Holy Innocents神圣的无辜者

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In the New Testament, the Holy Innocents were those children of Bethlehem put to death by Herod the Great in his attempt to kill the Christ child.在新约中,神圣的无辜者在伯利恒的儿童希律王死在他企图杀害基督的孩子。This episode in the infancy narrative (Matthew 2) has a parallel in the account of Pharaoh's massacre of Jewish male babies at the time of Moses' birth (Exodus 1-2).这在起步阶段的叙事情节(马太福音2)在法老的屠杀犹太人的男婴,在摩西的诞生时间(出埃及记1-2)帐户平行。Feast day: Dec. 28 (Western), Dec. 29 (Eastern).节日:12月28日(西方),12月29日(东区)。

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Holy Innocents神圣的无辜者

Catholic Information天主教信息

The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18:圣马太2:16-18中提到的儿童:

Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise men, was exceeding angry; and sending killed all the men children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.希律王察觉,他是智者所迷惑,超出生气;和发送杀死所有的男人的孩子,在伯利恒,并在所有的边界,其中从两岁下,根据他的勤奋询问时间智者。 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremias the prophet, saying: A voice in Rama was heard, lamentation and great mourning; Rachel bewailing her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.当时完成,这是赫雷米亚斯先知的话,说:在拉玛的声音被听到,哀悼伟大的哀悼;雷切尔悲叹她的孩子,不肯受安慰,因为他们没有。

The Greek Liturgy asserts that Herod killed 14,000 boys (ton hagion id chiliadon Nepion), the Syrians speak of 64,000, many medieval authors of 144,000, according to Apoc., xiv, 3.希腊礼仪说,希律王杀死14000男孩(hagion ID chiliadon Nepion吨),叙利亚发言64,000,144,000许多中世纪的作家,据载脂蛋白C,第十四条,3。Modern writers reduce the number considerably, since Bethlehem was a rather small town.现代作家的数量大大减少,因为伯利恒是一个相当小的城镇。Knabenbauer brings it down to fifteen or twenty (Evang. S. Matt., I, 104), Bisping to ten or twelve (Evang. S. Matt.), Kellner to about six (Christus and seine Apostel, Freiburg, 1908); cf. Knabenbauer将它归结为十五到二十(Evang. S.的马特,我,104),比斯平十或十二(Evang. S.马特),凯尔纳约六(CHRISTUS和塞纳河Apostel,弗赖堡,1908年);比照"Anzeiger kath. Geistlichk. Deutschl.", 15 Febr., 1909, p.“新闻报凯丝。Geistlichk。Deutschl”,15 Febr,1909年,第 32.32。This cruel deed of Herod is not mentioned by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, although he relates quite a number of atrocities committed by the king during the last years of his reign.这种残酷的希律王的契税是没有提到犹太历史学家弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫斯,尽管他与他在位的最后几年,由国王期间犯下的暴行的数量相当。 The number of these children was so small that this crime appeared insignificant amongst the other misdeeds of Herod.这些儿童的数量是如此之小,这种犯罪的出现之间的希律王的其他劣迹微不足道。Macrobius (Saturn., IV, xiv, de Augusto et jocis ejus) relates that when Augustus heard that amongst the boys of two years and under Herod's own son also had been massacred, he said: "It is better to be Herod's hog [ous], than his son [houios]," alluding to the Jewish law of not eating, and consequently not killing, swine. Macrobius(Saturn.,第四,第十四,DE奥古斯托等jocis ejus)有关时,奥古斯都听到,除男生的两年,并根据希律王的自己的儿子也已被屠杀,他说:“最好是希律王的猪[OUS ,比他的儿子[houios]“,暗指犹太人的法律,不思饮食,,因此不杀生,猪。The Middle Ages gave faith to this story; Abelard inserted it in his hymn for the feast of Holy Innocents:中世纪的信仰了这个故事;阿贝拉尔插在他的无辜的神圣节日的赞歌:

