Holy Orders神圣的订单

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Holy Orders are the several different degrees of ordained ministries recognized by the Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican churches. For Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, holy orders rank among the seven sacraments. Anglicans regard ordination as a "sacramental rite," or as "commonly called a sacrament".圣职是东正教,罗马天主教,英国圣公会教堂公认的受戒部委的几个不同程度的东正教和罗马天主教,神圣的订单七个圣礼中的排名。圣公会作为一个方面的协调“圣礼仪式,”或“常用所谓的圣事“。

The outward and visible sign of the sacrament is the imposition of hands by a bishop, sometimes accompanied by the transmission of an object or objects associated with the order, such as a chalice and paten for a priest.圣餐向外和明显的标志是实行手中的主教,有时还伴随着与秩序,如一个牧师一个圣杯和金属制平碟相关的对象或对象的传输。 The sacramental inward grace conferred by ordination is the spiritual power and authority proper to the respective orders.协调赋予的圣事向内宽限期的精神力量和权威适当各自的订单。

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Origin原产

Like Jewish synagogues, early Christian congregations were organized under the leadership of elders (Greek presbyteroi; see Acts 14:23).犹太教会堂一样,早期基督教会众长老的领导下组织(希腊presbyteroi;见使徒14时23)。 In the New Testament, the terms elder and bishop are interchangeable (see Titus 1:5-9).在新约中,长老和主教的条款是可以互换的(见提多书1:5-9)。Although mentioned rarely, deacons are always referred to in association with bishops, whose assistants they were (see Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:8-13). The early church may have recognized only these two orders, as most Protestants argue. The emergence of a third order can perhaps be identified, however, in the figures of Timothy and Titus, recipients of the letters that bear their names, who had authority over bishops and deacons. The process of establishing a threefold ministry probably varied in different localities, but three distinct orders - bishops, presbyters, and deacons - were recognized by the 2nd century.虽然很少提及,总是提到执事协会与主教的助理,他们分别为(见腓1:1;提摩太前书3:8-13)。初期教会可能已经认识到只有这两个命令,大多数新教徒认为 。第三秩序的出现,也许可以被识别,然而,在提摩太和提多,领取承担自己的名字,曾权威主教和执事,字母数字,建立了三倍部的过程,可能在不同的地方不同被确认,但三个截然不同的订单-主教,长老和执事 - 2世纪。

Priesthood圣职

Individual Christian ministers were not called priests until the 3rd century, when the term was first applied to bishops because of their role as celebrants of the Eucharist.个别的基督教牧师,不叫,直到3世纪,当一词最早应用,因为他们的圣体礼人的作用主教神父。The term priest (Latin sacerdos) implies a sacrificial ministry, and the Eucharist was regarded as sacrificial because of its mystical relation to the sacrifice of Christ.长期牧师(拉美sacerdos)意味着牺牲部,作为牺牲,因为它的神秘与基督的牺牲和圣体圣事。When presbyters were authorized to celebrate the Eucharist in the 4th century, they too were called priests. Today, the Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican churches regard bishops, priests, and deacons as constituting holy orders. Because both bishops and presbyters function as priests, the Roman Catholic church, until the Second Vatican Council, considered priests (including bishops and presbyters), deacons, and subdeacons as the three orders.当长老授权,以庆祝在4世纪的圣体圣事,他们也被称为祭司今天,东正教,罗马天主教,英国圣公会教堂方面视为神圣的命令的主教,司铎和执事。由于作为神父的主教和长老功能,罗马天主教教会,直到梵蒂冈第二次会议,审议祭司(包括主教和长老),执事,并作为三个订单的修士。

Minor Orders小额订单

In addition to the three major orders, Orthodox churches also acknowledge minor orders, such as subdeacon and lector (reader), having subordinate roles in the liturgy.除了 ​​三大订单,也承认东正教教堂的小订单,如subdeacon集电极(读者),在礼仪中的从属地位。The Roman Catholic church abolished minor orders at the Second Vatican Council.罗马天主教会在第二次梵蒂冈会议取消小订单。

Character字符

Holy orders, like baptism and confirmation, are considered to have character; that is, the power conferred at ordination is regarded as permanent.喜欢的洗礼和确认,神圣的命令,被认为是有个性的,也就是说,在协调中所赋予的权力作为永久的。It may become latent if the ordained person fails to act as the church intends, but it is not lost.它可能成为潜在的受戒的人,如果失败,作为教会打算,但不会丢失。In this respect, holy orders are to be distinguished from functional ministries, such as dean or archdeacon, or honorary titles, such as patriarch or monsignor.在这方面,神圣的命令是从职能部门,如院长或副主教,或荣誉称号,如族长或主教,尊敬。Authority for such roles is conveyed nonsacramentally and is withdrawn when the holder leaves office.这种角色的管理局转达nonsacramentally持有人离任时被撤回。

Charles P. Price查尔斯P价格


Holy Orders圣职

Advanced Information先进的信息

Holy orders usually refers to the major orders of the ministry in an episcopal church.神圣的命令,通常是指在圣公会部的大订单。In the Anglican and the Orthodox churches these are the bishops, priests, and deacons.这些都是在英国圣公会和东正教教会的主教,司铎和执事。In the Roman Church, where the episcopate and the presbyterate are counted as one order, the three are bishop-priests, deacons, and subdeacons.在罗马教会的主教和presbyterate作为一个订单计算,三是主教,神父,执事,和修士。The minor orders are not usually included in the term "holy orders," for they really refer to laymen set apart for special tasks rather than to clergy in the proper sense of the term.轻微订单通常不包括在长期的“神圣的命令,”他们真的是指外行除了特殊任务,而不是真正意义上的神职人员的长期设置。Admission to holy orders is by ordination, the important ceremony being the laying on of hands.入场神圣的命令是由协调,最重要的仪式上铺设手。It is this which distinguishes ordination to the major orders from that to the minor orders.正是这种区别协调的大订单,从该未成年人的订单。In the former the minister of ordination is always the bishop (though certain exceptions appear to have occurred occasionally), but the minor orders may sometimes be conveyed by others.统筹部长在前者始终是主教(虽然偶尔有发生若干例外情况出现),但轻微的订单有时可能会被他人转达。

Unlike Roman Catholics and the Orthodox, Anglicans do not officially regard ordination as a sacrament (though some Anglicans do in point of fact hold this view).不像罗马天主教和东正教,英国圣公会没有正式方面作为一个圣餐协调(尽管一些圣公会事​​实上,持这种观点)。The official formularies restrict sacraments to ordinances instituted by Christ.官方的处方限制圣礼由基督提起条例。 Since there is no conclusive evidence that he enjoined ordination, it is not properly a sacrament.由于没有确凿的证据,他受命协调,这是不正确的圣礼。It would naturally be expected that a man cannot receive orders outside the church; but, especially in the West, it is usually held that a validly consecrated bishop conveys valid orders, even though he be in heresy or schism.它自然会预期,一个人不能接受教会以外的订单,但是,尤其是在西方,这是通常认为,一个有效奉献的主教传达有效的订单,即使他在异端邪说或分裂。 On this principle the Roman Church does not reordain those it receives from Orthodoxy.对这一原则的罗马教会不reordain它接收来自东正教。

L Morris大号莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Minor Orders小额订单

Advanced Information先进的信息

Minor Orders are those orders of ministry below the major orders in the Roman and Orthodox churches.小额订单下面部在罗马和东正教教堂的大订单,这些订单。In the former, subdeacons were usually reckoned as a minor order until they were officially classed as a major order in 1207.前,修士,通常作为次要的顺序计算,直到他们被正式作为一个大订单在1207级。The minor orders since then are acolytes, exorcists, readers or lectors, and doorkeepers or porters.自那时以来,小订单是徒弟,驱魔,读者或讲师,和门卫或挑夫。In the Eastern church acolytes, exorcists, and doorkeepers have been merged with the subdiaconate, but readers and cantors remain.在东部教会徒弟,驱魔,和门卫已与subdiaconate合并,但读者和领唱者。The functions of the acolyte were lighting the candles, carrying them in procession, preparing the water and wine for the Holy Communion, and generally assisting the higher orders.僧功能照明的蜡烛,进行游行,他们准备水和圣餐酒,和一般协助上级的命令。The exocist originally was concerned with casting out demons.exocist原本是关注与铸造出恶魔。Later he looked after the catechumens.后来,他看了看后的慕道者。The reader, or lector, as his name denotes, read from the Scriptures.读者,或讲师,他的名字表示,阅读圣经。The doorkeeper, or porter, originally had the duty of excluding unauthorized persons.看门人,搬运工,原本不包括未经授权的人的责任。

Nowadays practically nothing of the functions of any of the minor orders survives.如今几乎没有生存的未成年人的任何命令的功能。They are little more than a steppingstone to the higher orders and are all conferred at the one time.他们只不过是一个跳板,以较高的订单,都在同一时间赋予。They are conferred usually by the bishop (though others on occasion may do so).它们通常由主教(虽然有时可能这样做)赋予。 There is no laying on of hands, but some symbol of office is delivered, eg, a candlestick for the acolyte, a key for the doorkeeper.有没有铺设在手,但一些办公室的象征交付,例如,一个烛台为僧,看门的关键。

