Garden of Eden花园伊甸园

General Information一般资料

In the Bible, the Garden of Eden was the original home of Adam and Eve.在圣经中,伊甸园的亚当与​​夏娃的原始的家。It was a well-watered garden with beautiful trees.这是一个美丽的树木浇灌花园。Also called Paradise, Eden symbolized the unbroken harmony between God and humankind before the first sin, after which, according to Genesis 3, Adam and Eve were expelled from the garden.也被称为天堂,伊甸园的象征前第一宗罪的神和人类之间的完整的和谐,在这之后,根据创世记3,亚​​当和夏娃从花园开除。


Eve前夕

General Information一般资料

According to the Bible, Eve was the first woman--the mother of Cain, Abel, and Seth.据“圣经”,夏娃的第一个女人 - 母亲的该隐,亚伯,和Seth。God created her from the rib of Adam to be his wife.上帝从亚当的肋骨创造她是他的妻子。She and Adam lived in the Garden of Eden until they were expelled for eating the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge (Genesis 2-4).她和亚当生活在吃禁果从知识树“(创世纪2-4),直到他们被驱逐的伊甸园。


Eden伊甸园

Advanced Information先进的信息

Eden: delight.伊甸园:喜悦。(1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt (Gen. 2: 8-17).(1)的花园,我们的第一个父母dewlt(创2:8-17)。No geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing on its site.没有地域的问题已经这么多的讨论,在其网站上的轴承。It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia.它被放置在亚美尼亚,在里海地区西部,在媒体,在大马士革附近,在巴勒斯坦南部阿拉伯,并在巴比伦。The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of Shinar" or Babylonia.毫无疑问,该网站必须寻求为某处沿西亚底格里斯河和幼发拉底河的伟大流的过程中,在“示拿的土地”或巴比伦。 The region from about lat.约纬度地区。33 degrees 30' to lat. 33度30'土地增值税。31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as the probable site of Eden. 31度,这是一个非常肥沃的道,已经由主管部门商定的伊甸园可能网站。"It is a region where streams abound, where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence." “这是一个地区的溪流比比皆是,他们的分裂和重新团结起来,在美索不达米亚道可以分为四个武器的一个单一河临别的现象,其中每一个是或曾经是一条河的后果。” Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive innocence of our race in the garden of Eden.在几乎所有国家中,有传统,我们的比赛在伊甸园的原始清白。

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This was the "golden age" to which the Greeks looked back.这是“黄金时代”回头一看,希腊人。Men then lived a "life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance."的男子,然后住“生命从护理是免费的,没有劳动和悲伤,老年不明;身体从未失去它的活力;的存在是一个永久的盛宴,没有邪恶的污点地球带来了自发,好所有的事情。丰富的丰盈“。 (2.) One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained richly embroidered stuffs (Ezek. 27:23); the same, probably, as that mentioned in 2 Kings 19:12, and Isa. (2)市场何处提尔的商人获得丰富绣东西(以西结书27:23);相同,很可能,因为这在2国王十九点12分,伊萨提到。37:12, as the name of a region conquered by the Assyrians.37:12,亚述人征服作为一个区域的名称。(3.) Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).(3)的儿子。Joah,并协助在希西家(2 CHR 29:12)在改革的公众崇拜的庇护利。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Garden of Eden伊甸园

Advanced Information先进的信息

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯米灰色

Genesis Chapter 2创世记第2章

The Garden Located该花园位于

vv.VV。8-14.8-14。What name is given to the locality of the garden?花园所在地的名称是什么?In which section of that locality was it planted?在该地区的部分,它种植?What expression in verse 9 shows God's consideration for beauty as well as utility?在第9节的表达,显示了上帝的美感以及实用的考虑?What two trees of life planted?哪两种生活的树木吗?What geographical feature of verse 10 accentuates the historical character of this narrative?第10节什么样的地理特征,突出了这样的叙述历史人物?Observe how this is further impressed by the facts which follow, viz: the names of the rivers, the countries through which they flow, and even the mineral deposits of the latter. Note: (a) the use of the present tense in this description, showing that the readers of Moses' period knew the location; (b) it must have been an elevated district, as the source of mighty rivers; (c) it could not have been a very luxuriant or fruitful locality, else why the need of planting a garden, and where could there have been any serious hardship in the subsequent expulsion of Adam and Eve?观察这是如何进一步通过下列事实,即留下深刻的印象:河流的名称,国家通过他们的流量,甚至后者的矿藏注:(一)使用在此说明,目前的紧张。 ,摩西“时期的读者都知道的位置;(二)必须已升高浩浩荡荡的河流的源头区,(三)已经不能一个非常华丽或卓有成效的地方 ,否则为什么需要种植园,并可能有已在随后驱逐亚当和夏娃的任何严重的困难呢?

It used to be thought that "Eden" was a Hebrew word meaning pleasure, but recent explorations in Assyria indicate that it may have been of Accadian origin meaning a plain, not a fertile plain as in a valley, but an elevated and sterile plain as a steppe or mountain desert. Putting these things together, the place that would come before the mind of an Oriental was the region of Armenia where the Euphrates and the Tigris (or Hiddekel) take their rise.它曾经被认为是“伊甸园”是希伯来文词的含义很高兴,但最近在亚述的探索表明,它可能是Accadian意义一个普通的起源,而不是在一个山谷肥沃的平原,但高架和无菌平原草原或高山沙漠,把这些东西放在一起的地方,来之前,东方的头脑是亚美尼亚地区的幼发拉底河和底格里斯河(或Hiddekel)其上升。 There are two other rivers taking their rise in that region, the Kur and the Araxes, thence uniting and flowing into the Caspian Sea, but whether these are identical with the Pison and Gihon of the lesson can not yet be determined. Science now corroborates this location of Eden in so far as it teaches (a) that the human race has sprung from a common centre, and (b) that this centre is the table-land of central Asia.现在有两个在该地区的上升,库尔和Araxes,那里团结和流入里海的其他河流,但这些是否相同皮松和基训课,还不能确定 。科学证实这到目前为止,因为它教伊甸园的位置(A),人类已经异军突起,从一个共同的中心,和(b)该中心是中亚表土地。