Ad mandatum regis datum generale广告mandatum寄存器基准兴业

nec ipsius infans tutus est a caede.NEC ipsius infans tutus EST一个caede。

Ad Augustum hoc delatum risum movit,广告Augustum特别delatum risum movit

et rex mitis de immiti digne lusit:等霸王龙mitis DE immiti迪涅lusit:

malum, inquit, est Herodis esse natum.malum,inquit,EST Herodis ESSE natum。

prodest magis talis regis esse porcum.prodest MAGIS达丽丝寄存器ESSE porcum。

(Dreves, "Petri Abaelardi Hymnarius Paracletensis", Paris, 1891, pp. 224, 274.) (Dreves“的Petri Abaelardi Hymnarius Paracletensis”,巴黎,1891年,第224页,274页。)

But this "infant" mentioned by Macrobius, is Antipater, the adult son of Herod, who, by command of the dying king was decapitated for having conspired against the life of his father.但这个“婴儿”Macrobius提到,安提帕特,成年的儿子希律,因密谋反对他父亲的生命奄奄一息的国王的命令是断头。

It is impossible to determine the day or the year of the death of the Holy Innocents, since the chronology of the birth of Christ and the subsequent Biblical events is most uncertain.这是不可能的,以确定一天或一年神圣的无辜者的死亡,因为基督诞生的年代学和随后的圣经事件是最不确定的。All we know is that the infants were slaughtered within two years following the apparition of the star to the Wise Men (Belser, in the Tübingen "Quartalschrift", 1890, p. 361).我们所知道的是,婴儿在两年内屠宰的明星幽灵智者(贝尔瑟,蒂宾根“Quartalschrift”,1890年,第361页)。 The Church venerates these children as martyrs (flores martyrum); they are the first buds of the Church killed by the frost of persecution; they died not only for Christ, but in his stead (St. Aug., "Sermo 10us de sanctis").教会这些孩子崇敬烈士(弗洛雷斯martyrum),他们是教会被迫害霜杀害的第一个芽,他们不仅为基督死,但代替他(圣8月,“Sermo为10us德桑克蒂斯” )。In connection with them the Apostle recalls the words of the Prophet Jeremias (xxxi, 15) speaking of the lamentation of Rachel.在与他们的使徒回顾雷切尔哀悼先知赫雷米亚斯(第31,15)的话来说。At Rama is the tomb of Rachel, representative of the ancestresses of Israel.拉玛是拉结墓,以色列的ancestresses代表。There the remnants of the nation were gathered to be led into captivity.有民族的残余聚集到圈养领导。As Rachel, after the fall of Jerusalem, from her tomb wept for the sons of Ephraim, so she now weeps again for the men children of Bethlehem.耶路撒冷的秋天后,由于雷切尔,从她的坟墓痛哭以法莲的儿子,所以她现在再次哭泣伯利恒的男性儿童。The ruin of her people, led away to Babylon, is only a type of the ruin which menaces her children now, when the Messias is to be murdered and is compelled to flee from the midst of His own nation to escape from the sword of the apparitor.废墟,她的人领走,以巴比伦,仅是一个恫吓她的孩子们现在废墟,messias是被谋杀,不得不从他自己的国家中逃离,逃离剑首席执行官。 The lamentation of Rachel after the fall of Jerusalem receives its eminent completion at the sight of the downfall of her people, ushered in by the slaughter of her children and the banishment of the Messias.雷切尔哀悼耶路撒冷的秋天后,接收其在看到她的人倒台杰出的完成,迎来了她的孩子的屠杀和驱逐的messias。