L Morris大号莫里斯
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Bishop主教

General Information一般资料

A bishop (from the Greek word meaning "overseer" or "superintendent") is a member of the highest ranking order of the Christian ministry.一位主教(来自希腊字,意为“监督员”或“监督”)的基督教事工的最高排名顺序的成员。The word was first applied to the elders, or presbyters, of local churches in the New Testament.这个词最初是长老,长老,地方教会在新约中。By the 2d century the office of bishop had become distinct from and superior to the office of elder.由2D世纪主教的办公室已成为有别于​​和优越的老办公室。


Holy Orders圣职

Catholic Information天主教信息

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place (St. Aug., "De civ. Dei," XIX, xiii).订单是平等的和不平等的事情适当处置,给每一个适当的地方(圣8月,“德CIV。棣,”十九,十三)。Order primarily means a relation.订单主要是指关系。It is used to designate that on which the relation is founded and thus generally means rank (St. Thom., "Suppl.", Q. xxxiv, a.2, ad 4um).它是用来指定关系成立,因此,一般是指排名(街托姆。“增刊”。问XXXIV,A.2,广告4um)。In this sense it was applied to clergy and laity (St. Jer., "In Isaiam", XIX, 18; St. Greg. the Great, "Moral.", XXXII, xx).从这个意义上说,它是适用于僧侣和俗人(圣耶,“在Isaiam”,19,18;圣格雷格大,“德育”,三十二,XX)。 The meaning was restricted later to the hierarchy as a whole or to the various ranks of the clergy.意思是限制后作为一个整体的层次结构或各职级的神职人员。Tertullian and some early writers had already used the word in that sense, but generally with a qualifying adjective (Tertullian, "De exhort. cast.", vii, ordo sacerdotalis, ordo ecclesiasticus; St. Greg. of Tours, "Vit. patr.", X, i, ordo clericorum).德尔图良和一些早期的作家已经在这个意义上说使用这个词,但一般与一个合格的形容词(良,“德叮咛演员。”七,sacerdotalis奥,奥ecclesiasticus;圣格雷格旅游,“维生素patr。 “,X,I,奥clericorum)。Order is used to signify not only the particular rank or general status of the clergy, but also the outward action by which they are raised to that status, and thus stands for ordination.订购用于表示不仅是特定的排名或神职人员的一般状态,而且还向外它们提出这种地位的行动,从而为协调立场。 It also indicates what differentiates laity from clergy or the various ranks of the clergy, and thus means spiritual power.这也表明从神职人员或各职级的神职人员的俗人有什么区别,从而意味着精神动力。The Sacrament of Order is the sacrament by which grace and spiritual power for the discharge of ecclesiastical offices are conferred.圣订购的恩典和精神动力,为履行教会办事处被授予圣餐。

Christ founded His Church as a supernatural society, the Kingdom of God.基督作为一种超自然的社会,上帝的王国建立他的教会。In this society there must be the power of ruling; and also the principles by which the members are to attain their supernatural end, viz., supernatural truth, which is held by faith, and supernatural grace by which man is formally elevated to the supernatural order.在这个社会中,必须有执政;的原则,成员达到超自然的目的,即,超自然的真理,这是由信仰举行,和超自然的恩典,这人是正式提升到超自然的。秩序。 Thus, besides the power of jurisdiction, the Church has the power of teaching (magisterium) and the power of conferring grace (power of order).因此,除了管辖权的力量,教会的师资力量(训导)和功率(赋予宽限期秩序的权力)。This power of order was committed by our Lord to His Apostles, who were to continue His work and to be His earthly representatives.这种秩序的力量是我们的上帝给他的门徒,继续他的工作和地上的代表承诺。The Apostles received their power from Christ: "as the Father hath sent me, I also send you" (John 20:21).从基督使徒收到他们的力量:“作为父亲差遣我,我也送你”(约翰福音20:21)。Christ possessed fullness of power in virtue of His priesthood--of His office as Redeemer and Mediator.基督拥有丰满凭借着他的圣职的权力 - 他的办公室的救赎和调解人。He merited the grace which freed man from the bondage of sin, which grace is applied to man mediately by the Sacrifice of the Eucharist and immediately by the sacraments.他值得摆脱罪的束缚,这恩典是适用于男子圣体的牺牲​​,并立即由圣礼mediately,人的恩典。He gave His Apostles the power to offer the Sacrifice (Luke 22:19), and dispense the sacraments (Matthew 28:18; John 20:22, 23); thus making them priests.他给他的门徒电源提供的牺牲(路加福音22:19),并免除圣礼(马太福音28:18;约翰20时22,23);从而使他们的祭司。 It is true that every Christian receives sanctifying grace which confers on him a priesthood.这是事实,每一个基督徒收到sanctifying恩典,他赋予了神职人员。Even as Israel under the Old dispensation was to God "a priestly kingdom" (Exodus 19:4-6), thus under the New, all Christians are "a kingly priesthood" (1 Peter 2:9); but now as then the special and sacramental priesthood strengthens and perfects the universal priesthood (cf. 2 Corinthians 3:3, 6; Romans 15:16).即使以色列根据旧的管理体制是上帝“祭司的国度”(出埃及记19:4-6),因此,根据新的,所有的基督徒是“王道圣职”(彼得前书2:9),但现在则特殊和圣事的司铎加强和完善普遍的祭司(参2哥林多前书3:3,6;罗马书15时16)。

SACRAMENT OF ORDER秩序的圣餐的

From Scripture we learn that the Apostles appointed others by an external rite (imposition of hands), conferring inward grace.从圣经中,我们学习使徒任命的其他外部仪式(征收双手),赋予外来的宽限期。The fact that grace is ascribed immediately to the external rite, shows that Christ must have thus ordained.宽限期是冲高立即向外部仪式,显示基督必须有这样的受戒。The fact that cheirontonein, cheirotonia, which meant electing by show of hands, had acquired the technical meaning of ordination by imposition of hands before the middle of the third century, shows that appointment to the various orders was made by that external rite. cheirontonein,cheirotonia,这意味着以举手方式进行选举,已收购的第三个世纪中叶前手征收协调的技术含义的事实,说明,各种命令的任命是由外部仪式。 We read of the deacons, how the Apostles "praying, imposed hands upon them" (Acts 6:6).我们读到的执事,使徒祷告,强加于他们的手“(徒6:6)。In II Tim., i, 6 St. Paul reminds Timothy that he was made a bishop by the imposition of St. Paul's hands (cf. 1 Timothy 4:4), and Timothy is exhorted to appoint presbyters by the same rite (1 Timothy 5:22; cf. Acts 13:3; 14:22).添,我在二,6圣保禄提醒提摩太实施圣保罗的手(参提摩太后书4:4),他是一个主教,提摩太是告诫任命长老,同样的仪式(1提摩太前书5:22;比照徒13:3; 14:22)。In Clem., "Hom.", III, lxxii, we read of the appointment of Zachæus as bishop by the imposition of Peter's hands.克莱姆。“坎”。三,LXXII,我们读到主教彼得的手施加的Zachæus任命。The word is used in its technical meaning by Clement of Alexandria ("Strom.", VI, xiii, cvi; cf. "Const. Apost.", II, viii, 36).其技术意义上使用这个词是由克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(,六,十三,CVI“神池”。比照“CONST Apost。。”,二,八,36)。"A priest lays on hands, but does not ordain" (cheirothetei ou cheirotonei) "Didasc. Syr.", IV; III, 10, 11, 20; Cornelius, "Ad Fabianum" in Euseb., "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xliii. “一个牧师奠定了双手,但不出家”(cheirothetei OU cheirotonei)“Didasc锡尔河。”四,三,10,11,20;。哥尼流,“广告Fabianum”Euseb,“传道书组织胺。”六,四十三。