Terrestrial Paradise陆地乐园

Catholic Information天主教信息

(paradeisos, Paradisus).(paradeisos,Paradisus)。

The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden, the home of our first parents (Genesis 2).普遍的名字在基督教的传统,我们的第一个父母的家(创世记2)圣经伊甸园花园。The word paradise is probably of Persian origin and signified originally a royal park or pleasure ground.这个词天堂可能是波斯的起源和标志原本是皇家公园或游乐场。The term does not occur in the Latin of the Classic period nor in the Greek writers prior to the time of Xenophon.本术语不发生在拉丁美洲的经典时期,也不在希腊作家色诺芬时间之前。In the Old Testament it is found only in the later Hebrew writings in the form (Pardês), having been borrowed doubtless from the Persian.在旧约中,它是发现,只有在后来的希伯来著作的形式(Pardês)无疑是借来的,从波斯,。An instructive illustration of the origin and primary meaning of the term appears in II Esdras (ii, 8) where "Asaph the keeper of the king's forest" (happerdês) is the custodian of the royal park of the Persian ruler.长期的主要的起源和意义的一个启发性的例证出现在二埃斯德拉斯(二,8),其中“亚萨的门将王的森林”(happerdês)是波斯统治者的皇家公园的管理者。 The association of the term with the abode of our first parents does not occur in the Old-Testament Hebrew.协会长期居留权我们的第一个父母不会发生在旧旧约的希伯来文。It originated in the fact that the word paradeisos was adopted, though not exclusively, by the translators of the Septuagint to render the Hebrew for the Garden of Eden described in the second chapter of Genesis.它起源于字paradeisos通过的译本的译者,虽然不完全,呈现在创世记第二章描述的伊甸园希伯来语。It is likewise used in diverse other passages of the Septuagint where the Hebrew generally has "garden", especially if the idea of wondrous beauty is to be conveyed.它同样是用来在不同的其他段落的septuagint希伯来文一般有“花园”,尤其是当奇妙的美容理念是要传达的。 Thus in Gen., xiii, 10, the "country about the Jordan" is described as a "paradise of the Lord" (rendering followed by the Vulgate).因此,在将军,十三,10,“对约旦的国家”是形容为一个“主的天堂”(武加大渲染)。Cf.比照Numbers, xxiv, 6 (Greek) where the reference is to the beautiful array of the tents of Israel, also Isaias, i, 30; Ezechiel, xxxi, 8, 9 etc. Those interested in speculation as to the probable location of the Scriptural Garden of Eden, the primeval home of mankind, are referred to the scholarly work of Friedrich Delitsch, "Wo lag das Paradies?"数字,24,6(希腊),参考的是以色列的帐篷美丽的阵列,也伊萨亚斯,我30; Ezechiel,第31,8,9等这些投机感兴趣圣经的可能位置花园伊甸园,原始人类的家园,被称为弗里德里希Delitsch的学术著作,“禾滞后DAS帕拉迪斯?” (Berlin, 1881). (柏林,1881年)。In the New Testament period the word paradise appears with a new and more exalted meaning.在新约圣经时期一词天堂会出现一个新的和更崇高的意义。In the development of Jewish eschatology which marks the post-Exilic epoch the word paradise or "Garden of God", hitherto mainly associated with the original dwelling-place of our first parents, was transferred to signify the future abode of rest and enjoyment which was to be the reward of the righteous after death.在犹太末世论的发展,这标志着后exilic划时代字天堂或“上帝的花园”,迄今主要是与我们的第一个父母原居住的地方,被调到意味着休息和享受,这是未来的居留权将义人死亡后的奖励。 The term occurs only three times in the New Testament, though the idea which it represents is frequently expressed in other terms, vg "Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22).长期出现在新约中只有三次,但它代表的想法是经常在其他条款中表示,VG“亚伯拉罕的怀里”(路加福音16时22分)。 The signification of the word in these remarkably few passages can be determined only from the context and by reference to the eschatological notions current among the Jews of that period.在这些显着几段的字的意义,才能确定从上下文并参照目​​前这一时期的犹太人之间的末世论的观念。These views are gathered chiefly from the Rabbinical literature, the works of Josephus, and from the apocryphal writings, notably the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Apocalypse of Baruch, etc. An inspection of these sources reveals a great confusion of ideas and many contradictions regarding the future paradise as also concerning the original Garden of Eden and the condition of our first parents.收集这些意见主要来自犹太教文学,约瑟夫的作品,和未经著作,尤其以诺书,书Jubilees,巴鲁克的启示,等等,这些来源的检查,揭示了思想的极大的混乱许多矛盾和关于未来的天堂,也涉及原伊甸园花园和我们的第一个父母的条件。 The scanty references to Sheol which embody the vague eschatological beliefs of the Hebrews as expressed in the earlier Old Testament writings give place in these later treatises to elaborate theories worked out with detailed descriptions and speculations often of a most fanciful character.微薄的阴间,这体现了希伯来人的模糊的末世论的信念,表示在早期的旧约著作给这些后来论文阐述的理论与详细的描述和猜测往往是最奇特的字符的地方。 As a sample of these may be noted the one found in the Talmudic tract "Jalkut Schim., Bereschith, 20".由于这些样本可能会注意到在塔木德道“Jalkut Schim,Bereschith,20”发现之一。According to this description the entrance to paradise is made through two gates of rubies beside which stand sixty myriads of holy angels with countenances radiant with heavenly splendor.根据这个描述的天堂的入口是通过两个红宝石的大门,站在旁边的这六十无数圣洁的天使,与天上的辉煌容光焕发的面容。 When a righteous man enters, the vestures of death are removed from him; he is clad in eight robes of the clouds of glory; two crowns are placed upon his head, one of pearls and precious stones, the other of gold; eight myrtles are placed in his hands and he is welcomed with great applause, etc. Some of the Rabbinical authorities appear to identify the paradise of the future with the primeval Garden of Eden which is supposed to be still in existence and located somewhere in the far-distant East.当一个正直的人进入,他从死亡的vestures,他是穿着8荣耀的云彩长袍;两个冠后,放在他的头,珍珠和宝石,黄金等八个myrtles放置在他的手中,他是伟大的掌声欢迎,一些犹太教当局,以确定未来的伊甸园应该是仍然存在的原始花园,位于遥远的东某处的天堂。 According to some it was an earthly abode, sometimes said to have been created before the rest of the world (IV Esdras iii, 7, cf. viii, 52); others make it an adjunct of the subterranean Sheol, while still others place it in or near heaven.据一些人来说是一个人间的住所,有时说已经创建了前世界各地(四埃斯德拉斯三,7,比照第八,52。);别人的地下阴间的附属物,而还有一些地方在或接近天堂。 It was believed that there are in paradise different degrees of blessedness.它被认为有不同程度的幸福天堂。Seven ranks or orders of the righteous were said to exist within it, and definitions were given both of those to whom these different positions belong and of the glories pertaining to each ("Baba bathra", 75 a, quoted by Salmond, Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible", sv "Paradise").七职级或订单的正义说,在它存在,并定义这些不同的岗位属于有关的辉煌(“​​巴巴bathra”,75,萨蒙德,黑斯廷斯引述“快译通。圣经“,SV”天堂“)。 The uncertainty and confusion of the current Jewish ideas concerning paradise may explain the paucity of reference to it in the New Testament.目前关于天堂的犹太思想的不确定性和混乱,也许可以解释在新约中提到它的贫乏。 The first mention of the word occurs in Luke, xxiii, 43, where Jesus on the cross says to the penitent thief: "Amen I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with me in paradise".提到单词的第一个发生在卢克,二十三,43岁,在十字架上的耶稣忏悔小偷说:“阿门,我说向你,这一天你要在天堂与我同在”。 According to the prevailing interpretation of Catholic theologians and commentators, paradise in this instance is used as a synonym for the heaven of the blessed to which the thief would accompany the Saviour, together with the souls of the righteous of the Old Law who were awaiting the coming of the Redeemer.据天主教神学家和评论家的普遍理解,在这种情况下的天堂,是用作天上的代名词有福小偷将伴随救主,与旧法,谁是等待正义的灵魂未来的救世主。 In II Corinthians (xii, 4) St. Paul describing one of his ecstasies tells his readers that he was "caught up into paradise".在哥林多前书“(十二4)圣保禄描述他狂喜的人告诉他的读者,他是”抓住进入天堂“。Here the term seems to indicate plainly the heavenly state or abode of the blessed implying possibly a glimpse of the beatific vision.这里一词似乎表明显然天朝国家或居留权暗示可能一瞥beatific视野祝福。The reference cannot be to any form of terrestrial paradise, especially when we consider the parallel expression in verse 2, where relating a similar experience he says he was "caught up to the third heaven".参考,不能以任何形式的陆地天堂,尤其是当我们考虑在第2节的平行表达,其中有关类似的经历,他说他是“赶上了第三天堂”。 The third and last mention of paradise in the New Testament occurs in the Apocalypse (ii, 7), where St. John, receiving in vision a Divine message for the "angel of the church of Ephesus", hears these words: "To him that overcometh, I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of my God."第三个和最后的天堂,在新约中提到发生在“启示录”(二7),圣约翰,在视觉接收为“以弗所教会的使者”的神圣消息,听到这些话:“给他得胜的,我会吃生命树,这是我的上帝的天堂。“ In this passage the word is plainly used to designate the heavenly kingdom, though the imagery is borrowed from the description of the primeval Garden of Eden in the Book of Genesis.在这段字显然是用来指定天国,但图像是借用从创世记的伊甸园的原始花园的描述。

According to Catholic theology based on the Biblical account, the original condition of our first parents was one of perfect innocence and integrity.据天主教神学基于圣经的帐户,我们的第一个父母的原始状态是一个完美的清白和完整性。By the latter is meant that they were endowed with many prerogatives which, while pertaining to the natural order, were not due to human nature as such--hence they are sometimes termed preternatural.由后者是,他们拥有许多特权,而有关的自然秩序,并不是因为这样的人性 - 因此,他们有时被称为超自然的。 Principal among these were a high degree of infused knowledge, bodily immortality and freedom from pain, and immunity from evil impulses or inclinations.其中主要是灌输知识的高度,从痛苦的身体不朽和自由,免受邪恶的冲动或倾向。In other words, the lower or animal nature in man was perfectly subjected to the control of reason and the will.换句话说,在人或动物的性质是完全理性和意志的控制。Besides this, our first parents were also endowed with sanctifying grace by which they were elevated to the supernatural order.除此之外,我们的第一个父母也赋予他们被提升到超自然的秩序与sanctifying恩典。 But all these gratuitous endowments were forfeited through the disobedience of Adam "in whom all have sinned", and who was "a figure of Him who was to come" (Romans 5) and restore fallen man, not to an earthly, but to a heavenly paradise.但是,所有这些无端的禀赋则予以没收通过亚当“在其中都犯了罪”抗命,谁是“对他的人物来”(罗马书5)和恢复堕落的人,不是一个人间,但到天上的天堂。

According to Josephus (Ant. Jud., I, i, 3), the Nile is one of the four great rivers of paradise (Genesis 2:10 sqq.).根据约瑟夫(Ant.达瓦慈善会,我,我,3),尼罗河是天堂(创世记2时10分SQQ)四个伟大的河流之一。This view, which has been adopted by many commentators, is based chiefly on the connection described between Gehon, one of the yet unidentified rivers, and the land of Cush, which, at least in later times, was identified with Ethiopia or modern Abyssinia (cf. Vulgate, Genesis 2:13).之间Gehon,尚未查明身份的河流之一,和古实的土地,其中,至少在稍后的时间,与埃塞俄比亚的还是现代的阿比西尼亚的连接(主要是基于这种观点,许多评论家已经通过,比照拉丁文圣经,创世记2:13)。 Modern scholars, however, are inclined to regard this African Cush as simply a colony settled by tribes migrating from an original Asiatic province of the same name, located by Fried.然而,现代学者都倾向于视为仅仅是从原来的同名炒位于亚细亚省迁移部落定居的殖民地,非洲的古实。Delitsch (op. cit., 71) in Babylonia, and by Hommel ("Ancient Hebrew Tradition", 314 sqq.) in Central Arabia. Delitsch在巴比伦(同上,71),并在中央阿拉伯HOMMEL(“古代希伯来传统”,314 SQQ)。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.由詹姆斯楼斯科尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.转录由罗伯特B ·奥尔森。Offered to Almighty God for David and Patricia Guin & Family The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.提供给全能的上帝为大卫和Patricia Guin及家庭天主教百科全书,卷第十四。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

