Iconoclasm圣像破坏

General Information一般资料

Iconoclasm (Greek eikon,"image"; klaein,"to break"), any movement against the religious use of images, especially the one that disturbed the Byzantine Empire in the 8th and 9th centuries.破除迷信(希腊圣像,“形象”; klaein,“突破”),对宗教图像,特别是在第8和第9世纪拜占庭帝国的不安使用的任何行动。In 726 and 730 Emperor Leo III, the Isaurian, promulgated a decree forbidding the veneration of images.在726和730,Isaurian,皇帝利奥三世颁布了一项法令,禁止崇拜图像。This decision was condemned by the pope, but the iconoclastic doctrine was rigorously enforced at Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul) by Leo and even more by his son and successor Constantine V, who had the worship of images condemned as idolatry at the church council held in the suburban palace of Hieria in 754.这一决定是由教皇的谴责,但特立独行的学说是由Leo于君士坦丁堡(现今Ýstanbul)严格执行,甚至由他的儿子和继承人康斯坦丁V时,曾在教会理事会谴责偶像崇拜的图像崇拜举行754 Hieria在郊区的宫殿。The accession of Empress Irene brought with it a change in policy, and the iconoclasts were condemned in turn at the second Council of Nicaea, in 787.皇后艾琳加入带来了一个政策的变化,并反过来谴责在第二届理事会的尼西亚在787的反传统。A second period of iconoclasm was inaugurated under imperial auspices in the first half of the 9th century; it ended with the final condemnation of iconoclasm at the Council of Orthodoxy, held in 843 under the patronage of Empress Theodora II.一反传统的第二个时期是在上半年的第九世纪帝国主持下开幕;它与皇后西奥多拉II的赞助下,最终破除迷信谴责在安理会的正统在843举行结束。

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The most serious argument against iconoclasm formulated by the Syrian theologian and Father of the Church John of Damascus was that it denied one of the fundamental tenets of the Christian faith, the doctrine of the incarnation.叙利亚神学家和教会约翰大马士革之父制定的反对圣像破坏最严重的说法是,它否认基督教信仰的基本原则之一,学说的化身。 According to the defenders of images, Christ's human birth had made possible his representations, which in some sense shared in the divinity of their prototype.根据图像的捍卫者,基督的人的诞生才使他的陈述,这在一定意义上分享了他们的原型神威。The rejection of these images, therefore, automatically carried a repudiation of their cause.这些图像的排斥反应,因此,自动进行抛弃自己的事业。

In addition to its theological aspects, the iconoclastic movement seriously affected Byzantine art.除了它的神学方面,反传统的运动,严重影响了拜占庭艺术。Furthermore, the movement weakened the position of the empire by fomenting internal quarrels and splitting with the papacy, which began to abandon its Byzantine allegiance and seek alliance with the Franks.此外,运动与教皇,开始放弃其拜占庭式的效忠,并寻求与直率联盟挑起内部纷争和分裂的帝国地位削弱。Despite its victory in the theological sphere, the Eastern church was not successful in its challenge of imperial authority, even with John of Damascus's assertion that the emperor had no right to interfere in matters of faith.尽管东部教会在神学领域的胜利,是不是成功地在其帝国权威的挑战,甚至与约翰大马士革的说法,皇帝在信仰方面无权干涉。 Both the introduction of iconoclasm and its condemnation at the councils of 787 and 843 were ultimately the result of imperial rather than ecclesiastical decisions, because the councils met only on imperial orders.引进破除迷信和其在787和843两个市政局的谴责,最终被帝国,而不是教会的决定的结果,因为在议会会见帝国订单。 Consequently, the authority of the emperor in both the spiritual and the secular spheres, and his control of the church, emerged from the controversy perceptibly strengthened.因此,皇帝在精神和世俗的领域,以及他对教会的控制,的权威出现事倍功半加强了争议。


Iconoclasm破除迷信

Catholic Information天主教信息

Iconoclasm (Eikonoklasmos, "Image-breaking") is the name of the heresy that in the eighth and ninth centuries disturbed the peace of the Eastern Church, caused the last of the many breaches with Rome that prepared the way for the schism of Photius, and was echoed on a smaller scale in the Frankish kingdom in the West.破除迷信(Eikonoklasm​​os,“形象打破”)是异端的名称,第八届和第九届世纪在东方教会的和平不安,造成了许多违反与罗马准备Photius分裂的​​方式,并呼应对规模较小,在法兰克王国在西方。 The story in the East is divided into two separate persecutions of the Catholics, at the end of each of which stands the figure of an image-worshipping Empress (Irene and Theodora).在东方的故事划分成两个独立的迫害的天主教徒,在每个月底,代表的数字图像崇拜慈禧(艾琳和西奥多拉)。

I. THE FIRST ICONOCLAST PERSECUTION一,第一孤星叛逆者迫害

The origin of the movement against the worship (for the use of this word see IMAGES, VENERATION OF) of images has been much discussed.反对崇拜运动的起源(使用这个词看到图像,崇拜)的图像一直备受讨论。It has been represented as an effect of Moslem influence.它已代表作为穆斯林的影响效果。To Moslems, any kind of picture, statue, or representation of the human form is an abominable idol.为穆斯林,任何一种图片,雕像,或代表的人形是一个令人憎恶的偶像。It is true that, in a sense, the Khalifa at Damascus began the whole disturbance, and that the Iconoclast emperors were warmly applauded and encouraged in their campaign by their rivals at Damascus.它是真实的,在某种意义上说,哈利法在大马士革开始整个的干扰,和热烈的掌声和鼓励他们的竞选,他们的对手在大马士革的孤星叛逆者皇帝。 On the other hand it is not likely that the chief cause of the emperor's zeal against pictures was the example of his bitter enemy, the head of the rival religion.在另一方面,它是不太可能的,皇帝的热情,对图片的行政事业是他的死敌,头部的对手宗教的例子。A more probable origin will be found in the opposition to pictures that had existed for some time among Christians.反对基督教徒之间的一段时间存在的照片,会发现一个更可能的起源。There seems to have been a dislike of holy pictures, a suspicion that their use was, or might become, idolatrous among certain Christians for many centuries before the Iconoclast persecution began.似乎已经不喜欢的圣像,怀疑其使用,或有可能成为许多世纪以来,在某些基督徒崇拜偶像的孤星叛逆者迫害开始之前。The Paulicians, as part of their heresy held that all matter (especially the human body) is bad, that all external religious forms, sacraments, rites, especially material pictures and relics, should be abolished. Paulicians,作为他们的异端邪说的所有问题(特别是人体)是坏的,应该取消,所有外部的宗教形式,圣礼,礼仪,特别是材料的图片和文物,举行的一部分。 To honour the Cross was especially reprehensible, since Christ had not really been crucified.为了纪念在十字架特别是应受谴责的,因为基督没有真正被钉在十字架上。Since the seventh century these heretics had been allowed to have occasional great influence at Constantinople intermittently with suffering very cruel persecution (see PAULICIANS).第七世纪以来这些异端已获准在君士坦丁堡遭受非常残酷迫害(见PAULICIANS)的间歇偶尔有很大的影响。 But some Catholics, too shared their dislike of pictures and relics.但一些天主教徒,也分享了他们不喜欢的图片和文物。In the beginning of the eighth century several bishops, Constantine of Nacolia in Phrygia, Theodosius of Ephesus, Thomas of Claudiopolis, and others are mentioned as having these views.在第八世纪开始,康斯坦丁Nacolia在弗里吉亚,以弗所狄奥多西,Claudiopolis托马斯,和其他几位主教提到了这些意见。 A Nestorian bishop, Xenaeas of Hierapolis, was a conspicuous forerunner of the Iconoclasts (Hardouin IV, 306).一个景教主教,Xenaeas的希拉波利斯,是一个突出的反传统的先行者(Hardouin IV,306)。It was when this party got the ear of the Emperor Leo III (the Isaurian, 716-41) that the persecution began.它是当这个党的耳朵皇帝利奥三世(Isaurian,716-41),迫害开始了。

