250: "The Friars Preachers, impelled by obedience, are the fiscal agents, the nuncios and even the legates of the pope. They are the faithful collectors of the pontifical money by their preaching and their crusades and when they have finished they begin again. They assist the infirm, the dying, and those who make their wills. Diligent negotiators, armed with powers of every kind, they turn all to the profit of the pope" (Matthew Paris, "Hist. Angl.", III, 317, in "Rer. Brit. Med. Æv. Script.").马修在1250巴黎指出:“天主教方济会传教士,由服从促使,是财政代理人,nuncios,甚至罗马教皇的使节,他们是罗马教皇的钱由他们的说教和他们的十字军东征的忠实收藏家,当他们完成。他们重新开始他们协助的体弱者,奄奄一息的,和那些使他们的意志。勤奋的谈判,与各种权力的武装,他们把所有利润的教宗“(马修巴黎,”历史。ANGL。“三,317,在“RER。英国人。AEV脚本。”)。 But the commissions of the Church to the Preachers far exceeded those enumerated by Matthew Paris, and among the weightiest must be mentioned the visitation of monasteries and dioceses, the administration of a large number of convents of nuns and the inquisitorial office.但是,教会的传教士的佣金远远超过列举的马修巴黎之间weightiest必须提到探视的寺院和教区,一个修道院的修女大量的管理和调查办公室。 The order attempted to withdraw from its multifarious occupations, which distracted it from its chief end.为了试图退出其五花八门的职业,它偏离其行政年底。Gregory IX partially yielded to their demands (25 Oct., 1239; cf. Potthast, op; cit., 10,804), but the order never succeeded in wholly winning its cause (Fontana, "Sacrum Theatrum Dominicanum" pt. II, De SR Ecclesiae Officialibus, Rome, 1666; "Bull. Ord. Præd.", I-II, passim; Potthast, "Regest. Pont. Rom.", Papal Register of the XIII cent. in "Bib. des Ecoles Françaises d'Athènes et de Rome").格雷戈里第九部分屈服于他们的要求(25 10月,第1239;比照波特哈斯特,OP;前,10804),但从来没有成功地在全赢得了事业的顺序(丰塔纳,“骶骨Theatrum Dominicanum”PT第二,德SR。该书Officialibus,罗马,1666;“。公牛条例Præd。”I - II期,各处;。波特哈斯特“。Regest杜邦ROM”,教皇注册的13%的“围脖DES ECOLES法语培训中心,Athènes与罗马“)。

The Dominicans gave to the Church many noted personages: among them during the Middle Ages were two popes, Innocent V (1276) and Benedict XI [1303-4; (Mothon, "Vie du B. Innocent V", Rome, 1896; Fietta, "Nicolò Boccasino di Trevigi e il suo tempo", Padua, 1875; Funk, "Papst Benedikt XI", Münster, 1891; Grandjean; "Benoît XI avant son pontificat" (1240-1303) in "Mélanges archiv.-Hist. de L'école française de Rome", VIII, 219; Idem, "Recherches sur l'administration financière du pape Benoît XI", loc. cit., III, 1883, 47; Idem, "La date de la mort de Benoît XI", loc. cit. XIV, 1894, 241; Idem, "Registre de Benoît XI", Paris, 1885)].多米尼加给教会的许多知名人士,其中在中世纪两个教皇,无辜的V(1276年)和本笃十一[1303-4(Mothon,“VIE杜B.无辜V”,罗马,1896年; Fietta “龙华民Boccasino DI Trevigi发送IL锁节奏”,帕多瓦,1875年;芬克“,PAPST贝内迪克特第十一”,明斯特,1891年; Grandjean“伯努瓦第十一前卫的儿子pontificat”(1240至1303年)在“混杂archiv.组织胺。 DE L' ECOLE法国文化大路通罗马“,第八条,219;同上,”Recherches SUR L'管理金融公司杜PAPE伯努瓦十一“,LOC企业所得税,第三,1883年,第47条;。同上,”日期DE LA莫特的伯努瓦第十一“LOC CIT十四,1894年,241;。同上,”Registre DE伯努瓦十一“,巴黎,1885年)]。

There were twenty-eight Dominican cardinals during the first three centuries of the order's existence.有二十八个多米尼加枢机主教在前三世纪的秩序的存在。Some of them were noted for exceptional services to the papacy.他们中有些人注意到教皇的特殊服务。The earliest of them, Hugh of Saint Cher, had the delicate mission of persuading Germany to accept William of Holland after the deposition of Frederick II (Sassen, "Hugh von St. Cher em Seine Tätigkeit als Kardinal, 1244-1263", Bonn, 1908).其中最早,休圣雪儿,说服德国腓特烈二世的沉积后接受荷兰的威廉(萨森,“休冯圣雪儿EM塞纳河Tätigkeit ALS Kardinal,1244年至1263年”波恩微妙的使命, 1908年)。Cardinal Latino Malabranca is famous for his legations and his pacification of Florence (1280; Davidsohn, "Gesch. von Florenz", II, Berlin, 1908, p. 152; Idem, "Forsch. zur Gesch von Florenz", IV, 1908, p. 226).红衣主教拉丁裔Malabranca是他的使馆和他平定佛罗伦萨(1280 Davidsohn,“。Gesch冯Florenz”,第二,柏林,1908年,第152页;同上,“Forsch楚Gesch冯Florenz著名的”四,1908年,第226页)。 Nicholas Albertini of Prato (1305-21) also undertook the pacification of Florence (1304; Bandini, "Vita del Cardinale Nicolo da Prato", Leghorn, 1757; Fineschi, "Supplemento alla vista del Cardinale Nicolò da Prato", Lucca, 1758; Perrens, "Hist. de Florence", Paris, III, 1877, 87).尼古拉普拉托阿尔贝蒂尼(1305年至1321年)也进行了平定佛罗伦萨(1304;蒂尼,“维塔DEL汀娜龙华民达普拉托”,里窝那,1757; Fineschi,“Supplemento ALLA Vista的DEL汀娜龙华民达普拉托”,卢卡,1758; Perrens,“组织胺。DE佛罗伦萨,巴黎,第三,1877年,87)。Cardinal Giovanni Dominici (1408-19) was the staunchest defender of the legitimate pope, Gregory XII, at the end of the Great Schism; and in the name of his master resigned is the papacy at the Council of Constance (Rossler, "Cardinal Johannes Dominici, O.Pr., 1357-1419", Freiburg, 1893; Mandonnet, "Beiträge zur. Gesch. des Kardinals Giovanni Dominici" in "Hist. Jahrbuch.", 1900; Hollerbach, "Die Gregorianische le Partei, Sigismund und das Konstanzer Konzil" in. "Römische Quartalschrift", XXIII-XXIV, 1909-10). “枢机主教乔瓦尼Dominici”(1408年至1419年)的坚定捍卫者的合法教皇格雷戈里十二,在大分裂的结束;辞去了他的主人名字是教皇在安理会的康斯坦茨(罗斯勒,“红衣主教约翰内斯Dominici,O.Pr.,1357年至1419年“,弗赖堡,1893年;芒多内,”。Beiträge楚Gesch DES Kardinals乔瓦尼Dominici“在”嘘Jahrbuch“,1900年; Hollerbach”。模具Gregorianische Partei,西吉斯蒙德和DAS Konstanzer Konzil“英寸”Römische Quartalschrift“,二十三,二十四,1909年至1910年)。Cardinal John de Torquemada (Turrecremata, 1439-68), an eminent theologian, was one of the strongest defenders of the pontifical rights at the time of the Council of Basle (Lederer, "Johann von Torquemada sein Leben und seine Schriften", Freiburg, 1879; Hefele, "Conciliengesch.", VIII) Many important officials were furnished to the Church: Masters of the Sacred Palace (Catalamus, "De magistro sacri palatii apostolici" Rome, 1751); pontifical penitentiaries (Fontana, "Sacr. Theatr Dominic", 470; 631, "Bull. OP", VIII, 766, Poenitentiarii; Goller, "Die päpstliche Ponitentiarii vor ihrem Ursprung bis zu ihrer Umgestaltung unter Pius VII", Rome, 1907-11); and especially pontifical inquisitors.一位杰出的神学家,红衣主教约翰de托尔克马达(Turrecremata,1439年至1468年),是罗马教皇的权利最强的后卫之一,在巴塞尔委员会(莱德勒,“约翰冯托尔克马达盛别人的生活和塞纳河Schriften”,弗赖堡1879;黑弗勒,“Conciliengesch。”八)提供给教会的许多重要官员:大师的神圣宫殿(Catalamus,“德magistro牺牲palatii apostolici”罗马,1751年);宗座监狱(丰塔纳,“SACR Theatr多米尼克。 “,470,631,”红牛任择议定书“,第八条,766 Poenitentiarii;高乐,”模具päpstliche Ponitentiarii VOR ihrem Ursprung之二祖ihrer Umgestaltung温特皮乌斯七“,罗马,1907至11年),尤其是罗马教皇的调查官。The defense of the Faith and the repression of heresy is essentially an apostolic and pontifical work.捍卫的信仰和异端的镇压本质上是一个使徒和罗马教皇的工作。The Preachers also furnished many delegate judges holding their powers either from the bishops or from the pope, but the order as such had no mission properly so called, and the legislation for the repression of heresy was in particular absolutely foreign to it.传教士还提供了许多代表法官,他们的权力,无论是从从教宗的主教或,但该命令没有所谓正确的使命,立法,特别是对异端的镇压是绝对外国。 The extreme dangers run by the Church at the beginning of the thirteenth century owing to the progress of the Albigensians and Cathari impelled the papacy to labour for their repression.在十三世纪,由于开始运行由教会Albigensians和卡塔利进步的极端危险的劳动推动教皇对他们的镇压。 It first urged the bishops to act, and the establishment of synodal witnesses was destined to make their mission more effective, but the insufficiency of their arrangement induced Gregory IX to advise the bishops to make use of the Preachers and finally doubtless owing to the lack of zeal displayed by many bishops, to create inquisitorial judges by pontifical delegation.它首先敦促主教的行为,并成立主教会议证人是注定使他们的使命更加有效,但他们安排诱导格雷戈里九不足,建议主教,传教士,最后毫无疑问,由于缺乏热情显示,许多主教,创造圣座代表团由纠问法官。 The Preachers were not chosen de jure but de facto and successively in the various provinces of the order.传教士选择法理但事实上并先后在各省的秩序。The pope usually charged the Dominican provincials with the nomination of inquisitorial officers whose jurisdiction ordinarily coincided with the territory of the Dominican province.教宗通常被控以纠问式人员的提名,其管辖范围通常与多米尼加省境内,正值多米尼加外省人。In their office the inquisitors were removed from the authority of their order and dependent only on the Holy See.在他们的办公室,从它们的顺序和依赖只有教廷参见管理局的调查官。The first pontifical inquisitors were invariably chosen from the Order of Preachers, the reason being the scarcity of educated and zealous clerics.第一宗座调查官不约而同地选择从传道的订单,原因是缺乏教育和热心的神职人员。 The Preachers, being vowed to study and preaching, were alone prepared for a ministry, which required both learning and courage.传教士,发​​誓要学习和宣讲,单独为一个部,这不仅需要学习和勇气准备。The order received this like many other pontifical commissions, only with regret.像其他许多宗座委员会收到的订单,只有遗憾。 The master general, Humbert of Romans declared that the friars should flee all odious offices and especially the Inquisition (Opera, ed. Berthier, II, 36)掌握一般,洪博达的罗马宣布,修士应该逃离一切可憎的办事处,特别是宗教裁判所(歌剧。贝蒂埃,二,36)

The same solicitude to remove the order from the odium of the inquisitorial office impelled the provincial chapter of Cahors (1244) to forbid that anything should accrue to the friars from the administration of the Inquisition, that the order might not be slandered.同样的慰问删除从调查办公室odium为了促使卡奥尔省章(1244),禁止什么都应该归从宗教裁判所管理的修士,该命令可能不会被诬蔑。 The provincial chapter of Bordeaux (1257) even forbade the religious to eat with the inquisitors in places where the order had a convent (Douais, "Les Frères Prêcheurs en Gascogne", Paris-Auch, 1885, p. 64).波尔多(1257)省的篇章甚至禁止宗教吃地方的秩序有一个修道院(Douais,“Frères的Prêcheurs Gascogne”,巴黎奥赫,1885年,第64页)的调查官。In countries where heresy was powerful, for instance in the south of France and the north of Italy, the order had much to endure, pillage, temporary expulsion, and assassination of the inquisitors.异端被强大的国家,例如在法国和意大利北部南部,为了忍受的,掠夺,临时驱逐,暗杀的调查官。After the putting to death of the inquisitors at Avignonet (28 May, 1242) and the assassination of St. Peter of Verona (29 April, 1242) ("Vitae fratrum", ed. Reichart, 231; Perein, "Monumenta Conventus Tolosani", Toulouse, 1693, II, 198, Acta SS., 29 April) the order, whose administration had much to suffer from this war against heresy, immediately requested to be relieved of the inquisitorial office.在投入Avignonet调查者的死亡(5月28日,1242)和圣彼得的维罗纳(4月29日,1242)(“个人简历fratrum”,爱德Reichart,231暗杀; Perein,“纪念馆Conventus Tolosani”图卢兹,1693年,第二,198学报SS,4月29日)的顺序,其管理有许多患有这种对异端的战争,立即要求解除调查办公室。 Innocent IV refused (10 April, 1243; Potthast, 11,083), and the following year the bishops of the south of France petitioned the pope that he would retain the Preachers in the Inquisition ("Hist. gén. du Languedoc", III, ed. in folio, proof CCLIX, Vol. CCCCXLVI).无辜四拒绝(4月10日,1243;波特哈斯特,11083),并于次年在法国南部的主教们请求教皇,他将保留传教士在宗教裁判所(“组织胺根杜朗格多克。”第三,编在开本,证明CCLIX。CCCCXLVI卷)。 Nevertheless the Holy See understood the desire of the Preachers; several provinces of Christendom ceased to be administered by them and were confided to the Friars Minor viz., the Pontifical States, Apulia, Tuscany, the March of Trevisa and Slavonia, and finally Provence (Potthast, 11,993, 15,330, 15,409, 15,410, 18,895, 20,169; Tanon, "Hist. des tribunaux de l'inquisition en France" Paris, 1893; Idem, "Documents pour servir a l'hist. de l'Inquisition dans le Languedoc", Paris, 1900; Vacandard, "L'Inquisition", Paris, 1907; Lea, "Hist. of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages" New York-London, 1888, French tr., Paris, 1900; Frédéricq, "Corpus documentorum Inquisitionis hæreticæ pravitatis Neerlandicæ", Ghent, 1900; Amabile, "Il santo officio della Inquizione in Napoli" Città di Castello, 1892; Canzons, "Hist. de l'Inquisition en France", Paris, 1909; Jordan, "La responsabilité de l'Eglise dans la répression de l'hérésie au moyen-âge" in "Annales de Philosophie chrét.", CLIV, 1907, p. 225).不过教廷了解传教士的愿望;几个省的基督教不再是他们所管理的吐露方济会,即,教皇国,普利亚,托斯卡纳,三月Trevisa和斯拉沃尼亚,终于普罗旺斯(。波特哈斯特,11993,15330,15409,15410,18895,20169; Tanon“组织胺法庭DE L'文字狱EN法国”巴黎,1893年同上,“文件倒入SERVIR一个L'历史DE L'宗教裁判所DANS LE朗格多克。 “,巴黎,1900年; Vacandard,”欧莱雅宗教裁判所“,巴黎,1907年; LEA,”组织胺在中世纪的宗教裁判所。“TR,纽约,伦敦,1888年,法国巴黎,1900年; Frédéricq,”语料库documentorum Inquisitionis hæreticæ pravitatis Neerlandicæ“,根特,1900; Amabile,”伊尔城主当然德拉Inquizione在那不勒斯。“Città酒店DI城堡,1892年; Canzons,”嘘“宗教裁判所EN法国”,巴黎,1909年,约旦,“责任DE L' Eglise DANS LA镇压DE L' hérésie坳中沙时代“中的”哲学chrét纪事“,CLIV,1907年,第225页)。The suppression of heresy which had been especially active in certain more affected parts of Christendom, diminished notably in the second half of the thirteenth century.异端的镇压已经在一定更受影响的部分,特别是在下半年的13世纪基督教减少,尤其是积极的。The particular conditions prevailing in Spain brought about the reestablishment of the Inquisition with new duties for the inquisitor general.在西班牙当时的特定条件下所带来的宗教裁判所的重建打破砂锅一般的新职责。These were exercised from 1483 to 1498 by Thomas of Torquemada, who reorganized the whole scheme of suppression, and by Diego de Deza from 1498 to 1507.这是行使托马斯托尔克马达,重组整个计划的抑制,和迭戈 - Deza从第1483到1498年,从1498年到1507。These were the first and last Dominican inquisitors general in Spain (Lea, "Hist. of the Inquisition of Spain, New York, 1906, Cotarelo y Valledor, "Fray Diego de Deza", Madrid, 1905).这是第一个和最后一个多米尼加调查者一般在西班牙(LEA,“组织胺。西班牙宗教裁判所,纽约,1906年,Cotarelo Ÿ Valledor,”弗赖迭Deza“,马德里,1905年)。