HURTER, Theologioe Dogmaticoe Compendium, II (Innsbruck, 1893), 264-83; VON HUMMELAUER, Comment.HURTER,Theologioe Dogmaticoe汇编“,第二卷(因斯布鲁克,1893年),264-83;冯Hummelauer评论。in Genesim (Paris, 1895): Comment.Genesim(巴黎,1895年):评论。in Cap.章。ii; VIGOUROUX, Dict.二; VIGOUROUX,快译通。de la Bible, sv; GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, Pt.德拉圣经,SV; GIGOT,特别介绍旧约,铂的研究。I, 168 sqq.我168 SQQ。 (New York, 1901). (纽约,1901年)。


Eve前夕

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Hebrew hawwah).(希伯来文hawwah)。

The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, and Seth.第一个女人的名字,妻子亚当,母亲的该隐,亚伯,和Seth。The name occurs only five times in the Bible.名字出现在“圣经”的只有五倍。In Gen., iii, 20, it is connected etymologically with the verb meaning "to live": "And Adam called the name of his wife Eve [hawwah]: because she was the mother of all the living".在将军,III,20,它是连接词源与动词,意思是“住”:“亚当给他的妻子的名字除夕[hawwah]:因为她是母亲的全部生活”。 The Septuagint rendering in this passage is Zoe (=life, or life-giver), which is a translation; in two other passages (Genesis 4:1 and 25) the name is transliterated Eua.译本在这一段的渲染佐伊(=生命,或生命者),这是一个翻译,在另外两个通道(创世记4:1和25)的名称是音译EUA。 The Biblical data concerning Eve are confined almost exclusively to the second, third, and fourth chapters of Genesis (see ADAM).圣经“关于夏娃的数据只限于几乎全部的第二,第三和第四章创世记(请参阅ADAM)。

The first account of the creation (Gen. i, "P") sets forth the creation of mankind in general, and states simply that they were created male and female.创建的第一个帐户(创我“P”)规定了一般人类的创造,和国家的根本,他们创建了男性和女性。The second narrative (Genesis 2: "J") is more explicit and detailed.第二叙事(创2:“J”)更加明确和详细的。God is represented as forming an individual man from the slime of the earth, and breathing into his nostrils the breath of life.神是代表作为一个个体的人,形成了从地球的煤泥和他的鼻孔呼吸,生命的气息。In like manner the creation of the first woman and her relation to man is described with picturesque and significant imagery.在喜欢的方式建立的第一个女人和她的男人就风景如画的显著图像。In this account, in which the plants and animals appear on the scene only after the creation of man, the loneliness of the latter (Genesis 2:18), and his failure to find a suitable companion among the animals (Genesis 2:20), are set forth as the reason why God determines to create for man a companion like unto himself.在此帐户,其中的植物和动物出现后,才创造的男子,后者的孤独(创世记2:18),他未能找到合适的伴侣动物中(创世记2:20)在现场载上帝决定创造男子像你们自己的伴侣的原因。 He causes a deep sleep to fall upon him, and taking out one of the ribs, forms it into a woman, who, when she is brought to him, is recognized at once as bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh.制住了他,他会导致深睡眠,取出肋骨,形成一个女人,当她给他带来了他的骨头和肉中他的肉骨头,是公认的一次。A discussion of the arguments in favor of the historical, or the more or less allegorical character of this narrative would be beyond the scope of the present notice.一个赞成的历史论据的讨论,或这种叙事更多或更少的寓言的字符将超出本通知的范围。Suffice it to say that the biblical account has always been looked upon by pious commentators as embodying, besides the fact of man's origin, a deep, practical and many-sided significance, bearing on the mutual relationship established between the sexes by the Creator.我只想说虔诚的评论员一直看着“圣经”帐户后,作为体现,除了人的起源,深,实用和多方面的意义的事实,造物主两性之间建立相互关系。

Thus, the primitive institution of monogamy is implied in the fact that one woman is created for one man.因此,一夫一妻制的原始机构是隐含在一个女人是一个人创造的事实。Eve, as well as Adam, is made the object of a special creative act, a circumstance which indicates her natural equality with him, while on the other hand her being taken from his side implies not only her secondary rôle in the conjugal state (1 Corinthians 11:9), but also emphasizes the intimate union between husband and wife, and the dependence of the latter on the former "Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be two in one flesh."除夕夜,以及亚当,是一个特殊的创意行为的对象,这种情况,这表明她与他的自然平等,而另一方面,她从他身边意味着在婚姻状态的不只是她的次要作用(1哥林多前书11:9),但也强调夫妻之间的亲密的联盟,而后者前“所以一个人的依赖,应离开父亲和母亲,并应妻子连合:他们应在一两个肉“。 The innocence of the newly created couple is clearly indicated in the following verse, but the narrator immediately proceeds to relate how they soon acquired, through actual transgression, the knowledge of good and evil, and with the sense of shame which had been previously unknown to them.新创建的夫妇无罪明确表示在下面的诗句,但叙述者立即着手与他们很快获得通过实际的海侵,善和恶的知识,并与羞耻感已前所未知的,他们。 In the story of the Fall, the original cause of evil is the serpent, which in later Jewish tradition is identified with Satan (Wisdom 2:24).在秋季的故事,邪恶的原始原因是蛇,在以后的犹太传统是确定与撒旦(智慧2:24)。He tempts Eve presumably as the weaker of the two, and she in turn tempts Adam, who yields to her seduction.他大概引诱夏娃两个较弱,而她又引诱亚当,谁收益率对她的诱惑。Immediately their eyes are opened, but in an unexpected manner.立即打开他们的眼睛,但在一个意想不到的方式。Shame and remorse take possession of them, and they seek to hide from the face of the Lord.羞愧和悔恨利用它们的占有,他们试图隐藏从主面前。

For her share in the transgression, Eve (and womankind after her) is sentenced to a life of sorrow and travail, and to be under the power of her husband.对于她在海侵中的份额,除夕(后她的世界女性)被判处悲痛和劳苦的生活,和丈夫的权力下。Doubtless this last did not imply that the woman's essential condition of equality with man was altered, but the sentence expresses what, in the nature of things, was bound to follow in a world dominated by sin and its consequences.毫无疑问,这不意味着,妇女与男子平等的的必要条件被修改,但句子表达了什么,在事物的本质,是必然要遵循罪及其后果所主宰的世界。 The natural dependence and subjection of the weaker party was destined inevitably to become something little short of slavery.较弱的一方自然的依赖和隶属注定不可避免地成为一些小短的奴役。But if woman was the occasion of man's transgression and fall, it was also decreed in the Divine counsels, that she was to be instrumental in the scheme of restoration which God already promises while in the act of pronouncing sentence upon the serpent.但是,如果女人是男人的越轨和下降之际,还下令在神圣的律师,她是上帝而在宣判后,蛇的句子的行为已经承诺在恢复计划的工具。 The woman has suffered defeat, and infinitely painful are its consequences, but henceforth there will be enmity between her and the serpent, between his seed and her seed, until through the latter in the person of the future Redeemer, who will crush the serpent's head, she will again be victorious.该名女子已遭受失败,其后果无限痛苦,但今后将会有她和她的蛇之间的敌对,他的种子和她的种子之间,直到通过后者在人的未来的救赎,谁就会粉碎蛇的头,她将再次获得胜利。

Of the subsequent history of Eve the Bible gives little information.夏娃的“圣经”以后的历史提供的资料很少。In Gen., iv, 1, we read that she bore a son whom she named Cain, because she got him (literally, "acquired" or "possessed") through God--this at least is the most plausible interpretation of this obscure passage.将军,四,1,我们看到,她生了一个儿子,她名为该隐,因为她得到了他通过神(字面上看,“收购”或“附身”) - 这至少是最合理的解释,这个名不见经传的通过。Later she gave birth to Abel, and the narrative does not record the birth of another child until after the slaying of Abel by his older brother, when she bore a son and called his name Seth; saying: "God hath given me [literally, "put" or "appointed"] another seed, for Abel whom Cain slew".后来,她生下阿贝尔,叙述不记录,直到另一个孩子的出生后,当她生了一个儿子,并叫他的名字塞思的哥哥杀害亚伯说:“上帝给了我[字面, “放”或“委任”]另一种子,阿贝尔其中该隐摆“。

Eve is mentioned in the Book of Tobias (viii, 8; Sept., viii, 6) where it is simply affirmed that she was given to Adam for a helper; in II Cor., xi, 3, where reference is made to her seduction by the serpent, and in I Tim., ii, 13, where the Apostle enjoins submission and silence upon women, arguing that "Adam was first formed; then Eve. And Adam was not seduced, but the woman being seduced, was in the transgression".除夕是提到在书的托比亚斯(八,8,9月,八,6),那简直是肯定,给了她一个帮手,以亚当;二,肺心病,第十一,3,其中提到了她。被蛇诱惑,我添,II,13,使徒责成提交给妇女和沉默,争辩说:“亚当最初形成;前夕,不是亚当被引诱,但被诱惑的女人,在海侵“。