The first act in the story is a similar persecution in the domain of the Khalifa at Damascus.在故事的第一幕是在类似的哈利法在大马士革域迫害。Yezid I (680-683) and his successors, especially Yezid II (720-24), thinking, like good Moslems, that all pictures are idols, tried to prevent their use among even their Christian subjects. Yezid我(680-683)和他的继任者,尤其是Yezid II(720-24),思想,良好的穆斯林一样,所有图片都是偶像,试图阻止他们甚至他们的基督教科目之间的使用。But this Moslem persecution, in itself only one of many such intermittent annoyances to the Christians of Syria, is unimportant except as the forerunner of the troubles in the empire.但这个穆斯林迫害,本身只是许多这样的间歇性烦恼叙利亚的基督徒之一,是不重要的,除非在帝国的烦恼的先行者。Leo the Isaurian was a valiant soldier with an autocratic temper.Isaurian利奥是一个英勇的战士与一个专制的脾气。Any movement that excited his sympathy was sure to be enforced sternly and cruelly.任何运动,兴奋的他的同情,是肯定要实施严厉和残酷。He had already cruelly persecuted the Jews and Paulicians.他已经残酷迫害犹太人和Paulicians。He was also suspected of leanings towards Islam.他还涉嫌对伊斯兰教的倾向。The Khalifa Omar II (717-20) tried to convert him, without success except as far as persuading him that pictures are idols.哈里发奥马尔II(717-20)试图转换他没有成功,除了说服他,到目前为止,图片是偶像。The Christian enemies of images, notably Constantine of Nacolia, then easily gained his ear.图像,特别是Nacolia君士坦丁基督教的敌人,然后轻松地获得了他的耳朵。The emperor came to the conclusion that images were the chief hindrance to the conversion of Jews and Moslems, the cause of superstition, weakness, and division in his empire, and opposed to the First Commandment.皇帝得出的结论,图像的行政障碍,犹太人和穆斯林的转换,迷信的原因,弱点,并在他的帝国分工,并反对第一条诫命。 The campaign against images as part of a general reformation of the Church and State.作为一般的教会和国家改革的一部分对图像的运动。Leo III's idea was to purify the Church, centralize it as much as possible under the Patriarch of Constantinople, and thereby strengthen and centralize the State of the empire.利奥三世的想法是净化教堂,尽可能集中下君士坦丁堡宗主教,从而加强和集中帝国。There was also a strong rationalistic tendency among there Iconoclast emperors, a reaction against the forms of Byzantine piety that became more pronounced each century.也有强烈的理性主义倾向有孤星叛逆者皇帝之间,对拜占庭式的虔诚的形式,每个世纪更加明显反应。This rationalism helps to explain their hatred of monks.这种理性主义有助于解释他们的僧侣的仇恨。Once persuaded, Leo began to enforce his idea ruthlessly.一旦劝说下,利奥开始无情地执行他的想法。Constantine of Nacolia came to the capital in the early part of his reign; at the same time John of Synnada wrote to the patriarch Germanus I (715-30), warning him that Constantine had made a disturbance among the other bishops of the province by preaching against the use of holy pictures. Nacolia康斯坦丁来到首都,在他的王朝的早期的一部分,同时Synnada约翰写信给族长Germanus我(715-30),警告他,康斯坦丁了全省其他主教之间的扰动说教对圣像的使用。 Germanus, the first of the heroes of the image-worshippers (his letters in Hardouin, IV 239-62), then wrote a defence of the practice of the Church addressed to another Iconoclast, Thomas of Claudiopolis (lc 245-62). Germanus,图像崇拜者(在Hardouin,四239-62他的信件)的英雄,然后写一个捍卫教会的做法给另一个孤星叛逆者,托马斯Claudiopolis(LC 245-62)。But Constantine and Thomas had the emperor on their side.但是,君士坦丁和托马斯就在自己身边的皇帝。 In 726 Leo III published an edict declaring images to be idols, forbidden by Exodus, xx, 4, 5, and commanding all such images in churches to be destroyed.利奥三世在726发表的一项法令,宣布图像偶像,禁止出埃及记“,XX,4,5,指挥所有这些图像在被摧毁的教堂。 At once the soldiers began to carry out his orders, whereby disturbances were provoked throughout the empire.一旦士兵开始进行他的命令,即整个帝国挑起动乱。There was a famous picture of Christ, called Christos antiphonetes, over the gate of the palace at Constantinople.有一个著名的基督图片,所谓克里斯托antiphonetes在君士坦丁堡宫殿的大门。The destruction of this picture provoked a serious riot among the people.这张照片的破坏,激起了人民之间的严重骚乱。 Germanus, the patriarch, protested against the edict and appealed to the pope (729). Germanus,族长,抗议该法令,并呼吁教宗(729)。But the emperor deposed him as a traitor (730) and had Anastasius (730-54), formerly syncellus of the patriarchal Court, and a willing instrument of the Government, appointed in his place.但是,皇帝被废黜,他作为一个汉奸(730)和有阿纳斯塔西(730-54),以前的宗法法院syncellus,以及政府愿意仪器,在他的地方任命。 The most steadfast opponents of the Iconoclasts throughout this story were the monks.整个这个故事的最坚定的反传统的对手是僧侣。It is true that there were some who took the side of the emperor but as a body Eastern monasticism was steadfastly loyal to the old custom of the Church.这是事实,也有一些皇帝的一面,但作为一个机构的东方修道,是坚定不移地忠于教会的旧习俗。Leo therefore joined with his Iconoclasm a fierce persecution of monasteries and eventually tried to suppress monasticism altogether.狮子座,因此加入与他的反传统的寺院激烈迫害,并最终试图完全压制修道。

The pope at that time was Gregory II (713-31).当时的教皇格雷戈里二(713-31)。Even before he had received the appeal of Germanus a letter came from the emperor commanding him to accept the edict, destroy images at Rome, and summon a general council to forbid their use.即使之前,他已收到了一封信,从皇帝命令他接受诏书Germanus上诉,摧毁罗马的图像,并传召总理事会禁止其使用​​。 Gregory answered, in 727, by a long defence of the pictures.格雷戈里回答,在727,一个长期防御的图片。He explains the difference between them and idols, with some surprise that Leo does not already understand it.他解释说他们和偶像之间的差异,有些惊讶利奥已经不理解。He describes the lawful use of, and reverence paid to, pictures by Christians.他介绍了合法的使用和崇敬支付,由基督徒图片。 He blames the emperor's interference in ecclesiastical matters and his persecution of image-worshippers.他指责皇帝的干扰,在教会的事项和他的形象,信徒的迫害。A council is not wanted; all Leo has to do is to stop disturbing the peace of the Church.一局是不是想利奥做的是停止扰乱教会的和平。As for Leo's threat that he will come to Rome, break the statue of St. Peter (apparently the famous bronze statue in St. Peter's), and take the pope prisoner, Gregory answers it by pointing out that he can easily escape into the Campagna, and reminding the emperor how futile and now abhorrent to all Christians was Constans's persecution of Martin I. He also says that all people in the West detest the emperor's action and will never consent to destroy their images at his command (Greg. II, "Ep. I ad Leonem").至于狮子座的威胁,他将前来罗马,打破圣彼得(显然是著名的圣彼得铜像)的雕像,并采取教宗囚犯,格雷戈里回答指出,他可以很容易地逃进了平原,并提醒皇帝如何徒劳的,现在可恶的所有基督徒CONSTANS的马丁一迫害他还表示,在西讨厌皇帝的行动和所有的人决不会同意,以破坏自己的形象,在他的命令(Greg.二“ EP我的广告Leonem“)。The emperor answered, continuing his argument by saying that no general council had yet said a word in favour of images that he himself is emperor and priest (basileus kai lereus) in one and therefore has the right to make decrees about such matters.皇帝的回答,继续他的说法,说没有总理事会还没有说有利于图像的字,他本人是在一个皇帝和牧师(巴赛勒斯启lereus),因此有权利,使有关法令等事宜。 Gregory writes back regretting that Leo does not yet see the error of his ways.格雷戈里写回遗憾的是,狮子座还没有看到他的方式错误。 As for the former general Councils, they did not pretend to discuss every point of the faith; it was unnecessary in those days to defend what no one attacked.至于前者一般政局,他们没有假装讨论的每一个点的信念,它是在那些日子里不必要的保卫无人攻击。The title Emperor and Priest had been conceded as a compliment to some sovereigns because of their zeal in defending the very faith that Leo now attacked.标题皇帝和牧师已承认作为一个恭维,因为他们在保卫利奥现在攻击非常信仰的热情一些主权。The pope declares himself determined to withstand the emperor's tyranny at any cost, though he has no defence but to pray that Christ will send a demon to torture the emperor's body that his soul be saved, according to 1 Corinthians 5:5.教皇宣称自己决心承受皇帝的暴政,不惜任何代价,虽然他没有防守,而是要祈求基督将发送一个恶魔酷刑皇帝的身体,他的灵魂被保存,根据1哥林多前书5时05分。

Meanwhile the persecution raged in the East.同时,在东迫害肆虐。Monasteries were destroyed, monks put to death, tortured, or banished.寺院被毁,和尚把死刑,拷打,或流放。The Iconoclasts began to apply their principle to relics also, to break open shrines and burn the bodies of saints buried in churches.反传统开始申请自己的原则,文物也,破开的神龛和焚烧的尸体埋在教堂圣人。Some of them rejected all intercession of saints.其中有些拒绝所有的圣徒代祷。These and other points (destruction of relics and rejection of prayers to saints), though not necessarily involved in the original programme are from this time generally (not quite always) added to Iconoclasm.这些和其他的点(文物的破坏和拒绝圣徒的祈祷),虽然不一定是在原方案涉及从这个时候一般(不总是)添加到破除迷信。 Meanwhile, St. John Damascene (d. 754).同时,圣约翰大马士革(卒于754)。safe from the emperor's anger under the rule of the Khalifa was writing at the monastery of St Saba his famous apologies "against those who destroy the holy icons".安全哈里发的统治下,皇帝的愤怒写在修道院的圣他著名的道歉,“对那些破坏神圣的图标”萨巴。In the West, at Rome, Ravenna, and Naples, the people rose against the emperor's law.在西方,在罗马,拉文纳,那不勒斯,人民奋起反对皇帝的法律。This anti-imperial movement is one of the factors of the breach between Italy and the old empire, the independence of the papacy, and the beginning of the Papal States.这反帝国主义的运动是违反意大利和旧帝国,罗马教廷的独立性,和教皇国的开始之间的因素之一。Gregory II already refused to send taxes to Constantinople and himself appointed the imperial dux in the Ducatos Romanus.格雷戈里二已经拒绝送税到君士坦丁堡,并亲自任命帝国Ducatos罗马努斯DUX。From this time the pope becomes practically sovereign of the Ducatus.从这个时候,教皇成为实际上Ducatus主权。The emperor's anger against image-worshippers was strengthened by a revolt that broke out about this time in Hellas, ostensibly in favour of the icons.起义爆发大约在这个时候,表面上是在赞成的图标,在希腊加强了皇帝的愤怒是对形象的崇拜者。A certain Cosmas was set up as emperor by the rebels.某科斯马斯设置为皇帝的叛乱分子。The insurrection was soon crushed (727), and Cosmas was beheaded.起义很快就被粉碎(727),并科斯马斯被砍头。After this a new and severer edict against images was published (730), and the fury of the persecution was redoubled.对图像的新的和更严​​厉的诏书在此之后出版(730),是加倍的迫害的愤怒。

