Fatimids法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)

General Information一般资料

The Fatimids were an Islamic dynasty that reigned in North Africa and later in Egypt from 909 until 1171. The Fatimid Caliphate was the political pinnacle of the Ismailis, a group of Shiites who expected the appearance of a messiah descended from the marriage of Ali, the fourth caliph, and Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad.法蒂玛是在北非和后来在埃及的一个伊斯兰王朝统治从909直到1171法蒂玛哈里发政治巅峰的伊斯玛 ,一群什叶派预计出现一个救世主的后裔,从婚姻的阿里,第四哈里发,先知穆罕默德的女儿法蒂玛,。

The Fatimids initially established a North African empire centered in Tunisia, from which they planned to move eastward and supplant the Abbasids.法蒂玛初步建立了一个在突尼斯为中心的北非帝国,从他们计划向东移动,并取代了阿巴斯王朝。Consequently, they conquered Egypt in 969 and created Cairo as their capital.因此,他们征服了埃及在969和创建为首都开罗。 They then extended their influence to Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. They reached the zenith of their power in the reign of al-Mustansir (1036-94). The dynasty enjoyed generally peaceful relations with the Byzantines and cooperated with the Turkish rulers of Syria against the Crusades.然后,他们把自己的影响力,叙利亚,巴勒斯坦和阿拉伯,他们在AL - Mustansir(1036年至1094年)统治时期达到其权力的顶峰。王朝享有普遍和平关系与拜占庭和土耳其与叙利亚的统治者合作对十字军东征。

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From the mid-12th century, the Fatimid kingdom began to crumble internally; the caliphs lost most of their power, and the viziers, at the head of a highly centralized government, assumed much of the executive and military leadership.从12世纪中叶,法蒂玛王国内部开始崩溃;哈里发失去了他们的权力,viziers,在一个高度集中的政府负责人,承担的行政和军事领导。 Therefore, Saladin found it easy to end Fatimid rule in 1171.因此,萨拉丁发现很容易地在1171结束法蒂玛王朝统治。Despite the religious unorthodoxy of the dynasty, most of its subjects remained orthodox Muslims.尽管宗教非正统的王朝,其最科目仍然是正统的穆斯林。In this period Egypt enjoyed extraordinary economic and cultural vitality.在此期间,埃及享有非凡的经济和文化的生命力。

Michael W. Dols迈克尔W。DOLS

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Lewis, Bernard, The Origin of Isma'ilism (1975); O'Leary, De Lacy, A Short History of the Fatimid Kaliphate (1923).刘易斯,伯纳德,Isma'ilism原产地(1975),奥利里,德拉齐,一个法蒂玛Kaliphate简史“(1923年)。


Fatimids法蒂玛

General Information一般资料

The Fatimids were a Muslim dynasty claiming the caliphate, successors of Muhammad through descent from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter.法蒂玛是一个穆斯林声称通过后裔,穆罕默德的女儿法蒂玛王朝哈里发,穆罕默德的继承人。

In the 10th century, Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi, head of a sect of Syrian Shiites, traveled to northwest Africa to head a movement started among the Berbers, a non-Arabic North African tribe.在10世纪,Ubayd的安拉马赫迪,一个叙利亚的什叶派的教派负责人,前往非洲西北部,头部运动,柏柏尔人之间开始了一个非阿拉伯的北非部落。 Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi was proclaimed the Muslim messiah, Mahdi, and by 909 had secured control of a substantial portion of North Africa.欧柏安拉马赫迪被宣布为穆斯林弥赛亚,马赫迪,并已获得由909控制了北非的很大一部分。He pushed eastward as far as Egypt and consolidated the empire under his son al-Qa'im and grandson al-Mansur.他推开向东据埃及和综合AL - Qa'im和孙子AL -曼苏尔的儿子在他的帝国。Egypt was conquered in 969.埃及被征服了969。

In 972 al-Mansur's son Moizz was recognized as caliph in Egypt and made the new city of Cairo his capital.在972 AL -曼苏尔的儿子Moizz被确认为在埃及哈里发和他的首都开罗新城区。Morocco, Tripoli, and Sicily then became Muslim provinces, developing into semiautonomous dynasties of their own.摩洛哥,的黎波里,和西西里岛成为穆斯林省份,发展成自己的半自治的朝代。In the 11th century Sicily fell to the Normans, and in the following century Roger II of Sicily completed the conquest of Morocco.在11世纪西西里下降到诺曼,并在接下来的一个世纪的Roger II西西里完成征服摩洛哥。Al-Hakim, the third Fatimid caliph, supported the university in Cairo and founded the fatimid library.哈基姆,第三法蒂玛王朝哈里发,支持在开罗大学,并创办了法蒂玛库。He persecuted Christians, destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and in 1020 claimed personal divinity.他受迫害的基督徒,摧毁了在耶路撒冷的圣墓教堂,并在1020声称的个人神威。

At its height, the Fatimid dynasty was recognized throughout much of Arabia, but it declined and was eventually crushed by the rising forces of Normans, Turks, and Venetians.在它的高度认可,法蒂玛王朝是阿拉伯半岛的大部分,但它拒绝,并最终由诺曼人,土耳其人,和威尼斯的上升的力量粉碎。 After 1129 the Fatimid caliphs were merely puppets in the hands of the army and powerful viziers (Muslim government officials).1129后的法蒂玛哈里发只是在军队和强大的viziers(穆斯林政府官员)手中的傀儡。Adid, last of the Fatimids, died in 1171.Adid,法蒂玛最后,在1171去世。Upon his death, the vizier Saladin won the title of Sultan by recognizing the Abbasid caliph of Baghdâd.他去世后,大臣萨拉丁获得承认在巴格达的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发,苏丹的称号。


Editor's Note:编者按:

The name Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi is sometimes presented as abdullah Al Mahdi.有时表现为阿卜杜拉马赫迪的名称Ubayd的安拉马赫迪。Different Muslim scholars use either spelling.不同的穆斯林学者使用或者拼写。At the time of this man, written records and equipment were still rare, and names were generally transmitted orally.在这名男子时,书面记录和设备尚不多见的,而名字一般是口头传播。These two spellings have essentially the same oral sound, and they represent the same man.这两个拼写有本质上是相同的口头的声音,他们代表了同一个男人。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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