As in the case of the other Old Testament personages, many rabbinical legends have been connected with the name of Eve.至于在其他旧约人士的情况下,许多犹太教传说已与夏娃的名称。They may be found in the "Jewish Encyclopedia", sv (see also, ADAM), and in Vigouroux, "Dictionnaire de la Bible", I, art.他们可能会发现在“犹太百科全书”,SV(见此外,ADAM),并在Vigouroux,“艺术辞典DE LA圣经”,我。"Adam". “亚当”。They are, for the most part, puerile and fantastic, and devoid of historical value, unless in so far as they serve to illustrate the mentality of the later Jewish writers, and the unreliability of the "traditions" derived from such sources, though they are sometimes appealed to in critical discussions.在大多数情况下,他们是薄利多销和美妙的,并没有历史价值,除非到目前为止,因为它们有助于说明后来的犹太作家的心态,并从这些来源所得的“传统”的不可靠,虽然他们有时也呼吁在批判性的讨论。

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.由詹姆斯楼斯科尔编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Dennis McCarthy.转录由丹尼斯麦卡锡。For my godmother, Eva Maria (Wolf) Gomezplata The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.我的教母,伊娃玛丽亚(狼)Gomezplata天主教百科全书,体积五发布了1909。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

PALIS in VIGOUROUX, Dictionnaire de la Bible, II, 2118; BENNETT in HASTINGS, Dict. PALIS VIGOUROUX,德拉圣经辞典,二,2118;班立志在黑斯廷斯,快译通。of the Bible, sv; Encyclopedia Biblica, sv Adam and Eve; GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, Part I, p.“圣经”,SV;百科全书Biblica,SV亚当和夏娃; GIGOT,特别介绍旧约研究,第一部分,第 162; Jewish Encyclopedia, sv, V, 275.162;犹太百科全书,SV,V,275。


Garden of Eden伊甸园

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

Name given to the "earthly paradise" occupied by Adam and Eve before their fall through sin.给亚当和夏娃被占领之前,他们通过罪秋天的“人间天堂”的名称。The word "Eden," perhaps an Assyrian loan-word, is of the same root as the Assyrian "edinu," synonymous with "ṣeru" (= field, depression; compare the Arabic "zaur," which is the name still given to the country south of Babylon and extending to the Persian Gulf; the nomadic tribes inhabiting it were called by the Assyrians "sabe edini") (see Delitzsch, "Wo Lag das Paradies?"). “伊甸园”,也许是一个亚述贷字,是同根亚述人“edinu”,“SERU”(=领域,抑郁症的代名词,比较阿拉伯语“zaur,”这是名称仍该国南部的巴比伦,并延伸到波斯湾;游牧部族居住在被称为是由亚述人“萨韦edini”)(见Delitzsch)“禾滞后DAS帕拉迪斯?”。 Its connection with the Hebrew word is of later origin.它与希伯来文是后来的原产地。Sprenger ("Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad," ii. 507) explains it through the Arabic "'adn." Sprenger(“别人的生活和死亡Lehre DES穆罕默德,”二507)通过阿拉伯语解释它“。”

Views of Delitzsch.对Delitzsch的意见。

The writer of the Biblical story of Eden (Gen. ii.-iii.) is evidently describing some place which he conceives to be on the earth; hence the exact details: "God planted a garden eastward, in Eden," etc. Many attempts have been made to determine the precise geographical location.圣经故事的伊甸园(创白介素- III)的作者显然是描述他设想地球上某些地方,因此确切的细节:“上帝在东方的伊甸花园种植,”等许多曾尝试来确定精确的地理位置。The most ancienttradition, going back to Josephus and followed by most of the Church Fathers, makes Havilah equivalent to India, and the Pison one of its rivers, while Cush is Ethiopia and the Gihon the Nile.最ancienttradition,回去约瑟夫和大多数的教父,使哈腓拉相当于印度和皮松的河流之一,而古实是埃塞俄比亚和基训的尼罗河。 A very popular theory places Eden in Babylonia.一个非常流行的理论地方伊甸园在巴比伦。Calvin made the Shaṭṭal-'Arab-formed by the union of the Tigris and Euphrates-the river that "went out of the garden"; but it is now known that in ancient times the two rivers entered the Persian Gulf separately.卡尔文作出Shaṭṭal'Arab形成由底格里斯河和幼发拉底河河水的联盟,“花园”,但它是目前已知的两条河流,在古代单独进入波斯湾。 Friedrich Delitzsch also places Eden in the country around Babylon and south of it, a country which was so beautiful in its luxuriant vegetation and abundant streams that it was known as "Kar-Duniash," or "garden of the god Duniash."弗里德里希Delitzsch在全国地方伊甸园巴比伦和南部,一个国家在其繁茂的植被和丰富的流,这是被称为,这是如此美丽的“家Duniash左右,”或“花园的神Duniash。”

Rawlinson even tried to showthe identity of the names "Gan-Eden" and "Kar-Duniash."罗林森甚至试图表明身份的名字“甘伊甸园”和“家Duniash。”This region is watered practically by the Euphrates alone, which is here on a higher level than the Tigris.这个地区实际上是浇水,这是一个更高的水平比底格里斯河幼发拉底河仅。The Pison and the Gihon are identified with two canals (they may originally have been river-beds) which branch out from the Euphrates just below Babylon.皮松和基训确定了两条运河(他们原本可能已河流床)科从幼发拉底河仅低于巴比伦。The former, to the west, is the Pallacopas, upon which Ur was situated, and Havilah is thus identified with the portion of the Syrian desert bordering on Babylonia, which is known to have been rich in gold.前者,到西部,是Pallacopas,其中乌尔位于哈腓拉,因此确定与叙利亚接壤的沙漠上有丰富的黄金,这是众所周知的巴比伦部分。 The latter, Gihon, is the Shaṭṭ al-Nil, which passes the ruins of the ancient Erech, while Cush is the Mat Kashshi, or the northern part of Babylonia proper.,基训,后者的Shatt al -无,传递古代Erech废墟,而古实垫Kashshi,或北部的巴比伦适当。Curiously enough, this region was also called "Meluḥa," which name was afterward transferred to Ethiopia.奇怪的是,这一地区也被称为“Meluḥa,”这名字是后来转移到埃塞俄比亚。Other Assyriologists (eg,Haupt, "Wo Lag das Paradies?" in "Ueber Land und Meer," 1894-95, No. 15) do not credit the Biblical writer with the definiteness of geographical knowledge which Delitzsch considers him to have had.其他Assyriologists(例如,豪普特,“禾滞后DAS帕拉迪斯?”“Ueber土地和米尔,”1894年至1895年,第15号)没有信贷与地理知识的确定性Delitzsch认为他有“圣经”的作家。

The Gilgamesh Epic吉尔伽美什史诗

A very natural theory, which must occur to any one reading the Babylonian Gilgamesh epic, connects Eden with the dwelling of Parnapishtim, the Babylonian Noah, at the "confluence of streams."一个很自然的理论,它必须出现任何一个阅读的巴比伦吉尔伽美什史诗,连接伊甸Parnapishtim,巴比伦的诺亚的住宅在“流汇合。” This is supposed to have been in the Persian Gulf or Nar Marratim ("stream of bitterness"), into which emptied the four rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Kercha, and Karun (compare Jensen, "Kosmologie der Babylonier," p. 507, and Jastrow, "Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," p. 506).这应该是在波斯湾或Marratim纳尔(“流”的辛酸),融入其中掏空四大河流幼发拉底河,底格里斯河,Kercha,和卡伦(比较詹森,“Kosmologie DER Babylonier”,第507,贾斯特罗,“宗教巴比伦人和亚述人”,第506页)。It is probable, however, that the story as given in the Bible is a later adaptation of an old legend, points of which were vague to the narrator himself, and hence any attempt to find the precise location of Eden must prove futile.它是可能的,然而,在“圣经”的故事是一个古老的传说后来适应,这点含糊,叙述者本人,因此,任何试图寻找伊甸园的精确位置必须证明是徒劳的的。 Indeed, the original Eden was very likely in heaven, which agrees with the view on the subject held by the Arabs.事实上,原始的伊甸园很可能在天上,同意由阿拉伯人举行了主题。Gunkel, in his commentary on Genesis, also adopts this view, and connects the stream coming out of Eden with the Milky Way and its four branches.贡克尔,在他创世记的评注,也采用了这种观点,和连接陆续伊甸园与银河系及其四个分公司。