Grace was attached to this external sign and conferred by it.格雷斯是连接到这个外部标志,并赋予它的。"I admonish thee, that thou stir up the grace of God which is in thee, through (dia) the imposition of my hands" (2 Timothy 1:6).“我告诫你,那你挑起你是上帝的恩典,通过(直径)的实施我的手”(提摩太后书1:6)。The context clearly shows that there is question here of a grace which enables Timothy to rightly discharge the office imposed upon him, for St. Paul continues "God hath not given us the spirit of fear: but of power, and of love, and of sobriety."上下文清楚地表明,有问题的宽限期,使提摩太要正确地履行强加于他的办公室,圣保禄继续这里“上帝没有给我们的恐惧的精神,但权力和爱情,和清醒。“ This grace is something permanent, as appears from the words "that thou stir up the grace which is in thee"; we reach the same conclusion from I Tim., iv, 14, where St. Paul says, "Neglect not the grace that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with (meta) imposition of hands of the priesthood."这恩典是永久的东西,如出现的话“那你挑起的恩典在你是”我们到达我添了同样的结论,四,14日在圣保罗说,“不能忽视的优雅。是在你身上,这是给你的预言(元)征收神职人员手中,。“ This text shows that when St. Paul ordained Timothy, the presbyters also laid their hands upon him, even as now the presbyters who assist at ordination lay their hands on the candidate.这个文本显示,圣保罗受戒蒂莫西,长老也奠定了他自己的手,即使现在的长老在协调协助奠定了他们的手候选人。 St. Paul here exhorts Timothy to teach and command, to be an example to all.圣保禄劝勉提摩太教导和指挥,是一个对所有的例子。 To neglect this would be to neglect the grace which is in him.忽视这一点,将忽视的是在他的恩典。This grace therefore enables him to teach and command, to discharge his office rightly.因此,这个恩宠,让他教和指挥,正确地履行他的办公室。The grace then is not a charismatic gift, but a gift of the Holy Spirit for the rightful discharge of official duties.宽限期,然后是不是一个有魅力的礼物,但执行公务的正当履行圣灵的恩赐。The Sacrament of Order has ever been recognized in the Church as such.圣订购曾经被公认为在这样的教会。This is attested by the belief in a special priesthood (cf. St. John Chrys., "De sacerdotio"; St. Greg. of Nyss., "Oratio in baptism. Christi"), which requires a special ordination.这是在一个特殊的神职人员的信仰(参见圣约翰Chrys,“德sacerdotio”;证明圣格雷格Nyss,“洗礼Oratio基督。”),这需要一个特殊的协调。 St. Augustine, speaking about baptism and order, says, "Each is a sacrament, and each is given by a certain consecration, . . .If both are sacraments, which no one doubts, how is the one not lost (by defection from the Church) and the other lost?" ,谈论的洗礼和秩序,圣奥古斯丁说,“中的每一个圣餐,是通过一定的奉献,。。如果这两个圣礼,没有人会怀疑,是怎样一个不会丢失叛逃(从教会)和其他失去了什么?“ (Contra. Epist. Parmen., ii, 28-30).(Contra. Epist。Parmen,II,28日至30日)。The Council of Trent says, "Whereas, by the testimony of Scripture, by Apostolic tradition, and by the unanimous consent of the Fathers, it is clear that grace is conferred by sacred ordination, which is performed by words and outward signs, no one ought to doubt that Order is truly and properly one of the Seven Sacraments of Holy Church" (Sess. XXIII, c. iii, can. 3).安理会的遄达说,“然而,圣经的见证,使徒传统,并一致同意的父亲,很显然,恩典是神圣的协调,这是由单词和向外的迹象执行,没有人赋予应该怀疑该命令是真正正确的七个圣礼圣教会“(Sess.二十三,C.第三类,可以3)之一。

NUMBER OF ORDERS订单数量

The Council of Trent (Sess. XXIII, can. 3) defined that, besides the priesthood, there are in the Church other orders, both major and minor.安理会的遄达(Sess.二十三,可以3)定义的,除了神职人员,在教会里其他的订单,主要和次要的。Though nothing has been defined with regard to the number of orders it is usually given as seven: priests, deacons, subdeacons, acolytes, exorcists, readers, and doorkeepers.虽然没有被定义方面的订单数量,它通常是在七:司铎,执事,修士,徒弟,驱魔,读者,和门卫。The priesthood is thus counted as including bishops; if the latter be numbered separately we have eight; and if we add first tonsure, which was at one time regarded as an order, we have nine.包括主教圣职,因此算作;如果是后者单独编号,我们有8;如果我们添加第一剃度,这是一次被视为一个订单,我们有九个。 We meet with different numberings in different Churches, and it would seem that mystical reasons influenced them to some extent (Martène, "De antiq. eccl. rit.", I, viii, l, 1; Denzinger, "Rit. orient.", II, 155).我们满足不同教会的numberings,这似乎神秘的原因,影响他们在一定程度上(Martène,,我,八,1升,“德antiq传道书RIT。”登青格,“东方丽特。”二,155)。 The "Statuta ecclesiæ antiqua" enumerate nine orders, adding psalmists and counting bishops and priests separately.“Statuta,该书antiqua”列举9个订单,加入psalmists和单独计数主教和司铎。Others enumerate eight orders, thus, eg the author of "De divin. offic.", 33, and St. Dunstan's and the Jumièges pontificals (Martène I, viii, 11), the latter not counting bishops, and adding cantor.其他列举的8个订单,因此,例如,作者“divin。offic。”33,和圣邓斯坦和Jumièges pontificals(Martène我,八,11),后者不算主教,并加入领唱。Innocent III, "De sacro alt. minister.", I, i, counts six orders, as do also the Irish canons, where acolytes were unknown.英诺森三世,“德骶ALT部长。”我,我,计数6个订单,因为这样做也是爱尔兰大炮,在追随者不明。Besides the psalmista or cantor, several other functionaries seem to have been recognized as holding orders, eg, fossarii (fossores) grave diggers, hermeneutoe (interpreters), custodes martyrum etc. Some consider them to have been real orders (Morin, "Comm. de sacris eccl. ordin.", III, Ex. 11, 7); but it is more probable that they were merely offices, generally committed to clerics (Benedict XIV, "De syn, dioc.", VIII, ix, 7, 8).除了psalmista或领唱者,其他几个工作人员似乎已被认可为手持订单,例如,fossarii(fossores)严重挖掘机,hermeneutoe(口译),禁军martyrum等一些人认为他们已经真正的订单(莫林,“通讯。 。ordin DE sacris传道书“,三,前11,7);但它更可能,他们只是办事处,致力于神职人员(本笃十四,”德SYN,dioc“,八,九,7,。 8)。In the East there is considerable variety of tradition regarding the number of orders.在东方,有相当不同的订单数量的传统。The Greek Church acknowledges five, bishops, priests, deacons, subdeacons, and readers.希腊教会承认五,主教,神父,执事,修士,和读者。The same number is found in St. John Damascene (Dial. contra manichæos, iii); in the ancient Greek Church acolytes, exorcists, and doorkeepers were probably considered only as offices (cf. Denzinger, "Rit. orient.", I, 116).发现相同的号码是在圣约翰大马士革(Dial.禁忌manichæos,III);“。丽特东方”在古希腊教会徒弟,驱魔,和门卫,大概只有办事处(参见登青格认为,我, 116页)。

In the Latin Church a distinction is made between major and minor orders.在拉丁教会之间是有区别的主要和次要的订单。In the East the subdiaconate is regarded as a minor order, and it includes three of the other minor orders (porter, exorcist, acolyte).在东subdiaconate视为未成年人为了,它包括三个其他轻微的订单(波特,驱魔,僧)。In the Latin Church the priesthood, diaconate, and subdiaconate are the major, or sacred, orders, so-called because they have immediate reference to what is consecrated (St. Thom., "Suppl.", Q. xxxvii, a. 3).在拉丁教会的神职人员,diaconate,subdiaconate是主要的,或神圣的,订单,所谓的,因为他们有即时参考什么是奉献(圣托姆。“增刊”。A. 3,问:XXXVII )。The hierarchical orders strictly so-called are of divine origin (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXIII, can. 6).所谓严格的分层订单都是神圣的起源(Conc. TRID,SESS。XXIII,可以6)。We have seen that our Lord instituted a ministry in the persons of His Apostles, who received fullness of authority and power.我们已经看到,我们的主在他的门徒,谁获得了丰满的权威和权力的人制定了一个部。One of the first exercises of this Apostolic power was the appointment of others to help and succeed them.这个使徒的力量练习之一是任命他人的帮助和成功。The Apostles did not confine their labors to any particular Church, but, following the Divine command to make disciples of all men, they were the missionaries of the first generation.使徒们并没有局限于自己的劳动对任何特定的教会,但神的命令,使所有的人的弟子,他们的第一代传教士。Others also are mentioned in Holy Scripture as exercising an itinerant ministry, such as those who are in a wider sense called Apostles (Romans 16:7), or prophets, teachers, and evangelists (Ephesians 4:11).其他人也都提到行使巡回部,如那些在一个更广泛的意义上被称为使徒(罗马书16:7),或先知,教师,传福音(以弗所书4:11),在圣经。 Side by side with this itinerant ministry provision is made for the ordinary ministrations by the appointment of local ministers, to whom the duties of the ministry passed entirely when the itinerant ministers disappeared (see DEACON).这个江湖部提供并排普通ministrations由当地的部长,其中部的职责时完全通过流动部长消失(见执事)的任命。

Besides deacons others were appointed to the ministry, who are called presbyteroi and episkopoi.除了执事人被任命为部,被称为presbyteroi和episkopoi。There is no record of their institution, but the names occur casually.没有记录他们的机构,但名称随便发生。Though some have explained the appointment of the seventy-two disciples in Luke 10, as the institution of the presbyterate, it is generally agreed that they had only a temporary appointment.虽然一些解释presbyterate机构,在路加福音10日任命七十二个弟子,人们普遍认为,他们只是一个临时任用。 We find presbyters in the Mother Church at Jerusalem, receiving the gifts of the brethren of Antioch.我们发现,在耶路撒冷的母亲教会的长老,接受安提阿的弟兄们的礼物。They appear in close connection with the Apostles, and the Apostles and presbyters sent forth the decree which freed the gentile converts from the burden of the Mosaic law (Acts 15:23).他们出现在与使徒的密切联系,并差遣的使徒和长老的法令,释放詹蒂莱转换负担镶嵌法(徒15:23)。In St. James (5:14-15) they appear as performing ritual actions, and from St. Peter we learn that they are shepherds of the flock (1 Peter 5:2).他们出现在圣雅各福群会(5:14-15)作为执行仪式的行动,并从圣彼得大教堂,我们学习他们的羊群的牧羊人(彼得前书5:2)。 The bishops hold a position of authority (Philippians 1; 1 Timothy 3:2; Titus 1:7) and have been appointed shepherds by the Holy Ghost (Acts 20:28).主教举行管理局(腓立比1;提摩太前书3:2;提多书1:7)的位置,并已委任由圣灵(徒20:28)的牧羊人。That the ministry of both was local appears from Acts 14:23, where we read that Paul and Barnabas appointed presbyters in the various Churches which they founded during their first missionary journey.这两个部是当地出现行为14时23分,我们看到,保罗和巴拿巴任命各教会的长老,他们在他们的第一个传教之旅创立。 It is shown also by the fact that they had to shepherd the flock, wherein they have been appointed, the presbyters have to shepherd the flock, that is amongst them (1 Peter 5:2).的事实,他们不得不牧羊人的羊群也显示,其中他们已任命,长老有牧羊人的羊群,其中的(彼前5:2)。Titus is left in Crete that he might appoint presbyters in every city (kata eolin, Tit., i, 5; cf. Chrys., "Ad Tit., homil.", II, i).提图斯是留在克里特岛,在每一个城市,他可能任命长老(卡塔eolin,山雀,我,5;。比照Chrys“。AD山雀,homil”,第二,我)。