(i) The Friars Preachers and the Secular Clergy(一)天主教方济会传教士和世俗的神职人员

The Preachers, who had been constituted from the beginning as an order of clerics vowed to ecclesiastical duties with a view to supplementing the insufficiency of the secular clergy, were universally accepted by the episcopate, which was unable to provide for the pastoral care of the faithful and the instruction of clerics.传道人,曾从一开始就构成一个神职人员为了誓言教会的职责,以补充世俗的神职人员不足,被普遍接受的主教,这是无法提供的忠实牧灵教士的指令。 It was usually the bishops who summoned the Preachers to their dioceses.它通常是召见传教士,他们的教区的主教。The conflicts which broke out here and there during the thirteenth century were not generally due to the bishops but to the parochial clergy who considered themselves injured in their temporal rights because of the devotion and generosity of the faithful towards the order.在13世纪,在这里和那里爆发的冲突一般不因主教教区神职人员的人认为自己受伤的时间,因为对秩序的忠实奉献和慷慨的权利。 As a general thing compromises were reached between the convents and the parishes in which they were situated and peaceful results followed.作为一个一般的事情妥协达成了他们在位于和平结果后面的修道院和教区之间。 The two great contests between the order and the secular clergy broke out in France during the thirteenth century.两个伟大的比赛之间的秩序和世俗的神职人员,打破了法国在13世纪。The first took place at the University of Paris, led by William of Saint-Amour (1252-59), and was complicated by a scholastic question.第一次会议在巴黎大学,圣爆发“(1252年至1259年)的威廉率领的地方,是一个学术问题复杂。The episcopate had no share in this, and the church supported with all its strength the rights and privileges of the order, which emerged victorious (Mandonnet, "Siger de Brabant", I, 70, 90; Perrod, "Etude sur la vie et les uvres de Guillaume de Saint-Amour" in "Mémoires de la société d'émulation de Jura", Lons-le-Saunier, 1902, p. 61; Seppelt, "Der Kampf der Bettelorden an der Universität Paris in der Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts" in "Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen", Breslau, III, 1905; VII, 1909).主教在这没有份额,其所有的力量支持教会的权利和特权的命令,出现胜利(芒多,“Siger的布拉班特”,我,70,90; Perrod,“练习曲SUR LA争夺等LES uvres纪尧姆德圣倾慕“”Mémoires DE LA SOCIETE D'仿真的汝拉“,离子的乐SAUNIER,1902年,第61页; Seppelt,”明镜奋斗DER Bettelorden DER Universität巴黎DER米特DES 13 Jahrhunderts“。”Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen“,布雷斯劳,三,1905年;七,1909年)。The strife broke out anew in the north of France after the privilege of Martin IV, "Ad fructus uberes" (13 Dec., 1281), and lasted until the Council of Paris in 1290.发生内乱,重新在法国北部的特权后,马丁四,“广告枳壳uberes”(12月13日,1281),并持续到巴黎理事会在1290。 It was to a large extent conducted by Guillaume de Flavacourt, Bishop of Amiens, but in this instance also the two great mendicant orders triumphed over their adversaries, thanks to the energetic assistance of two cardinal legates (Denifle-Chatelain, "Chart. Univ. Paris" I, passim; Finke, "Des Pariser National Konzil 1290" in "Römische Quartalschrift", 1895, p. 171; Paulus, "Welt und Ordensclerus beim Ausgange des XIII. Jahrhunderts in Kampfe um die Pfarr-Rechte", Essen-Ruhr, 1900).这是在很大程度上,亚眠的主教纪尧姆德Flavacourt进行,但在这种情况下,两个伟大乞讨订单战胜他们的对手,得益于两个大是大非的legates(德尼夫勒Chatelain,“图表”。大学的大力协助。巴黎“我,各处;芬克,”德Pariser国家Konzil 1290“中的”Römische Quartalschrift“,1895年,第171页;保卢斯,”世界报“和Ordensclerus beim Ausgange DES第十三Kampfe UM死Pfarr Rechte”Jahrhunderts,埃森。鲁尔,1900年)。

The order gave many of its members to the episcopate, but endeavoured to prevent this.为了给它的许多成员的主教,但努力防止这种情况。Sts.STS。Dominic and Francis seem to have disapproved of the accession of their religious to eeelesiastical dignities ("Speculum perfectionis", ed. Sabatier, Paris, 1898, p. 75; Thomas of Celano, "Legenda secunda S. Francisci", III, lxxxvi).杜明和弗朗西斯似乎都不赞成他们的宗教加入eeelesiastical尊严(“窥perfectionis”,ED萨巴蒂尔,巴黎,1898年,第75页。切拉诺托马斯,“Legenda塞康达S. Francisci”,三,捌拾陆) 。Jordanus of Saxony the immediate successor of St. Dominic, forbade all acceptance of election or postulation to the episcopate, under pain of excommunication, without special permission of the pope, the general chapter, and the master general ("Acta Cap. Gen.", ed. Reichert, 4). Jordanus萨克森州的圣星的直接后继,禁止所有接受选举或postulation的主教,根据疼痛的禁教,没有教皇的特别许可,一般的篇章,掌握一般(“文献第将军” 。赖克特,4)。During his administration he resisted with all his strength and declared that he would rather see a friar buried than raised to the episcopate ("Vitæ Fratrum", ed. Reichert, 141, 143, 209).在他的管理期间,他顶住了他所有的力量,并宣称,他宁愿看到一个弗莱尔埋比提高到主教团(“简历Fratrum”。赖克特,141,143,209)。 Everyone knows the eloquent letter which Humbert of Romans wrote to Albertus Magnus to dissuade him from aecepting the nomination to the See of Ratisbon (1260; Peter of Prussia, "Vita B. Alberti Magni", Antwerp, 1621; p. 253).大家都知道洪博达的罗马人的雄辩信中写道阿尔伯图斯马格努斯aecepting提名劝阻他见拉蒂斯邦(1260;普鲁士的彼得,“维他命B。阿尔贝蒂马尼”,安特卫普,1621,第253页)。 But all this opposition could not prevent the nomination of a great many to high ecclesiastical dignities.但是,这一切的反对未能阻止了大量高教会尊严的提名。The worth of many religious made them so prominent that it was impossible that they should not be suggested for the episcopate.许多宗教的价值,使他们如此突出,这是不可能的,他们不应该的主教的建议的。Princes and nobles who had sons or kinsmen in the order often laboured for this result with interested motives, but the Holy See especially saw in the accession of Dominicans to the episcopate the means of infusing it with new blood.王子和贵族们在为了儿子或亲属往往吃力这个结果与有兴趣的动机,但罗马教廷,尤其是在多米尼加加入主教注入新的血液,它意味着看到。 From the accession of Gregory IX the appointment of Dominicans to dioceses and archdioceses became an ordinary thing.从加入格雷戈里九,任命教区和archdioceses多米尼加成为一个普通的事情。Hence until the end of the fifteenth century about fifteen hundred Preachers were either appointed or translated to dioceses or archdioceses, among them men remarkable for their learning, their competent administration, their zeal for souls, and the holiness of their lives.因此,直到十五世纪末的约一千五百传教士被任命或翻译教区或archdioceses其中男性为他们的学习,他们的主管部门,他们的灵魂的热情,和自己的生命的圣洁显着。 (Eubel, "Hierarchia catholica", I-II; "Bull Ord. Præd.", I-IV; "Script. Ord. Præd.", I, p. xxi; Cavalieri, "Galleria de' sommi Pontefici, Patriarchi, Areivescovi, e Vescovi dell' ordine de' Predicatori", Benevento, 1696; Vigna, "I veseovi domenicani Liguri ovvero in Liguria", Genoa, 1887.)(Eubel,“Hierarchia catholica”,I - II期“红牛条例Præd。”I - IV“的脚本条例Præd。。”,我第XXI​​;卡瓦列利,“广场的”sommi Pontefici,Patriarchi Areivescovi,发送Vescovi戴尔ordine DE'Predicatori“,贝内文托,1696年;豇豆,”我在利古里亚veseovi domenicani Liguri ovvero“,热那亚,1887年)

(j) The Preachers and Civil Society(J)传教士和民间社会

During the Middle Ages the Preachers influenced princes and communities.在中世纪的传教士的影响王子和社区。Princes found them to be prudent advisers, expert ambassadors, and enlightened confessors.王子发现他们是审慎的顾问,专家大使,和开明的忏悔。The French monarchy was much attached to them.法国的君主制是非常重视他们。As early as 1226 Jordanus of Saxony was able to write, in speaking of Blanche of Castile "The queen tenderly loves the friars and she has spoken with me personally and familiarly about her affairs" (Bayonne, "Lettres du B. Jourdain de Saxe" Paris-Lyons 1865, p. 66).早在1226萨克森Jordanus能写,在卡斯蒂利亚 - 布兰奇发言“温柔的女王爱的修士,她已经谈过,我个人和熟悉她的事务”(巴约纳,“Lettres B.茹尔丹DE萨克森”巴黎 - 里昂1865年,第66页)。No prince was more devoted to the order than St. Louis, nor did any grant it more favours.没有王子更是专门为了比圣路易斯,也没有任何补助金更赞成。The French monarchy sought most of its confessors during the Middle Ages from the Order of Preachers (Chapotin, "A travers l'histoire dominicaine: "Les princes français du Moyen Age et l'ordre de Saint Dominique", Paris, 1903, p. 207; Idem, "Etudes historiques sur la province dominicaine de France", Paris, 1890, p. 128). It was the entrance of Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienna, into the order, which gained Dauphiny for France (Guiffrey, "Hist. de la réunion du Dauphiné à la France" Paris, 1878). The Dukes of Burgundy also sought their confessors from the order (Chapotin, op. cit. 190). The kings of England did likewise and frequently employed its members in their service. (Palmer; "The Kings's Confessors" in "The Antiquary", London, 1890, p. 114; Tarett, "Friars Confessors of the English Kings" in "The Home Counties Magazine", XII, 1910, p. 100). Several German emperors were much attached to the order nevertheless the Preachers did not hesitate to enter into conflict with Frederick II and Louis of Bavaria when these princes broke with the Church (Opladen, "Die Stellung der deutschen Könige zu den Orden im dreizethnten Jahrhundert" Bonn, 1908; Paulus, "Thomas von Strassburg und Rudolph von Sachsen. Ihre Stellung zum Interdikt" in "Hist. Jahrbuch.", XIII, 1892, 1; "Neues Archiv. der Geschellschaft für altere deutsche Geschictskunde", XXX, 1905, 447). The kings of Castile and Spain invariably chose their confessors from among the Preachers ("Catalogo de los religiosos Dominicos qui hen servido ea los Señores de Castilla, de Aragon, y de Andalucia, en el empleo de sus Confessores de Estado", Madrid, 1700). The kings of Portugal likewise sought their directors from the same source (de Sousa, "Historia de S. Domingos particulor de Reino, e conquistas de Portugal" Lisbon, 1767; Grégoire, "Hist. des confesseurs les empereurs, des rois et d'autres princes", Paris, 1824).在传教士订购(Chapotin,“Travers的L' histoire dominicaine:”从中世纪法国君主要求其忏悔法语杜中沙年龄和公共秩序圣多米尼克“诸侯”,巴黎,1903年,第207;同上,“练习曲historiques SUR LA省dominicaine法国”,巴黎,1890年,第128页)这是洪博达二,维也纳“海豚”入口,进入订单,获得了法国Dauphiny(Guiffrey,“组织胺DE LA团聚杜第九一拉法国“巴黎,1878年),勃艮第公爵的顺序(Chapotin,同上190)还要求他们的忏悔。英格兰国王也同样频繁,其成员在他们的服务(帕尔默说:“国王的忏悔”,“古物收藏家”,伦敦,1890年,第114页; Tarett,“天主教方济会的英国国王忏悔”中的“郡杂志”,第十二,1910年,第100页)。几个德国皇帝远的顺序,不过传教士毫不犹豫地进入腓特烈二世和巴伐利亚州圣路易斯时,这些王子与教会(Opladen,“模具Stellung德国Könige祖书房勋章IM dreizethnten Jahrhundert”波恩爆发冲突,1908年,保卢斯,“托马斯冯斯特拉斯堡和鲁道夫冯萨克森Ihre Stellung ZUM Interdikt。”十三,1892年,1“组织胺Jahrbuch。。”;“。Neues论坛存档DER Geschellschaft献给altere德意志Geschictskunde”,XXX,1905年,447 )。卡斯蒂利亚和西班牙国王不约而同地选择从传教士中了自己的忏悔(“Catalogo德洛斯religiosos Dominicos归仁母鸡servido EA洛杉矶Señores DE卡斯蒂利亚 - 德阿拉贡,Y安达卢西亚,EL empleo SUS Confessores的国家体制”,马德里1700),葡萄牙国王同样寻求同出一源(德索萨“Historia DE S.多明戈斯particulor DE Reino,电子conquistas葡萄牙里斯本,1767及其董事;。格雷瓜尔,”组织胺confesseurs LES empereurs,德罗伊斯ET D' AUTRES诸侯“,巴黎,1824年)。