The El-Amarna TabletsEL -阿玛尔纳片

Though there is no one Babylonian legend of the Garden of Eden with which the Biblical story can be compared as in the case of the stories of the Creation and of the Flood, there are nevertheless points of relationship between it and Babylonian mythology. On one of the tablets found at Tell el-Amarna, now in the Berlin Museum, occurs the legend of Adapa.虽然目前没有一个巴比伦的伊甸园传说与圣经故事可以作为创作故事和洪水相比,不过也有和巴比伦的神话之间的关系点之一告诉EL -阿玛尔纳,现在在柏林博物馆的牌位,发生达帕传说。Adapa, the first man, is the son of the god Ea, by whom he has been endowed with wisdom, but not with everlasting life.达帕,第一个男人,是对上帝EA的儿子,其中他被赋予智慧,但不能与永恒的生命He lives in Eridu, and cares for the sanctuary of the god. One day while fishing in a calm sea the south wind suddenly arises and overturns his boat. 他生活在埃利都,并为神的庇护所关心。一天,而在平静的海面捕鱼,偏南风突然出现,并推翻他的船。In his anger Adapa fights with the south wind and breaks his wings so that he can not blow for seven days.在他的愤怒与南风达帕打架,并打破他的翅膀,使他可以不吹七天。Anu, the god of heaven, hearing of this, summons Adapa before him.阿努,天上的神,听此之前,他的传票达帕。Ea gives his son instructions as to his behavior before Anu; among other things he tells him: "Bread of death will they offer thee: eat not of it. Water of death will they bring thee: drink not of it." EA作为给他的儿子指示,他的行为前,阿努;,除其他事项外,他告诉他:“死亡的面包,他们将提供你:吃不,死亡的水,他们会带你:喝不。。”Adapa does as he is told, but the bread and water Anu causes to be placed before him are of life, not of death.达帕没有,因为他被告知,但面包和水,阿努原因,摆在他的生活,而不是死亡。Thus Adapa loses his chance of eternal life.因此,达帕失去他永生的机会。He puts on the garment, however, which is offered him, following Ea's instructions.他把对服装,但是,这是给了他之后,EA的指示。In this story the bread of life is parallel to the tree of life in the Biblical story.在这个故事中的面包的生活,是生活在“圣经”故事中的树平行。It is probable that the water of life also formed a part of the original story, and that the river of Eden is a trace of it.这是可能的,生命之水也形成了一个原始的故事的一部分,伊甸园之河,是它的踪影。In Ezek.在以西结书。xlvii.四十七。6-12 and, with some variation, in Rev. xxii.6-12,与一些启示录二十二变化,。1, 2 mention is made of a "river of water of life, . . . and on either side of the river was there the tree of life," showing that the water of life was associated with the tree of life.1,2提到“生命之水的河流。。河两侧有生命之树,”生命之水是生命之树的关联。

Further, in the Biblical story, as in the Adapa legend, man is prevented from eating the food of life through being told that it means death to him.此外,在“圣经”故事,在达帕传说,人是阻止通过被告知,它意味着死亡,他的生命的食物吃。"In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. ii. 17); and it is Ea, who has formed man, who is the means of preventing him from attaining life everlasting, just as it is God who removes man from out of Eden "lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever" (ib. iii. 22). “在一天,你eatest其中你必定死”(创二17);,这是EA,已经形成的人,谁是阻止他获得永生的手段,只是因为它是上帝谁删除伊甸园“中脱离出来的人,恐怕他提出了他的手,也采取生命之树,吃,就永远活着”(ib.三22)。 Jastrow (lc) remarks that the Hebrew story is more pessimistic than the Babylonian, since God even begrudges man knowledge, which the Babylonian god freely gives him.贾斯特罗(立法会)的言论,希伯来文的故事是巴比伦超过持悲观态度,因为神甚至begrudges人的知识,巴比伦的神的自由给他。 Adapa, who has been endowed with knowledge, puts on the garment given him by Anu, and Adam and Eve, after eating of the tree of knowledge, make for themselves garments of fig-leaves.达帕,已被赋予知识,使由阿努给他的服装上,亚当与夏娃吃知识树后,为自己的服装无花果叶。

Schrader ("KAT" ii. 1, 523) calls attention to the possibility of associating the name "Adam" with "Adapa."施拉德(“吉”二,1,523),呼吁人们关注的可能性关联的名字“亚当”与“达帕。”The "garden of God," situated on the mountain, in Ezek.“上帝的花园”,位于高山上,在以西结书。xxviii.二十八。13, 14, and the tall cedar in Ezek.13,14,和高大的雪松在以西结书。xxxi.XXXI。3, may have some connection with the cedar-grove of Khumbaba in the Gilgamesh epic and with the high cedar in the midst of the grove.3,可能有一些与Khumbaba雪松树丛中的吉尔伽美什史诗和连接,在树林中的高雪松。 In this connection may be mentioned the attempt to associate Eden with the mountain in Iranian mythology, out of which rivers flow, or with the Indian mountain Maru with the four rivers (Lenormant).在这方面可能会提到的关联伊甸山在伊朗神话,其中河流的流量,或与四条河流(Lenormant)与印度山丸。 Jensen ("Keilschriftliche Bibliothek," vi.) places the "confluence of the streams" in the Far West, and associates the island with the Greek Elysium.詹森(“Keilschriftliche Bibliothek,”VI。)放置在远西的“溪流汇合处”,及联营公司与希腊的极乐世界岛。

Snake and Cherubim.蛇和基路伯。

The snake in the story is probably identical with the snake or dragon in the Babylonian story of the Creation.在巴比伦故事的创作与蛇或龙,蛇的故事可能是相同。In the British Museum there is a cylinder seal which has been supposed by Delitzsch, among others, to represent the Babylonian story of Eden (see illustration, Jew. Encyc. i. 174).在大英博物馆有一个缸密封已Delitzsch,等等,应该由代表巴比伦的伊甸园的故事(见插图,犹太人。百科全书一174)。 The seal represents two figures, a male and a female, seated on opposite sides of a tree, with handsstretched toward it; behind the woman is an up-right snake.印章代表两个数字显示,男性和女性,坐在树的两侧上,向它handsstretched,背后的女人是一个向上右的蛇。 This picture alone, however, is hardly sufficient basis for believing that the Babylonians had such a story.然而,仅此图片是很难足够的理由相信,巴比伦人有这样一个故事的基础。The cherubim placed to guard the entrance to Eden are distinctly Babylonian, and are identical with the immense winged bulls and lions at the entrances to Babylonian and Assyrian temples.有条件的基路伯把守伊甸园的入口有明显的巴比伦,和在巴比伦和亚述寺庙入口处的巨大翅膀的公牛和狮子是相同的。See Cherub.见小天使。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Guttmacher, Optimism and Religionism in the Old and New Testaments, pp. 243-245, Baltimore, 1903古特马赫,乐观和笃信宗教的旧约和新约,第243-245页,巴尔的摩,1903年

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

The Talmudists and Cabalists agree that there are two gardens of Eden: one, the terrestrial, of abundant fertility and luxuriant vegetation; the other, celestial, the habitation of righteous, immortal souls. Talmudists和Cabalists同意,有两个花园的伊甸园:一,地面,丰富的生育率和繁茂的植被;其他天体,正义的,不朽的灵魂居住。 These two are known as the "lower" and "higher" Gan Eden.这两个被称为“低”和“较高”甘伊甸园。The location of the earthly Eden is traced by its boundaries as described in Genesis.尘世的伊甸园的位置是追溯到创世记中所述的边界。

In 'Erubin 19a (comp. Rabbinovicz, "Variæ Lectiones," ad loc.) Resh Laḳish expresses himself to the following effect: "If the paradise is situated in Palestine, Beth-Shean [in Galilee] is the door; if in Arabia, then Bet Gerim is the door; and if between the rivers, Damascus is the door."“Erubin 19A(comp. Rabbinovicz,”Variæ Lectiones,“广告同上)ReshLaḳish表达自己以下的效果:”如果天堂是坐落在巴勒斯坦,伯显在加利利门;如果在阿拉伯,然后投注Gerim门;如果河流之间,大马士革门“ In another part of the Talmud (Tamid 32b) the interior of Africa is pointed out as the location of Eden, and no less a personage than Alexander the Great is supposed to have found the entrance of Gan Eden in those regions which are inhabited and governed exclusively by women.在另一部分的犹太法典(Tamid 32B)的非洲内陆指出伊甸园的位置,并不亚于亚历山大大帝的人士应该有发现,在那些居住和管辖的地区入口甘伊甸园完全由妇女。Alexander, who desired to invade Africa, was directed to Gan Eden by the advice of the "elders of the South."亚历山大导演的意见,谁想要入侵非洲,南甘伊甸园“的长者。”

A baraita fixes the dimensions of Gan and of Eden by comparisons with Egypt, Ethiopia, etc.: "Egypt is 400 parasangs square, and is one-sixtieth the size of Cush [Ethiopia]. Cush is one-sixtieth of the world [inhabited earth], the Gan being one-sixtieth of Eden, and Eden one-sixtieth of Gehinnom. Hence the world is to Gehinnon in size as the cover to the pot" (Ta'an. 10a).一个baraita修复比较GaN和伊甸园的尺寸与埃及,埃塞俄比亚等:“埃及是400 parasangs平方米,是一个六古实的大小[埃塞俄比亚]古实是一个60 [居住的世界。地球],甘一60伊甸园,伊甸园一六十个欣嫩子谷,因此世界上的大小来Gehinnon锅盖“(Ta'an。10A)。The same baraita in the Jerusalem Talmud defines the territory of Egypt as 400 parasangs square, equal to forty days' journey, ten miles being reckoned as a day's journey (Pes. 94a).相同baraita在耶路撒冷犹太法典400 parasangs平方米,等于40天的行程定义为埃及境内,10英里被算作一天的路程(Pes. 94A)。

The Rabbis make a distinction between Gan and Eden.拉比甘和Eden之间的区别。Samuel bar Naḥman says that Adam dwelt only in the Gan.塞缪尔酒吧Naḥman说,仅在赣亚当住。As to Eden-"No mortal eye ever witnesseth, O God, beside thee" (Isa. lxiv. 4, Hebr.; Ber. 34b).至于伊甸园“没有凡人的眼睛曾经作证,神啊,你旁边”(以赛亚书LXIV 4,黑布尔;。误码率34B)。