Pope Gregory II died in 731.教皇格列高利二世死于731。He was succeeded at once by Gregory III, who carried on the defence of holy images in exactly the spirit of his predecessor.他成功了一次由格雷戈里三,正是他的前任的精神进行辩护圣像。The new pope sent a priest, George, with letters against Iconoclasm to Constantinople.新教皇派出一名牧师,乔治,对破除迷信,以君士坦丁堡信。But George when he arrived, was afraid to present them, and came back without having accomplished his mission.但乔治当他到达时,恐怕目前他们并没有完成他的使命。He was sent a second time on the same errand, but was arrested and imprisoned in Sicily by the imperial governor.他被送往一个在同一差事第二时间,但被逮捕并囚禁在西西里岛的帝国总督。The emperor now proceeded with his policy of enlarging and strengthening his own patriarchate at Constantinople.皇帝现在进行与他的政策,扩大和加强自己的他在君士坦丁堡东正教会。He conceived the idea of making it as great as all the empire over which he still actually ruled.他设想的,只要他仍然实际统治的帝国的伟大的想法。Isauria, Leo's birthplace, was taken from Antioch by an imperial edict and added to the Byzantine patriarchate, increasing it by the Metropolis, Seleucia, and about twenty other sees. Isauria,狮子座的发源地,是从安提阿圣旨添加到拜占庭东正教会,越来越多的大都市,塞琉西亚,约二十个其他看到。Leo further pretended to withdraw Illyricum from the Roman patriarchate and to add it to that of Constantinople, and confiscated all the property of the Roman See on which he could lay his hands, in Sicily and Southern Italy.利奥进一步假装撤回伊利里库姆从罗马东正教会,将它添加到君士坦丁堡,并没收了罗马的所有财产,他可以躺在他的手,在西西里岛和意大利南部。 This naturally increased the enmity between Eastern and Western Christendom.这自然增加了东方和西方基督教之间的敌意。In 731 Gregory III held a synod of ninety-three bishops at St. Peter's in which all persons who broke, defiled, or took images of Christ, of His Mother, the Apostles or other saints were declared excommunicate.在731格雷戈里三举行的九十三名主教主教在圣彼得在被宣布为所有的人打破,污损,或基督的图像,他的母亲,使徒或其他圣人破门。 Another legate, Constantine, was sent with a copy of the decree and of its application to the emperor, but was again arrested and imprisoned in Sicily.另一位特使,君士坦丁,被送到了该法令的副本和其应用到皇帝,但再次被逮捕和监禁在西西里岛。Leo then sent a fleet to Italy to punish the pope; but it was wrecked and dispersed by a storm.利奥然后派出一个车队意大利惩罚教皇,但它被击毁和风暴分散。Meanwhile every kind of calamity afflicted the empire; earthquakes, pestilence, and famine devastated the provinces while the Moslems continued their victorious career and conquered further territory.同时每一种灾难折磨帝国;地震,瘟疫和饥荒蹂躏的省份,而穆斯林继续胜利的职业生涯,并征服了进一步的领土。

Leo III died in June, 741, in the midst of these troubles, without having changed policy.利奥三世死于741,6月,在这些烦恼中,而无需改变政策。His work was carried on by his son Constantine V (Copronymus, 741-775), who became an even greater persecutor of image-worshippers than had been his father.他的工作是由他的儿子康斯坦丁V(Copronymus,741-775),成为图像的崇拜者,甚至比曾经是他父亲的更大的迫害。 As soon as Leo III was dead, Artabasdus (who had married Leo's daughter) seized the opportunity and took advantage of the unpopularity of the Iconoclast Government to raise a rebellion.只要利奥三世死了,Artabasdus(利奥的女儿结婚)抓住机遇,孤星叛逆者政府不受欢迎的优势,提高了叛乱。 Declaring himself the protector of the holy icons he took possession of the capital, had himself crowned emperor by the pliant patriarch Anastasius and immediately restored the images.宣布自己神圣的图标,他占有资本的保护者,自己加冕皇帝绕指柔族长阿纳斯塔西,并立即恢复图像。Anastasius, who had been intruded in the place of Germanus as the Iconoclast candidate, now veered round in the usual Byzantine way, helped the restoration of the images and excommunicated Constantine V as a heretic and denier of Christ.阿纳斯塔西,已侵入Germanus的孤星叛逆者候选人,现在转向轮在平时的拜占庭式的方式,帮助恢复的图像,并逐出教会作为基督邪教和细旦康斯坦丁V。 But Constantine marched on the city, took it, blinded Artabasdus and began a furious revenge on all rebels and image-worshippers (743).但康斯坦丁城市游行,接过来,蒙蔽Artabasdus,并开始对所有反政府武装和形象的崇拜者(743)愤怒的报复。 His treatment of Anastasius is a typical example of the way these later emperors behaved towards the patriarchs through whom they tried to govern the Church.他阿纳斯塔西治疗是一种典型的方式,通过他们试图统治教会,这些后来的帝王朝元老表现的例子。Anastasius was flogged in public, blinded, driven shamefully through the streets, made to return to his Iconoclasm and finally reinstated as patriarch.阿纳斯塔西在公开场合被鞭打,双盲,带动可耻通过街道,返回到他的破除迷信,终于恢复为族长。The wretched man lived on till 754.可怜的人住在754至。The pictures restored by Artabasdus were again removed.Artabasdus恢复这些照片再次删除。In 754 Constantine, taking up his father's original idea summoned a great synod at Constantinople that was to count as the Seventh General Council.在754君士坦丁,他的父亲原来的想法召见算作第七次总理事会在君士坦丁堡的主教。About 340 bishops attended; as the See of Constantinople was vacant by the death of Anastasius, Theodosius of Ephesus and Pastilias of Perge presided.约340主教出席了会议;君士坦丁堡看到的是空置阿纳斯塔修斯,狄奥多西以弗所和主持Perge Pastilias死亡。Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem refused to send legates, since it was clear that the bishops were summoned merely to carry out the emperor's commands.罗马,亚历山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷,拒绝派遣使节,因为它是明确的主教被传唤只是开展皇帝的命令。The event showed that the patriarchs had judged rightly.事件表明,始祖了正确判断。The bishops at the synod servilely agreed to all Constantine's demands.在主教会议的主教们卑躬屈膝同意所有君士坦丁的要求。 They decreed that images of Christ are either Monophysite or Nestorian, for -- since it is impossible to represent His Divinity -- they either confound or divorce His two natures.他们下令基督的图像,是基督一性或景教, - 因为它是不可能的,代表他的神 - 他们混淆或离婚,他的两个性质。 The only lawful representation of Christ is the Holy Eucharist.基督的唯一合法代表,是圣体圣事。Images of saints are equally to be abhorred; it is blasphemous to represent by dead wood or stone those who live with God.圣人的图像也同样是令人憎恶的,它是亵渎代表由枯木或石材那些生活与神。All images are an invention of the pagans -- are in fact idols, as shown by Ex xx, 4, 5; Deut.所有图片都是异教徒的发明 - ,其实偶像前XX,4,5所示;申。v, 8; John iv, 24; Rom. V,8,约翰四世,24人; ROM。i, 23-25.我23日至25日。Certain texts of the Fathers are also quoted in support of Iconoclasm.某些文本的父亲也引述破除迷信的支持。Image-worshippers are idolaters, adorers of wood and stone; the Emperors Leo and Constantine are lights of the Orthodox faith, our saviours from idolatry.图像信徒拜偶像,木,石adorers利奥和君士坦丁皇帝都信仰东正教的灯,从偶像崇拜我们的救星。A special curse is pronounced against three chief defenders of images -- Germanus, the former Patriarch of Constantinople, John Damascene, and a monk, George of Cyprus.一个特殊的诅咒是对三个行政维护者的图像 - Germanus,君士坦丁堡,约翰大马士革前祖师,和一个和尚,塞浦路斯乔治明显。The synod declares that "the Trinity has destroyed these three" ("Acts of the Iconoclast Synod of 754" in Mansi XIII, 205 sq.).主教会议声明说:“三位一体已经摧毁了这三个”(“孤星叛逆者主教会议的754的行为”在曼西十三,205平方米)。