The first to be established in the centres of cities, the Dominicans exercised a profound influence on municipal life, especially in Italy.首先建立在城市的中心,多米尼加行使市政生活产生深远的影响,特别是在意大利。A witness at the canonization of St. Dominic in 1233 expresses the matter when he says that nearly all the cities of Lombardy and the Marches placed their affairs and their statutes in the hands of the Preachers, that they might arrange and alter them to their taste and as seemed to them fitting.证人在圣星在1233年的册封表示此事时,他说,几乎所有城市的伦巴第大区和游行放置在自己的事务,和其章程的传教士的手中,他们可能安排并改变它们自己的口味似乎他们装修。 The same was true of the extirpation of wars, the restoration of peace, restitution for usury, hearing of confessions and a multitude of benefits which would be too long to enumerate ("Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, append., col. 128).同样的灭绝战争,恢复和平,恢复为高利贷的供述和众多的好处,这将是太长枚举(听证会,真正的“年鉴条例。Præd”,罗马,1756年,追加。 128栏)。About this time the celebrated John of Vicenza exercised powerful influence in the north of Italy and was himself podestà of Verona (Sutter, "Johann von Vicenza und die italienisehe Friedensbewegung im Jahre 1233", Freiburg, 1891; Ital. tr., Vicenza, 1900; Vitali, "I Domenicani nella vita italiana del secolo XIII", Milan, 1902; Hefele, "Die Bettelorden und das religiöse Volksleben Ober-und Mittelitaliensim XIII. Jahrhundert", Leipzig-Berlin, 1910).大约在这个时候,在意大利北部维琴察庆祝约翰行使强大的影响力和自己的维罗纳波德斯塔(萨特,“约翰冯维琴察与italienisehe Friedensbewegung IM Jahre 1233”,弗赖堡,1891年;。Ital TR,维琴察,1900维塔利,“我Domenicani nella VITA ITALIANA DEL secolo第十三”,米兰,1902年;黑弗勒,“模具Bettelorden和DAS religiöse Volksleben奥伯和Mittelitaliensim第十三Jahrhundert”,莱比锡,柏林,1910年)。An idea of the penetration of the order into all social classes may be formed from the declaration of Pierre Dubois in 1300 that the Preachers and the Minors knew better than anyone else the condition of the world and of all social classes ("De recuperatione Terre Sancte", ed. Langlois, Paris, 1891, pp. 51, 74, 84).从1300皮埃尔杜波依斯在声明中,传教士和未成年人认识世界和社会各阶层的条件(“德recuperatione地球Sancte比谁更好,可能会形成一个渗透到社会各阶层的顺序的想法“,主编。朗格卢瓦,巴黎,1891年,第51页,74,84)。 The part played by Catherine of Siena in the pacification of the towns of Central Italy and the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome is well known.锡耶纳的凯瑟琳起到安抚在意大利中部和从阿维尼翁返回罗马教皇的城镇的部分是众所周知的。"She was the greatest figure of the second half of the fourteenth century, an Italian, not only a saint, a mystic, a miracle-worker, but a statesman, and a great statesman, who solved for the welfare of Italy and all Christendom the most difficult and tragic question of her time" (Gebhart "Une sainte homme d'état, Ste Catherine de Sienne"; in "Revue Hebdomadaire", 16 March, 1907, 257). “她是十四世纪下半年,一个意大利人,不仅是一个圣人,一个神秘的,一个奇迹的工人,而是一个政治家,一位伟大的政治家,解决意大利社会福利和所有基督教的最伟大的人物她的时间,最困难和最悲惨的问题“(Gebhart”UNE圣Homme的政变,STE凯瑟琳的Sienne“;”杂志Hebdomadaire“3月16日,1907年,257)。 It was the Dominican Bishop of Geneva Adémar de la Roche, who granted that town its liberties and franchise in 1387 (Mallet, "Libertés, franchises, immunités, et coutumes de la ville de Genève promulgés par évêque Adémar Fabri le 23 Mai, 1387" in "Mémoires et documents de la société d'histoire et d'archéologie de Genève", Geneva, II, 1843, p. 270).这是日内瓦Adémar DE LA ROCHE多米尼加主教,想当然地认为其自由和特许经营在1387镇(槌,“自由基金会,特许经营权,immunités等coutumes La Ville酒店de Genève日内瓦promulgés面值évêque Adémar飞达勒23麦,1387”在“Mémoires等文件DE LA SOCIETE历史和archéologie de Genève日内瓦”,日内瓦,二,1843年,第270页)。Finally reference must be made to the profound influence exercised by Girolamo Savonarola (1498) on the political life of Florence during the last years of the fifteenth century (Vilari, "La Storia di Girolamo Savonarola e dé suoi tempi", Florence, 1887; Luotto, "Il vero Savonarola", Florence, 1897).最后必须提及的吉罗拉莫萨沃纳罗拉(1498)15世纪的最后几年期间行使(Vilari佛罗伦萨的政治生活产生深远的影响,“拉图历史DI吉罗拉莫萨沃纳罗拉发送suoi拍子”,佛罗伦萨,1887年; Luotto ,“伊尔VERO萨沃纳罗拉”,佛罗伦萨,1897年)。

(k) The Preachers and the Faithful(K)传教士和信徒

During the thirteenth century the faithful were almost without pastoral care and preaching.在13世纪的忠实几乎没有牧区的关怀和说教。The coming of the Preachers was an innovation which won over the people eager for religious instruction.传教士的到来,是一个创新,赢得了人民渴望宗教教育。What a chronicler relates of Thuringia was the case almost everywhere: "Before the arrival of the Friars Preachers the word of God was rare and precious and very rarely preached to the people. The Friars Preachers preached alone in every section of Thuringia and in the town of Erfurt and no one hindered them" (Koch, "Graf Elger von Holmstein", Gotha, 1865, pp. 70, 72).编年史图林根涉及的情况下,几乎无处不在:“到来之前,天主教方济会传教士上帝的话是稀有和珍贵,很少的人鼓吹的修士传教士鼓吹仅在图林根的每一个部分,并在镇。爱尔福特并没有妨碍他们“(科克,”格拉夫Elger冯Holmstein“,哥达,1865年,第70页,72)。 About 1267 the Bishop of Amiens, Guillaume de Flavacourt, in the war against heresy already mentioned, declared that the people refused to hear the word of God from any save the Preachers and Minors (Bibl. de Grenoble, manuscript 639, fol. 119).关于1267主教亚眠,纪尧姆德Flavacourt,对异端的战争已经提到,宣布拒绝的人听到上帝的话,从任何,保存的传教士和未成年人(Bibl.格勒诺布尔,手稿639,其次119) 。The Preachers exercised a special influence over the piously inclined of both sexes among the masses, so numerous in the Middle Ages, and they induced to penance and continence a great many people living in the world, who were commonly called Beguins, and who lived either alone or in more or less populous communities.传教士行使一个特殊的影响力,在虔诚的倾斜,所以在中世纪的许多都在群众中的男女,他们诱导苦行和克制,很多人活在世上,谁是俗称Beguins,和谁住要么单独或在人口较少的社区或。 Despite the order's attraction for this devout, half-lay, half-religious world, the Preachers refused to take it under their jurisdiction in order not to hamper their chief activity nor distort their ecclesiastical ideal by too close contact with lay piety.尽管这个虔诚的,半躺着,半宗教的世界秩序的吸引力,传教士拒绝在其管辖范围内,为了不妨碍他们的主要活动,也歪曲其教会的理想过于密切接触奠定虔诚。 The General Chapters of 1228 and 1229 forbade the religious to give the habit to any woman or to receive her profession, or to give spiritual direction to any community of women not strictly subject to some authority other than that of the order ("Archiv. f. Litt. a Kirchengesch.", I, 27; Bayonne, "Lettres du B. Jourdain de Saxe", 110). 1228和1229的一般章节禁止的宗教给任何一个女人的习惯或接受她的职业,或给予精神方向的社会不严格受到一些权威的顺序(“论坛存档以外的任何女性,F杜二。利特一个Kirchengesch“,我27;巴约讷,”Lettres茹尔丹萨克斯“,110)。 But the force of circumstances prevailed, and, despite everything, these clients furnished the chief elements of the Penitential Order of St. Dominic, who received their own rule in 1285, and of whom more has been said above (Mosheim, "De Beghardis et Beguiniabus", Leipzig, 1720; Le Grand "Les Béguines de Paris", 1893; Nimal, "Les Beguinages", Nivelles, 1908).但力量占上风的情况下,尽管一切,这些客户端布置的忏悔圣星,谁获得自己的统治在1285秩序的行政要素,而其中已经说了上述(Mosheim,“德Beghardis等Beguiniabus“,莱比锡,1720;乐大”Béguines巴黎“,1893年; Nimal,”Beguinages“,尼韦勒,1908年)。The Order especially encouraged congregations of the Blessed Virgin and the saints, which developed greatly, especially in Italy.订购特别是鼓励众圣母和圣人,其中很大发展,特别是在意大利,。

Many of them had their headquarters in convents of the Preachers, who administered them spiritually.其中许多人在修道院的传教士,谁管理他们精神上的总部所在地。After the Penitential movement of 1260 confraternities were formed commonly called Disciplinati, Battuti, etc. Many of them originated in Dominican churches (there is no general historical work on this subject).1260 confraternities悔罪运动后形成俗称Disciplinati,Battuti,等他们中的许多起源于多米尼加教堂(有没有关于这个问题的历史工作)。 In 1274, during the Council of Lyons, Gregory X confided to the Dominicans the preaching of the Holy Name of Jesus, whence arose confraternities of that name (Bull. Ord. Præd., VIII, 524).在1274年,在里昂理事会,格雷戈里X多米尼加吐露宣讲耶稣的圣名,何处出现这个名字(Bull.条例。Præd,第八条,524)confraternities。 Finally the second half of the fifteenth century saw the rapid development of confraternities of the Holy Rosary under the influence of the Preachers ("Acta Sanctae Sedis nec non magistrorum et capitulorum generalium sacri ordinis Prædicatorum pro Societate SS. Rosarii", Lyons, 1890).最后,下半年的15世纪,传教士的影响下(“文献Sanctae Sedis NEC非magistrorum等capitulorum generalium sacri ordinis Prædicatorum亲Societate党卫军。Rosarii”,里昂,1890年)的玫瑰圣母confraternities的快速发展。 With the object of developing the piety of the faithful the Preachers allowed them to be buried in the habit of the order (Cantimpratanus, "De bono universali apum", lib. II, viii, n. 8).传教士与发展的忠实虔诚的对象允许他们被埋葬在该命令的习惯(Cantimpratanus,“德博诺universali apum”,LIB二,八,12月31日8)。From the time of Jordanus of Saxony they issued letters of participation in the spiritual goods of the order.从萨克森州Jordanus的时候,他们参与在该命令的精神财富的发出的信件。The same general established at Paris the custom of the evening sermon (collatio) for the students of the University, in order to turn them aside from dissipation, which custom passed to all the other universities ("Vita fratrum", ed. Reichert, 327).在巴黎大学的学生晚上讲道(collat​​io)的习俗,在相同的一般规定,为了把他们一边从耗散,其中自定义传递给所有其他大学(“维他fratrum”。赖克特,327 )。

(l) The Preachers and the Foreign Missions(L)传教士和外国使团

During the Middle Ages the Order of Preachers exercised considerable activity within the boundaries of Christendom and far beyond.在中世纪的传教士订购内行使基督教的界限,并远远超出了相当大的活​​动。The evangelization of heathen countries was confided to the nearest Dominican provinces.异教徒国家的福传吐露多明尼加到最近的省份。At the beginning of the fourteenth century the missions of Asia became a special group, the congregation of Friars Pilgrims for Christ.在十四世纪初,亚洲的使命成为一个特殊的群体,为基督天主教方济会香客众。Some of the remote provinces, especially those of Greece and the Holy Land, were recruited from volunteers throughout the order.一些边远省份,特别是那些希腊和圣地,被招募志愿者在整个订单。Besides the work of evangelization the religious frequently assumed the mission of ambassador or agent to schismatic or pagan princes, and Friars Preachers frequently occupied sees in partibus infidelium.除了宗教的福传工作的经常被认为分裂或异教诸侯大使或代理人的任务,以及天主教方济会传教士经常占用partibus infidelium看到。A number of them, faithful to the order's doctrinal vocation, composed works of all kinds to assist their apostolate to defend the Christian Faith, to inform the Roman Church or Latin princes concerning the condition of the East, and to indicate measures to be taken against the dangers threatening Christianity.一个其中的数,忠于订单的教义的使命,组成各种作品,以协助他们的使徒捍卫基督教信仰,告知在罗马教会或拉丁美洲王子有关东方的情况,表示措施,以将采取对基督教威胁的危险。

Finally they frequently shed their blood in these inhospitable and unfruitful countries.最后,他们在这些荒凉和徒劳的国家经常流下的血。The province of Spain laboured for the conversion of the Arabs of the Peninsula, and in 1256 Humbert of Romans described the satisfactory results (H. de Romanis, "Opera", ed. Berthier, II, 502).省西班牙辛劳半岛的阿拉伯人的转换,并在罗马人亨伯特1256描述了满意的结果(H. DE Romanis“,歌剧”。贝蒂埃,二,502)。In 1225 the first Spanish Dominicans evangelized Morocco and the head of the mission, Brother Dominic, was consecrated in that year first Bishop of Morocco (Analecta Ord. Præd., III, 374 sqq.).在1225的第一个西班牙多米尼加福音摩洛哥和头的使命,兄弟多米尼克,奉献摩洛哥在这一年的第一位主教(Analecta条例。Præd,三,374 SQQ。)。Some years later they were already established at Tunis ["Mon. Ord. Præd.: Hist.", IV (Barmusidiana) fasc.几年后,他们已经在突尼斯建立了“星期一条例Præd:。。历史。”四(Barmusidiana)FASC。II, 29].二,29]。In 1256 and the ensuing years Alexander IV, at the instance of St. Raymond of Pennafort, gave a vigorous impulse to this mission (Potthast, 16,438; 17,187; 17,929). 1256年和随后的几年里亚历山大四世在圣彭纳福特雷蒙德的实例,给了一个有力的冲动,这个使命(波特哈斯特,16438,17187,17929)。 In the north of Europe the province of England or that of Dacia carried its establishments as far as Greenland (Telié, "L'évangelization de l'Amérique avant Christophe Colomb" in "Compte rendu du congrès scient. intern. des Catholiques", 1891, sect. hist., 1721).在欧洲北部的英国省或达契亚机构尽可能格陵兰(Telié,“欧莱雅福传DE L' AMERIQUE前卫克里斯托夫Colomb”中的“Compte任督杜CONGRES施恩。实习生。DES CATHOLIQUES”,1891年节史,1721)。As early as 1233 the province of Germany promoted the crusade against the Prussians and the heretical Stedingers, and brought them to the Faith (Schomberg, "Die Dominikaner im Erzbistum Bremen", Brunswick, 1910, 14; "Bull. Ord. Præd.", I, 61; H. de Romanis, "Opera", II, 502).德国早在1233的全省促进对普鲁士和异端Stedingers的讨伐,并带来了他们的信仰(Schomberg,“模具Dominikaner IM Erzbistum不来梅”,不伦瑞克,1910年,第14条;“。通报条例Præd”现年61岁的我,H. DE Romanis,“歌剧”,第二,502)。The province of Poland, founded by St. Hyaeinth (1221), extended its apostolate by means of this saint as far as Kieff and Dantizig.波兰省,圣Hyaeinth(1221)创办的,这个圣人的手段尽可能Kieff和Dantizig延长它的使徒。 In 1246 Brother Alexis resided at the Court of the Duke of Russia, and in 1258 the Preachers evangelized the Ruthenians (Abraham, "Powstanie organizacyi Kosicio lacinskiego na Rusi", Lemberg, 1904; Rainaldi, "Annal. eccl.", ad ann. 1246, n. 30; Potthast, 17,186; Baracz, "Rys dziejó Zakonn Kaznodzie jskiego w Polsce" Lemberg, 1861; Comtesse de Flavigny, "Saint Hyacinthe et ses compagnons", Paris, 1899).在1246兄弟亚历克居住在俄罗斯公爵的法院,1258年福音传教士鲁塞尼亚(亚伯拉罕,“Powstanie organizacyi Kosicio lacinskiego NA入寺”,伦贝尔,1904年; Rainaldi,“记录传道书。”安广告。 1246,30 N.;波特哈斯特,17186; Baracz,“Rys dziejó Zakonn Kaznodzie jskiego瓦特Polsce”伦贝尔,1861;伯爵夫人DE Flavigny,“圣Hyacinthe等SES compagnons”,巴黎,1899年)。The province of Hungary, founded in 1221 by Bl.省,匈牙利在1221年通过“基本法”。Paul of Hungary, evangelized the Cumans and the people of the Balkans.保罗,匈牙利福音Cumans巴尔干和人民。As early as 1235-37 Brother Richard and his companions set out in quest of Greater Hungary -- the Hungarian pagans still dwelling on the Volga ("Vitæ Fratrum", ed. Reichert, 305; "De inventa Hungaria Magna tempore Gregorii IX", ed. Endlicher, in "Rerum Hungaricarum Monumenta", 248; Ferrarius, "De rebus Hungaricæ Provinciæ S. Ord. Præd.", Vienna, 1637).早在1235年至1237年兄弟理查德和他的同伴们在追求大匈牙利 - 匈牙利异教徒仍居住在伏尔加(“简历Fratrum”,主编赖克特,305;“德文达匈牙利麦格纳临时Gregorii九”。 。Endlicher版,在“Rerum Hungaricarum纪念馆”,248; Ferrarius,“。德情势Hungaricæ Provinciæ S.条例Præd”,维也纳,1637年)。