We cannot argue from the difference of names to the difference of official position, because the names are to some extent interchangeable (Acts 20:17, 28; Titus 1:6-7).我们不能说,从官方立场的不同名称的差异,因为名字都在一定程度上可以互换(徒20:17,28;提多书1:6-7)。 The New Testament does not clearly show the distinction between presbyters and bishops, and we must examine its evidence in the light of later times.新约圣经并没有清楚地表明长老和主教之间的区别,并在稍后的时间,我们必须深入研究其证据。Toward the end of the second century there is a universal and unquestioned tradition, that bishops and their superior authority date from Apostolic times (see HIERARCHY OF THE EARLY CHURCH).朝的第二个世纪结束时,有一项普遍的,不容置疑的传统,主教和他们从使徒时代的上级机关的日期(见早期教会的等级)。 It throws much light on the New-Testament evidence and we find that what appears distinctly at the time of Ignatius can be traced through the pastoral epistles of St. Paul, to the very beginning of the history of the Mother Church at Jerusalem, where St. James, the brother of the Lord, appears to occupy the position of bishop (Acts 12:17; 15:13; 21:18; Galatians 2:9); Timothy and Titus possess full episcopal authority, and were ever thus recognized in tradition (cf. Titus 1:5; 1 Timothy 5:19 and 22).它将引发远光新约圣经的证据,我们发现明显的出现在伊格内修的时间可以通过追溯教牧书信的圣保罗,开始在耶路撒冷的母亲教会的历史,其中圣詹姆斯,“主的弟弟,似乎占据主教的地位(徒12:17; 15时13分,21点18分;加拉太书2:9);提摩太和提多拥有完整的主教的权力,并曾有从而确认传统(参提多书1:5;提摩太前书5:19和22日)。 No doubt there is much obscurity in the New Testament, but this is accounted for by many reasons.毫无疑问,在新约中的许多默默无闻,但是这是占的原因是多方面的。The monuments of tradition never give us the life of the Church in all its fullness, and we cannot expect this fullness, with regard to the internal organization of the Church existing in Apostolic times, from the cursory references in the occasional writings of the New Testament.传统古迹从来没有给我们教会在所有其丰满的生命,和我们不能指望这个丰满,内部组织在现有的使徒时代教会方面的粗略引用在新约中的偶然的著作。 The position of bishops would necessarily be much less prominent than in later times.主教的立场,将一定会在稍后的时间远远少于突出。The supreme authority of the Apostles, the great number of charismatically gifted persons, the fact that various Churches were ruled by Apostolic delegates who exercised episcopal authority under Apostolic direction, would prevent that special prominence.的使徒的至高无上的权威,大量charismatically天才的人,各教会主教的权力行使使徒方向的宗座代表统治的事实,将防止这种情况特别突出。 The union between bishops and presbyters was close, and the names remained interchangeable long after the distinction between presbyters and bishops was commonly recognized, eg, in Iren., "Adv. hæres.", IV, xxvi, 2.主教和长老之间的密切联盟,名称仍然可以互换的长老和主教之间的区别后不久被普遍认可,例如在伊伦。“进阶。hæres”,四,26,2。 Hence it would seem that already, in the New Testament, we find, obscurely no doubt, the same ministry which appeared so distinctly afterwards.因此,它似乎已经在新约中,我们发现,令人费解毫无疑问,该部出现明显的事后。

Which of the Orders are Sacramental?订单圣礼?

All agree that there is but one Sacrament of Order, ie, the totality of the power conferred by the sacrament is contained in the supreme order, whilst the others contain only part thereof (St. Thomas, "Supplem.", Q. xxxvii, a. i, ad 2um).大家都同意有一个订购圣礼,即圣餐所赋予的权力的总体是在最高法院为了所载,而其他包含部分(圣托马斯,“Supplem。”问XXXVII,答:我的广告2um)。 The sacramental character of the priesthood has never been denied by anyone who admitted the Sacrament of Order, and, though not explicitly defined, it follows immediately from the statements of the Council of Trent.圣职的神圣性从未拒绝任何人士坦言圣秩序,而且,虽然没有明确的定义,它立即从安理会的遄达声明。Thus (Sess. XXIII, can. 2), "If any one saith that besides the priesthood there are not in the Catholic Church other orders, both major and minor, by which as by certain steps, advance is made to the priesthood, let him be anathema."因此(Sess.二十三,可以2),“如果任何一仰,除了神职人员,天主教教会的其他命令,主要和次要的,其中的某些步骤,提前铎,让他被诅咒。“ In the fourth chapter of the same session, after declaring that the Sacrament of Order imprints a character "which can neither be effaced nor taken away; the holy synod with reason condemns the opinion of those who assert that priests of the New Testament have only a temporary power".在同届会议上宣布圣订购印字符“既不能抹去也不带走后,第四章之以理主教谴责那些主张新约的祭司认为只有一个临时用电“。 The priesthood is therefore a sacrament.因此,祭司是一个圣餐。

With regard to the episcopate the Council of Trent defines that bishops belong to the divinely instituted hierarchy, that they are superior to priests, and that they have the power of confirming and ordaining which is proper to them (Sess. XXIII, c. iv, can. 6, 7).关于主教理事会的遄达定义的主教属于神所设立的层次结构,即它们都优于祭司,和他们有权力的确认和祝圣仪式,这是正确的(Sess. XXIII角四, 6,7)。The superiority of bishops is abundantly attested in Tradition, and we have seen above that the distinction between priests and bishops is of Apostolic origin.主教的优越性是十分证实在传统,和我们上面看到的,神父和主教之间的区别是使徒的起源。Most of the older scholastics were of opinion that the episcopate is not a sacrament; this opinion finds able defenders even now (eg, Billot, "De sacramentis", II), though the majority of theologians hold it is certain that a bishop's ordination is a sacrament.大多数的旧院哲学是意见,主教是不是一个圣礼;这种意见认为能够捍卫者即使是现在(例如,Billot“德sacramentis”,二),虽然大多数的神学家举行主教的协调是一个圣礼。 With regard to the sacramental character of the other orders see DEACONS; MINOR ORDERS; SUBDEACONS.关于其他命令的神圣性,看到执事;小额订单;修士。