The bishops finally elected a successor to the vacant see of Constantinople, Constantine, bishop of Sylaeum (Constantine II, 754-66), who was of course a creature of the Government, prepared to carry on its campaign.最后,主教当选君士坦丁堡,君士坦丁主教Sylaeum(康斯坦丁二世,754-66),当然是政府的一项生物,准备进行其运动的空置看到的继任者。 The decrees were published in the Forum on 27 August, 754.该法令被刊登在8月27日,754论坛。After this the destruction of pictures went on with renewed zeal.在此之后的图片破坏了新的热情。All the bishops of the empire were required to sign the Acts of the synod and to swear to do away with icons in their dioceses.所有帝国的主教被要求签署的主教的行为,并发誓在他们的教区的图标。The Paulicians were now treated well, while image-worshippers and monks were fiercely persecuted.现在的Paulicians良好的待遇,而图像信徒和僧侣被狠狠的迫害。Instead of paintings of saints the churches were decorated with pictures of flowers, fruit, and birds, so that the people said that they looked like grocery stores and bird shops.而不是画的教堂被装饰花卉,水果,和鸟类的照片,这样的人说,他们看着像杂货店和鸟店圣人。A monk Peter was scourged to death on 7 June, 761; the Abbot of Monagria, John, who refused to trample on an icon, was tied up in a sack and thrown into the sea on 7 June, 761; in 767 Andrew, a Cretan monk, was flogged and lacerated till he died (see the Acta SS., 8 Oct.; Roman Martyrology for 17 Oct.); in November of the same year a great number of monks were tortured to death in various ways (Martyrology, 28 Nov.). 6月7日,761和尚彼得被鞭打致死; Monagria,约翰,谁拒绝践踏一个图标,方丈是绑在一个麻袋,扔进大海,6月7日,761; 767安德鲁,克里特和尚,被鞭打和撕裂,直到他死了(看到的文献SS,8 10月,罗马10月17 Martyrology);大量的僧侣在同年11月以各种方式被折磨死亡(Martyrology 11月28日)。The emperor tried to abolish monasticism (as the centre of the defence of images); monasteries were turned into barracks; the monastic habit was forbidden; the patriarch Constantine II was made to swear in the ambo of his church that although formerly a monk, he had now joined the secular clergy.皇帝企图废除修道(如国防图像中心);寺庙变成军营,寺院的习惯被禁止;族长康斯坦丁二世是在他的教会安博发誓,虽然以前是和尚,他现在已经加入了世俗的神职人员。 Relics were dug up and thrown into the sea, the invocation of saints forbidden.文物被挖出来,扔进大海,调用禁止圣人。In 766 the emperor fell foul of his patriarch, had him scourged and beheaded and replaced by Nicetas I (766-80), who was, naturally also an obedient servant of the Iconoclast Government.在766皇帝落到他的族长犯规,他鞭打和被斩首和Nicetas我(766-80),自然也是一个听话的仆人孤星叛逆者政府取代。 Meanwhile the countries which the emperors power did not reach kept the old custom and broke communion with the Iconoclast Patriarch of Constantinople and his bishops.同时,帝力没有达到保留旧习俗和国家爆发与孤星叛逆者族长君士坦丁堡和他的主教的共融。Cosmas of Alexandria, Theodore of Antioch, and Theodore of Jerusalem were all defenders of the holy icons in communion with Rome.西奥多的安提阿,亚历山大,耶路撒冷和西奥多科斯马斯与罗马共融的神圣的图标所有维护者。 The Emperor Constantine V died in 775.对君士坦丁V死亡775。His son Leo IV (775-80), although he did not repeal the Iconoclast law was much milder in enforcing them.他的儿子利奥四(775-80),虽然他没有废除“孤星叛逆者法律在执行温和得多。He allowed the exiled monks to come back, tolerated at least the intercession of saints and tried to reconcile all parties.他允许流亡僧侣回来,至少容忍的圣徒代祷,并试图调和各方。When the patriarch Nicetas I died in 780 he was succeeded by Paul IV (780-84), a Cypriote monk who carried on a half-hearted Iconoclast policy only through fear of the Government.当族长Nicetas我在780死了,他的继任者保罗四(780-84),Cypriote和尚,进行一个半心半意的孤星叛逆者政策,只有通过政府的恐惧。 But Leo IV's wife Irene was a steadfast image-worshipper.但利奥四的妻子艾琳是一个坚定的形象的崇拜者。Even during her husband's life she concealed ho}y icons in her rooms.即使在她丈夫的生命,她隐瞒了何} Ÿ图标,在她的房间。 At the end of his reign Leo had a burst of fiercer Iconoclasm.狮子座在他的统治结束了一阵激烈的反传统。He punished the courtiers who had replaced images in their apartments and was about to banish the empress when he died 8 September, 780.他惩罚了曾在他们的公寓取代图像的臣子和被放逐慈禧当他于9月8日,780日去世。 At once a complete reaction set in.一次完整的反应设置。

II.二。THE SECOND GENERAL COUNCIL (NICEA II, 787)第二次总理事会(尼西亚二,787)

The Empress Irene was regent for her son Constantine VI (780-97), who was nine years old when his father died.皇后艾琳是为她的儿子君士坦丁六世(780-97),9岁,他的父亲去世时摄政。She immediately set about undoing the work of the Iconoclast emperors.她立即​​着手撤消工作孤星叛逆者皇帝。Pictures and relics were restored to the churches; monasteries were reopened.图片和文物是恢复的教堂,寺院重新开放。Fear of the army, now fanatically Iconoclast, kept her for a time from repealing the laws; but she only waited for an opportunity to do so and to restore the broken communion with Rome and the other patriarchates.恐惧的军队,现在狂热地孤星叛逆者,保持她的时间从废除法律;,但她只是等待机会,这样做并恢复破碎与罗马的共融和其他牧首辖区。 The Patriarch of Constantinople, Paul IV, resigned and retired to a monastery, giving openly as his reason repentance for his former concessions to the Iconoclast Government.族长君士坦丁堡,保罗四,辞职和退休的一个修道院,让他为他的前优惠孤星叛逆者政府的原因悔改公开。He was succeeded by a pronounced image-worshipper, Tarasius.他的继任者是一个突出的形象的崇拜者,Tarasius。Tarasius and the empress now opened negotiations with Rome.Tarasius和慈禧现已开放与罗马的谈判。They sent an embassy to Pope Adrian I (772-95) acknowledging the primacy and begging him to come himself, or at least to send legates to a council that should undo the work of the Iconoclast synod of 754.他们派出一名使馆教皇阿德里安一(772-95)承认的首要地位,并乞求他来自己,或者至少派使节到安理会应撤消754孤星叛逆者主教会议的工作。 The pope answered by two letters, one for the empress and one for the patriarch.教皇回答了两个字母,为慈禧和族长之一。 In these he repeats the arguments for the worship of images agrees to the proposed council, insists on the authority of the Holy See, and demands the restitution of the property confiscated by Leo III.在这些重复的图像崇拜他的论据,建议安理会同意,坚持教廷的权威,并要求利奥三世没收的财产归还。He blames the sudden elevation of Tarasius (who from being a layman had suddenly become patriarch), and rejects his title of Ecumenical Patriarch, but he praises his orthodoxy and zeal for the holy images.他指责Tarasius(突然从一个门外汉成为族长)突然升高,并拒绝他的君士坦丁堡宗主教的头衔,但他称赞他的正统和热情圣像。 Finally, he commits all these matters to the judgment of his legates.最后,他承诺所有这些问题的判断他的legates。These legates were an archpriest Peter and the abbot Peter of St. Saba near Rome.这些使节是一个主牧师的彼得和罗马附近的圣萨巴方丈彼得。The other three patriarchs were unable to answer, they did not even receive Tarasius's letters, because of the disturbance at that time in the Moslem state.其他三个始祖无法回答,他们甚至没有收到Tarasius的信件,因为在穆斯林国家的干扰。But two monks, Thomas, abbot of an Egyptian monastery and John Syncellus of Antioch, appeared with letters from their communities explaining the state of things and showing that the patriarchs had always remained faithful to the images.但两名僧人,托马斯,方丈埃及修道院和约翰安提阿Syncellus,似乎与他们的解释事物的状态和表现出的始祖一直保持忠实的图像社区的来信。 These two seem to have acted in some sort as legates for Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.这两个似乎有某种担任亚历山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷的使节。