The province of Greece, founded in 1228, occupied those territories of the empire of the East which had been conquered by the Latins, its chief centre of activity being Constantinople.希腊,成立于1228年,全省的东方帝国征服了由拉丁人,行政中心,其活动君士坦丁堡占领这些领土。 Here also the Preachers laboured for the return of the schismatics to ecclesiastical unity ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, pp. i, xii, 102, 136, 156, 911; Potthast, 3198; "Vitæ fratrum", 1218).这里还传教士吃力,我的schismatics返回教会的团结(第I,12,102,136,156,911“脚本条例Præd。”;波特哈斯特,3198;“简历fratrum”,1218 )。The province of the Holy Land established in 1228, occupied all the Latin conquest of the Holy Land besides Nicosia and Tripoli.全省1228年成立的圣地,被占领的所有拉美征服的圣地除了尼科西亚和的黎波里。Its houses on the Continent were destroyed one after the other with the defeat of the Christians, and at the beginning of the fourteenth century the province was reduced to the three convents on the Island of Cyprus ("Script. Ord. Præd.", I, pp. i, xii; Balme, "La Province dominicaine de Terre-Sainte de 1277 à 1280" in "Archives de l'Orient Latin"; Idem, "Les franciscains et les dominicains à Jérusalem au treizième et au quatorzième siècle", 1890, p. 324).其在大陆的房屋被摧毁后,与其他基督徒的失败之一,并于十四世纪初,全省减少在塞浦路斯岛(三个修道院“脚本。条例。Præd”,我,与我XII; Balme,“省dominicaine渔村 - 圣 - 1277 1280”中的“档案”东方拉丁文“;同上,”franciscains ET LES dominicains耶路撒冷坳treizième ET AU quatorzième SIECLE“, 1890年,第324页)。The province of the Holy Land was the starting point for the evangelization of Asia during the thirteenth century.全省的圣地,在13世纪是亚洲的福传的起点。As early as 1237 the provincial, Philip, reported to Gregory IX extraordinary results obtained by the religious; the evangelization reached Jacobites and Nestorians, Maronites and Saracens (Script. Ord. Præd., I, 104).作为1237年初省,菲利普,所取得的宗教格雷戈里九不平凡的业绩报告;福传达Jacobites和景教,马龙派教徒和撒拉逊人(Script.条例Præd,我,104。) About the same time the Friars established themselves in Armenia and in Georgia ("Bull. Ord. Præd.", I, 108, "Script. O P.", I, 122; H. de Romanis, "Opera" II, 502 Vinc. Bellovacensis, "Speculum historiale", l. b XXI, 42; Tamarati, "L'Eglise Géorgienne des origines jusqu'à nos jours", Rome, 1910, 430).大约在同一时间的修士在亚美尼亚和格鲁吉亚建立了自己(“斗牛条例Præd。”我,108,“脚本O体育。”我,122; H. DE Romanis,“戏曲”二,502 Vinc Bellovacensis,“窥historiale”,L。B XXI,42; Tamarati,“L' Eglise Géorgienne origines jusqu'à NOS jours”,罗马,1910年,430)。

The missions of Asia continued to develop through out the thirteenth century and part of the fourteenth and missionaries went as far as Bagdad and India [Mandonnet, "Fra Ricoldo de Monte Croce" in "Revue bib.", I, 1893; Balme, "Jourdain Cathala de Sévérae, Evêque de Coulain" (Quilon), Lyons, 1886].亚洲的使命继续开发出13世纪,第十四和传教士的一部分通过了尽可能巴格达和印度[芒多,“法兰克福机场Ricoldo蒙地克罗齐”,我,1893年“歌剧团围脖。”; Balme,“茹尔丹凯沙拉Sévérae,Evêque Coulain“(Quilon),里昂,1886]。In 1312 the master general, Béranger de Landore, organized the missions of Asia into a special congregation of "Friars Pilgrims", with Franco of Perugia as vicar general.在1312 Béranger DE Landore,掌握一般情况下,组织成一个“男修道士朝圣者”特殊众亚洲的任务,与佛朗哥的佩鲁贾作为副主教一般。As a base of evangelization they had the convent of Pera (Constantinople), Capha, Trebizond, and Negropont.作为福传的基地,他们佩拉(君士坦丁堡),Capha,Trebizond和Negropont修道院。Thence they branched out into Armenia and Persia.从那里他们跨足亚美尼亚和波斯。In 1318 John XXII appointed Franco of Perugia Archbishop of Sultanieh, with six other Dominicans as suffragans.在1318约翰二十二任命佛朗哥的佩鲁贾Sultanieh大主教,与六个suffragans其他多米尼加。 During the first half of the fourteenth century the Preachers occupied many sees in the East.上半年在十四世纪的传教士被占领许多在东认为。When the missions of Persia were destroyed in 1349, the Preachers possessed fifteen monasteries there, and the United Brethren (see below) eleven monasteries.波斯的任务是在1349销毁时,传教士拥有十五个寺院,和美国弟兄(见下文)11个寺院。In 1358 the Congregation of Pilgrims still had two convents and eight residences.众的朝圣者在1358年仍然有两个修道院和8个住宅。This movement brought about the foundation, in 1330, of the United Brethren of St. Gregory the Illuminator.这项运动带来的基础,于1330年,美国弟兄圣格雷戈里照明灯。It was the work of Bl.这是“基本法”的工作。Bartolommeo Petit of Bologna, Bishop of Maragha, assisted by John of Kerni. Bartolommeo佩蒂特Maragha主教,博洛尼亚,协助Kerni约翰。It was formed by Armenian religious who adopted the Constitution of the Dominicans and were incorporated with the order after 1356.成立了由亚美尼亚宗教通过多米尼加共和国的宪法和与订单成立后,1356。Thirty years after their foundation the United Brethren had in Armenia alone 50 monasteries with 700 religious. 30年后,他们的基础,美国弟兄仅在亚美尼亚50 700宗教寺庙。This province still existed in the eighteenth century [Eubel, "Die während des 14. Jahrhunderts im Missionsgebiet der Dominikanel und Franziskaner errichteten Bistümer" in "Festchrift des deutschen Campo Santo in Rom", Freiburg i.这个省在18世纪仍然存在Eubel,“模具während DES 14。Jahrhunderts IM Missionsgebiet DER Dominikanel和Franziskaner errichteten Bistümer”中的“Festchrift DES deutschen坎普圣多明各在ROM”,弗赖堡一Br., 1897, 170; Heyd, "Die Kolonien der römischen Kirche, welche die Dominikaner und Franziskaner im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert in dem von der Tataren beherrschten Ländern Asiens und Europas gregründet haben" in "Zeitschrift für die historische Theologie", 1858; Tournebize, "Hist. politique et religieuse de l'Arménie", Paris, s.溴,1897年,170;。Heyd,“。模具Kolonien DER römischen Kirche,welche死Dominikaner和Franziskaner IM 13 UND 14日在德国马克冯DER Tataren beherrschten Ländern Asiens和Europas gregründet haben Jahrhundert”中的“(杂志)献给死historische神学”, 1858;“。组织胺政治等religieuse DE L' Arménie”Tournebize,巴黎,第d (1910) 320; André-Marie, "Missions dominicaines dans l'Extrême Orient", Lyons and Paris, 1865 Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres généraux de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs", I, IV].D(1910)320;安德烈 - 玛丽,“传教dominicaines DANS L'至尊东方”,里昂和巴黎,1865年Mortier“。组织胺DES maîtres généraux DE L'公共秩序DES Frères的Prêcheurs”,Ⅰ,Ⅳ]。

(m) The Preachers and Sanctity(M)传教士和神圣

It is characteristic of Dominican sanctity that its saints attained holiness in the apostolate, in the pursuit or promotion of learning, administration, foreign missions, the papacy, the cardinalate, and the episcopate.其圣人达到圣洁的使徒,在追求或学习,管理,外国使团,教皇,对cardinalate,和主教的推广,这是多米尼加共和国的神圣性的特点。 Until the end of the fifteenth century the order in its three branches gave to the Church nine canonized saints and at least seventy-three blessed.直到十五世纪末,在它的三个分支的顺序给九个教会册封的圣人,至少有七十三个祝福。Of the first order (the Preachers) are St. Dominic, St. Peter of Verona, martyr, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Raymond of Pennafort, St. Vincent Ferrer, St. Antoninus of Florence. (传教士)的一阶圣道,圣彼得的维罗纳,烈士,圣托马斯阿奎那,圣彭纳福特雷蒙德,圣文森特费雷尔,佛罗伦萨圣安东尼。Among the Dominican saints in general there is a predominance of the intellectual over the emotional qualities; their mystical life is more subjective than objective; and asceticism plays a strong part in their holiness.在一般多米尼加圣人中,有一个知识分子的的情感素质的优势;其神秘的生活,更不是客观的主观的和禁欲主义起着强烈的一部分在他们的圣洁。 Meditation on the sufferings of Christ and His love was common among them.其中,冥想基督的苦难和他的爱是共同的。Mystic states, with the phenomena which accompany them, were ordinary, especially in convents of women in German countries.陪他们与现象,神秘的国家,普通,特别是在修道院在德语国家的妇女。Many received the stigmata in various forms.许多人接受了各种形式的印记。St. Thomas Aquinas and Meister Eckhart were, from different standpoints, the greatest medieval theorists concerning the mystical state (Giffre de Rechac, "Les vies et actions mémorables des saints canonisés de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs et de plusieurs bienheureux et illustres personnages du même ordre", Paris, 1647; Marchese, "Sagro diario domenicano", Naples, 1668, 6 vols. in fol.; Manoel de Lima, "Agiologio dominico", Lisbon, 1709-54, 4 vols. in fol.; "Année dominicaine", Lyons, 1883-1909, 12 vols. in 4; Imbert-Gourbeyre, "La Stigmatisation", Clermont-Ferrand, 1894; Thomas de Vallgormera, "Mystica theologia D. Thomae", Barcelona, 1662; Turin, 1911, re-ed. Berthier).多瑪斯和迈斯特艾克哈特,从不同的角度,最大的关于中世纪的神秘状态的理论家(Giffre Rechac,“争夺等行动mémorables DES圣人canonisés DE L'公共秩序DES Frères的Prêcheurs ET DE plusieurs bienheureux等illustres personnages杜梅梅公共秩序“,巴黎,1647;马尔凯塞,”Sagro日报domenicano“,那不勒斯,1668年6卷FOL。马诺埃尔德利马,”Agiologio dominico“,里斯本,1709至1754年,4卷FOL。” dominicaine年刊“,里昂,1883年至一九○九年,12卷4。Imbert Gourbeyre,”香格里拉Stigmatisation“,克莱蒙费朗,1894年,托马斯de Vallgormera,”Mystica theologia D. Thomae“,巴塞罗那,1662;都灵,1911年重新- ED。贝蒂埃)。

(2) Modern Period(2)现代期

The modern period consists of the three centuries between the religious revolution at the beginning of the sixteenth century (Protestantism) and the French Revolution with its consequences.包括在十六世纪(新教)和其后果的法国大革命开始的宗教革命之间的三个世纪的现代时期。 The Order of Preachers, like the Church itself, felt the shock of these destructive revolutions but its vitality enabled it to withstand them successfully.订购的传教士,教会本身一样,感受到了这些破坏性革命的冲击,但它的生命力,使其能够承受他们成功。At the beginning of the sixteenth century the order was on the way to a genuine renaissance when the Revolutionary upheavals occurred.在十六世纪初的顺序是一个真正的文艺复兴时期的革命动乱发生时的方式。The progress of heresy cost it six or seven provinces and several hundreds of convents, but the discovery of the New World opened up a fresh field of activity.的异端进展成本六,七个省份和数百修道院,但发现新大陆的开辟了一个新鲜的活动领域。Its gains in America and those which arose as a consequence of the Portuguese conquests in Africa and the Indies far exceeded the losses of the order in Europe, and the seventeenth century saw its highest numerical development.其涨幅在美国和葡萄牙征服非洲和印度的后果而产生的远远超过了在欧洲的订单的损失,和17世纪,其最高数值的发展。 The sixteenth century was a great doctrinal century, and the movement lasted beyond the middle of the eighteenth.十六世纪是一个伟大的理论的世纪,运动持续超越十八中。In modern times the order lost much of its influence on the political powers, which had universally fallen into absolutism and had little sympathy for the democratic constitution of the Preachers.在近代秩序失去了普遍下降到专制的政治权力,其影响力和传教士的民主宪法的一点同情。The Bourbon Courts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were particularly unfavourable to them until the suppression of the Society of Jesus.十七和十八世纪的波旁法院尤为不利,直到耶稣会抑制他们。 In the eighteenth century there were numerous attempts at reform which created, especially in France, geographical confusion in the administration.在18世纪有无数次尝试改革创造,尤其是在法国,管理的地理混乱。 During the eighteenth century the tyrannical spirit of the European Powers and, still more, the spirit of the age lessened the number of recruits and the fervour of religious life.在十八世纪的欧洲列强,更强横的精神,时代精神,减轻了新兵的人数和宗教生活的热情。The French Revolution ruined the order in France, and the crises which more or less rapidly followed considerably lessened or wholly destroyed numerous provinces.法国大革命葬送在法国的秩序,这或多或少也接踵而来大大减轻或完全摧毁了许多省份的危机。