Identification of the Four Rivers.四水的鉴定。

The Midrash (Gen. R. xvi. 7) identifies the "four heads" of the rivers with Babylon (Pison), Medo-Persia (Gihon), Greece (Hiddekel), Edom-Rome (Perat), and regards Havilah as Palestine.米德拉士(将军河十六7)确定的“四头”(皮松)巴比伦,玛代波斯(基训),希腊(Hiddekel),罗马以东(Perat)河流,视为巴勒斯坦哈腓拉。 The Targum Yerushalmi translates "Havilah" by "Hindiki" ("Hindustan," or India), and leaves "Pison" untranslated.他尔根•耶路莎米“哈腓拉”转化“Hindiki”(“印度斯坦”,或印度),叶“皮松”非翻译。Saadia Gaon, in his Arabic translation, renders "Pison" the Nile, which Ibn Ezra ridicules, as "it is positively known that Eden is farther south, on the equator."萨蒂娅Gaon,在他的阿拉伯语翻译,呈现“皮松”尼罗河,伊本以斯拉嘲笑,因为“它是积极的伊甸园是更远的南部,在赤道上,。” Naḥmanides coincides in this view, but explains that the Pison may run in a subterranean passage from the equator northward.Naḥmanides在这一观点不谋而合,但解释说,皮松可能运行在一个地下通道从赤道北上。Obadiah of Bertinoro, the commentator of the Mishnah, in a letter describing his travels from Italy to Jerusalem in 1489, relates the story of Jews arriving at Jerusalem from "Aden, the land where the well-known and famous Gan Eden is situated, which is southeast of Assyria."俄巴底亚的Bertinoro,评论员的mishnah,在信中描述他的旅行,在1489,从意大利到耶路撒冷,,涉及抵达亚丁,知名和著名甘伊甸园坐落的土地,在耶路撒冷的犹太人的故事亚述东南亚。“ Jacob Safir, who visited Aden in 1865, describes it in his "Eben Sappir" (ii.3) as sandy and barren, and can not posssibly indorse the idea of connecting Aden with the Eden of Genesis.雅各SAFIR,在1865年访问了亚丁,介绍了他的“埃本Sappir”(二.3)为沙质和贫瘠,不能专注于拥护的连接与创世纪的伊甸园亚丁的想法。 The opinions of the most eminent Jewish authorities point to the location of Eden in Arabia.最杰出的犹太当局的意见指向的伊甸园在阿拉伯半岛的位置。The "four heads" or mouths of the rivers(= seas) are probably the Persian Gulf (east), the Gulf of Aden (south), the Caspian Sea (north), and the Red Sea (west). “四头”或嘴巴的河流(=海洋)可能是波斯湾(东),在亚丁湾(南),里海(北),和红海(西)。The first river, Pison, probably refers to the Indus, which encircles Hindustan, confirming the Targum Yerushalmi.第一大河,皮松,大概是指梧桐,包围印度斯坦,证实了他尔根•耶路莎米。The second river, Gihon, is the Nile in its circuitous course around Ethiopia, connecting with the Gulf of Aden.第二河,基训,是尼罗河在其周围埃塞俄比亚的迂回曲折的过程,在亚丁湾连接。The third river, Hiddekel, is the Tigris, which has its course in the front () of Assur (= Persia), speaking from the writer's point of view in Palestine.第三河,Hiddekel,底格里斯河,这已在前面(亚述(波斯))当然,从作家的角度来看讲,在巴勒斯坦。 Some explain the difficulty of finding the courses of the rivers by supposing that since the Deluge these rivers have either ceased to exist, entirely or in part, or have found subterranean outlets.有些解释寻找假设以来的洪水,这些河流要么不复存在,完全或部分,或已发现的地下网点的河流课程的难度。Indeed, the compiler of the Midrash ha-Gadol expresses himself as follows: "Eden is a certain place on earth, but no creature knows where it is, and the Holy One, blessed be He! will only reveal to Israel the way to it in the days of the king Messiah" (Midr. ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, col. 75).事实上,编译器米德拉士HA - Gadol表示自己如下:“伊甸园是一个地球上的某个地方,但没有生物知道它在哪里,和圣地之一,是应当称颂的,他只会透露给以色列的方式给它!王弥赛亚“(Midr. HA - Gadol。谢克特,山口75)天。

Earthly and Heavenly Gan Eden.尘世和天堂般的甘伊甸园。

The boundary line between the natural and supernatural Gan Eden is hardly perceptible in Talmudic literature.之间的自然和超自然的甘伊甸园的边界线是很难察觉在talmudic文学。In fact, "Gan Eden and heaven were created by one Word [of God], and the chambers of the Gan Eden are constructed as those of heaven, and as heaven is lined with rows of stars, so Gan Eden is lined with rows of the righteous, who shine like the stars" (Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim, pp. 13, 55).事实上,“甘Eden和天堂创建了一个字[神],和甘伊甸园商会构造如天上的,天上星行内衬,所以甘伊甸园是内衬行正义,闪耀像星星“(Aggadat事儿HA - Shirim,第13页,55)。The leviathan disturbs the waters of the seas, and would have destroyed the life of all human beings by the bad breath of his mouth, but for the fact that he occasionally puts his head through the opening of Gan Eden, the spicy odor issuing from which acts as an antiseptic to his bad smell (BB75a).利维坦扰乱了海洋水域,并会破坏所有人类的生活由他嘴里的口臭,但他偶尔把他的头,通过开放甘伊甸园,发出的辛辣气味的事实作为他的不良气味的消毒剂(BB75a)。 Ḥiyya bar Ḥanina says that God had prepared for Adam ten canopies of various precious stones in Gan Eden, and quotes Ezek.Ḥiyya酒吧Ḥanina说,上帝已经准备亚当十大檐篷,各种宝石,在甘伊甸园,和报价以西结书。xxviii.二十八。13 (BB 75a).13(BB 75A)。 This, according to the Midrash, relates to the celestial Gan Eden.为此,根据米德拉士,涉及到的天体甘伊甸园。The Zohar claims for everything on earth a prototype above (Yitro 82a).地球上的一切佐哈尔索赔原型以上(Yitro 82A)。 Naḥmanides also says that the narrative of Eden in Genesis has a double meaning, that besides the earthly Gan Eden and the four rivers there are their prototypes in heaven (Commentary to Gen. iv. 13).Naḥmanides也说,在创世记的伊甸园叙事具有双重含义,除了俗世甘Eden和四大河流有在天上的原型(将军四评注13)。 See Paradise.见天堂。

-In Arabic Literature:阿拉伯文学:

The Arabic word for Eden is "'Adn," which, according to the commentators and lexicographers, means "fixed residence," ie, the everlasting abode of the faithful.伊甸园阿拉伯语单词是“'”,根据评论家和词典编纂,意思是“固定住所”,即永恒的忠实居留权。"'Adn," preceded by "jannat" (gardens), occurs ten times in the Koran (suras ix. 73, xiii. 23, xvi. 33, xviii. 30, xix. 62, xx. 78, xxxv. 30, xxxviii. 50, xl. 8, xli. 12), but always as the abode of the righteous and never as the residence of Adam and Eve, which occurs in the Koran only under the name of "jannah" (garden), although the Moslem commentators agree in callingit "Jannat'Adn "(the Garden of Eden). “,”前面“jannat”(花园),发生在“古兰经”(suras九十倍。73,十三23,十六33,十八30,十九62,XX,78,三十五30。 XXXVIII。50,XL 8 XLI。12),但永远居留权的正义,从来没有像亚当和夏娃,在“古兰经”,只有在“jannah”(花园)的名称发生的住所,虽然穆斯林评论家同意callingit“Jannat'Adn”(伊甸园)。 In sura ii.在苏拉第二。23 occur the words: "And we have said to Adam: 'Stay with thy wife in the garden ["fi al-jannah"],'" which Baiḍawi explains: "The garden here is the 'Dar al-Thawab' [The House of Recompense], which is the fourth of the eight heavens." 23发生的话说:“我们已经对亚当说:”你的妻子住在花园里“科幻AL - jannah "],'"Baiḍawi解释:”花园这里是'达累斯萨拉姆基地Thawab“[众议院报应,这是第四八个天上。“According to the Koran, the gardens of Eden are in heaven, and form a part of the blissful abode of the believers.根据“古兰经”,花园的伊甸园在天上,并形成了一个幸福居留权之徒的一部分。In sura ii.在苏拉第二。23 it gives the command: "Announce that the believers will reside in delightful gardens," on which Baiḍawi remarks: "According to Ibn al-'Abbas, there are seven gardens, one of which is called 'Firdaus' [Paradise] and one "Adn' [Eden]." Hence there is a difficulty as to the Eden from which Adam was cast out. 23它给人的命令:“宣布的信徒将驻留在令人愉快的花园,”Baiḍawi言论:“据伊本'Abbas,有7个花园,这就是所谓的”菲尔道斯“[天堂]和一个“和'[伊甸园]”,因此是有困难的伊甸园亚当被赶出去。

