Hegira, Hijra, Hejira, Hijrah伊斯兰教纪元

General Information一般资料

Hegira (from the Arabic hijra, which means breaking off relations, abandoning one's tribe, or migrating) refers to the departure of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca in AD 622. His criticism of the polytheism of the Meccan religion had angered the merchants of Mecca, who were reaping large profits from pilgrims. Forced into exile, Muhammad went to Yathrib (later renamed Medina) and became its ruler. Hegira的阿拉伯语希吉拉,即断绝关系,放弃一个人的部落,或者迁移是指到了从公元622年的麦加先知穆罕默德的离去,他在麦加宗教的多神教的批评已经激怒了麦加的客商,穆罕默德从朝圣者获得巨额利润。被迫流亡,到Yathrib去(后更名为麦地那),并成为它的统治者。 The caliph Umar I (d. 664) proclaimed the start of the Muslim era (dated AH, annus hegirae) from the first day (July 16, 622, by the Julian calendar) of the lunar year in which the hegira occurred.哈里发欧麦尔我(卒于664)宣布,从第一天开始的穆斯林时代(月啊,安努斯hegirae)(7月16日,622,儒略历)农历hegira发生。 The term is also applied to any Muslim emigration.这个术语也适用于任何穆斯林移民。


Hegira Hegira

General Information一般资料

Hegira or Hejira (Arabic hijrah,"flight"), specifically, flight in AD622 of Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina), both in what is now Saudi Arabia; by extension, the term is applied to any similar flight or emigration. Hegira或Hejira(阿拉伯语hijrah,“飞行”),具体而言,飞行AD622穆罕默德从麦加到Yathrib(现在梅迪纳),无论在什么是现在的沙特阿拉伯;推而广之,任期是适用于任何类似的飞行或移民。 Caliph Umar I selected the year of the Hegira as the first year of the Muslim era.作为穆斯林时代的第一年,哈里发欧麦尔我选择Hegira年。Hence, AD622 became 1 AH (anno hegirae) in the Muslim calendar, which Umar systematized in 639.因此,AD622成为1 AH(ANNO hegirae)在穆斯林的日历,欧麦尔在639系统化。

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Hegira Hegira

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Muhammad's position in Mecca was becoming more and more unsupportable (due to his insistence on one god rather than the many that the Meccans worshipped).穆罕默德在麦加的地位越来越不合理的(由于他的坚持,而不是很多,麦加人崇拜一个上帝)。He sought to establish himself in Taif without success.他试图在塔伊夫建立自己没有成功。

Muhammad met a group of people from the oases of Yathrib (or Medina, as it later came to be known), who realized that Muhammad might help them with their domestic political problems.穆罕默德会见了Yathrib绿洲的人组(或麦地那,因为它后来被称为),他意识到,穆罕默德可能帮助其国内的政治问题。 They absorbed Islam from Muhammad and returned to Medina to preach the new religion.他们吸收穆罕默德伊斯兰教,并返回到麦地那,以宣扬新的宗教。In 622, a larger group of Medinese pledged their support and agreed to grant him protection.在622中,一个较大的集团已抵押的Medinese的支持,并同意给予他的保护。

Muhammad urged his Meccan supporters to emigrate to Medina, while he himself became the last to leave the town.穆罕默德敦促他的麦加支持者,麦地那移民,而他本人则成为最后一个离开镇。The migration (or Hijra) of the Prophet was later taken as the starting point of Muslim chronology.先知迁移(或希吉拉)后来被穆斯林年表的起点。(According to tradition, the Hijra took place in September 622; however, the Muslim era starts at the beginning of the Arab year in which the Hijra took place, ie 16 July 622.) (按照传统,在希吉拉622九月举行,然而,穆斯林时代的希吉拉发生,即622年7月16日在阿拉伯今年初开始。)

Medina at the time of Muhammad's arrival was inhabited by eight large clans of Arabs and three major clans of Jews.居住在麦地那是穆罕默德的到来的时候,由8个大部落的阿拉伯人和犹太人的三个主要部族。 For years there had been feuding between the clans, culminating in a great battle in 618, in which many were slaughtered.多年来,有被各部族之间的争斗的,最终在一个伟大的战斗中,在618家,其中许多被宰杀。With the aim of creating political stability, Muhammad established a community of people (umma) made up of his followers from Mecca and the people of Medina.穆罕默德创造政治稳定的目的,建立了人民的共同体(乌玛)麦加和麦地那人从他的追随者。All important problems were to be laid before him and God.所有重要的问题之前,他和神下岗。All the new arrangements are contained in a document called the Constitution of Medina, and as [author Michael] Cook puts it, "[one of the major interests] of the parties of the document is the waging of war."所有新的安排,都包含在一个文件被称为麦地那宪法,迈克尔[作者]库克所说的那样,“文档各方重大利益]是发动战争。”

Ibn Warraq伊Warraq



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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