(a) Geographical Distribution and Statistics(一)地理分布和统计

The modern period saw a great change in the geographical distribution of provinces and the number of religious in the order.现代时期看到一个省的地域分布的巨大变化和宗教的顺序。The establishment of Protestantism in Anglo-Saxon countries brought about during the sixteenth century, the total or partial disappearance of certain provinces.新教的盎格鲁 - 撒克逊国家的建立带来了关于在16世纪,一些省份的部分或全部消失。The provinces of Saxony, Dacia, England, and Scotland completely disappeared, that of Teutonia was mutilated; that of Ireland sought refuge in various houses on the Continent.萨克森州,达契亚,英国,苏格兰和各省完全消失,Teutonia,被肢解,爱尔兰,在欧洲大陆上的各种房屋寻求避难。 The discovery and evangelization of America opened up vast territories, where the first Dominican missionaries established themselves as early as 1510.美的发现和福传开辟了广阔的领土,其中第一多米尼加传教士建立自己早为1510。The first province, with San Domingo and the neighbouring islands for its territory, was erected, under the name of the Holy Cross, in 1530.圣多明戈和邻近岛屿其领土,在全国率先拔地而起,在圣十字的名称,于1530年。 Others followed quickly -- among them St. James of Mexico (1532), St. John Baptist of Peru (1539), St. Vincent of Chiapa (1551), St. Antoninus of New Granada (1551), St. Catherine of Quito (1580), St. Lawrence of Chile (1592).其他快 - 圣雅各福群会,其中墨西哥(1532年),圣约翰浸会秘鲁(1539年),圣文森Chiapa(1551),新格拉纳达的圣安东尼(1551),圣凯瑟琳基多(1580年),圣劳伦斯智利(1592年)。 In Europe the order developed constantly from the middle of the sixteenth century till the middle of the eighteenth.在欧洲,为了不断发展,从中间的十六世纪至十八的中间。New provinces or congregations were formed.新的省份或会形成。Under the government of Serafino Cavalli (1571-78) the order had thirty-one provinces and five congregations.Serafino卡瓦利(1571年至1578年)根据政府的命令,有35个省和五个众。In 1720 it had forty-nine provinces and four congregations.1720年,它有45个省和四个众。At the former date there were about 900 convents; at the latter, 1200.在前一天,有大约900修道院;在后者,1200。During Cavalli's time the order had 14,000 religious, and in 1720 more than 20,000.在Cavalli的时间顺序有14000宗教,并在1720年超过20,000。It seems to have reached its greatest numerical development during the seventeenth century.它似乎已经达到了在17世纪最大的数值发展。Mention is made of 30,000 and 40,000 Dominicans; perhaps these figures include nuns; it does not seem probable that the number of Preachers alone ever exceeded 25,000.提到了30,000和40,000多米尼加;也许这些数字包括僧尼;它似乎并不可能单独传道不断突破25000。The secularization in Austria-Hungary under Joseph II began the work of partial suppression of convents, which was continued in France by the Committee of Regulars (1770) until the Convention (1793) finally destroyed all religious life in that country.根据约瑟夫二世在奥匈帝国的世俗化,开始部分的修道院,这是委员会的常客(1770年)在法国,直到终于摧毁了该国所有的宗教生活公约(1793)继续抑制工作。 The Napoleonic conquest overthrew many provinces and houses in Europe.拿破仑征服推翻了在欧洲的许多省份和房屋。Most of them were eventually restored; but the Revolution destroyed partially or wholly the provinces of Portugal (1834), Spain (1834), and Italy (1870).他们大多是最终恢复,但革命摧毁了部分或全部葡萄牙(1834年),西班牙(1834年),意大利(1870年)的省份。 The political troubles brought about by the revolt of Latin America from the mother country at the beginning of the nineteenth century partially or wholly destroyed several provinces of the New World ("Script. Ord. Præd.", II, p. I, "Analecta Ord. Præd.", I sqq.; "Dominicanus orbis descriptus"; Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres généraux", V sqq.; Chapotin, "Le dernier prieur du dernier couvent", Paris, 1893; Rais, "Historia de la provincia de Aragón, orden de Predicadores desde le año 1803 haste el de 1818", Saragossa, 1819; 1824).带来政治麻烦拉丁美洲的反抗从祖国的部分或全部摧毁了几个省的新世界(十九世纪初的“脚本。条例。Præd”,第二,第我,“Analecta条例Præd。“我SQQ。”Dominicanus奥比斯descriptus“; Mortier,”组织胺DES maîtres généraux“,第五SQQ; Chapotin,”乐dernier prieur杜dernier couvent“,巴黎,1893年,赖斯,”Historia DE省报阿拉贡,勋章的Predicadores desde乐ANO 1803急速EL的1818“,萨拉戈萨,1819年,1824年)。

(b) Administration of the Order(二)政府的订单

During the modern period the Preachers remained faithful to the spirit of their organization.在现代时期,传教士仍然忠实于他们的组织的精神。Some modifications were necessitated by the general condition of the Church and civil society.一些修改是必要的教会和民间社会的一般状况。Especially noteworthy was the attempt, in 1569, of St. Pius V, the Dominican pope, to restrict the choice of superiors by inferiors and to constitute a sort of administrative aristocracy (Acta Cap. Gener., V, 94).尤其值得一提的是尝试,于1569年,圣皮乌斯五,多米尼加教皇,限制由下级对上级的选择,并构成了行政贵族排序(第文献。根儿,五,94)。 The frequent intervention of popes in the government of the order and the pretensions of civil powers, as well as its great development, diminished the frequency of general chapters; the rapid succession of masters general caused many chapters to be convened during the seventeenth century; in the eighteenth century chapters again became rare.教皇在的秩序和民事权力的伪装政府的频繁干预,以及其巨大的发展,减少一般章节的频率;主人一般的快速连续造成很多章节是在17世纪召开的;十八世纪的章节再次成为罕见的。 The effective administration passed into the hands of the general assisted by pontifical decrees.法令由罗马教皇的协助下到一般的手中传递,有效的管理。During these three centuries the order had many heads who were remarkable for their energy and administrative ability, among them Thomas de Vio (1508-18), Garcia de Loaysa (1518-24), Vincent Giustiniani (1558-70), Nicolo Ridolfi (1629-44), Giovanni Battista de' Marini (1650-69), Antonin Cloche (1686-1720), Antonin Brémond (1748-55), John Thomas de Boxadors (Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres généraux", V sq.; "Acta cap. gen.", IV sq.; "Chronicon magistrorum generalium"; "Regula S. Augustini et Constitutiones Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1695; Paichelli, "Vita del Rmo PF Giov. Battista de' Marini", Rome, 1670; Messin, "Vita del Rmo P F. Antonino Cloche", Benevento, 1721; "Vita Antonini Bremondii" in "Annales Ord. Præd.", Rome, 1756, I, p. LIX).在这三个世纪的秩序有显着自己的精力和行政能力,其中许多托马斯de VIO(1508年至1518年),加西亚 - Loaysa(1518年至1524年),文森特Giustiniani(1558年至1570年),龙华民里多尔菲头(马里尼乔瓦尼巴蒂斯塔DE“(1650年至1669年),安东尼Cloche(1786至20年),安东尼雷蒙(1748年至1755年),约翰托马斯Boxadors(Mortier,1629年至1644年),”组织胺。DES maîtres généraux“,五平方米“文献第根。”四平方米;“Chronicon magistrorum generalium”;“雷古拉S. Augustini等Constitutiones条例Præd。”,罗马,1695; Paichelli,“维塔DEL RMO犯规Giov巴蒂斯塔”马里尼。“罗马,1670; Messin,“维他DEL RMO P楼安东尼Cloche”,贝内文托,1721;“维塔安东尼Bremondii”,罗马,1756年,我第LIX)“年鉴条例Præd。”

(c) Scholastic Organization(三)学术组织

The scholastic organization of the Dominicans during this modern period tended to concentration of studies.学术组织的多米尼加人在这个现代时期趋于集中研究。The conventual school required by the Constitutions disappeared, at least in its essentials, and in each province or congregation the studies were grouped in particular convents. conventual学校由宪法规定的消失,至少在其要领,并在每个省或聚集的研究,尤其是修道院分组。The studia generalia multiplied, as well as convents incorporated with universities.studia generalia成倍增加,以及与大学注册的修道院。The General Chapter of 1551 designates 27 convents in university towns where, and where only, the religious might take the degree of Master in Theology.总章1551指定了27只,并在宗教神学硕士学位的大学城的修道院。 Through the generosity of Dominicans in high ecclesiastical offices large colleges for higher education were also established for the benefit of certain provinces.通过高教会办事处多米尼加的慷慨高等教育的大学院还建立了一些省份的利益​​。Among the most famous of these were the College of St. Gregory at Valladolid, founded in 1488 by Alonzo of Burgos, adviser and confessor of the kings of Castile (Bull. OP, IV, 38); that of St. Thomas at Seville, established in 1515 by Archbishop Diego de Deza ("Historia del colegio major de Ste Tomás de Sevilla", Seville, 1890).其中最著名的是在巴利亚多利德圣格雷戈里学院,成立于1488年,莫宁布尔戈斯,顾问和卡斯蒂利亚国王“(Bull. OP,四,38)忏悔;圣托马斯在塞维利亚,在1515年成立由大主教迭Deza(“Historia DEL colegio主要的STE托马斯塞维利亚,塞维利亚,1890年)。The Preachers also established universities in their chief provinces in America -- San Domingo (1538), Santa Fé de Bogotá (1612), Quito (1681), Havana (1721) -- and even in the Philippines, where the University of Manila (1645) is still flourishing and in their hands.传教士还建立在他们的主要省份的大学,在美国 - 圣多明戈(1538年),圣菲波哥大(1612),基多(1681年),哈瓦那(1721) - 甚至,在菲律宾马尼拉大学( 1645年)仍是蓬勃发展,在他们手中。During the sixteenth and following centuries the schedule of studies was more than once revised, and the matter extended to meet the needs of the times.在第十六和几百年间,的研究计划是超过一次修订,此事扩展,以满足时代的需要。Oriental studies especially received a vigorous impulse under the generalship of Antonin Brémond (Fabricy, "Des titres primitifs de la Révélation", Rome, 1772, II, 132; "Acta. Cap. Gen.", IV-VII; "Bull. OP", passim; V. de la Fuente, "La enseñanza Tomistica en España", Madrid, 1874; Contarini "Notizie storiche circa gli publici professori nello studio di Padova scelti dall' ordine di San Domenieo", Venice, 1769).东方研究,特别是大将安东尼雷蒙(Fabricy,“德滴度primitifs DE LA的启示”,罗马,1772年,第二,132下一场轰轰烈烈的冲动“。文献第将军”,第四至第七。“斗牛OP “,各处;五,德拉富恩特,”LA enseñanza Tomistica在西班牙,马德里,1874年;黎尼“Notizie storiche大约GLI publici professori nello工作室DI帕多瓦scelti多尔”ordine圣Domenieo“​​,威尼斯,1769)。

(d) Doctrinal Activity(四)教义活动

The doctrinal activity of the Preachers continued during the modern period.较浓的传教士的活动,继续在现代时期。The order, closely connected with the events of the Reformation in German countries, faced the revolutionary movement as best it could, and by preaching and writing deserved what Dr. Paulus has said of it: "It may well be said that in the difficult conflict through which the Catholic Church had to pass in Germany in the sixteenth century no other religious order furnished in the literary sphere so many champions, or so well equipped, as the Order of St. Dominic" ("Die deutschen Dominikaner in Kampfe gegen Luther, 1518-1563", Freiburg i. Br., 1903).最好,和说教和写作的顺序,在德语国家的改革事件紧密相连,面临的革命运动当之无愧的保卢斯博士的说:“这可以说,在困难的冲突通过天主教教会在16世纪,通过在德国没有其他的宗教秩序,在文学领域提供这么多的冠军,还是让设备齐全圣星勋章“(”Kampfe葛根路德模具deutschen Dominikaner 1518年至1563年“,弗赖堡一BR,1903年)。The order was conspicuous by the number and influence of the Dominican bishops and theologians who took part in the Council of Trent.该命令是由多米尼加主教和神学家参加在安理会的遄达的数量和影响的突出。To a certain extent Thomistic doctrine predominated in the discussions and decisions of the council, so that Clement VII, in 1593, could say, when he desired the Jesuits to follow St. Thomas, that the council approved and accepted his works (Astrain, "Historia de la Compañia de Jésus en la asistencia de España", III, Madrid, 1909, 580).在一定程度上Thomistic学说占主导地位,在安理会的讨论和决策,使克莱门特七世,在1593年,可以说,当他想要的耶稣会士跟随圣托马斯,理事会批准,并接受了他的的作品(Astrain,“ Historia DE LA Compañia DE JESUS​​ EN LA asistencia西班牙“,三,马德里,1909年,580)。 The "Catechismus ad Parochos", the composition of which had been ordered by the council, and which was published at the command of Pius V (1566), is the work of Dominican theologians (Reginaldus, "De catechismi romani auctoritate dissertatio", Naples, 1765). “Catechismus广告Parochos”,已下令由理事会和皮乌斯五(1566)的命令,这是在发表的成分,是多米尼加共和国的神学家的工作(Reginaldus,“德catechismi罗姆auctoritate dissertatio”,那不勒斯,1765)。The Spanish Dominican School of the sixteenth century, inaugurated by Francisco de Vitoria (d. 1540), produced a series of eminent theologians: Melchior Cano (1560), the celebrated author of "De locis theologicis"; Domingo Soto (1500); Bartolomé de Medina (1580); Domingo Bañez.旧金山 - 维多利亚(卒于1540年)开始,十六世纪的西班牙多米尼加学校产生了一系列杰出的神学家:梅尔基奥尔卡诺,庆祝“德locis theologicis”作者(1560);多明戈索托(1500);巴托 - 麦地那(1580年);多明戈Bañez。This line of theologians was continued by Tomás de Lemos (1629); Diego Alvarez (1635); Juan de S. Tomás (1644), ["Script. OP", II, s.圣地亚哥阿尔瓦雷斯(1635);这行的神学家托马斯 - 莱莫斯(1629)继续胡安de S.托马斯(1644年),[“脚本”任择议定书“,第二,第vv.; P. Getino, "Historia de un convento" (St. Stephen of Salamanca), Vergara, 1904 Ehrle, "Die Vatikanischen Handschriften der Salamanticenser Theologen des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts" in "Der Katholik", 64-65, 1884-85; LG Getino, "El maestro Fr. Francisco de Vitoria" in "La Ciencia tomista", Madrid, I, 1910, 1; Caballero, "Vida del Illmo. dr. D. Fray Melchor Cano", Madrid, 1871; Alvarez, "Santa Teresa y el P. Bañez", Madrid, 1882].VV; P. Getino,“Historia联合国convento”(圣萨拉曼卡斯蒂芬),皮诺切特1904年Ehrle,“模具Vatikanischen Handschriften DER Salamanticenser Theologen DES sechszehnten Jahrhunderts”“明镜Katholik”,64-65,1884年至1885年,LG Getino,“厄尔尼诺大师FR旧金山的维多利亚。”中的“香格里拉Ciencia tomista”,马德里,我,1910年1;卡巴莱罗,“。维达DEL Illmo博士D.弗赖梅尔乔卡诺”,马德里,1871年;阿尔瓦雷斯, “Santa Teresa的Y EL体育Bañez”,马德里,1882年]。