Baidawi says on sura ii.Baidawi说苏拉二。23: "Some people have thought that this Eden was situated in the country of the Philistines, or between Persia and Karman. God created it in order to put Adam to the test." 23:“有些人认为这伊甸园坐落在非利士人的国家,或者,波斯和卡门之间,上帝创造的,它为了把亚当测试。。”Mohammed Ṭahir ("Majma' al-Biḥar, " p. 225), speaking of the tradition that the rivers Jaiḥun and Jaiḥan are rivers of the garden ("al-jannah"), says: "The terms are figurative, implying that faith extended to those regions and made them rivers of paradise."穆罕默德塔希尔(“Majma”AL -比哈尔邦,“第225页),河流Jaiḥun和Jaiḥan花园的河流(”AL - jannah“)的传统来说,说:”形象化的条款,这意味着信仰扩展到这些地区,并取得他们的天堂河“In another place (ib. p. 164) he says: "The four rivers, Siḥan [Jaxartes], Jaiḥan [Gihon], Furat [Euphrates], and Nil [Nile], are rivers of paradise."在另一个地方(同上第164页)他说:“四条河流,Siḥan[Jaxartes,Jaiḥan[基训,Furat [幼发拉底河],及无[尼罗河],是天堂的河流。”Abu Mohammed Mu'afa al-Shaibani, author of the "Uns al-Munḳaṭi'in," states the following tradition: "When God created the Garden of Eden, He created in it that which the eye had never seen before, that which the ear had never heard of before, and that which had never been desired before by man's heart."阿布穆罕默德Mu'afa AL - Shaibani,作者“UNS人Munḳaṭi'in,”国家以下的传统:“当上帝创造了伊甸园,他创建的,它的眼睛从未见过,从来没有听说过耳前,和人的心脏之前从未期望的。“ There is another tradition that God, having created the Garden of Eden, ordered it to speak.还有另一个传统,上帝创造了伊甸园,责令其说话。The garden pronounced the following words: "There is no God besides Allah."花园突出了以下的话:“有没有除了安拉的神。” The garden was ordered to speak a second time, and it added: "The faithful will be happy."花园被勒令第二次发言,并补充说:“教友们会很乐意”After a third order it said: "Misers or hypocrites will never enter me."三阶后说:“守财奴或伪君子绝不会进入我。”Wahb ibn Munabbah says: "There is a tradition that the Garden of Eden has eight gates, the porters of which must not let anybody come in before those who despise earthly things and prefer those of heaven."Wahb本Munabbah说:“有一个传统,伊甸园有八个门,搬运工不得让任何人来之前那些鄙视地上的事,喜欢天上。” According to one tradition the tree of life was a stalk of wheat-which in the days of Adam grew to the size of a tree-a vine, a fig-tree, or a "tree that whoever eats of it grows young again" (Baiḍawi, Commentary on Koran, sura ii. 33).根据一个传统的生命之树是亚当天秆小麦成长的树,葡萄树,无花果树,或“树,谁吃它的再次成长的年轻”的大小( Baiḍawi,评古兰经,苏拉二33)。Weil, in "Biblische Legenden der Propheten," gives some interesting traditions in regard to Eden and Satan.韦伊,“DER Propheten Biblische Legenden,”给出了关于伊甸园和撒旦一些有趣的传统。

Emil G. Hirsch, Mary W. Montgomery, Solomon Schechter, Judah David Eisenstein, M. SeligsohnG.埃米尔赫斯基,玛丽W ·蒙哥马利,索罗门谢克特,犹大大卫爱森斯坦,M. Seligsohn
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, sv Eden; D'Herbelot, Bibliothèque Orientale, i.休斯,伊斯兰词典,SV伊甸园;德Herbelot,国家图书馆东方岛166; Mohammed Ṭahir, Majma' at-Biḥar, pp. 164, 225; A. Geiger, Judaism and Islam, pp. 32, 33, Madras, 1878 166;穆罕默德塔希尔,Majma“在比哈尔邦,第164,225; A.盖革,犹太教和伊斯兰教,第32,33,马德拉斯,1878年


Eve前夕

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

-Biblical Data:- 圣经的数据:

The wife of Adam.亚当的妻子。According to Gen. iii.据将军三。20, Eve was so called because she was "the mother of all living" (RV, margin, "Life" or "Living"). 20日,除夕是所谓的,因为她是“母亲的所有生活”(风疹病毒,保证金,“生活”或“生活”)。On the ground that it was not "good for man to be alone" God resolved to "make him an help meet for him" (ib. ii. 18), first creating, with this end in view, the beasts of the field and the fowl of the air and then bringing them unto Adam.在地面上,这是不是“好男人要单独”上帝决心“让他帮助满足他”(ib.二18),首先创建,有鉴于此,田野的走兽和空中的飞鸟,然后将他们所不欲,亚当。 When Adam did not find among these a helpmeet for himself, Yhwh caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and took one of his ribs, from which He made a woman, and brought her unto the man (ib. ii. 22).当亚当没有发现其中一个合作者为自己,耶和华造成一种深度睡眠状态,制住他,和了他的肋骨,从他做了一个女人,拿来给她的男子(ib.二22)。 Upon seeing her, Adam welcomed her as "bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh" (ib. ii. 23), declaring that she should be called "ishshah" because she was taken out of "ish" (man.)她见状,亚当欢迎她为“我骨中的骨,肉中的肉”(ib.二23),宣布她应该被称为“ishshah”,因为她是“ISH”(手动)

Dwelling in the Garden of Eden with Adam, Eve is approached and tempted by the serpent.夏娃在伊甸园与亚当的花​​园住宅,走近被蛇诱惑。She yields to the reptile's seductive arguments, and partakes of the forbidden fruit, giving thereof to her husband, who, like her, eats of it.她产生的爬行动物的诱人的参数,并禁果参与大,给其她的丈夫,谁和她一样,吃它的。 Both discover their nakedness and make themselves aprons of figleaves.发现他们赤身露体,使自己figleaves围裙。When God asks for an accounting Adam puts the blame on Eve.当上帝要求会计亚当对夏娃怪。As a punishment, the sorrows of conception and childbirth are announced to her, as well as subjection to her husband (ib. iii. 16).作为一种惩罚,宣布她受孕和分娩的痛苦,以及遭受丈夫(ib.三16)。Driven out of Eden, Eve gives birth to two sons, Cain and Abel; herself naming the elder in the obscure declaration "I have gotten a man with the help of Yhwh" (ib. iv. 1, RV).逐出伊甸园,夏娃生下两个儿子,该隐和亚伯;自己命名长老“我已经得到耶和华帮助的人”(同上四,1,RV)在不起眼的声明。 Later, after the murder of Abel, she bears another son, to whom she gives the name "Seth," saying that he is given to her by Yhwh as a compensation for Abel (ib. iv. 25).后来,谋杀亚伯后,她承担的另一个儿子,她给人的名称为“赛斯”说,他是耶和华以她作为补偿阿贝尔(同上四25)。

-In Rabbinical Literature:在犹太教文学:

Eve was not created simultaneously with Adam because God foreknew that later she would be a source of complaint.夏娃是没有同时创造了亚当因为上帝foreknew,后来,她将投诉的来源。He therefore delayed forming her until Adam should express a desire for her (Gen. R. xvii.).因此,他推迟,形成了她,直到亚当应该表达对她的欲望(将军河十七)。。Eve was created from the thirteenth rib on Adam's right side and from the flesh of his heart (Targ. Pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. ii. 21; Pirḳe R. El. xii.).夏娃被创造,从亚当的右侧第十三届肋骨和从他的心脏肉(Targ.伪乔纳森将军II 21。PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺第十二)。Together with Eve Satan was created (Gen. R. xvii.).与夏娃撒旦一起创建(将军河十七)。God adorned Eve like a bride with all the jewelry mentioned in Isa.上帝就像一个新娘在ISA中提到的所有珠宝装饰的除夕。iii.III。He built the nuptial chamber for her (Gen. R. xviii.).他建造了为她(将军河十八)婚前室。According to Pirḳe R. El.据PirḳeR. EL。xii., as soon as Adam beheld Eve he embraced and kissed her; her name , from , indicates that God () joined them together (see also Ab. RN xxxviii.).尽快第十二章,作为亚当看见夏娃他拥抱并亲吻了她,她的名字,从,表示神()一起加入了他们(AB护士XXXVIII。)。 Ten gorgeous "ḥuppot" (originally, "bridal chambers"; now, "bridal canopies"), studded with gems and pearls and ornamented with gold, did God erect for Eve, whom He Himself gave away in marriage, and over whom He pronounced the blessing; while the angels danced and beat timbrels and stood guard over the bridal chamber (Pirḳe R. El. xii.).十大华丽“ḥuppot”原来,“新娘商会”,现在,“新娘檐篷”,镶嵌着宝石和珍珠装饰与黄金,神竖立前夕,人,他自己给婚姻,其中他明显的祝福,而天使跳舞,击败timbrels站在洞房(PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺第十二)。后卫。