Tarasius opened the synod in the church of the Apostles at Constantinople. Tarasius打开的使徒教会的主教在君士坦丁堡。in August, 786; but it was at once dispersed by the Iconoclast soldiers.八月,786,但它是一次由孤星叛逆者兵分散。The empress disbanded those troops and replaced them by others; it was arranged that the synod should meet at Nicaea in Bithynia, the place of the first general council.慈禧解散这些部队和由他人代替他们被安排在庇推尼,的第一次总理事会的地方主教应满足尼西亚。The bishops met here in the summer of 787, about 300 in number.主教们在这里会见了在夏天787,在300左右。The council lasted from 24 September to 23 October.会持续从9月24日至10月23日。The Roman legates were present; they signed the Acts first and always had the first place in the list of members, but Tarasius conducted the proceeding, apparently because the legates could not speak Greek.罗马使节人出席,他们首先签署法令,并一直在成员名单的首位,但Tarasius进行的诉讼,显然是因为该legates不能讲希腊语。 In the first three sessions Tarasius gave an account of the events that had led up to the Council, the papal and other letters were read out, and many repentant Iconoclast bishops were reconciled.在前三个交易日Tarasius了一个帐户的事件,已导致向安理会,罗马教皇和其他字母被读出,并不甘心许多追悔莫及的孤星叛逆者主教。 The fathers accepted the pope's letters as true formulas of the Catholic Faith.父亲接受了教皇的信件作为信仰天主教的真正公式。 Tarasius, when he read the letters, left out the passages about the restitution of the confiscated papal properties, the reproaches against his own sudden elevation and use of the title Ecumenical Patriarch, and modified (but not essentially) the assertions of the primacy. Tarasius,当他读信,离开了关于归还没收罗马教皇的属性,对他自己的突然标高和使用的标题普世牧首责备,和修改(但没有本质的)首要地位的断言的通道。 The fourth session established the reasons for which the use of holy images is lawful, quoting from the Old Testament passages about images in the temple (Exodus 25:18-22; Numbers 7:89; Ezekiel 41:18-19; Hebrews 9:5), and also citing a great number of the Fathers.第四次会议设立了圣像的使用是合法的原因,引用旧约经文约在寺庙中的图像(出埃及记25:18-22;民数记7:89;以西结书41:18-19;希伯来书9: 5),并且还列举了大量的父亲。Euthymius of Sardes at the end of the session read a profession of faith in this sense.在这个意义上说,Euthymius撒得斯在会议结束时读的信仰。In the fifth session Tarasius explained that Iconoclasm came from Jews, Saracens, and heretics; some Iconoclast misquotations were exposed, their books burnt, and an icon set up in the hall in the midst of the fathers.在第五十五届会议Tarasius解释说,破除迷信,从犹太人,撒拉逊人,和异教徒;一些孤星叛逆者misquotations暴露,他们的书籍烧毁,并在大厅的父亲中图标集。 The sixth session was occupied with the Iconoclast synod of 754; its claim to be a general council was denied, because neither the pope nor the three other patriarchs had a share in it.第六届会议上被占领与孤星叛逆者主教会议的754,算得上是一个总理事会被拒绝,因为它既不教皇也没有其他三个始祖每股。The decree of that synod (see above) was refuted clause by clause.法令,主教(见上文)驳斥BY子句子句。The seventh session drew up the symbol (horos) of the council, in which, after repeating the Nicene Creed and renewing the condemnation of all manner of former heretics, from Arians to Monothelites, the fathers make their definition.第七届会议提请理事会符号(horos),其中重复尼西亚,并再次谴责所有前异端的方式,从Monothelites亚利安后,父亲让他们的定义。 Images are to receive veneration (proskynesis), not adoration (latreia); the honour paid to them is only relative (schetike), for the sake of their prototype.图像接收崇拜(proskynesis),而不是崇拜(latreia);支付给他们的荣誉,是为了他们的原型,只有相对的(schetike)。 Anathemas are pronounced against the Iconoclast leaders; Germanus, John Damascene, and George of Cyprus are praised.Anathemas是突出对孤星叛逆者领导人; Germanus,约翰大马士革,和乔治塞浦路斯赞扬。In opposition to the formula of the Iconoclast synod the fathers declare: "The Trinity has made these three glorious" (he Trias tous treis edoxasen).反对孤星叛逆者主教会议的父亲申报的公式:“三位一体这三个光荣”(他三叠纪TOUS特赖斯edoxasen)。 A deputation was sent to the empress with the Acts of the synod; a letter the clergy of Constantinople acquainted them with its decision.一个团体被送往皇后主教的行为,一个神职人员的君​​士坦丁堡熟悉其决定的信。Twenty-two canons were drawn up, of which these are the chief:21个大炮,这些是主要的:

canons 1 and 2 confirm the canons of all former general councils; 1和2门炮,确认所有前一般议会的大炮;

canon 3 forbids the appointment of ecclesiastical persons by the State; only bishops may elect other bishops;佳能3禁止的国家的教会人士的任命;只有主教可能会选择其他的主教;

canons 4 and 5 are against simony;大炮4和第5条对买卖圣职;

canon 6 insists on yearly provincial synods;佳能6坚持每年省主教会议;

canon 7 forbids bishops, under penalty of deposition, to consecrate churches without relics;佳能7禁止主教,下沉积的罚款,没有文物的教堂奉献;

canon 10 forbids priests to change their parishes without their bishops consent;佳能10禁止变更,恕不另行他们的主教同意教区的牧师;

canon 13 commands all desecrated monasteries to be restored;13佳能所有亵渎寺院得以恢复的命令;

canons 18-20 regulate abuses in monasteries.大炮18-20规范寺庙的滥用。

An eighth and last session was held on 23 October at Constantinople in the presence of Irene and her son.在君士坦丁堡举行的第八次和最后一次会议于10月23日在艾琳和她的儿子的存在。After a discourse by Tarasius the Acts were read out and signed by all, including the empress and the emperor.后Tarasius话语行为被读出,所有签署,包括皇后和皇帝。The synod was closed with the usual Polychronia or formal acclamation, and Epiphanius, a deacon of Catania in Sicily, preached a sermon to the assembled fathers.被关闭的主教与往常Polychronia或正式鼓掌方式,和埃皮法尼乌斯,在西西里岛的卡塔尼亚执事,组装​​父亲宣扬说教。 Tarasius sent to Pope Adrian an account of all that had happened, and Adrian approved the Acts (letter to Charles the Great) and had them translated into Latin. Tarasius发送教皇阿德里安发生的所有帐户,阿德里安批准行为(写信给查尔斯大),并让他们翻译成拉丁语。But the question of the property of the Holy See in Southern Italy and the friendship of the pope towards the Franks still caused had feeling between East and West; moreover an Iconoclast party still existed at Constantinople, especially in the army.但在意大利南部的罗马教廷的财产问题,还是引起了弗兰克斯对教皇的友谊了东方和西方之间的感觉,而且一个孤星叛逆者党仍然存在,特别是在军队,在君士坦丁堡。

III.三。THE SECOND ICONOCLAST PERSECUTION第二孤星叛逆者迫害

Twenty-seven years after the Synod of Nicaea, Iconoclasm broke out again.二十七年后,主教的尼西亚,破除迷信再次爆发。Again the holy pictures were destroyed, and their defenders fiercely persecuted.再次圣像被摧毁,激烈的迫害和​​维护者。For twenty-eight years the former story was repeated with wonderful exactness.二十多年来,重复前的故事与美妙的正确性。The places of Leo III, Constantine V, and Leo IV are taken by a new line of Iconoclast emperors -- Leo V, Michael II, Theophilus.利奥三世君士坦丁V和利奥四的地方,采取的新生产线的孤星叛逆者皇帝 - 利奥五,迈克尔二,西奥菲勒斯。 Pope Paschal I acts just as did Gregory II, the faithful Patriarch Nicephorus stands for Germanus I, St. John Damascene lives again in St. Theodore the Studite.教皇逾越节我的行为就像格雷戈里二,忠实祖师Nicephorus Germanus我的立场,圣约翰大马士革住在圣西奥多再次Studite。Again one synod rejects icons, and another, following it, defends them.再次之一的主教拒绝图标,和另一个,它后面,保卫他们。 Again an empress, regent for her young son, puts an end to the storm and restores the old custom -- this time finally.又是一个皇后,她年幼的儿子摄政,杜绝了风暴和恢复古老的习俗 - 这一次终于。

The origin of this second outbreak is not far to seek.这第二次爆发的起源是不远处寻找。There had remained, especially in the army, a considerable Iconoclast party.曾有依然存在,特别是在军队,有相当孤星叛逆者党。 Constantine V, their hero had been a valiant and successful general against the Moslems, Michael I (811-13), who kept the Faith of the Second Council of Nicaea, was singularly unfortunate in his attempt to defend the empire.康斯坦丁V时,他们的英雄一直是对穆斯林的英勇和成功的一般,我迈克尔(811-13),保持了第二届理事会的尼西亚的信念,是异乎寻常的不幸,在他试图保卫帝国。 The Iconoclasts looked back regretfully to the glorious campaigns of his predecessor, they evolved the amazing conception of Constantine as a saint, they went in pilgrimage to his grave and cried out to him: "Arise come back and save the perishing empire".的反传统回头一看,遗憾的是他的前任的辉煌的运动,他们演变成一个圣人的君士坦丁惊人的概念,他们就在他的墓前朝圣,哭了出来,他说:“出现回来和保存灭亡的帝国”。 When Michael I, in June, 813, was utterly defeated by the Bulgars and fled to his capital, the soldiers forced him to resign his crown and set up one of the generals Leo the Armenian (Leo V, 813-20) in his place.当我,在6月,813,是完全击败了保加利亚和逃离他的资本,士兵们强迫他辞职,他的王冠,并成立将军利奥亚美尼亚(利奥五,813-20)在他的地方之一。 An officer (Theodotus Cassiteras) and a monk (the Abbot John Grammaticus) persuaded the new emperor that all the misfortunes of the empire were a judgment of God on the idolatry of image-worship.人员(西奥多托斯Cassiteras)和一个和尚(住持约翰Grammaticus)说服了新的皇帝,帝国的所有不幸图像崇拜的偶像是上帝的判断。 Leo, once persuaded, used all his power to put down the icons, and so all the trouble began again.利奥,一旦说服了,用他的权力放下图标,因此所有的麻烦又开始了。