The Latin Church instituted the feast of the Holy Innocents at a date now unknown, not before the end of the fourth and not later than the end of the fifth century.拉丁美洲教会提起神圣的无辜者的盛宴,现在未知日期不得迟于第四和第五世纪结束前结束。It is, with the feasts of St. Stephen and St. John, first found in the Leonine Sacramentary, dating from about 485.它是,圣士提反湾和圣约翰的节日,在Leonine Sacramentary首次发现,约485年。To the Philocalian Calendar of 354 it is unknown.354 Philocalian日历,它是未知的。The Latins keep it on 28 December, the Greeks on 29 December, the Syrians and Chaldeans on 27 December.拉丁人保持在12月28日,希腊人在12月29日,叙利亚人和迦勒底月27日。These dates have nothing to do with the chronological order of the event; the feast is kept within the octave of Christmas because the Holy Innocents gave their life for the newborn Saviour.这些日期与事件的时间顺序无关;大餐是圣诞节的八度内保持了神圣的无辜者,因为他们对新生儿的救主生活。Stephen the first martyr (martyr by will, love, and blood), John, the Disciple of Love (martyr by will and love), and these first flowers of the Church (martyrs by blood alone) accompany the Holy Child Jesus entering this world on Christmas day.斯蒂芬第一烈士(烈士会,爱,和血),约翰,爱(烈士的意志和爱)的弟子,陪圣婴耶稣进入这个世界的教会(仅通过血液烈士),这些头花在圣诞节当天。 Only the Church of Rome applies the word Innocentes to these children; in other Latin countries they are called simply Infantes and the feast had the title "Allisio infantium" (Brev. Goth.), "Natale infantum", or "Necatio infantum".仅适用于罗马教会字Innocentes这些儿童在其他拉丁美洲国家,他们被称为简单Infantes盛宴“Allisio infantium”(Brev.哥特。),“婴儿利什曼Natale”,或“Necatio婴儿利什曼”的标题。The Armenians keep it on Monday after the Second Sunday after Pentecost (Armenian Menology, 11 May), because they believe the Holy Innocents were killed fifteen weeks after the birth of Christ.亚美尼亚保持周一五旬节之后的第二个星期日(亚美尼亚Menology,5月11日)后,因为他们相信神圣的无辜者被杀害后,基督诞生的15个星期。

In the Roman Breviary the feast was only a semi-double (in other breviaries a minor double) up to the time of Pius V, who, in his new Breviary (1568), raised it to a double of the second class with an octave (G. Schober, "Expl. rit. brev. rom.", 1891, p. 38).在罗马祈祷书的节日只有一个半双(在其他breviaries的一个小双)的碧岳五,时间的人,在他的新祈祷书(1568),提出了一个八度,第二类双(G.肖伯,“勘探。RIT。brev。ROM”,1891年,第38页)。 He also introduced the two hymns "Salvete flores martyrum" and "Audit tyrannus anxius", which are fragments of the Epiphany hymn of Prudentius.他还介绍了两个赞美诗“Salvete弗洛雷斯martyrum”和“审计法tyrannus anxius”,这是Prudentius顿悟歌的片段。Before Pius V the Church of Rome sang the Christmas hymns on the feast of the Holy Innocents.皮乌斯V之前,罗马教会唱圣诞赞美诗神圣的无辜者的盛宴。The proper preface of the Gelasian Sacramentary for this feast is still found in the Ambrosian Missal.这场盛宴Gelasian Sacramentary适当的序言中仍发现安布罗Missal。We possess a lengthy hymn in honour of the Holy Innocents from the pen of the Venerable Bede, "Hymnum canentes martyrum" (Dreves, "Analecta hymnica") and a sequence composed by Notker, "Laus tibi Christe", but most Churches at Mass used the "Clesa pueri concrepant melodia" (Kehrein, "Sequenzen", 1873, p. 348).从老贝代的笔圣无辜的荣誉,我们拥有一个漫长的赞歌,“Hymnum canentes martyrum”(Dreves,“Analecta hymnica”),“劳什提比Christe Notker组成一个序列,但大部分在地下教会使用“Clesa pueri concrepant melodia”(Kehrein,“Sequenzen”,1873年,第348页)。At Bethlehem the feast is a Holy Day of obligation.在伯利恒的盛宴,是一个神圣的义务日。The liturgical colour of the Roman Church is purple, not red, because these children were martyred at a time when they could not attain the beatific vision.罗马教会的礼仪颜色是紫色的,不红,因为这些孩子们一次殉道时,他们无法达到beatific视野的。But of compassion, as it were, towards the weeping mothers of Bethlehem, the Church omits at Mass both the Gloria and Alleluia; this custom, however, was unknown in the Churches of France and Germany.但同情,因为它是对伯利恒的哭泣的母亲,教会忽略质量Gloria和哈里路亚这一习俗,然而,在法国和德国的教会是未知的。 On the octave day, and also when the feast falls on a Sunday, the Roman Liturgy, prescribes the red colour, the Gloria, and the Alleluia.倍频日,过节时,适逢在星期日,罗马礼仪中,规定了红色,凯莱,并在哈里路亚。 In England the feast was called "Childermas".在英格兰的盛宴,被称为“Childermas”。