Matter and Form物质和表格

In the question of the matter and form of this sacrament we must distinguish between the three higher orders and the subdiaconate and minor orders.在这个圣餐的问题和形式问题,我们必须区分三个更高的订单和subdiaconate和次要订单。The Church having instituted the latter, also determines their matter and form.教会实行了后者,也决定了他们的问题和形式。With regard to the former, the received opinion maintains that the imposition of hands is the sole matter.对于前者,所收到的意见认为,强加的手是唯一的事情。This has been undoubtedly used from the beginning; to it, exclusively and directly, the conferring of grace is ascribed by St. Paul and many Fathers and councils.这无疑已被用于从一开始,专门和直接赋予的恩典是由圣保罗和许多神父和议会冲高。The Latin Church used it exclusively for nine or ten centuries, and the Greek Church to this day knows no other matter.拉丁教会用它专门为九,十世纪,这一天,希腊教会知道没有其他的事情。Many scholastic theologians have held that the tradition of the instruments was the sole matter even for the strictly hierarchical orders, but this position has long been universally abandoned.许多学术神学家们认为,传统的仪器的唯一的事,即使是严格分层​​的订单,但这个位置早已被普遍抛弃。Other scholastics held that both imposition of hands and the tradition of the instruments constitute the matter of the sacrament; this opinion still finds defenders.其他院学者认为,两种征收的手,和传统的仪器构成圣餐的问题,这个意见仍然认为维护者。Appeal is made to the Decree of Eugene IV to the Armenians, but the pope spoke "of the integrating and accessory matter and form, which he wished Armenians to add to the imposition of hands, long since in use amongst them, that they might thus conform to the usage of the Latin Church, and more firmly adhere to it, by uniformity of rites" (Benedict XIV, "De syn. dioc.", VIII, x, 8).到尤金四对亚美尼亚人的法令提出上诉,但教皇的发言:“长久以来的整合和配件的问题和形式,他希望亚美尼亚添加手中征收使用,其中包括,他们可能因此符合拉丁教会使用,并更加坚定地坚持均匀礼记“(本笃十四,”德SYN。dioc“,VIII,X,8)。 The real foundation of the latter opinion is the power of the Church with regard to the sacrament.后者的意见的现实基础,是教会的圣餐方面的力量。Christ, it is argued, instituted the Sacrament of Order by instituting that in the Church there should be an external rite, which would of its own nature signify and confer the priestly power and corresponding grace.基督,有人认为,实行由圣秩序,实行在教会应该有一个外部的仪式,这将意味着自身的性质,和赋予的祭司权力和相应的宽限期。 As Christ did not ordain His Apostles by imposition of hands, it would seem that He left to the Church the power of determining by which particular rite the power and grace should be conferred.正如基督没有注定他的门徒所征收的手,似乎他离开教会的特别仪式确定应被赋予的权力和恩典的权力。The Church's determination of the particular rite would be the fulfilling of a condition required in order that the Divine institution should take effect.教会的特别仪式的决心,将履行为了神圣的机构,应生效所需的条件。The Church determined the simple imposition of hands for the East and added, in the course of time, the tradition of the instruments for the West--changing its symbolical language according as circumstances of place or time required.教会决定东的手简单的征收,并补充说,随着时间的推移,,西方乐器的传统 - 改变其象征性的语言,为地方或所需时间的情况下根据的。The question of the form of the sacrament naturally depends on that of the matter.圣餐的形式问题,自然取决于问题的。If the tradition of the instruments be taken as the total or partial matter, the words which accompany it will be taken as the form.如果采取传统的仪器全部或部分的事情,这陪的话,将采取的形式。If the simple imposition of hands be considered the sole matter, the words which belong to it are the form.如果简单的手强加,被认为是唯一的事情,属于它的话的形式。The form which accompanies the imposition of hands contains the words "Accipe spiritum sanctum", which in the ordination of priests, however, are found with the second imposition of hands, towards the end of the Mass, but these words are not found in the old rituals nor in the Greek Euchology.形式,伴随着双手的征收包含“Accipe spiritum圣地”,对地下年底祭司协调,但是,与第二个实行举手发现,但这些话是不是在生活礼仪,也没有在希腊Euchology。Thus the form is not contained in these words, but in the longer prayers accompanying the former imposition of hands, substantially the same from the beginning.因此,形式是不包含在这些话,但在较长的陪同前手的实施,从一开始就大致相同的祈祷。All that we have said about the matter and form is speculative; in practice, whatever has been prescribed by the Church must be followed, and the Church in this, as in other sacraments, insists that anything omitted should be supplied.我们已经讨论此事,并形式说是投机性的,在实践中,无论已经由教会规定必须遵循,并在这个教堂,在其他圣礼,坚持认为应该提供什么省略。

Effect of the Sacrament圣事的影响

The first effect of the sacrament is an increase of sanctifying grace.圣餐的第一个作用是增加sanctifying恩典。With this, there is the sacramental grace which makes the recipient a fit and holy minister in the discharge of his office.有了这个,有一个合适的和神圣的部长,在他的办公室时,这使得收件人的圣事的恩典。As the duties of God's ministers are manifold and onerous, it is in perfect accord with the rulings of God's Providence to confer a special grace on His ministers.作为上帝的部长的职责是多方面的,繁重的,它是与上帝的普罗维登斯的裁决,赋予他的部长特殊的恩典完美的协议。 The dispensation of sacraments requires grace, and the rightful discharge of sacred offices presupposes a special degree of spiritual excellence.圣礼的豁免要求的恩典和神圣办事处的基本条件的合法排放的精神追求卓越的特殊。 The external sacramental sign or the power of the order can be received and may exist without this grace.圣礼的外部标志或该命令的权力,可以接收和可能存在没有此宽限期。Grace is required for the worthy, not the valid, exercise of the power, which is immediately and inseparably connected with the priestly character.格雷斯是当之无愧的,而不是有效行使权力,这是立即密不可分的祭司字符连接。 The principal effect of the sacrament is the character, a spiritual and indelible mark impressed upon the soul, by which the recipient is distinguished from others, designated as a minister of Christ, and deputed and empowered to perform certain offices of Divine worship (Summa, III, Q. lxiii, a. 2).圣餐的主要作用是品格,一种精神和不可磨灭的印记的灵魂留下深刻印象后,由收件人是从别人区别开来,作为一个基督部长指定的总监和授权执行神崇拜的某些办事处(大全,三,问:LXIII,A. 2)。The sacramental character of order distinguishes the ordained from the laity.秩序的神圣性的区别从俗人受戒。It gives the recipient in the diaconate, eg, the power to minister officially, in the priesthood, the power to offer the Sacrifice and dispense the sacraments, in the episcopate the power to ordain new priests and to confirm the faithful.它给收件人的diaconate,例如,电力部长正式的神职人员,电源提供的牺牲和免除圣礼,在权力的主教祝圣新司铎和确认的忠实。 The Council of Trent defined the existence of a character (Sess. VII, can. 9).安理会的遄达定义存在一个字符(Sess.第七,可以9)。Its existence is shown especially by the fact that ordination like baptism, if ever valid, can never be repeated.它的存在,尤其是像洗礼的协调,如果是有效的,决不能重复。Though there have been controversies with regard to the conditions of the validity of ordination, and different views were held at different times in reference to them, "it has always been admitted that a valid ordination cannot be repeated. Reordinations do not suppose the negation of the inamissible character of Order--they presuppose an anterior ordination which was null. There can be no doubt that mistakes were made regarding the nullity of the first ordination, but this error of fact leaves the doctrine of the initerability of ordination untouched" (Saltet, "Les Réordinations", 392).虽然有已被有关的协调的有效性的条件,和不同的看法是在不同时间举行他们的争论,始终承认,一个有效的协调可以不被重复。Reordinations做不能假设的否定订购inamissible字符 - 它们预先假定前协调是空的,不能有任何怀疑,曾有过失误的第一个协调的无效,但这个事实错误,使协调不变initerability的教条“(Saltet “莱斯Réordinations”,392)。

Minister部长

The ordinary minister of the sacrament is the bishop, who alone has this power in virtue of his ordination.普通部长圣餐是主教,谁就有这种权力凭借自己的协调。Holy Scripture attributed the power to the Apostles and their successors (Acts 6:6; 16:22; 1 Timothy 5:22; 2 Timothy 1:6; Titus 1:5), and the Fathers and councils ascribe the power to the bishop exclusively.圣经的权力归因使徒和他们的后继者(6时06分,16时22分行为;提摩太前书5时22;提摩太1时06分;多1:5),父亲和议会赋予权力的主教专。 Con.CON。Nic.NIC。I, can.我可以。4, Apost.4,Apost。Const.const的。VIII, 28 "A bishop lays on hands, ordains. . .a presbyter lays on hands, but does not ordain." 28八,“主教奠定动手,ordains。。一个长老动手规定,但不出家。”A council held at Alexandria (340) declared the orders conferred by Caluthus, a presbyter, null and void (Athanas., "Apol. contra Arianos", ii).在亚历山德里亚(340)举行的安理会宣布Caluthus赋予的订单,一个牧师,无效(Athanas.,“APOL。禁忌Arianos”,二)。 For the custom said to have existed in the Church of Alexandria see EGYPT.对于自说,在埃及亚历山大看到教会的存在。Nor can objection be raised from the fact that chorepiscopi are known to have ordained priests, as there can be no doubt that some chorepiscopi were in bishops' orders (Gillman, "Das Institut der Chorbischöfe im Orient," Munich, 1903; Hefele-Leclercq, "Conciles", II, 1197-1237).也不能反对,chorepiscopi已知有祝圣司铎,因为可以毫无疑问,一些chorepiscopi主教“订单(希利曼,”达斯研究所DER Chorbischöfe IM东方“,慕尼黑,1903年提出的;黑弗勒,勒克莱尔“Conciles”,第二,1197年至1237年)。No one but a bishop can give any orders now without a delegation from the pope, but a simple priest may be thus authorized to confer minor orders and the subdiaconate.可以给任何人,而是一个主教现在没有任何订单从教皇的一个代表团,但一个简单的牧师可能授予权,小订单的subdiaconate。 It is generally denied that priests can confer priests' orders, and history, certainly, records no instance of the exercise of such extraordinary ministry.一般否认牧师可以赋予祭司“订单,和,当然,历史记录没有行使这种非凡部的实例。The diaconate cannot be conferred by a simple priest, according to the majority of theologians. diaconate可以赋予一个简单的牧师,根据大多数的神学家。This is sometimes questioned, as Innocent VIII is said to have granted the privilege to Cistercian abbots (1489), but the genuineness of the concession is very doubtful.这是有时受到质疑,诺森八世说修道院方丈(1489)授予的特权,但特许权的真实性很值得怀疑。For lawful ordination the bishop must be a Catholic, in communion with the Holy See, free from censures, and must observe the laws prescribed for ordination.主教为合法的协调必须是一个天主教,共融与罗马教廷,从谴责,必须遵守法律规定的为协调。He cannot lawfully ordain any except his own subjects without authorization (see below).他不能擅自除了他自己的科目(见下文)的任何合法注定。