Samael, prompted by jealousy, picked out the serpent to mislead Eve (Yalḳ., Gen. xxv.; comp. Josephus, "Ant." i. 1, § 4; Ab. RN i.), whom it approached, knowing that women could be more easily moved than men (Pirḳe R. El. xiii.).萨麦尔,嫉妒提示,挑选出来的毒蛇误导除夕(Yalḳ.,创二十五;。比赛约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”一1,§ 4; AB护士一),其中接近,明知妇女可以更容易地移动比男性(PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺第十三)。Or, according to another legend, the serpent was induced to lead Eve to sin by desire on its part to possess her (Soṭah 9; Gen. R. xviii.), and it cast into her the taint of lust (; Yeb. 103b; 'Ab. Zarah 22b; Shab. 146a; Yalḳ., Gen. 28, 130).或者,根据另一种传说,蛇引诱夏娃犯罪导致其渴望拥有她(Soṭah9。将军河十八),并到她的污点欲望(投;。YEB 103B '抗体Zarah 22B;沙巴146A;Yalḳ,创28,130)。Profiting by the absence of the two guardian angels (Ḥag. 16a; Ber. 60b), Satan, or the serpent, which then had almost the shape of a man (Gen. R. xix. 1), displayed great argumentative skill in explaining the selfish reasons which had prompted God's prohibition (Pirḳe R. El. lc; Gen. R. xix.; Tan., Bereshit, viii.), and convinced Eve by ocular proof that the tree could be touched (comp. Ab. RN i. 4) without entailing death.获利由两个守护天使的情况下(Ḥag.16A;。误码率60B),撒旦,或蛇,当时几乎是一个人的形状“(创R.十九1),表现出了极大的议论文的解释技巧证明树可触及眼(comp.抗体RN,相信除夕。促使上帝的禁令(TAN,Bereshit,第八;;将军传译十九。。PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺LC)自私的理由一,4)未经将会导致死亡。 Eve thereupon laid hold of the tree, and at once beheld the angel of death coming toward her (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. to Gen. iii. 6).除夕随即寻不到树,一次看见死亡天使朝她飞来,(Targ.伪乔恩。将军III。6)。Then, reasoning that if she died and Adam continued to live he would take another wife, she made him share her own fate (Pirḳe R. El. xiii.; Gen. R. xix.); at the invitation of the serpent she had partaken of wine; and she now mixed it with Adam's drink (Num. R. x.).然后,推理,如果她死了和亚当继续生活,他将采取另一个妻子,她使他分享自己的命运(PirḳeR. EL第十三;。将军河十九);在她的蛇邀请partaken酒;她现在与亚当的饮料(民数记R. X.)混合。Nine curses together with death befell Eve in consequence of her disobedience (Pirḳe R. El. xiv.; Ab. RN ii. 42).九,连同死亡的诅咒降临在她不服从的后果除夕(PirḳeR. EL第十四;。AB护士II 42)。

Eve became pregnant, and bore Cain and Abel on the very day of (her creation and) expulsion from Eden (Gen. R. xii.).夏娃怀孕了,并且承担该隐和亚伯上的那一天(她的创作和)从伊甸园驱逐(将军河十二)。 These were born full-grown, and each had a twin sister (ib.).这些出生完全成熟,每个有一个孪生姐妹(同上)。Cain's real father was not Adam, but one of the demons (Pirḳe R. El. xxi., xxii.).该隐的真正父亲不是亚当,但恶魔(PirḳeR. EL。​​XXI。,22)。Seth was Eve's first child by Adam.塞特是亚当夏娃的第一个孩子。Eve died shortly after Adam, on the completion of the six days of mourning, and was buried in the Cave of Machpelah (Pirḳe R. El. xx.).除夕去世后不久,亚当,哀悼6天完成,和被掩埋在山洞Machpelah(PirḳeR.厄尔尼诺。XX)。。Comp.比赛Adam, Book of亚当书

-In Arabic Literature:阿拉伯文学:

Eve is a fantastic figure taken from the Jewish Haggadah.前夜是一个神奇的的数字,从犹太哈加达。In the Koran her name is not mentioned, although her person is alluded to in the command given by Allah to Adam and his "wife," to live in the garden, to eat whatever they desired, but not to approach "that tree" (suras ii. 33, vii. 18).在“古兰经”中没有提到她的名字,虽然她的人提到真主给亚当和他的“妻子说:”住在花园里,想吃什么就吃什么,他们需要的的命令,但没有办法“,树”( suras二33,七18)。According to Mohammedan tradition, Eve was created out of a rib of Adam's left side while he was asleep.根据伊斯兰教的传统,亚当的左侧肋骨创造夏娃,而他已经睡着了。Riḍwan, the guardian of paradise, conducted them to the garden, where theywere welcomed by all creatures as the father and mother of Mohammed. Riḍwan,天堂的守护者,进行他们的花园,那里theywere欢迎穆罕默德的父亲和母亲的所有生物。

Iblis, who had been forbidden to enter paradise and was jealous of Adam's prerogative, wished to entice him to sin.Iblis,已被禁止进入天堂,是嫉妒亚当的特权,希望诱使他犯罪。He asked the peacock to carry him under his wings, but, as the bird refused, he hid himself between the teeth of the serpent, and thus managed to come near Adam and Eve.他要求下进行他的翅膀的孔雀,但是,正如鸟拒绝,他躲在自己的蛇的牙齿之间,从而设法靠近亚当和夏娃。He first persuaded Eve to eat of the fruit, which was a kind of wheat that grew on the most beautiful tree in the garden, and she gave some to Adam.他首先说服夏娃吃的水果,这是一个小麦上最美丽的树生长在花园,和她提出了一些对亚当。Thereupon all their ornaments fell from their bodies, so that they stood naked.于是,他们所有的饰物下跌从他们的身体,让他们站在赤身露体。Then they were expelled from the garden.然后,他们被逐出花园。Adam was thrown to Serendib (Ceylon), and Eve to Jidda (near Mecca).亚当被抛出Serendib(锡兰),吉达(麦加附近)和夏娃。

Although Adam and Eve could not see each other, they heard each other's lamentations; and their repentance restored to them God's compassion.虽然亚当和夏娃无法看到对方,他们听到对方的悲叹;和他们的忏悔给他们恢复上帝的同情。God commanded Adam to follow a cloud which would lead him to a place opposite to the heavenly throne, where he should build a temple.神吩咐亚当遵循,这将导致他一个地方天上的宝座,在那里他要盖庙对面的云。The cloud guided him to Mount Arafa, near Mecca, where he found Eve.云引导他山阿拉法,麦加附近,在那里他发现了除夕。From this the mount derived its name.从这个挂载推导出它的名字。Eve died a year after Adam, and was buried outside Mecca, or, according to others, in India, or at Jerusalem.后,亚当夏娃死了一年,被埋没了麦加城外,或根据其他人,在印度,或在耶路撒冷。

Emil G. Hirsch, Solomon Schechter, Hartwig Hirschfeld埃米尔G.赫希,索罗门谢克特,哈特维希赫希菲尔德
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版之间1901-1906。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Weil, Biblische Legenden der Muselmänner.韦尔Biblische Legenden DER Muselmänner。

-Critical View:- 批评的看法:

The account of the creation of woman-she is called "Eve" only after the curse-belongs to the J narrative.她被称为“夏娃”诅咒后,才属于在J叙事的女人创造的帐户。It reflects the naive speculations of the ancient Hebrews on the beginnings of the human race as introductory to the history of Israel.它反映了人类的开端,以色列历史上的介绍古代希伯来人的天真揣测。Its tone throughout is anthropomorphic.它的基调始终是拟人化的。The story was current among the people long before it took on literary form (Gunkel, "Genesis," p. 2), and it may possibly have been an adaptation of a Babylonian myth (ib. p. 35).故事是当前人民内部长之前,它的文学形式(贡克尔,“创世纪”,第2页)了,它可能已经适应巴比伦神话(同上第35页)。 Similar accounts of the creation of woman from a part of man's body are found among many races (Tuch, "Genesis," notes on ch. ii.); for instance, in the myth of Pandora.创建从一个人的身体的一部分女子的类似帐户发现许多种族之间的(TUCH,“创世纪”,CH二);例如,在潘多拉的神话。 That woman is the cause of evil is another wide-spread conceit.那个女人是邪恶的原因,是另一种广泛蔓延自负。The etymology of "ishshah" from "ish" (Gen. ii. 23) is incorrect ( belongs to the root ), but exhibits all the characteristics of folk-etymology.从“ISH”(创二23)。“ishshah”的词源是不正确的的(属于根),但展品民间词源的所有特征。 The name , which Adam gives the woman in Gen. iii.这个名字,亚当给出了在将军三的女人。20, seems not to be of Hebrew origin.20,似乎并没有被希伯来起源。The similarity of sound with explains the popular etymology adduced in the explanatory gloss, though it is WR Smith's opinion ("Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia," p. 177) that Eve represents the bond of matriarchal kinship ("ḥayy").声音的相似性与解释在解释光泽援引流行的词源,虽然它是西铁史密斯的意见(在早期阿拉伯的“血缘关系和婚姻”,第177页),除夕代表的母系亲属(“哈伊”)的债券。 Nöldeke ("ZDMG" xlii. 487), following Philo ("De Agricultura Noe," § 21) and the Midrash Rabbah (ad loc.), explains the name as meaning "serpent," preserving thus the belief that all life sprang from a primeval serpent.Nöldeke(“ZDMG”XLII 487),以下斐洛(“德Agricultura野老,”§ 21)和midrash拉巴(广告同上。)解释说,作为意义命名为“蛇”,从而保持的信念,即所有生命源自远古时代的蛇。The narrative forms part of a culture-myth attempting to account among other things for the pangs of childbirth, which are comparatively light among primitive peoples (compare Adam; Eden, Garden of; Fall of Man).一个试图在考虑其他事情,分娩的阵痛,这是比较原始民族之间的光的文化神话的一部分(比较亚当的叙事形式;伊甸园,花园,人的堕落)。 As to whether this story inculcates the divine institution of Monogamy or not, see Gunkel, "Genesis," p.至于这个故事是否灌输神圣的机构或没有一夫一妻制的,贡克尔,“创世纪”,第11, and Dillmann's and Holzinger's commentaries on Gen. ii.11日和Dillmann和Holzinger将军II的评论。23-24.23日至24日。



Also, see:此外,见:
Original Sin原罪
Adam 亚当

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