The Roman Station of 28 December is at St. Paul's Outside the Walls, because that church is believed to possess the bodies of several of the Holy Innocents. 12月28日的罗马站是在圣保罗的外壁上,因为该教堂被认为是拥有几个神圣的无辜者的尸体。A portion of these relics was transferred by Sixtus V to Santa Maria Maggiore (feast on 5 May; it is a semi-double).这些文物的一部分转移Sixtus V的Santa Maria Maggiore(盛宴5月,它是一个半双)。 The church of St. Justina at Padua, the cathedrals of Lisbon and Milan, and other churches also preserve bodies which they claim to be those of some of the Holy Innocents.在帕多瓦的圣教会梁魏懋,里斯本和米兰大教堂,和其他教会也保留他们声称是一些神圣的无辜者的机构。In many churches in England, Germany, and France on the feast of St. Nicholas (6 December) a boy-bishop was elected, who officiated on the feast of St. Nicholas and of the Holy Innocents.在英国,德国和法国的许多教堂圣尼古拉斯(12月6日),一个男孩主教当选,谁主持圣尼古拉节和圣无辜的盛宴。 He wore a mitre and other pontifical insignia, sang the collect, preached, and gave the blessing.他穿的尖角和其他罗马教皇的徽章,唱的收集,鼓吹,给予祝福。He sat in the bishop's chair whilst the choir-boys sang in the stalls of the canons.他坐在主教的椅子上,而唱诗班男孩唱的大炮的摊位。They directed the choir on these two days and had their solemn procession (Schmidt, "Thesaurus jur eccl.", III, 67 sqq.; Kirchenlex., IV, 1400; PL, CXLVII, 135).这两天他们指示合唱团,他们庄严的游行(施密特,“词库JUR传道书”,三,67 SQQ; Kirchenlex,四,1400;特等,CXLVII,135)。

Publication information Written by Frederick G. Holweck.由Frederick G. Holweck编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.转录由罗伯特B ·奥尔森。Offered to Almighty God for the protection of children in the womb and the conversion of people who promote, vote for, and carry out abortions.对儿童的保护,提供了全能的上帝在子宫内和转化推广,投票,并进行人工流产。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,第七卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

HELMLING IN Kirchenlex., XII, 369-71; NILLES, Kal.HELMLING Kirchenlex,第十二,369-71。尼耶,卡尔。man.男子。utriusque eccl. utriusque传道书。(Innsbruck, 1897); TONDINI, Calendrier de la nation armenienne (Rome, 1906); HAMPSON, Calendarium medii aevi (London, 1857); HOEYNCK, Augsburger Liturgie (Augsburg, 1889); ROCK, Church of Our Fathers (London, 1905).(因斯布鲁克,1897年); TONDINI Calendrier DE LA民族armenienne(罗马,1906年);汉普森Calendarium medii aevi(伦敦,1857年); HOEYNCK,Augsburger Liturgie(奥格斯堡,1889年);岩石,我们的父亲教会(伦敦,1905年)。



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