Italy furnished a contingent of Dominican theologians of note, of whom Thomas de Vio Cajetan (d. 1534) was incontestably the most famous (Cossio, "II cardinale Gaetano e la riforma", Cividale, 1902).意大利家具的注意多米尼加神学家的队伍,其中托马斯de VIO Cajetan(卒于1534年)是无可争议的最有名的(Cossio,“二汀娜加埃塔诺发送riforma”,Cividale,1902年)。 Franceseo Silvestro di Ferrara (d. 1528) left a valuable commentary on the "Summa contra Gentiles" (Script. OP, II, 59).Franceseo西尔维斯特DI费拉拉(卒于1528年)留下了宝贵的评论“禁忌大全外邦人”(Script. OP,二,59)。Chrysostom Javelli, a dissenter from the Thomistic School, left very remarkable writings on the moral and political sciences (op. cit., 104).金口Javelli,反对者Thomistic学校,留在道义上和政治上的科学(同上,104)非常了不起的著作。Catharinus (1553) is a famous polemicist, but an unreliable theologian (Schweizer, "Ambrosius Catharinus Politus, 1484-1553, ein Theologe des Reformations-zeitalters", Münster, 1910).Catharinus(1553年)是一位著名的辩论家,但一个不可靠的神学家(施韦策“,安布罗修斯Catharinus Politus,1484年至1553年,EIN Theologe重新组合,zeitalters”,明斯特,1910年)。France likewise produced excellent theologians -- Jean Nicolai (d. 1673); Vincent de Contenson (d. 1674); Antoine Reginald (d. 1676); Jean-Baptiste Gonet (d. 1681); Antoine Gondin (d. 1695); Antonin Manoulié (d. 1706); Noël Alexandre (Natalis Alexander) (d. 1724); Hyacinthe de Graveson (d. 1733); Hyacinthe Serry (d.1738) ("Seript. OP", II; Hurter "Nomenelator", IV; H. Serry, "Opera omnia", I, Lyons, 1770, p. 5).法国同样出色的神学家 - 让尼古拉(卒于1673年);圣文森特德Contenson(卒于1674),安托万雷金纳德(卒于1676),让 - 巴蒂斯特Gonet(卒于1681年),安托万Gondin(卒于1695年);安东宁Manoulié(卒于1706年);陈百祥诺埃尔亚历山大(亚历山大)(卒于1724年); Hyacinthe DE Graveson(卒于1733年); Hyacinthe塞里(d.1738)(“Seript任择议定书”,第二Hurter“Nomenelator”第四; H.塞里,“歌剧OMNIA”,我,里昂,1770年,第5页)。From the sixteenth century to the eighteenth the Thomistic School upheld by the authority of Dominican general chapters and theologians, the official adhesion of new religious orders and various theological faculties, but above all by the Holy See, enjoyed an increasing and undisputed authority.从十六世纪到十八Thomistic学校坚持由权威多米尼加一般章节和神学家,新的宗教订单和各种神学院系的官方粘连,但上述所有的罗马教廷,享受增加和无可争议的权威。

The disputes concerning moral theology which disturbed the Church during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, originated in the theory of probability advanced by the Spanish Dominican Bartolomé de Medina in 1577.关于在第十七和十八世纪起源于1577年由西班牙多米尼加巴托 - 梅迪纳先进的概率理论,扰乱教会的道德神学的纠纷。 Several theologians of the order adopted, at the beginning of the seventeenth century the theory of moral probability; but in consideration of the abuses which resulted from these doctrines the General Chapter of 1656 condemned them, and after that time there were no more Probabilists among the Dominicans.为了一些神学家获得通过,在十七世纪的道德概率理论开始,但考虑到的滥用导致这些学说1656总章谴责他们,并在该时间之后有之间没有更多Probabilists多米尼加。 The condemnations of Alexander VII (1665, 1667), the famous Decree of Innocent XI, and various acts of the Roman Church combined to make the Preachers resolute opponents of Probabilism.亚历山大七世(1665年,1667年),著名的法令无辜第十一,并结合起来,使传教士然论的坚决反对者的罗马教会的各种行为的谴责。 The publication of Concina's "Storia del probabilismo" in 1743 renewed the controversy.Concina的“走势图历史DEL probabilismo”于1743年出版续期的争议。He displayed enormous activity, and his friend and disciple, Giovanni Vicenzo Patuzzi (d. 1769) defended him in a series of vigorous writings.他显示了巨大的活动,和他的朋友和弟子,乔万尼维琴佐Patuzzi(卒于1769年),他捍卫了一系列轰轰烈烈的著作。 St. Alphonsus Liguori felt the consequences of these disputes, and, in consideration of the position taken by the Holy See, greatly modified his theoretical system of probability and expressed his desire to adhere to the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas (Mandonnet, "Le décret d'Innocent XI contre le probabilisme", in "Revue Thomiste" 1901-03; Ter Haar, "Des Decret des Papstes Innocenz XI über den Probabilismus", Paderborn, 1904; Concina, "Della storia del Probabilismo e del Rigorismo", Lucca, 1743; Mondius, "Studio storico-critico sul sistema morale di S. Alfonso M. de Liguori", Monza, 1911; Dölinger-Reuseh, "Gesch. der Moralstreitigkelten", Nordlingen, 1889).圣阿方Liguori认为,这些纠纷的后果,并考虑由罗马教廷所采取的立场,极大地改变他的概率理论体系,并表示他的愿望,坚持以多瑪斯主义(芒多,“乐décret D'无辜第十一CONTRE LE probabilisme“,”杂志Thomiste“1901年至1903年,彼得哈尔,”德Decret Papstes Innocenz第十一黚巢穴Probabilismus“,帕德博恩,1904年; Concina,”德拉图历史DEL Probabilismo发送DEL Rigorismo“卢卡,1743; Mondius,“工作室storico critico扎SISTEMA士气DI S.方M. Liguori”,蒙扎,1911年; Dölinger Reuseh,“Gesch DER Moralstreitigkelten。”Nordlingen,1889年)。

(e) Scientific productions(e)科学制作

The literary activity of the Preachers of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries was not confined to the theological movement noticed above, but shared in the general movement of erudition in the sacred sciences.第十六和十八世纪的传教士的文学活动不局限于神学运动注意到上述情况,但在一般运动的博学在神圣的科学共享。Among the most noteworthy productions were the works of Pagnini (d. 1541) on the Hebrew text of Scripture; his lexicons and grammars were famous in their day and exercised a lasting influence (Script. OP, II 114); Sixtus of Siena (d. 1569), a converted Jew created the science of introduction to the sacred Books with his "Bibliotheca Sancta" (Venice, 1566; op. cit., 206); Jacques Goar, liturgist and Orientalist published the "Euchologium sive rituale Græeorum" (Paris, 1647), a work which, according to Renaudot, was unsurpassed by anything in its time (Hurter, "Nomenclat. litt.", III, 1211).其中最值得注意的制作是希伯来文的圣经Pagnini(卒于1541)的作品,他的词汇和语法,在著名的一天,行使持久的影响力(Script. OP,二114); Sixtus锡耶纳(D 1569),转换犹太人建立科学的引进与他的“书目Sancta”(威尼斯,1566神圣的书籍。同上,206);雅克Goar,liturgist和东方出版的“Euchologium sive rituale Græeorum”(巴黎,1647年),一个工作,而根据勒诺多,任何在其无与伦比的(Hurter,“Nomenclat。利特”,第三,1211)。 François Combefis (d. 1679) issued editions of the Greek Fathers and writers (op. cit., IV, 161).弗朗索瓦Combefis(卒于1679)发行的希腊教父和作家(同上,四,161)的版本。Michel le Quien, Orientalist, produced a monumental work in his "Oriens Christianus".在他的“Oriens Christianus”,东方,乐Quien米歇尔生产一项艰巨的工作。Vansleb (d. 1679) was twice sent by Colbert to the Orient, whence he brought a large number of manuscripts for the Bibliothèque du Roi (Pougeois "Vansleb", Paris, 1869). Vansleb(卒于1679)两次被科尔伯特发送到东方,从那里他带来了大量的手稿图书馆杜的ROI(Pougeois“Vansleb”,巴黎,1869年)。 Thomas Mammachi (d. 1792) left a large unfinished work, "Origines et Antiquitates Christianæ" (Rome, 1753-57).托马斯Mammachi(卒于1792年)留下了大量未完成的工作,“Origines等Antiquitates Christianæ”(罗马,1753年至1757年)。

In the historical field mention must be made of Bartholomew de Las Casas (d. 1566) who left a valuable "Historia de las Indias" (Madrid, 1875), Noël Alexandre (d. 1724) left an ecclesiastical history which was long held in esteem [Paris, 1676-89; (Dict. de Théol. Cath., I, 769)].在历史领域提到必须巴塞洛缪德拉斯卡萨斯(卒于1566)留下了宝贵的“Historia DE LAS印度的”(马德里,1875),诺埃尔亚历山大(卒于1724年)留下一个教会的历史,这是长期持有自尊[巴黎,1676年至1689年;(。快译通Théol蛋白酶,我,769)]。 Joseph Augustin Orsi (d. 1761) wrote an "Historia eelesiastica" which was continued by his confrère Filippo Angelo Becchetti (d. 1814).约瑟夫奥古斯丁奥尔西(卒于1761)写了一篇“Historia eelesiastica”,这是由他的合伙人菲利普安杰洛Becchetti(卒于1814年)继续。The last edition (Rome, 1838) ; numbers 50 volumes (Kirchenlex., IX, 1087).最后一版(罗马,1838年);号码50卷“(Kirchenlex.,第九,1087)。Nicolas Coeffeteau was, according to Vaugelas, one of the two greatest masters of the French language at the beginning of the eighteenth century (Urbain, "Nicolas Coeffeteau, dominicain, évêque de Marseille, un des fondateurs de la prose française, 1574-1623", Paris, 1840).萨科Coeffeteau,根据Vaugelas,在十八世纪初(于尔班,“萨科Coeffeteau,dominicain,évêque马赛,联合国fondateurs DE LA散文法语,1574年至1623年的两个最大的法语语言大师之一” ,巴黎,1840年)。Thomas Campanella (d. 1639) won renown by his numerous writings on philosophy and sociology as well as by the boldness of his ideas and his eventful life (Dict. de théol. Bath., II, 1443).托马斯康帕内拉(卒于1639年)赢得了他的哲学和社会学的许多著作,以及他的想法和他忙碌的生活勇气(快译通théol。浴,二,1443)而闻名。 Jacques Barelier (d. 1673) left one of the foremost botanical works of his time, which was edited by A. de Jussieu, "Icones plantarum per Galliam, Hispaniam et Italiam observatarum ad vivum exhibitarum" [Paris, 1714; (Script. OP, II, 645)].雅克Barelier(卒于1673年)留下的最重要的植物作品,他的时间,这是由A. DE Jussieu编辑之一,“Icones杆菌每Galliam,Hispaniam等Italiam observatarum广告vivum exhibitarum”巴黎,1714;(Script. OP二,645)]。

(f) The Preachers and Christian Society(F)的传教士和基督教社会

During the modern period the order performed countless services for the Church.在现代时期的顺序执行教会了无数的服务。Their importance may be gathered from the fact that during this period it gave to the Church two popes, St. Pius V (1566-72) and Benedict XIII (1724-30), forty cardinals, and more than a thousand bishops and archbishops.它们的重要性可能会收集到的事实,在此期间,给教会两个教皇,圣皮乌斯五(1566年至1572年)和本笃十三(1724至30年),40枢机主教,和千余名主教和大主教。 From the foundation of the Roman Congregations in the sixteenth century a special place was reserved for the Preachers; thus the titulars of the Commissariat of the Holy Office and the secretary of the Index were always chosen from this order.从在16世纪的罗马教会的基础上,一个特殊的地方是保留的传教士;圣洁办公室和秘书长指数小卖部titulars总是从这个顺序选择。 The title of Consultor of the Holy Office also belonged by right to the master general and the Master of the Sacred Palace (Gams,( "Series episcoporum ecclesiae catholicae", Ratisbon, 1873; Falloux, "Histoire de Saint Pie V", Paris, 1858; Borgia, "Benedicti XIII vita", Rome, 1741; Catalano, "De secretario Indicis", Rome 1751). The influence of the Preachers on the political powers of Europe was unequally exercised during this period: they remained confessors of the kings of Spain until 1700; in France their credit decreased especially under Louis XIV, from whom they had much to suffer ("Catalogo de los religiosos dominicanos confessores de Estado, 1700"; Chapotin, "La guerre de succession de Poissy, 1660-1707", Paris, 1892).圣洁办公室Consultor的称号也属于掌握一般的权利和神圣的宫殿硕士(GAMS(“系列episcoporum,该书catholicae”,拉蒂斯邦,1873年; Falloux,“Histoire de圣徒馅饼V”,巴黎, 1858;波吉“第十三Benedicti VITA”,罗马,1741;卡塔拉诺,“德secretario Indicis”,罗马1751年)的传教士对欧洲的政治权力的影响是不平等的行使在此期间,他们仍然是国王的忏悔直到1700西班牙在法国他们的信用下降,尤其是在路易十四,他们有很多受苦(“Catalogo德洛斯religiosos dominicanos confessores DE国家体制,1700”; Chapotin的“La guerre继承的普瓦西,1660至1707年”巴黎,1892年)。

(g) The Preachers and the Missions(G)传教士及代表团

The missions of the Preachers reached their greatest development during the modern period.在现代时期,传教士的使命达成他们最大的发展。They were fostered, on the one hand, by the Portuguese conquests in Africa and the East Indies and, on the other, by the Spanish conquests in America and Western Asia.他们培养,一方面,在非洲和东印度的葡萄牙征服,另一方面,在北美和西欧地区的西班牙征服。As early as the end of the fifteenth century Portuguese Dominicans reached the West Coast of Africa and, accompanying the explorers, rounded the Cape of Good Hope to settle on the coast of East Africa.早结束的15世纪葡萄牙多米尼加到达非洲西海岸,随行的探险家,绕过好望角,东非海岸定居。They founded temporary or permanent missions in the Portuguese African settlements and went in succession to the Indies, Ceylon, Siam, and Malacca.他们成立于葡萄牙语非洲定居点的临时或永久的任务,并陆续去到印度,锡兰,暹罗,马六甲。They made Goa the centre of these missions which in 1548 were erected into a special mission of the Holy Cross, which had to suffer from the British conquest, but continued to flourish till the beginning of the nineteenth century.他们提出了果阿的一个特殊使命的圣十字,不得不承受来自英国征服竖立在1548年将这些任务的中心,但直到十九世纪初的持续蓬勃发展。 The order gave a great many bishops to these regions [João dos Santos, "Ethiopia oriental", Evora, 1609; re-edited Lisbon, 1891; Cacegas-de Sousa, "Historia de S. Domingo partidor do reino e eonquistas de Portugal", Lisbon, 1767 (Vol. IV by Lucas de Santa Catharina); André Marie, "Missions dominicaines dans l'extrême Orient", Lyons-Paris, 1865].为了给一个伟大的这些地区的许多主教[若多斯桑托斯,“埃塞俄比亚东方”,埃武拉,1609年,里斯本,1891年重新编辑,Cacegas德索萨,“Historia DE S.多明戈partidor reino发送eonquistas葡萄牙”里斯本,1767(卢卡斯DE圣诞老人凯萨琳娜第四卷由),安德烈玛丽,“代表团dominicaines DANS L'极端的东方”,里昂,巴黎,1865]。The discovery of America soon brought Dominican evangelization in the footsteps of the conquistadores, one of them Diego de Deza, was the constant defender of Christopher Columbus, who declared (letter of 21 Dec. 1504) that it was to him the Sovereigns of Spain owed the possession of the Indies (Mandonnet, "Les dominicains et la découverte de l'Amérique", Paris 1893).美洲的发现很快带来了在多米尼加的征服者,他们圣地亚哥德Deza的脚步,福传,哥伦布,谁宣布(1504 12月21日的信),这是他西班牙的主权不断后卫欠印度占有(芒多,“莱斯dominicains ET LA découverte DE L' AMERIQUE”,巴黎1893年)。The first missionaries reached the New World in 1510, and preaching was quickly extended throughout the conquered countries, where they organized the various provinces already mentioned and found in Bartolomé de las Casas who took the habit of the order, their most powerful assistant in the defence of the Indians.第一个传教士1510年达到新的世界,并迅速扩展的说教是整个征服的国家,在那里他们组织的各种已经提到,在巴托拉斯卡萨斯省市参加的秩序的习惯,他们在防守上最强大的助理印第安人。