In 814 the Iconoclasts assembled at the palace and prepared an elaborate attack against images, repeating almost exactly the arguments of the synod of 754.在814的反传统聚集在王宫,并准备对图像的精细的攻击,几乎完全重复的论点主教的754。The Patriarch of Constantinople was Nicephorus I (806-15), who became one of the chief defenders of images in this second persecution.君士坦丁堡宗主教Nicephorus我(806-15),成为在本次迫害图像的行政维护者之一。 The emperor invited him to a discussion of the question with the Iconoclasts; he refused since it had been already settled by the Seventh General Council.皇帝邀请他与反传统问题的讨论,他拒绝了,因为它已经落户第七次总理事会。The work of demolishing images began again.拆除图像的工作又开始了。The picture of Christ restored by Irene over the iron door of the palace, was again removed.在宫殿的铁门,由艾琳恢复基督的图片再次被拆除。In 815 the patriarch was summoned to the emperor's presence.在815族长被传唤到皇帝的存在。He came surrounded by bishops, abbots, and monks, and held a long discussion with Leo and his Iconoclast followers.他来到主教,方丈,僧侣包围,并举行了长时间的讨论,与狮子座,和他的孤星叛逆者追随者。Inn he same year the emperor summoned a synod of bishops, who, obeying his orders, deposed the patriarch and elected Theodotus Cassiteras (Theodotus I, 815-21) to succeed him.酒店他同年皇帝召见的世界主教会议,人,服从他的命令,废黜了族长,并当选为西奥多托斯Cassiteras(西奥多托斯我,815-21)来接替他。 Nicephorus was banished across the Bosporus.Nicephorus被贬横跨博斯普鲁斯海峡。Till his death in 829, he defended the cause of the images by controversial writings (the "Lesser Apology", "Antirrhetikoi", "Greater Apology", etc. in PG, C, 201-850; Pitra, "Spicileg. Solesm.", I, 302-503; IV, 233, 380), wrote a history of his own time (Historia syntomos, PG, C, 876-994) and a general chronography from Adam (chronographikon syntomon, in PG, C, 995-1060).直到他的死亡在829,他保卫有争议的著作(“较小的道歉”,“Antirrhetikoi”,“道歉”等PG,C 201-850影像事业; Spicileg Pitra,“Solesm。 “,我,302-503;四,233,​​380),写了自己的时间(Historia syntomos,PG,C 876-994)的历史,从亚当(chronographikon syntomon,在PG,C,995 chronography -1060)。Among the monks who accompanied Nicephorus to the emperor's presence in 815 was Theodore, Abbot of the Studium monastery at Constantinople (d. 826).其中的僧侣陪同815 Nicephorus皇帝的存在是西奥多,Studium寺院的方丈在君士坦丁堡(四826)。Throughout this second Iconoclast persecution St. Theodore (Theodorus Studita) was the leader of the faithful monks, the chief defender of the icons.在整个第二孤星叛逆者迫害圣西奥多(Theodorus Studita)的忠实僧侣的领导者,图标的首席后卫。He comforted and encouraged Nicephorus in his resistance to the emperor, was three times banished by the Government, wrote a great number of treatises controversial letters, and apologies in various forms for the images.他安慰和鼓励他的抵抗皇帝Nicephorus,是由政府流放的三倍,写了大量图像的各种形式的论文有争议的信件,和道歉。 His chief point is that Iconoclasts are Christological heretics, since they deny an essential element of Christ's human nature, namely, that it can be represented graphically.他的主要观点是,反传统是基督的异端,因为他们否认基督的人性,即它可以用图形表示的基本要素。This amounts to a denial of its reality and material quality, whereby Iconoclasts revive the old Monophysite heresy.这种否认其现实性和材料的质量,即反传统振兴老基督一性异端的金额。Ehrhard judges St. Theodore to be "perhaps the most ingenious [der scharfsinnigste] of the defenders of the cult of images" (in Krumbacher's "Byz. Litt.", p. 150). Ehrhard法官圣西奥多“也许是最巧妙的[DER scharfsinnigste]图像邪教的维护者”(克伦巴赫尔的“BYZ。利特”,第150页)。In any case his position can be rivalled only by that of St. John Damascene.在任何情况下,他的位置可以相媲美,只能由圣约翰大马士革。(See his work in PG, XCIX; for an account of them see Krumbacher, op. cit., 147-151, 712-715; his life by a contemporary monk, PG, XCIX, 9 sq.) His feast is on 11 Nov. in the Byzantine Rite, 12 Nov. in the Roman Martyrology. (见他的PG,XCIX工作;看到他们的帐户克伦巴赫尔,同前引书,147-151,712-715;。他的生活由当代高僧,PG,XCIX,9平方米),他的盛宴上11在拜占庭成年礼11月,11月12在罗马Martyrology。

The first thing the new patriarch Theodotus did was to hold a synod which condemned the council of 787 (the Second Nicene) and declared its adherence to that of 754.新的族长西奥多托斯的第一件事情是举行的主教谴责会(二尼西亚)787和754宣布遵守。Bishops, abbots, clergy, and even officers of the Government who would not accept its decree were deposed, banished, tortured.主教,方丈,僧侣,甚至政府官员谁也不会接受它的法令被废黜,流放,酷刑。Theodore of Studium refused communion with the Iconoclast patriarch, and went into exile. Studium西奥多拒绝共融与孤星叛逆者元老,和流亡。A number of persons of all ranks were put to death at this time, and his references; pictures of all kinds were destroyed everywhere.各级人士置于死地,在这个时候,他引用;各种照片到处都被摧毁。Theodore appealed to the pope (Paschal I, 817-824) in the name of the persecuted Eastern image-worshippers.西奥多呼吁教宗(逾越节我,817-824)在受迫害东部图像做礼拜的名称。At the same time Theodotus the Iconoclast patriarch, sent legates to Rome, who were, however not admitted by the pope, since Theodotus was a schismatical intruder in the see of which Nicephorus was still lawful bishop.同时西奥多托斯孤星叛逆者族长,派使节到罗马,但不是由教皇承认,自西奥多托斯是一个分裂的入侵者在看到其中Nicephorus仍然是合法的主教。 But Paschal received the monks sent by Theodoret and gave up the monastery of St. Praxedes to them and others who had fled from the persecution in the East.但逾越节收到Theodoret发送的僧侣,他们曾在东方的迫害逃离了修道院的圣Praxedes。In 818 the pope sent legates to the emperor with a letter defending the icons and once more refuting the Iconoclast accusation of idolatry.在818教皇派遣使节到皇帝与卫冕的图标,并再次驳斥了偶像崇拜的孤星叛逆者指责的信件。 In this letter he insists chiefly on our need of exterior signs for invisible things: sacraments, words, the sign of the Cross.在这封信中,他坚持认为,主要是无形的东西:圣礼,换句话说,十字架的标志,我们需要外部的迹象。and all tangible signs of this kind; how, then, can people who a admit these reject images?这种有形的迹象,那么,如何能让人一个承认这些拒绝的图像?(The fragment of this letter that has been preserved is published in Pitra, "Spicileg. Solesm.". II, p. xi sq.).(一直保存这封信的片段,是在Pitra出版,“Spicileg。Solesm。”二,第XI平方米)。The letter did not have any effect on the emperor; but it is from this time especially that the Catholics in the East turn with more loyalty than ever to Rome as their leader, their last refuge in the persecution.信中并未有任何皇帝的效果,但它是从这个时候,尤其是,在与罗马的忠诚度比以往任何时候都更加为他们的领袖,他们最后的避难所迫害东转天主教徒。 The well-known texts of St. Theodore in which he defends the primacy in the strongest possible language -- eg, "Whatever novelty is brought into the Church by those who wander from the truth must certainly be referred to Peter or to his successor . . . . Save us, chief pastor of the Church under heaven" (Ep. i, 33, PG., XCIX, 1018); "Arrange that a decision be received from old Rome as the custom has been handed down from the beginning by the tradition of our fathers" (Ep. ii, 36; ibid., 1331 --were written during this persecution).圣西奥多著名的文本中,他维护的最强烈的语言的首要地位 - 例如,“无论新奇带进教会那些真相徜徉,一定被称为彼得还是他的继任者。 。拯救我们,下天上的教会的首席牧师“(插曲我,33岁的控​​球后卫,XCIX,1018);”排列决定的习俗一直流传,从一开始就收到来自老罗马传统,我们的父亲“(插曲二,36同上,1331 - 写在这场迫害中)。