Subject主题

Every baptized male can validly receive ordination.每一个受洗的男性,可以有效地接收协调。Though in former times there were several semi-clerical ranks of women in the Church (see DEACONESSES), they were not admitted to orders properly so called and had no spiritual power.虽然前有几个半文书妇女在教会(见执事)的行列,他们不承认所谓正确的订单,并没有精神力量。The first requisite for lawful ordination is a Divine vocation; by which is understood the action of God, whereby He selects some to be His special ministers, endowing them with the spiritual, mental, moral, and physical qualities required for the fitting discharge of their order and inspiring them with a sincere desire to enter the ecclesiastical state for God's honor and their own sanctification.合法协调的第一个前提是一个神圣的职业,这是理解神的行动,让他选择了一些他的特别部长会议,赋予他们与他们的装修放电所需的精神,心理,道德,和身体素质秩序和启发他们的真诚愿望,进入神的荣耀和自己成圣教会的状态。 The reality of this Divine call is manifested in general by sanctity of life, right faith, knowledge corresponding to the proper exercise of the order to which one is raised, absence of physical defects, the age required by the canons (see IRREGULARITY).这神圣的呼叫的现实是神圣不可侵犯的生命,正确的信仰,其中之一是提出的秩序,没有身体上的缺陷,大炮所要求的年龄(见不规则)正确行使相应的知识表现一般。 Sometimes this call was manifested in an extraordinary manner (Acts 1:15; 13:2); in general, however, the "calling" was made according to the laws of the Church founded on the example of the Apostles.有时,这种调用是表现在平凡的方式(徒1:15; 13:2);然而,在一般情况下,“呼叫”是根据教会的法律成立的使徒的例子。Though clergy and laity had a voice in the election of the candidates, the ultimate and definite determination rested with the bishops.虽然僧侣和俗人了选举候选人的声音,最终的和明确的决心休息的主教。The election of the candidates by clergy and laity was in the nature of a testimony of fitness, the bishop had to personally ascertain the candidates' qualifications.候选人的选举由僧侣和俗人的健身证言的性质,主教亲自确定候选人的资格。A public inquiry was held regarding their faith and moral character and the electors were consulted.关于他们的信仰和思想品德的选民进行了磋商,举行公开调查。Only such as were personally known to the electing congregation, ie, members of the same Church, were chosen.只有这样,个人已知的选举众,即,同一个教会的成员,被选为。A specified age was required, and, though there was some diversity in different places, in general, for deacons the age was twenty-five or thirty, for priests thirty or thirty-five, for bishops thirty-five or forty or even fifty (Apost. Const., II, i).一个指定的年龄要求,而且,尽管有一些不同的地方的多样性,在一般情况下,为执事的年龄是25或祭司三十或三十五个主教三十,四十甚至五,30,( Apost。CONST,二,一)。Nor was physical age deemed sufficient, but there were prescribed specified periods of time, during which the ordained should remain in a particular degree.也被视为足够的生理年龄,但有规定指定的时间内,在此期间,祝应保持在一个特定的程度。The different degrees were considered not merely as steps preparatory to the priesthood, but as real church offices.不同程度的考虑,而不是仅仅作为步骤筹备铎,但作为真正的教堂办事处。In the beginning no such periods, called interstices, were appointed, though the tendency to orderly promotion is attested already in the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 3:3, 16).在一开始就没有这样的时期,所谓的空隙,被任命,有序推进的趋势虽然已经证明在教牧书信(提摩太前书3:3,16)。The first rules were apparently made in the fourth century.显然,在第四世纪的第一条。They seem to have been enforced by Siricius (385) and somewhat modified by Zosimus (418), who decreed that the office of reader or exorcist should last till the candidate was twenty, or for five years in case of those baptized as adults; four years were to be spent as acolyte or subdeacon, five years as deacon.他们似乎已经执行Siricius(385)有点Zosimus(418),谁下令,读者或驱魔办公室应持续到候选二十修改,或5年的情况下成人受洗的;四个年要花费为僧或subdeacon,作为主祭五年。 This was modified by Pope Gelasius (492), according to whom a layman who had been a monk might be ordained priest after one year, thus allowing three months to elapse between each ordination, and a layman who had not been a monk might be ordained priest after eighteen months.这是由罗马教皇格拉西(492)修改,根据其中一个门外汉,一个和尚一年后可能被祝圣的神父,从而使协调彼此之间相隔3个月内,一个谁没有一个和尚的外行人可能受戒牧师后18个月内。 At present the minor orders are generally conferred together on one day.目前的小订单一般在一天赋予一起。

The bishops, who are the ministers of the sacrament ex officio, must inquire about the birth, person, age, title, faith, and moral character of the candidate.主教,是当然圣餐部长的,必须询问有关出生,人,候选人的年龄,职称,信仰和品德。They must examine whether he is born of Catholic parents, and is spiritually, intellectually, morally, and physically fit for the exercise of the ministry.他们必须检查他是否是天主教的父母出生,并在精神上,智力,道德,和强健的体魄部行使。The age required by the canons is for subdeacons twenty-one, for deacons twenty-two, and for priests twenty-four years completed.大炮所需的年龄为二十一修士,二十二个执事,祭司二十四年完成。The pope may dispense from any irregularity and the bishops generally receive some power of dispensation also with regard to age, not usually for subdeacons and deacons, but for priests.教皇可免除任何违规和主教一般也收到一些关于年龄,而不是通常的修士和执事,但牧师的豁免权。Bishops can generally dispense for one year, whilst the pope gives dispensation for over a year; a dispensation for more than eighteen months is but very rarely granted.主教通常可以免除一年,虽然教皇省却了一年多;一个是超过18个月的豁免,但很少授予。For admission to minor orders, the testimony from the parish priest or from the master of the school where the candidate was educated--generally, therefore, the superior of the seminary--is required.入学轻微的订单,从本堂司铎或候选人是学校教育的主证言 - 一般,因此,优越的温床 - 是必需的。For major orders further inquiries must be made.对于大订单,必须进一步调查。The names of the candidate must be published in the place of his birth and of his domicile and the result of such inquiries are to be forwarded to the bishop.必须公布候选人的名字在他的出生和他的住所的地方,这类查询的结果都被转发到主教。No bishop may ordain those not belonging to his diocese by reason of birth, domicile, benefice, or familiaritas, without dimissorial letters from the candidate's bishop.没有主教祝圣那些不属于他的教区,因出生,住所,采邑,或familiaritas没有从候选人的主教dimissorial字母。

Testimonial letters are also required from all the bishops in whose dioceses the candidate has resided for over six months, after the age of seven.还需要从所有的主教在其候选人​​已居住超过6个月后,七岁,教区封证明函件。Transgression of this rule is punished by suspension latæ sententiæ against the ordaining bishop.这条规则的惩罚越轨是悬挂latæ sententiæ对祝圣主教。In recent years several decisions insist on the strict interpretation of these rules.近年来的几项决定坚持严格解释这些规则。Subdeacons and deacons should pass one full year in these orders and they may then proceed to receive the priesthood.修士和执事应通过这些订单满一年,然后,他们可能会继续接受圣职。This is laid down by the Council of Trent (Sess. XXIII, c.xi.), which did not prescribe the time for minor orders.这是奠定了安理会的遄达(Sess. XXIII,c.xi.),其中没有规定未成年订单的时间。The bishop generally has the power to dispense from these interstices, but it is absolutely forbidden, unless a special indult be obtained, to receive two major orders or the minor orders and the subdiaconate in one day.主教一般的权力,免除从这些空隙,但是这是绝对禁止的,除非获得一个特殊的indult,在一天之内收到两个大订单,小订单和subdiaconate的。

For the subdiaconate and the higher orders there is, moreover, required a title, ie, the right to receive maintenance from a determined source. subdiaconate和上级的命令,此外,需要一个标题,即收到从一个确定的源的维护权。Again, the candidate must observe the interstices, or times required to elapse between the reception of various orders; he must also have received confirmation and the lower orders preceding the one to which he is raised.同样,候选人必须遵守的空隙,或相隔接待各种订单所需的时间;,他还必须有得到确认和较低的订单前他提出。This last requirement does not affect the validity of the order conferred, as every order gives a distinct and independent power.这最后的要求,不影响赋予秩序的有效性,每一个订单,提供了一个独特和独立的电力。One exception is made by the majority of theologians and canonists, who are of opinion that episcopal consecration requires the previous reception of priest's orders for its validity.由神学家和圣教法典,认为主教奉献要求其有效性牧师的订单以前接待的多数是一个例外。Others, however, maintain that episcopal power includes full priestly power, which is thus conferred by episcopal consecration.然而,其他人,主教的权力,包括保持充分祭司的权力,这是从而赋予主教奉献。They appeal to history and bring forward cases of bishops who were consecrated without having previously received priest's orders, and though most of the cases are somewhat doubtful and can be explained on other grounds, it seems impossible to reject them all.他们呼吁对历史的奉献,而无需事先收到牧师的订单主教带来的个案,虽然大多数情况下是有些怀疑和其他理由可以解释,这似乎是不可能拒绝他们。 It is further to be remembered that scholastic theologians mostly required the previous reception of priest's orders for valid episcopal consecration, because they did not consider episcopacy an order, a view which is now generally abandoned.这是进一步要记住,学术神学家大多需要有效的主教祝圣为神父的订单以前接待,因为他们没有考虑主教的命令,这是现在普遍被遗弃的一个观点。