St. Louis Bertrand (d. 1581) was the great apostle of New Granada, and St. Rose of Lima (d. 1617) the first flower of sanctity in the New World (Remesal "Historia de la provincia de S. Vicente de Chiapa y Guatemala", Madrid, 1619; Dávila Padilla "Historia de la fundacion y discorso de la provincia de Santiago de Mexico", Madrid, 1592; Brussels 1625; Franco, "Segunda parte de la historia de provincia de Santiago de Mexico", 1645, Mexico re-ed. Mexico, 1900; Melendez, "Tesores verdadero de la Indias en la historia de la gran provincia de S Juan Bautista del Peru", Rome, 1681; Alonso d' Zamora, "Historia de la provineia de San Antonio del nuevo reyno de Granada", Barcelona, 1701; Helps, "Life of las Casas, the Apostle of the Indies" London, 1883; Gutierrez, "Fray Bartolomé de las Casas sus tiempos y su apostolado", Madrid, 1878; Fabie, "Vida y escritos de Fray Bartolomé de las Casas", Madrid, 1879; Wilberforce, "Life of Louis Bertrand", Fr. tr. Folghera, Paris, 1904; Masson, "Sainte Rose, tertiaire dominicaine, patronne du Nouveau Monde", Lyons, 1898).圣路易斯贝特朗(卒于1581年)是伟大的使徒,新格拉纳达和圣罗撒(卒于1617)的神圣在新的世界第一朵花(Remesal“Historia德拉省报DE S.维森特 - Chiapa Ÿ危地马拉“,马德里,1619;达维拉帕迪拉”Historia DE LA基金会Ÿ discorso的省报圣地亚哥墨西哥“,马德里,1592布鲁塞尔1625;佛朗哥,”乙级单方面DE LA historia的省报圣地亚哥墨西哥“,1645 ,墨西哥重新编墨西哥,1900;梅伦德斯verdadero DE LA印度EN LA historia DE LA花岗岩省报小号德胡安Bautista秘鲁“,罗马,1681,阿隆索D'萨莫拉,”Historia DE LA provineia去圣安东尼奥,“Tesores DEL努埃沃reyno的格拉纳达,巴塞罗那,1701;帮助,“生命拉斯卡萨斯,”伦敦,1883年在印度的使者;古铁雷斯,“弗赖巴托DE LAS卡萨斯SUS tiempos Ÿ苏apostolado”,马德里,1878年; Fabie, “维达Ÿ escritos DE弗赖巴托的拉斯卡萨斯”,马德里,1879年;。威尔伯福斯,“路易斯贝特朗的生活”,神父TR Folghera,巴黎,1904年,马森,“圣罗斯,tertiaire dominicaine,赞助人杜风格世界报”,里昂,1898年)。 Dominican evangelization went from America to the Philippines (1586) and thence to China (1590), where Gaspar of the Holy Cross, of the Portuguese Congregation of the Indies, had already begun to work in 1559.多米尼加福传去,从美国到菲律宾(1586)和中国(1590),加斯帕圣十字,葡萄牙众的印度,已经开始工作,1559年至。 The Preachers established themselves in Japan (1601), in Tonking (1676), and in the Island of Formosa.传教士确立了自己在日本(1601年),在Tonking(1676),福尔摩沙岛。This flourishing mission passed through persecutions, and the Church has raised its numerous martyrs to her altars [Ferrando-Fonseca, "Historia de los PP. Dominicos a las isles Filipinas, y en sus misiones de Japón, China, Tungkin y Formosa", Madrid, 1870; Navarrete, "Tratados historicos, politicos, ethicos y religiosos de la monarquia de China", Madrid, 1676-1679, tr., London, 1704; Gentili, "Memorie di un missionario domenicano nella Cina", 1887; Orfanel, "Historia eelesiastica de los succesos de la christiandad de Japón desde 1602 que entró en el la orden de Predicadores, haste el año de 1620", Madrid, 1633; Guglielmotti, "Memorie delle missioni cattoliche nel regno del Tunchino", Rome, 1844; Arias, "El beato Sanz y companeros martires", Manila, 1893; "I martiri annamiti e chinesi (1798-1856)", Rome, 1900; Clementi, "Gli otto martiri tonchinesi dell' ordine di S. Domenico", Rome, 1906].这种蓬勃发展的使命通过迫害,教会提出了她的神坛[Ferrando丰塞卡“Historia德洛斯PP Dominicos拉斯维加斯群岛菲律宾人,中国Ÿ EN SUS米西奥内斯DE Japón Tungkin Ÿ福尔摩沙”,马德里的无数先烈,1870;纳瓦雷特,“Tratados historicos,政客,ethicos Ÿ religiosos DE LA monarquia的中国”,马德里,1676年至1679年,TR,伦敦,1704;金泰利,“Memorie DI联合国missionario domenicano nella支那”,1887年; Orfanel “Historia eelesiastica德洛斯succesos DE LA christiandad DE Japón desde 1602阙entró EN EL LA勋章DE Predicadores,加速EL ANO - 1620”,马德里,1633; Guglielmotti,“Memorie阿尔missioni cattoliche NEL regno DEL Tunchino”,罗马,1844年;阿里亚斯“厄尔尼诺beato桑斯Ÿ companeros martires”,马尼拉,1893年,“我martiri annamiti发送chinesi(1798年至1856年)”,罗马,1900年,金文,“GLI奥托martiri tonchinesi戴尔ordine DI S.多梅尼科”,罗马, 1906]。In 1635 the French Dominicans began the evangelization of the French Antilles, Guadaloupe, Martinique etc., which lasted until the end of the eighteenth century (Du Tertre, "Hist. générale des Antilles", Paris, 1667-71; Labat "Nouveau voyage aux isles de l'Amérique", Paris 1742). 1635年法国多米尼加法国安的列斯群岛的福传,Guadaloupe,毛里塔尼亚等,历时开始,直到十八世纪末(都Tertre,“组织胺GENERALE DES安的列斯群岛。”巴黎,1667年至1671年; Labat“暴发户航程AUX群岛DE L' AMERIQUE“,巴黎1742年)。 In 1750 the Mission of Mesopotamia and Kurdistan was founded by the Italian religious; it passed to the Province of France (Paris) in 1856 (Goormachtigh, "Hist. de la mission Dominicaine en Mésopotamie et Kurdistan", in "Analecta OP" III, 271).在1750年美索不达米亚和库尔德斯坦特派团成立由意大利的宗教,它传递给省在1856年法国(巴黎)(Goormachtigh,“组织胺DE LA特派团Dominicaine EN Mésopotamie等库尔德斯坦”。“Analecta任择议定书”第三, 271)。

(h) Dominican Saints and Blessed(H)多米尼加圣徒和有福了

From the beginning of the sixteenth century members of the Order of St. Dominic eminent for sanctity were the subjects of twenty-one canonizations or beatifications.从十六世纪的圣星的神圣杰出订购开始,是二十一封圣或beatifications科目。Some of the beatifications included a more or less large number at one time: such were the Annamite martyrs, who formed a group of twenty-six beati canonized 21 May, 1900, by Leo XIII, and the martyrs of Tonking, who numbered eight, the last of whom died in 1861, and who were canonized by Pius X, 28 Nov., 1905.有些beatifications包括在同一时间或多或少的大型等Annamite烈士,beati册封5月21日,由利奥十三世1900年,形成了二十六个组,和烈士的Tonking,有8个,其中最后死于1861年,皮乌斯,1905年11月28日的X,谁被册封。 Five saints were canonized during this period; St. John of Gorkum (d. 1572), martyr; St. Pius V (d. 1572), the last pope canonized; St. Louis Bertrand (d. 1581), missionary in the New World; St. Catherine de' Ricci (d. 1589), of the second order, and St. Rose of Lima (d. 1617), tertiary, the first American saint.五圣人被册封在此期间,Gorkum圣约翰(卒于1572),烈士;圣皮乌斯V(卒于1572),最后教皇册封;圣路易斯贝特朗(卒于1581年),传教士在新世界;圣凯瑟琳 - “利玛窦(卒于1589年),二阶和圣玫瑰利马(卒于1617),大专,美国第一圣人。(See general bibliography of saints in section Middle Ages above.)(见总书目圣人节中世纪以上。)

(3) Contemporaneous Period(3)同期期

The contemporaneous period of the history of the Preachers begins with the different restorations of provinces under taken after the revolutions which had destroyed the order in several countries of the Old World and the New.省,自治区,直辖市根据不同的修复后,摧毁了旧世界的几个国家的秩序和新的革命采取的传教士历史同期时期开始。This period begins more or less early in the nineteenth century, and it cannot be traced down to the present day without naming religious who are still living and whose activity embodies the present life of the order.这一时期开始或多或少地在19世纪初,它不能被追踪至今没有命名的宗教仍然生活和活动的秩序,体现了现在的生活。The revolutions not having totally destroyed certain of the provinces, nor decimated them, simultaneously, the Preachers were able to take up the laborious work of restoration in countries where the civil legislation did not present insurmountable obstacles.革命没有完全摧毁某些省份,也没有消灭他们,同时,传教士能够采取恢复国家的民事立法没有不存在不可逾越的障碍费力的工作。 During this critical period the number of Preachers seems never to have sunk below 3500.在这一关键时期,一些传教士似乎从来就没有低于3500击沉。The statistics for 1876 give 3748 religious, but 500 of these had been expelled from their convents and were engaged in parochial work. 1876​​年统计数字为3748宗教,但其中500人被驱逐出他们的修道院,在从事狭隘的工作。The statistics for 1910 give a total of very nearly 4472 religious both nominally and actually engaged in the proper activities of the order.1910年统计的总非常近4472宗教无论在名义上和实际上从事的顺序适当的活动。 They are distributed in 28 provinces and 5 congregations, and possess nearly 400 convents or secondary establishments.他们分布在全国28个省和5个众,并拥有近400家修道院或二级机构。

In the revival movement France held a foremost place, owing to the reputation and convincing power of the immortal orator, Henri-Dominique Lacordaire (1802-61).复兴运动在法国举行了首要位置,由于不朽​​的演说家,亨利 - 多米尼克拉科代尔(1802年至1861年)的声誉和说服力。He took the habit of a Friar Preacher at Rome (1839), and the province of France was canonically erected in 1850.他参加了在罗马(1839年)的修道士传道的习惯,是规范全省法国于1850年兴建。From this province were detached the province of Lyons, called Occitania (1862), that of Toulouse (1869), and that of Canada (1909).从这个省的超脱全省的里昂,所谓Occitania(1862年),图卢兹(1869年),加拿大(1909年)。 The French restoration likewise furnished many labourers to other provinces, to assist in their organization and progress.法国恢复同样提供了大量的劳动力到其他省份,协助他们的组织和进展。From it came the master general who remained longest at the head of the administration during the nineteenth century, Père Vincent Jandel (1850-72).从它来到谁留在19世纪最长的行政首长掌握一般的Père Jandel文森特(1850年至1872年)。Here should be mentioned the province of St. Joseph in the United States.这里应该提到的在美国的圣若瑟省。Founded in 1805 by Father Dominic Fenwick, afterwards first Bishop of Cincinnati, Ohio (1821-32), this province has developed slowly, but now ranks among the most flourishing and active provinces of the order.父亲多米尼克分域,俄亥俄州辛辛那提市(1821年至1832年)之后的第一位主教于1805年成立,这个省已发展缓慢,但现在为了最繁荣和最活跃的省份之一。 In 1910 it numbered 17 convents or secondary houses.1910年,它的编号17修道院或二次房子。In 1905 it established a large house of studies at Washington.1905年在华盛顿设立了一个研究的大房子。

The province of France (Paris) has produced a large number of preachers, several of whom became renowned.省(巴黎)法国生产的,其中一些人成为著名的传教士大量。The conferences of Notre-Dame-de-Paris were inaugurated by Père Lacordaire.圣母院,巴黎会议开幕的Père拉科代尔。The Dominicans of the province of France furnished most of the orators: Lacordaire (1835-36, 1843-51), Jacques Monsabré (1869-70, 1872-90), Joseph Ollivier (1871, 1897), Thomas Etourneau (1898-1902).法国全省多米尼加提供的演说家:拉科代尔(1835年至1836年,1843年至1851年),雅克Monsabré(1869年至1870年,1872年至1890年),约瑟夫奥利维耶(1871年,1897年),托马斯Etourneau(1898-1902 )。Since 1903 the pulpit of Notre Dame has again been occupied by a Dominican.自1903年以来,圣母院讲坛再次被占领了多米尼加。Père Henri Didon (d. 1900) was one of the most esteemed orators of his time.的Père亨利DIDON(卒于1900年)是他最尊敬的的演说家之一。The province of France displays greater intellectual and scientific activity than ever, the chief centre being the house of studies at present situated at Kain, near Tournai, Belgium, where are published "L'Année Dominicaine" (founded 1859), "La Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Theologiques" (1907), and "La Revue de la Jeunesse" (1909).全省法国比以往任何时候都显示更多的知识和科学活动,行政中心,目前正在研究的房子坐落在凯因,近Tournai,比利时,哪里出版的“L' ANNEE Dominicaine”(成立于1859年),“杂志科学Philosophiques等Theologiques“(1907年),和”青年杂志“(1909年)。

The province of the Philippines, the most populous in the order, is recruited from Spain, where it has several preparatory houses.菲律宾,最人口众多的顺序,省招募来自西班牙,在那里有几个筹备房子。In the Philippines it has charge of the University of Manila, recognized by the Government of the United States, two colleges, and six establishments; in China it administers the missions of North and South Fo-Kien, in the Japanese Empire, those of Formosa and Shikoku, besides establishments at New Orleans, at Caracas (Venezuela) and at Rome.在菲律宾马尼拉大学,由美国,两所学校,和六个机构政府认可,负责在中国管理的任务,在日本帝国的北方和南方佛健,福尔摩沙和四国,除了在新奥尔良,在加拉加斯(委内瑞拉)和在罗马的机构。 The province of Spain has seventeen establishments in the Peninsula and the Canaries, as well as the missions of Urubamba (Peru).西班牙全省有17个机构半岛,加那利群岛,以及乌鲁班巴(秘鲁)的任务。Since 1910 it has published at Madrid an important review, "La Ciencia Tomista".自1910年以来,它已经在马德里发表了重要的审查,“La Ciencia Tomista的”。The province of Holland has a score of establishments, and the missions of Curaçao and Puerto Rico.荷兰省有一个得分的场所,和库拉索岛和波多黎各的任务。Other provinces also have their missions.其他省份也有他们的任务。That of Piedmont has establishments at Constantinople and Smyrna; that of Toulouse, in Brazil; that of Lyons, in Cuba, that of Ireland, in Australia and Trinidad; that of Belgium, in the Belgian Congo, and so on.皮埃蒙特,在君士坦丁堡和士麦那的机构;图卢兹,在巴西,里昂,在古巴,爱尔兰,澳大利亚和特立尼达;比利时,在比利时刚果,并依此类推。