The protestations of loyalty to old Rome made by the Orthodox and Catholic Christians of the Byzantine Church at the time are her last witness immediately before the Great Schism.当时的拜占庭式教堂,东正教和天主教的基督徒的旧罗马的忠诚的抗议,她立刻大分裂之前的最后一名证人。There were then two separate parties in the East having no communion with each other: the Iconoclast persecutors under the emperor with their anti-patriarch Theodotus, and the Catholics led by Theodore the Studite acknowledging the lawful patriarch Nicephorus and above him the distant Latin bishop who was to them the "chief pastor of the Church under heaven".当时有两个独立的政党,在东方有没有共融与对方:孤星叛逆者迫害与反族长西奥多托斯皇帝下,天主教徒为首西奥多Studite承认的合法的族长Nicephorus,并在他之上,遥远的拉丁美洲主教是他们的“下天上的教会的首席牧师”。 On Christmas Day, 820, Leo V ended his tyrannical reign by being murdered in a palace revolution that set up one of his generals, Michael II (the Stammerer, 820-29) as emperor.在圣诞节,820,利奥V结束了他的暴虐统治被谋杀在宫廷革命,成立的皇帝之一,他的将军们,迈克尔二世(结巴,820-29)。 Michael was also an Iconoclast and continued his predecessors policy, though at first he was anxious not to persecute but to conciliate every one.迈克尔也是一个孤星叛逆者和继续其前任的政策,虽然在第一,他是急不来迫害,但调解的每一个。But he changed nothing of the Iconoclast law and when Theodotus the anti-patriarch died (821) he refused to restore Nicephorus and set up another usurper, Antony, formerly Bishop of Sylaeum (Antony I, 321-32).但他没有改变的孤星叛逆者法和时西奥多托斯反族长去世(821),他拒绝恢复Nicephorus,并成立另一个篡位,梁锦松,前Sylaeum主教(安东尼我,321-32)。 In 822 a certain general of Slav race, Thomas, set up a dangerous revolution with the help of the Arabs.某些一般的斯拉夫种族,托马斯,在822设立了一个危险的革命与阿拉伯人的帮助。It does not seem that this revolution had anything to do with the question of images.它似乎并不认为这场革命与图像的问题有什么。Thomas represented rather the party of the murdered emperor, Leo V. But after it was put down, in 824, Michael became much more severe towards the image-worshippers.托马斯代表,而党的谋杀皇帝利奥五,但后放下824,迈克尔成了对图像崇拜者的严重得多。A great number of monks fled to the West, and Michael wrote a famous letter full of bitter accusations of their idolatry to his rival Louis the Pious (814-20) to persuade him to hand over these exiles to Byzantine justice (in Manse, XIV, 417-22).一个伟大的僧人逃到了西方国家和迈克尔写了一个著名的信中充满了他们的偶像崇拜的苦指责他的对手路易斯的虔诚(814-20),以说服这些流亡者,他的手拜占庭正义(万岁,第十四条,417-22)。 Other Catholics who had not escaped were imprisoned and tortured, among whom were Methodius of Syracuse and Euthymius, Metropolitan of Sardes.其他天主教徒没有逃过被关押和拷打,其中雪城,撒得斯的大都会和Euthymius Methodius。The deaths of St. Theodore the Studite (11 Nov., 826) and of the lawful patriarch Nicephorus (2 June, 828) were a great loss to the orthodox at this time.圣西奥多Studite(11月11,826)和合法的族长Nicephorus(6月2日,828)的死亡是一个很大的损失,此时的正统。 Michael's son and successor, Theophilus, (829-42), continued the persecution still more fiercely.迈克尔的儿子和接班人,西奥菲勒斯,(829-42),继续迫害更加激烈。A monk, Lazarus, was scourged till he nearly died; another monk, Methodius, was shut up in prison with common ruffians for seven years; Michael, Syncellus of Jerusalem, and Joseph, a famous writer of hymns, were tortured.一名僧人,拉撒路,被鞭打,直到他险些丧命;另一个和尚,Methodius,被关在监狱为7年的共同地痞; Syncellus迈克尔,耶路撒冷,和约瑟夫,著名作家的赞美诗,被折磨。The two brothers Theophanes and Theodore were scourged with 200 strokes and branded in the face with hot irons as idolaters (Martyrol. Rom., 27 December).两兄弟Theophanes和西奥多被鞭打200招,在面对与拜偶像(Martyrol.罗,12月27日)烙铁烙。 By this time all images had been removed from the churches and public places, the prisons were filled with their defenders, the faithful Catholics were reduced to a sect hiding about the empire, and a crowd of exiles in the West.这已经从教堂和公共场所,监狱与他们的维护者充满删除所有图像时,忠实的天主教徒被减少到约帝国的教派隐藏,并在西方流亡的人群。 But the emperor's wife Theodora and her mother Theoctista were faithful to the Second Nicene Synod and waited for better times.但皇帝的妻子西奥多拉和她的母亲Theoctista是忠实的第二次尼西亚宗教会议和等待更美好的时代。

Those times came as soon as Theophilus died (20 January, 842).这些次来到尽快西奥菲勒斯死亡(1月20日,842)。He left a son, three years old, Michael III (the Drunkard, who lived to cause the Great Schism of Photius, 842-67), and the regent was Michael's mother, Theodora.他留下了一个儿子,3岁,迈克尔III(酒鬼,生活造成大分裂,842-67 Photius),摄政王迈克尔的母亲,西奥多拉。Like Irene at the end of the first persecution, Theodora at once began to change the situation.艾琳在结束第一迫害一样,西奥多拉一次开始发生变化的情况。She opened the prisons, let out the confessors who were shut up for defending images, and recalled the exiles.她打开监狱,让出卫冕图像被关闭的忏悔,并回顾了流亡者。For a time she hesitated to revoke the Iconoclast laws but soon she made up her mind and everything was brought back to the conditions of the Second Council of Nicea.一时间,她毫不犹豫地撤销孤星叛逆者法律,但很快,她做了她的头脑和一切被带回第二届理事会的尼西亚的条件。The patriarch John VII (832-42), who had succeeded Antony I, was given his choice between restoring the images and retiring.族长约翰七(832-42),曾成功梁锦松我,他的选择之间恢复图像和退休。He preferred to retire.他宁愿退休。and his place was taken by Methodius, the monk who had already suffered years of imprisonment for the cause of the icons (Methodius I, 842-46). Methodius,已经遭受了事业的图标(Methodius我,842-46)年以下有期徒刑的和尚和他的地方。In the same year (842) a synod at Constantinople approved of John VII's deposition, renewed the decree of the Second Council of Nicaea and excommunicated Iconoclasts.在同一年(842)主教在君士坦丁堡批准的约翰七世的沉积,延长法令第二届理事会的尼西亚和逐出教会的反传统。 This is the last act in the story of this heresy.这是这个邪教的故事的最后一幕。On the first Sunday of Lent (19 February, 842) the icons were brought back to the churches in solemn procession.在四旬期的第一个星期日(2月19日,842)图标被带回教会在庄严的游行。That day (the first Sunday of Lent) was made into a perpetual memory of the triumph of orthodoxy at the end of the long Iconoclast persecution.被制作成一个永久的记忆体的正统的胜利,在那一天(四旬期的第一个星期日)长孤星叛逆者迫害结束。It is the "Feast of Orthodoxy" of the Byzantine Church still kept very solemnly by both Uniats and Orthodox.它是“盛宴的正统”的拜占庭式教堂仍保留Uniats和东正教都非常郑重。Twenty years later the Great Schism began.20年后的大分裂的开始。So large has this, the last of the old heresies, loomed in the eyes of Eastern Christians that the Byzantine Church looks upon it as a kind of type of heresy in general the Feast of Orthodoxy, founded to commemorate the defeat of Iconoclasm has become a feast of the triumph of the Church over all heresies.如此之大,老邪说最后,在东部基督徒的眼里泛着拜占庭式教堂后,它看起来像一个一般类型的异端的正统节,成立纪念破除迷信击败已成为盛宴的所有异端邪说,教会的胜利。 It is in this sense that it is now kept.在这个意义上说,就在于它是现在保存。The great Synodikon read out on that day anathematizes all heretics (in Russia rebels and nihilists also) among whom the Iconoclasts appear only as one fraction of a large and varied class.在当天宣读的伟大Synodikon anathematizes所有异端(俄罗斯的叛乱分子和虚无主义也),其中出现一个大和不同类的分数只能作为一个反传统。After the restoration of the icons in 842, there still remained an Iconoclast party in the East, but it never again got the ear of an emperor, and so gradually dwindled and eventually died out.恢复842的图标后,仍然在东孤星叛逆者党,但它永远不会再得到了皇帝的耳朵,使之逐步减少并最终死亡。

IV.四。ICONOCLASM IN THE WEST破除迷信在西方

There was an echo of these troubles in the Frankish kingdom, chiefly through misunderstanding of the meaning of Greek expressions used by the Second Council of Nicaea.有这些烦恼的回声在法兰克王国,主要是通过由第二届理事会的尼西亚的希腊用语的含义的误解。As early as 767 Constantine V had tried to secure the sympathy of the Frankish bishops for his campaign against images this time without success.早在767君士坦丁五世试图争取同情他这段时间对图像的运动没有成功的法兰克主教。 A synod at Gentilly sent a declaration to Pope Paul I (757-67) which quite satisfied him.主教在Gentilly教皇保罗我(757-67)相当满意,他发出了声明。The trouble began when Adrian I (772-95) sent a very imperfect translation of the Acts of the Second Council of Nicaea to Charles the Great (Charlemagne, 768-8l4).麻烦的开始,当阿德里安一(772-95)派出第二届理事会的尼西亚的行为,查尔斯的大(查理曼,768 - 8l4)极不完善的翻译。The errors of this Latin version are obvious from the quotations made from it by the Frankish bishops.这个拉丁美洲版本的错误是显而易见的,它由法兰克主教的报价。For instance in the third session of the council Constantine, Bishop of Constantia, in Cyprus had said: "I receive the holy and venerable images; and I give worship which is according to real adoration [kata latreian] only to the consubstantial and life-giving Trinity" (Mansi, XII, 1148).举例来说,在理事会君士坦丁主教的Constantia,在塞浦路斯的第三会议上说:“我收到的神圣和古老的图像;我给崇拜,这是根据真实的崇拜[卡塔latreian]只同体和生命给三位一体“​​(曼西,第十二,1148)。 This phrase had been translated: "I receive the holy and venerable images with the adoration which I give to the consubstantial and life-giving Trinity" ("Libri Carolini", III, 17, PL XCVIII, 1148).这句话已被译成:“我收到我给的同质,并赋予生命的三位一体”(“Libri Carolini”,三,17,PL XCVIII,1148)与崇拜的神圣和古老的图像。There were other reasons why these Frankish bishops objected to the decrees of the council.有其他的原因,为什么这些法兰克主教反对法令理事会。Their people had only just been converted from idolatry, and so they were suspicious of anything that might seem like a return to it.他们的人只是被转换从偶像崇拜,所以他们看起来像是回到它的任何可疑。Germans knew nothing of Byzantine elaborate forms of respect; prostrations, kisses, incense and such signs that Greeks used constantly towards their emperors, even towards the emperor's statues, and therefore applied naturally to holy pictures, seemed to these Franks servile, degrading, even idolatrous.德国人知道尊重拜占庭阐述形式一无所知;礼拜,亲吻,香这样的迹象,不断使用,对他们的皇帝,甚至对皇帝的雕像,并因此适用于自然圣像希腊人,似乎这些弗兰克斯奴性,有辱人格,甚至盲目崇拜的。 The Franks say the word proskynesis (which meant worship only in the sense of reverence and veneration) translated adoratio and understood it as meaning the homage due only to God.弗兰克斯说adoratio字proskynesis(这意味着,在崇敬和崇拜感崇拜)翻译和理解它的意思参拜因为只有上帝。 Lastly, there was their indignation against the political conduct of the Empress Irene, the state of friction that led to the coronation of Charlemagne at Rome and the establishment of a rival empire.最后,是他们对皇后艾琳,摩擦状态,导致在罗马加冕查理曼和建立一个对​​手帝国的政治行为表示愤慨。Suspicion of everything done by the Greeks, dislike of all their customs, led to the rejection of the council did not mean that the Frankish bishops and Charlemagne sided with the Iconoclasts.由希腊人所做的一切怀疑,不喜欢他们所有的习俗,导致拒绝安理会并不意味着法兰克主教和查理曼与反传统的片面。 If they refused to accept the Nicene Council they equally rejected the Iconoclast synod of 754.如果他们拒绝接受尼西亚会议,他们同样拒绝孤星叛逆者主教会议的754。They had holy images and kept them: but they thought that the Fathers of Nicaea had gone too far, had encouraged what would be real idolatry.他们圣像,并让他们:但他们认为父亲的尼西亚已经走得太远,鼓励了什么是真正的偶像崇拜。