Obligations义务

For obligations attached to holy Orders see BREVIARY; CELIBACY OF THE CLERGY.对于连接,进入神圣的订单的义务,看到祈祷书;独身的神职人员。

Ceremonies of Ordination仪式中,协调

From the beginning the diaconate, priesthood, and episcopate were conferred with special rites and ceremonies.diaconate,牧师和主教团从一开始就被赋予了特殊的仪式和礼节。Though in the course of time there was considerable development and diversity in different parts of the Church, the imposition of hands and prayer were always and universally employed and date from Apostolic times (Acts 6:6; 13:3; 1 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6).虽然在时间的过程中有长足的发展,在教会的不同部位的多样性,实行双手和祈祷总是和普遍就业和日期从使徒时代(徒6:6; 13:3;提摩太前书4:14提摩太后书1:6)。In the early Roman Church these sacred orders were conferred amid a great concourse of clergy and people at a solemn station.在早期的罗马教会,这些被赋予神圣的订单中的僧侣和人民在庄严的站广场。The candidates, who had been previously presented to the people, were summoned by name at the beginning of the solemn Mass. They were placed in a conspicuous position, and anyone objecting to a candidate was called upon to state his objections without fear.传唤名候选人,先前已经呈现给人们,在庄严的马萨诸塞州的开始,他们被放置在显眼的位置,以及任何反对的候选人被要求状态,而不会担心他的反对。 Silence was regarded as approval.沉默被视为批准。Shortly before the Gospel, after the candidates were presented to the pope, the entire congregation was invited to prayer.不久之前的福音,候选人后,提交给教皇,整个众邀请祈祷。All prostrating, the litanies were recited, the pope then imposed his hands upon the head of each candidate and recited the Collect with a prayer of consecration corresponding to the order conferred.所有叩头,背诵的litanies,教皇然后强加给每个候选人的头他的手和背诵的收集为了赋予相应的奉献祈祷。 The Gallican Rite was somewhat more elaborate.该gallican成年礼是更详细一些。Besides the ceremonies used in the Roman Church, the people approving the candidates by acclamation, the hands of the deacon and the head and hands of priests and bishops were anointed with the sign of the Cross.除了在罗马教会使用的仪式,批准候选人以鼓掌方式的人,手中的主祭神父和主教的头部和手中受膏者与十字架的标志。After the seventh century the tradition of the instruments of office was added, alb and stole to the deacon, stole and planeta to the priest, ring and staff to the bishop.第七世纪以后增加了传统的办公室文书,ALB和偷,偷和planeta主教牧师,环和工作人员的执事。In the Eastern Church, after the presentation of the candidate to the congregation and their shout of approval, "He is worthy", the bishop imposed his hands upon the candidate and said the consecrating prayer.在东方教会,众和他们的批准喊候选人的介绍后,“他是值得的”,这位主教候选人强加于他的手说,供奉祈祷。

We now give a short description of the ordination rite for priests as found in the present Roman Pontifical.我们现在给司铎祝圣仪式的简短描述,发现在目前的罗马教皇。All the candidates should present themselves in the church with tonsure and in clerical dress, carrying the vestments of the order to which they are to be raised, and lighted candles.所有候选人目前在教会与剃度和文职装扮自己,背着它们提出的顺序,和点燃的蜡烛的法衣。They are all summoned by name, each candidate answering "Adsum".他们都是名,每名候选人回答“Adsum”召见。When a general ordination takes place the tonsure is given after the Introit or Kyrie, the minor orders after the Gloria, subdiaconate after the Collect, the diaconate after the Epistle, priesthood after Alleluia and Tract.当一般协调发生的剃度后Introit或垂怜,凯莱后的小订单,subdiaconate后收集,书信后diaconate后,哈里路亚和呼吸道祭司。 After the Tract of the Mass the archdeacon summons all who are to receive the priesthood.后道地下副主教传票所有接受圣职。The candidates, vested in amice, alb, girdle, stole, and maniple, with folded chasuble on left arm and a candle in their right hand, go forward and kneel around the bishop.候选人归属,在披肩,腰带,ALB,偷走了,maniple,折叠的左手和右手的蜡烛chasuble,向前走,跪各地的主教。 The latter inquires of the archdeacon, who is here the representative of the Church as it were, whether the candidates are worthy to be admitted to the priesthood.后者查询的副主教,谁是教会的代表在这里,因为它是,考生是否值得被录取的神职人员。The archdeacon answers in the affirmative and his testimony represents the testimony of fitness given in ancient times by the clergy and people.副主教的答案是肯定的,和他的证词代表在远古时代由神职人员和人民给予的健身证言。The bishop, then charging the congregation and insisting upon the reasons why "the Fathers decreed that the people also should be consulted", asks that, if anyone has anything to say to the prejudice of the candidates, he should come forward and state it.主教,再充电后为什么“颁布的父亲,人也应征询”,原因众和坚持问,如果任何人有什么要说的候选人的偏见,他应该挺身而出和状态。

The bishop then instructs and admonishes the candidates as to the duties of their new office.主教然后指示和候选人告诫他们的新办公室的职责。He kneels down in front of the altar; the ordinandi lay themselves prostrate on the carpet, and the Litany of the Saints is chanted or recited.他在祭坛前跪下,ordinandi奠定自己匍匐在地毯上,并高喊或背诵一长串的圣徒。On the conclusion of the Litany, all arise, the candidates come forward, and kneel in pairs before the bishop while he lays both hands on the head of each candidate in silence.在祷文结束,所有产生,候选人挺身而出,并跪在主教前对他奠定了双手,就在沉默中的每名候选人的头。The same is done by all priests who are present.同样是做所有在场的祭司。Whilst bishop and priests keep their right hands extended, the former alone recites a prayer, inviting all to pray to God for a blessing on the candidates.虽然主教和司铎保持右手延长,前者仅背诵祈祷,邀请所有候选人的祝福,祈求上帝。After this follows the Collect and then the bishop says the Preface, towards the end of which occurs the prayer, "Grant, we beseech Thee etc."在此之后如下收集,然后主教说接近尾声,其中发生的祈祷“前言”,“格兰特,我们求你等” The bishop then with appropriate formulæ crosses the stole over the breast of each one and vests him with the chasuble.主教适当的公式,然后穿过超过每一个乳房和背心,他与chasuble偷。This is arranged to hang down in front but is folded behind.这是安排挂在前面,但背后是折叠的。Though there is no mention of the stole in many of the most ancient Pontificals, there can be no doubt of its antiquity.虽然没有提及在许多最古老的Pontificals偷的,可以有毫无疑问它的古代。The vesting with the chasuble is also very ancient and found already in Mabillon "Ord. VIII and IX."归属与chasuble也是非常古老的,已经在马毕伦“条例第八和第九。”Afterwards the bishop recites a prayer calling down God's blessing on the newly-ordained.之后,主教背诵祈祷,呼吁上帝的祝福,新规定。He then intones the "Veni Creator", and whilst it is being sung by the choir he anoints the hands of each with the oil of catechumens.然后,他吟诵的“造物主Veni”,而它是由合唱团唱他anoints每个慕道石油手中。

In England the head also was anointed in ancient times.在英格兰的头也被膏抹在远古时代。The anointing of the hands, which in ancient times was done with chrism, or oil and chrism, was not used by the Roman Church, said Nicholas I (AD 864), though it is generally found in all ancient ordinals.手中,这在古代是chrism,或石油和chrism,不是由罗马教会的恩膏,尼古拉一世(公元864年)说,尽管它一般是在所有古老的序号发现。 It probably became a general practice in the ninth century and seems to have been derived from the British Church (Haddan and Stubbs, "Councils and Eccl. Documents", I, 141).它可能成为一个一般的做法,在第九世纪,似乎已经从英国教会(Haddan和拔,“议会和传道书。文件”,我,141)派生。 The bishop then hands to each the chalice, containing wine and water, with a paten and a host upon it.主教然后双手每个酒杯,包含酒和水,用金属制平碟后,它的主机。This rite, with its corresponding formula, which as Hugo of St. Victor says ("Sacr.", III, xii), signifies the power which has already been received, is not found in the oldest rituals and probably dates back not earlier than the ninth or tenth century.这个仪式,其相应的计算公式,作为圣维克多雨果说(“SACR”,三,十二),表示已经接收功率,是不是发现的最古老的仪式,大概要追溯到不早于第九,第十世纪。 When the bishop has finished the Offertory of the Mass, he seats himself before the middle of the altar and each of those ordained make an offering to him of a lighted candle.当主教已完成了地下Offertory的,他自己座位前的祭坛和每个受戒让他提供一个点燃的蜡烛的中间。The newly-ordained priests then repeat the Mass with him, all saying the words of consecration simultaneously.新祝圣的神父,然后重复他的质量,同时奉献的话都说。Before the Communion the bishop gives the kiss of peace to one of the newly-ordained.前共融的主教给和平之吻的新规定之一。 After the Communion the priests again approach the bishop and say the Apostle's Creed.后共融的祭司再次接近的主教和说使徒的信条。The bishop laying his hands upon each says: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained."奠定他的手后,每个主教说:“收到你们圣灵,你应当原谅的罪孽,他们被赦免他们;您应保留其罪孽,他们保留的。” This imposition of hands was introduced in the thirteenth century.在十三世纪,这是强加的手。The chasuble is then folded, the newly-ordained make a promise of obedience and having received the kiss of peace, return to their place. chasuble然后折叠,新规定做出承诺服从和收到的和平之吻,回到自己的位置。