Doctrinal development has had an important place in the restoration of the Preachers.理论发展有重要的地位,在恢复的传教士。Several institutions besides those already mentioned have played important parts.除了已经提到的几个机构都起到的重要组成部分。Such is the Biblical school at Jerusalem, open to the religious of the order and to secular clerics, and which publishes the "Revue Biblique", so highly esteemed in the learned world.这些是在耶路撒冷的圣经学校,为了宗教和世俗的神职人员,并出版“杂志Biblique”,如此高度在汲取世界的尊敬。 The faculty of theology of the University of Freiburg, confided to the care of the Dominicans in 1890, is flourishing and has about 250 students.弗赖堡大学神学系,私下照顾多米尼加于1890年,是蓬勃发展,并有大约250名学生。The Collegium Angelicum, established at Rome (1911) by Hyacinth Cormier (master general since 1902), is open to regulars and seculars for the study of the sacred sciences.COLLEGIUM Angelicum葫芦科米尔(主站自1902年以来,一般),在罗马(1911年)设立,是常客和神圣的科学的研究seculars开放。To the reviews mentioned above must be added the "Revue Thomiste", founded by Père Thomas Coconnier (d. 1908), and the "Analecta Ordinis Prædicatorum" (1893).上面提到的审查,必须加上“杂志Thomiste”的Père托马斯Coconnier(卒于1908年),和“Analecta Ordinis Prædicatorum”(1893年)成立。Among the numerous writers of the order in this period are: Cardinals Thomas Zigliara (d. 1893) and Zephirin González (d. 1894), two esteemed philosophers; Father Alberto Guillelmotti (d. 1893), historian of the Pontifical Navy, and Father Heinrich Denifle, one of the most famous writers on medieval history (d. 1905).为了在这一时期的许多作家是:主教托马斯Zigliara(卒于1893年)和Zephirin冈萨雷斯(卒于1894年),两个尊敬的哲学家;父亲Guillelmotti阿尔贝托(卒于1893年),罗马教皇的海军历史学家,和父亲海因里希德尼夫勒,中世纪历史上最著名的作家(卒于1905年)之一。 In 1910 the order had twenty archbishops or bishops, one of whom, Andreas Frühwirth, formerly master general (1892-1902), is Apostolic nuncio at Munich (Sanvito, "Catalogus omnium provinciarum sacri ordinis praedicatorum", Rome, 1910; "Analecta OP", Rome, 1893--; "L'Année Dominicaine", Paris, 1859-- ).为了在1910年有20个​​大主教或主教,其中,安德烈亚斯Frühwirth,以前掌握一般(1992至02年),是在慕尼黑的教廷大使(Sanvito,“Catalogus Omnium公司provinciarum sacri ordinis praedicatorum”,罗马,1910年;“Analecta OP “,罗马,1893年 - ”L' ANNEE Dominicaine“,巴黎,1859年 - )。In the last two publications will be found historical and bibliographical information concerning the history of the Preachers during the contemporaneous period.在过去的两本刊物,会发现历史和文献资料,在同期内有关传教士的历史。

B. THE SECOND ORDER; DOMINICAN SISTERSB.第二个令;多米尼加姐妹

The circumstances under which St. Dominic established the first convent of nuns at Prouille (1206) and the legislation given the second order have been related above.圣星Prouille(1206)和二阶立法建立了第一个修道院的修女的情况下,已与以上。As early as 1228 the question arose as to whether the Order of Preachers would accept the government of convents for women.早为1228出现的问题,传教士订购是否会接受政府对妇女的修道院。The order itself was strongly in favour of avoiding this ministry and struggled long to maintain its freedom.订单本身是强烈赞成避免这个部和斗争长期保持其自由。But the sisters found, even among the Preachers, such advocates as the master general, Jordanus of Saxony (d. 1236), and especially the Dominican cardinal, Hugh of St. Cher (d. 1263), who promised them that they would eventually be victorious (1267).但姐妹们发现,即使是传教士,掌握一般,萨克森州Jordanus(卒于1236),尤其是多米尼加枢机,圣雪儿休(卒于1263),他们最终答应他们的主张胜利(1267)。 The incorporation of monasteries with the order continued through the latter part of the thirteenth and during the next century.顺序寺院纳入继续通过第十三后者的一部分,并在下一世纪。In 1288 the papal legate, Giovanni Boccanazzi, simultaneously placed all the Penitent Sisters of St. Mary Magdalen in Germany under the government of the provincial of the Preachers, but this step was not final. 1288年罗马教皇的legate,乔万尼Boccanazzi,同时划归传教士的省级政府所有在德国圣玛丽抹大拉的忏悔姐妹,但是这一步是不是最后。 The convents of sisters incorporated with the order were especially numerous in the province of Germany The statistics for 1277 show 58 monasteries already incorporated, 40 of which were in the single province of Teutonia.尤其是众多的省在德国为1277的统计数据显示58寺院已经注册成立,其中40人在Teutonia单省纳入为了姐妹们的修道院。 The statistics for 1303 give 149 convents of Dominican nuns, and these figures increased during the succeeding centuries.1303的统计数字为149多米尼加共和国的修女修道院,而且,这些数字在随后的几百年增加。Nevertheless, a certain number of monasteries passed under the jurisdiction of bishops.然而,通过一定数量的寺院主教​​的管辖下。In the list of convents drawn up during the generalship of Serafino Cavalli (1571-78) there are only 168 monasteries.在Serafino卡瓦利(1571年至1578年),有168寺院大将修道院。But the convents of nuns are not indicated for most provinces, and the number should really be much higher.但是修道院的修女并不表明大多数省份,和数量应该真的要高得多。The Council of Trent placed all the convents of nuns under the jurisdiction of bishops, but the Preachers frequently provided these houses with chaplains or almoners.安理会的遄达划归主教管辖的所有修道院的修女,但传教士经常提供这些房子与牧师或almoners。The statistics for 1770 give 180 monasteries, but they are incomplete.1770年统计为180寺院,但他们是不完整的的。 The revolutions, which affected the ecclesiastical situation in most Catholic countries from the end of the eighteenth century, brought about the suppression of a great many monasteries; several, however, survived these disturbances, and others were re-established. ,从而影响在大多数天主教国家,教会的情况,从十八世纪末的革命带来了一个伟大的许多寺庙的抑制;几个,但是,在躲过了这些干扰,和其他人重新建立。 In the list for 1895 there are more than 150 monasteries including some of the Third Order, which are cloistered like the Second Order.在1895年的清单中,有150多个寺院,其中包括一些三阶,像二阶与世隔绝。These monasteries are most numerous in Spain.这些寺院在西班牙最众多。In Germany the convents of nuns in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries witnessed the development of an intense mystical life, and several of these houses have preserved accounts of the life of the sisters, usually in the vernacular.在德国,在第十三和第十四世纪的修女修道院见证了一股强烈的神秘生活的发展,这些房子的几个姐妹们的生活有保留的账户,在白话通常。 The Dominican sisters, instructed and directed by an order of preachers and teachers, were remarkable not only for spiritual but also for intellectual culture.由传教士和教师为了的指示,指示和多米尼加姐妹,不仅显着,同时也为知识产权文化的精神。In the course of seven centuries various nuns have left literary and artistic works which bear witness to the culture of some of these monasteries ("Script. OP", I, pp. i-xv; II, Pp. i-xix, 830; "Bull. OP", passim; Mortier, "Hist. des maitres généraux", passim; Danzas, "Etudes sur les temps primitifs de l'ordre de St. Dominique",IV, Poitiers-Paris (1877); "Analecta OP", passim; Greith, "Die deutsche Mystik im Prediger Orden", Freiburg i. Br., 1861; de Villermont, "Un groupe mystique allemand", Brussels, 1907).在七个世纪的过程中各种修女离开文学和艺术作品,其中一些寺院(“任择议定书”的脚本。“我与我的XV文化;二,PP I - XIX,830。见证; “红牛任择议定书”,各处; Mortier,各处“组织胺DES maitres généraux。”;丹沙,“练习曲河畔LES临时工primitifs DE L'公共秩序的圣多米尼克”,四,普瓦捷,巴黎(1877年);“Analecta任择议定书“,各处; Greith,”模具德意志Mystik IM Prediger勋章“,弗赖堡一BR,1861; DE Villermont,”联合国GROUPE神秘性allemand“,布鲁塞尔,1907年)。

C. THE THIRD ORDERC.三阶

Neither St. Dominic nor the early Preachers wished to have under their jurisdiction -- and consequently under their responsibility -- either religious or lay associations.无论是圣道,也不早期传教士希望在其管辖范围内 - 并因此在自己的责任 - 无论是宗教或停工协会。 We have seen their efforts to be relieved of the government of nuns who, nevertheless, were following the rule of the order.我们已经看到他们解除尼姑谁,不过,为了统治的政府的努力。But numerous laymen, and especially lay women, who were leading in the world a life of penance or observing continence, felt the doctrinal influence of the order and grouped themselves about its convents.但无数的外行,,尤其是妇女,谁是世界领先的忏悔或观测节欲的生活,感受到了订单的教义的影响和分组的修道院。 In 1285 the need of more firmly uniting these lay elements and the idea of bringing under the direction of the Preachers a portion of the Order of Penance led the seventh master general, Muñon de Zamora, at the instance of Honorius IV to draw up the rule known as that of the Penance of St. Dommic.在1285需要更加牢固地团结这些奠定元素和下方向的传教士带来的想法,部分订购的忏悔导致挪四实例第七Muñon德萨莫拉,掌握一般情况下,制订规则被称为忏悔圣Dommic。 Inspired by that of the Brothers of Penance, this rule had a more ecclesiastical character and firmly subordinated the conduct of the brothers to the authority of the Preachers.忏悔兄弟的启发,这条规则有一个更教会的字符的兄弟的行为,以传教士的权威,坚决服从。Honorius IV confirmed the foundation by the collation of a privilege (28 Jan., 1286).挪四证实特权整理(1月28日,1286)奠定了基础。The former master general of the Friars Minor, Jerome d'Ascoli, having become pope in 1288 under the name of Nicholas IV, regarded the action of his predecessor and of the master general of the Friars-Preachers as a kind of defiance of the Friars Minor who considered themselves the natural protectors of the Brothers of Penance, and by his letters of 17 August, 1289, he sought to prevent the desertion of the Brothers of Penance.方济会的前主人一般情况下,杰罗姆D'阿斯科利,成为1288年教皇尼古拉四的名称下,他的前任和掌握一般的天主教方济会的传教士的行动视为一种蔑视的方济各会士未成年人认为自己忏悔的兄弟自然保护,并通过他的信8月17日,第1289,他试图阻止忏悔的兄弟遗弃。 Muñon de Zamora discharged his office of master general as it had been confided to him by Martin IV. Muñon德萨莫拉出院,他掌握一般的办公室,因为它已被马丁四对他倾诉。The Order of Preachers protested with all its might against what it regarded as an injustice.传教士订购抗议其所有可能反对它作为一种不公正。These events retarded the development of the Dominican Third Order, a portion of the Preachers remaining un favourable to the institution.这些事件阻碍了发展的多米尼加三阶,一个传教士的一部分,该机构剩余的联合国有利。Nevertheless, the Third Order continued to exist; one of its fraternities, that of Siena, was especially flourishing, a list of its members from 1311 being extant The sisters numbered 100 in 1352, among them she who was to become St. Catherine of Siena.然而,三阶继续存在,其兄弟之一,锡耶纳,尤其是蓬勃发展,其成员从1311被现存姐妹编号为1352的100,其中,她将成为圣凯瑟琳锡耶纳。 They numbered 92 in 1378.他们编号1378年为92。The reforming movement of Raymund of Capua, confessor and historian of St. Catherine, aimed at the spread of the Third Order; in this Thomas Caffarini of Siena was especially active. Raymund卡普阿,忏悔和圣凯瑟琳历史学家旨在传播三阶,改革运动;在这锡耶纳托马斯Caffarini尤为活跃。The Dominican Third Order received new approbation from Boniface IX, 18 January, 1401, and on 27 April of the following year the pope published its rule in a Bull, whereupon its development received a fresh impetus.多米尼加三阶收到博尼法斯九,1月18日,1401新的认同,并于次年4月27日,教皇发表了其在牛市的规则,因此它的发展获得了新的推动力。 It never became very widespread, the Preachers having sought quality rather than number of tertiaries.它从来没有成为非常普遍,传教士经征询质量而不是数量的tertiaries。St. Catherine of Siena, canonized in 1461, is the patroness of the Third Order, and, following the example of her who has been called the Joan of Arc of the papacy, the Dominican tertiaries have always manifested special devotion to the Roman Church.圣凯瑟琳锡耶纳,在1461册封,是三阶施主,例如她的人被称为圣女贞德的教皇,多米尼加tertiaries一直表现特别奉献的罗马教会。 Also in imitation of their patroness, who wrote splendid mystical works, they endeavoured to acquire a special knowledge of their religion, as befits Christians incorporated with a great doctrinal order.此外,在模仿他们的施主,是谁写辉煌神秘的作品,他们努力,获得了他们的宗教特殊的知识,作为一个伟大的教义为了应景基督徒纳入。 The Third Order has given several blessed to the Church, besides St. Catherine of Siena and St. Rose of Lima.三阶几个祝福的教会,除了锡耶纳的圣凯瑟琳和圣玫瑰利马。For several centuries there have been regular convents and congregations belonging to the Third Order.几个世纪以来,已有定期修道院和教友属于第三顺序。The nineteenth century witnessed the establishment of a large number of regular congregations of tertiaries devoted to works of charity or education.十九世纪见证了一个专门的慈善机构或教育工程的tertiaries定期众大量的建立。In 1895 there were about 55 congregations with about 800 establishments and 20,000 members. 1895年有大约55众约800个机构和20000多名成员。In the United States there are flourishing convents at Sinsinawa (Wisconsin), Jersey City, Traverse (Michigan), Columbus (Ohio), Albany (New York), and San Francisco (California).在美国有Sinsinawa(威斯康星州),泽西城,遍历(密歇根州),哥伦布(俄亥俄州),奥尔巴尼(纽约),旧金山(加利福尼亚州)蓬勃发展的修道院。

In 1852 Père Lacordaire founded in France a congregation of Priests for the education of youth called the Third Teaching Order of St. Dominic.在1852年的Père拉科代尔在法国成立了一个称为第三教学秩序的圣星众牧师青年教育。It is now regarded as a special province of the Order of Preachers, and had flourishing and select colleges in France at Oullins (1853), Sorèze (1854), Arceuil (1863), Arcachon (1875), Paris (Ecole Lacordaire 1890).现在,它被视为一个特殊的传教士订购省,Oullins(1853年),Sorèze(1854年),Arceuil(1863年),阿尔卡雄(​​1875),巴黎(高等拉科代尔1890)在法国的蓬勃发展,并选择高校。 These houses have ceased to be directed by Dominicans since the persecution of 1903.这些房子,已不再是由多米尼加针对自1903年的迫害。The teaching Dominicans now have the Collège Lacordaire at Buenos Aires, Champittet at Lausanne (Switzerland), and San Sebastian (Spain).教学多米尼加学院拉科代尔在布宜诺斯艾利斯,在洛桑(瑞士)Champittet,和圣塞瓦斯蒂安(西班牙)。During the Paris Commune four martyrs of the teaching order died in company with a priest of the First Order, 25 May, 1871.在巴黎公社四烈士的教学秩序,1871年5月25日的第一笔订单的牧师,死在公司。One of them, Père Louis Raphael Captier was an eminent educator (Mandonnet, "Les règles et le gouvernement de l'ordo de Poenitentia au XIIIe siècle" in "Opuscules de critique historique", IV, Paris, 1902; Federici, "Istoria de' Cavalieri Gaudenti", Venice, 1787).其中之一,路易斯的Père拉斐尔Captier是一位杰出的教育家(芒多,“莱斯règles ET LE政府DE L'奥DE Poenitentia坳XIIIe SIECLE”“Opuscules批判的历史”,第四,巴黎,1902年; Federici,“Istoria DE “卡瓦列利Gaudenti”,威尼斯,1787年)。

Publication information Written by P. Mandonnet.体育芒多编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Fr.转录神父。 Albert Judy OP.伟业朱迪OP。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.天主教百科全书,第十二卷。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


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