Time and Place时间和地点

During the first centuries ordination took place whenever demanded by the needs of the Church.在第一世纪的协调发生时,教会的需要,要求。The Roman pontiffs generally ordained in December (Amalarius, "De offic.", II, i).罗马教宗一般在12月(Amalarius,“德offic”,二,一)受戒。Pope Gelasius (494) decreed that the ordination of priests and deacons should be held at fixed times and days, viz., on the fasts of the fourth, seventh, and tenth months, also on the fasts of the beginning and midweek (Passion Sunday) of Lent and on (holy) Saturday about sunset (Epist. ad ep. Luc., xi).教皇格拉西(494)颁布的,应在固定的时间和天举行协调司铎和执事,即,第四,第七和第十个月的斋戒,也开始和周中(周日激情斋戒)四旬期和(神圣)星期六约日落(Epist.广告EP。吕克。十一)。 This but confirmed what Leo the Great laid down, for he seems to speak of ordination on Ember Saturdays as an Apostolic tradition (Serm. 2, de jejun. Pentec.) The ordination may take place either after sunset on the Saturday or early on Sunday morning.这可是证实了狮子座的大放下,他似乎使徒传统(DE jejun。Pentec。Serm. 2)协调后,可能需要在星期六日落的地方,早在上周日的发言协调灰烬星期六早晨。The ordination to major orders took place before the Gospel.福音前发生了大订单的协调。

Minor orders might be given at any day or hour.小规模的订单可能在任何一天或一小时。They were generally given after holy communion.他们普遍圣餐后。At present minor orders may be given on Sundays and days of obligation (suppressed included) in the morning.目前,轻微的订单可能会在星期日和在早晨天的义务(抑制包括)。For the sacred orders, a privilege to ordain on other days than those appointed by the canons, provided the ordination takes place on Sunday or day of obligation (suppressed days included), is very commonly given.注定比其他日子的大炮任命的一种特权,为神圣的订单,提供协调需要在星期日或义务(包括抑制天)的地方,是非常普遍的。 Though it was always the rule that ordinations should take place in public, in time of persecution they were sometimes held in private buildings.虽然它是永远的规则,祝应在公共场所,在时间的迫害,他们有时在私人楼宇举行。The place of ordinations is the church.祝圣的地方是教堂。Minor orders may be conferred in any place, but it is understood that they are given in the church.小额订单,可在任何地方赋予,但据了解,他们是在教堂。The Pontifical directs that ordinations to sacred orders must be held publicly in the cathedral church in presence of the cathedral chapter, or if they be held in some other place, the clergy should be present and the principle church, as far as possible, must be made use of (cf. Conc. Trid., Sess. XXIII, c. vii).罗马教皇的指示,神圣的订单祝必须公开举行在大教堂大教堂章节存在,或如果他们在其他一些地方举行,神职人员应现在和教会的原则,尽可能,必须利用了(参见浓。TRID,SESS。XXIII,C.第七)。 (See SUBDEACON, DEACONS, HIERARCHY, MINOR ORDERS, ALIMENTATION).(见SUBDEACON,执事,层次结构,小额订单,营养吸收)。

Publication information Written by Hubert Ahaus.休伯特阿豪斯编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Robert B. Olson.转录由罗伯特B ·奥尔森。Offered to Almighty God for the priests and brothers of the Legionaries of Christ and all the men ordained into the Priesthood of Our Lord Jesus Christ.提供给全能的上帝,基督军团和所有男子到我们的主耶稣基督的圣职受戒的祭司和兄弟。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The subject of ORDER is treated in its various aspects in the general works on Dogmatic Theology (Church and Sacraments).定购标题被视为教条式的神学(教会和圣礼)的一般工程的各个方面。 BILLOT; PESCH, De Sacr., pars II (Freiburg, 1909); TANQUEREY; HURTER; WILHELM AND SCANNELL, A Manual of Catholic Theology, II (London, 1908), 494-509; EINIG; TEPL; TOURNELY; SASSE; PALMIERI, De Romano Pontifice; PETAVIUS, De Ecclesia; HIBRARCH in Dogm., III; DE AUGUSTINIS, HALTZCLAU in Wirceburgenses.BILLOT;佩施,德SACR,标准杆II(弗赖堡,1909年); TANQUEREY; HURTER;威廉和斯坎内尔,天主教神学,二(伦敦,1908年),494-509手册; EINIG; TEPL; TOURNELY;萨瑟;帕尔米耶普罗迪Pontifice; PETAVIUS德,德Ecclesia的; HIBRARCH Dogm,第三; DE AUGUSTINIS,Wirceburgenses HALTZCLAU。In Moral Theology and Canon Law, LEHMKUHL; NOLDIN, De Sacr.在道德神学和教会法,LEHMKUHL; NOLDIN,德SACR。(Innsbruck, 1906); AERTNYS; GENICOT; BALLERINI-PALMIERI; LAURENTIUS; DEVOTI; CRAISSON; LOMBARDI; EINIG in Kirchenlex., sv Ordo; FUNK in KRAUS, Real-Encyklopädie, sv Ordo; HATCH in Dictionary of Christian antiquities, sv Orders, Holy.(因斯布鲁克,1906年); AERTNYS;热尼科;巴莱里尼-帕尔米耶; LAURENTIUS; DEVOTI; CRAISSON;隆巴迪Kirchenlex EINIG,SV奥。克劳斯,实时Encyklopädie,SV奥FUNK;在字典中的基督教古物,SV订单舱盖,神圣。Special: HALLIER, De Sacris Electionibus et Ordinationibus (Paris, 1636), and in MIGNE, Theol.特别:HALLIER,Sacris Electionibus等Ordinationibus(巴黎,1636年),并在米涅,Theol。Cursus, XXIV; MORIN, Comment. Cursus,第二十四条,桑色素,评论。historico-dogmaticus de sacris ecclesioe ordinationibus (Paris, 1655); MARTENE, De Antiquis Ecclesioe Ritibus (Venice, 1733); BENEDICT XIV, De Synod.历史 - dogmaticus sacris ecclesioe ordinationibus(巴黎,1655年); MARTENE,Antiquis Ecclesioe Ritibus(威尼斯,1733年);本笃十四,德主教。Diocoesana (Louvain, 1763); WITASSE, De Sacramento Ordinis (Paris, 1717); DENZINGER, Ritus Orientalium (Würzburg, 1863); GASPARRI, Tractatus Canonicus de Sacra Ordinatione (Paris, 1894); BRUDERS, Die Verfassung der Kirche (Mainz, 1904), 365; WORDSWORTH, The Ministry of Grace (London, 1901); IDEM, Ordination Problems (London, 1909); WHITHAM, Holy Orders in Oxford Library of Practical Theology (London, 1903); MOBERLEY, Ministerial Priesthood (London, 1897); SANDAY, Conception of Priesthood (London, 1898); IDEM, Priesthood and Sacrifice, a Report (London, 1900); HARNACK, tr. Diocoesana(鲁汶,1763); WITASSE,萨克拉门托Ordinis德(巴黎,1717年);登青格,Ritus Orientalium(维尔茨堡,1863年);加斯帕里,逻辑哲学论Canonicus萨克拉Ordinatione(巴黎,1894年); BRUDERS,模具Verfassung DER Kirche(美因茨, 1904年),365;华兹华斯,雍容部(伦敦,1901年);同上,协调问题(伦敦,1909年);惠瑟姆,神圣的订单实用神学(伦敦,1903年)在牛津大学图书馆; MOBERLEY,部长级铎(伦敦, 1897),桑迪,圣职的构想(伦敦,1898年),同上,圣职和牺牲,一个报告“(伦敦,1900年);哈纳克,TR。OWEN, Sources of the Apostolic Canons (London, 1895); SEMERIA, Dogma, Gerarchia e Culto (Rome, 1902); DUCHESNE, Christian Worship (London, 1903); SALTET, Les Réordinations (Paris, 1907); MERTENS, Hierarchie in de eerste seuwen des Christendoms (Amsterdam, 1908); GORE, Orders and Unity (London, 1909).欧文,使徒的大炮(伦敦,1895年); SEMERIA,教条,Gerarchia发送Culto(罗马,1902年); DUCHESNE,基督教崇拜(伦敦,1903年); SALTET,莱斯Réordinations(巴黎,1907年); MERTENS,Hierarchie在eerste seuwen Christendoms(阿姆斯特丹,1908年);戈尔,订单和统一(伦敦,1909年)。For St. Jerome's opinions see SANDERS, Etudes sur St. Jérome (Brussels, 1903), and the bibliography on Hierarchy, ibid., pp. 335-44).圣杰罗姆的意见,看到桑德斯,练习曲河畔圣杰罗姆(布鲁塞尔,1903年),和上层次的书目,同上,第335-44页)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Major Orders大订单
Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Convent 修道院
Friars 方济各会士
Ministry 财政部

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