The answer to the decrees of the second Council of Nicaea sent in this faulty translation by Adrian I was a refutation in eighty-five chapters brought to the pope in 790 by a Frankish abbot, Angilbert.答案法令第二届理事会的尼西亚派在此故障的翻译,由Adrian我是驳斥在83个篇章,由法兰克住持,Angilbert 790教皇。This refutation, later expanded and fortified with quotations from the fathers and other arguments became the famous "Libri Carolini" or "Capitulare de Imaginibus" in which Charlemagne is represented as declaring his convictions (first published at Paris by Jean du Tillet, Bishop of St-Brieux, 1549, in PL XCVIII, 990-1248).这驳斥,后来扩大和强化的父亲和其他参数报价成为著名的“Libri Carolini”或“Capitulare Imaginibus”中,查理曼是代表宣布他的信念(第一次在巴黎出版,圣主教让杜Tillet Brieux,1549年,在PL XCVIII,990-1248)。The authenticity of this work, some time disputed, is now established.这项工作的真实性,有争议的一段时间,现在成立。In it the bishops reject the synods both of 787 and of 754.在它的主教拒绝了787和754的主教。They admit that pictures of saints should be kept as ornaments in churches and as well as relics and the saints themselves should receive a certain proper veneration (opportuna veneratio); but they declare that God only can receive adoration (meaning adoratio, proskynesis); pictures are in themselves indifferent, have no necessary connexion with the Faith, are in any case inferior to relics, the Cross, and the Bible.他们承认,圣人的照片应保存在教堂里的装饰品和以及文物和圣人自己应该收到一定的适当的崇拜(opportuna veneratio),但他们宣称,上帝只可以接收崇拜(意义adoratio,proskynesis);图片在自己都无动于衷,没有必要的联接与信仰,在任何情况下不如文物,十字架,圣经。 The pope, in 794, answered these eighty-five chapters by a long exposition and defence of the cult of images (Hadriani ep. ad Carol. Reg." PL, XCVIII, 1247-92), in which he mentions, among other points, that twelve Frankish bishops were present at, and had agreed to, the Roman synod of 731. Before the letter arrived the Frankish bishop; held the synod of Frankfort (794) in the presence of two papal legates, Theophylactus and Stephen, who do not seem to have done anything to clear up the misunderstanding. This Synod formally condemns the Second Council of Nicea, showing, at the same time, that it altogether misunderstands the decision of Nicaea. The essence of the decree at Frankfort is its second canon: "A question has been brought forward concerning the next synod of the Greeks which they held at Constantinople [the Franks do not even know where the synod they condemn was held] in connexion with the adoration of images, in which synod it was written that those who do not give service and adoration to pictures of saints just as much as to the Divine Trinity are to be anathematized.教宗,794,回答这85个篇章,由一个长期的论述和图像崇拜的国防(Hadriani EP广告卡罗尔。注册。“PL,XCVIII,1247年至1292年),其中他提到,在其他点12法兰克主教出席,并同意始信抵达法兰克主教,罗马主教会议的731;存在两个罗马教皇的使节,Theophylactus和斯蒂芬,谁举行主教的法兰克福(794)似乎没有做任何明确的误解,这个主教正式谴责第二届理事会的尼西亚,显示,在同一时间,它完全误解的尼西亚的决定,法令在法兰克福的本质是它的第二个佳能。 “一个问题已经提出了关于未来的希腊人,他们在君士坦丁堡举行[直率甚至不知道那里举行的主教,他们谴责]在崇拜的图像联接,在主教会议的书面那些主教会议谁不给服务和朝拜圣人的照片一样多神圣的三位一体,是被诅咒。 But our most holy Fathers whose names are above, refusing this adoration and serve despise and condemn that synod." Charlemagne sent these Acts to Rome and demanded the condemnation of Irene and Constantine VI. The pope of course refused to do so, and matters remained for a time as they were, the second Council of Nicaea being rejected in the Frankish Kingdom.但我们最神圣的神父,其名以上,拒绝崇拜和服务鄙视和谴责,主教会议。“查理曼送往罗马的这些行为,并要求谴责艾琳和君士坦丁六世教皇当然拒绝这样做,和事项仍一时间,因为他们的第二届理事会的尼西亚被拒绝在法兰克王国。

During the second iconoclastic persecution, in 824, the Emperor Michael II wrote to Louis the Pious the letter which, besides demanding that the Byzantine monks who had escaped to the West should be handed over to him, entered into the whole question of image-worship at length and contained vehement accusations against its defenders.在第二个反传统的迫害,在824,迈克尔二世皇帝写了路易斯的虔诚信,除了要求曾逃到西方的拜占庭僧侣应交给他,进入到整个图像崇拜问题在长度和反对其捍卫者的强烈指责。 Part of the letter is quoted in Leclercq-Hefele, "Histoire des conciles", III, 1, p.信的部分是引述勒克莱尔 - 黑弗勒,“史宫conciles”,三,1,第612.612。Louis begged the pope (Eugene II, 824-27) to receive a document to be drawn up by the Frankish bishops in which texts of the Fathers bearing on the subject should be collected.路易乞求教皇(尤金二,824-27)收到一个要绘制由法兰克主教应收集关于这一主题的轴承父亲的文本的文件。 Eugene agreed, and the bishops met in 825 at Paris.尤金同意,并在巴黎会见了主教在825。This meeting followed the example of the Synod of Frankfort exactly.本次会议随后主教法兰克福完全的例子。The bishops try to propose a middle way, but decidedly lean toward the Iconoclasts.主教们试图提出一个中间道路,但反传统走向精益。They produce some texts against these, many more against image-worship.他们对这些产生的一些文字,对图像崇拜多。Pictures may be tolerated only as mere ornaments.图片可能是不能容忍的,只有仅仅作为饰物。Adrian I is blamed for his assent to Nicaea II.阿德里安我是指责他同意尼西亚第二。Two bishops, Jeremias of Sens and Jonas of Orléns, are sent to Rome with this document; they are especially warned to treat the pope with every possible reverence and humility, and to efface any passages that might offend him.两位主教,桑斯和Orléns乔纳斯赫雷米亚斯,与此文档发送到罗马教皇地对待每一个可能的敬畏和谦卑,他们特别警告,并抹除任何段落可能冒犯他。 Louis, also, wrote to the pope, protesting that he only proposed to help him with some useful quotations in his discussions with the Byzantine Court; that he had no idea of dictating to the Holy See (Hefele, 1. c.).路易斯,也写信给教宗,抗议,他只是建议,以帮助他在与拜占庭式的法庭的讨论中一些有用的报价;他没有发号施令教廷(黑弗勒,1角)。的想法。 Nothing is known of Eugene's answer or of the further developments of this incident.没有人知道尤金的答案,或对这一事件的进一步发展。The correspondence about images continued for some time between the Holy See and the Frankish Church; gradually the decrees of the second Council of Nicaea were accepted throughout the Western Empire.有关图像的对应关系继续为教廷和法兰克教会之间的一段时间,逐步的第二届理事会的尼西亚的法令,在整个西方帝国接受。 Pope John VIII (872-82) sent a better translation of the Acts of the council which helped very much to remove misunderstanding.教皇约翰八世(872-82)发送一个更好的翻译会非常有助于消除误解的行为。

There are a few more isolated cases of Iconoclasm in the West.有几个破除迷信情况下,在西方更加孤立。 Claudius, Bishop of Turin (d. 840), in 824 destroyed all pictures and crosses in his diocese forbade pilgrimages, recourse to intercession of saints, veneration of relics, even lighted candles, except for practical purposes.克劳狄斯,都灵主教(D. 840),摧毁了824的所有图片和十字架在他的教区禁止朝圣,求助于圣徒代祷,文物崇拜,甚至点燃的蜡烛,除了出于实用的目的。Many bishops of the empire and a Frankish abbot, Theodomir, wrote against him (PL CV); he was condemned by a local synod.许多帝国和法兰克住持,Theodomir,主教对他(PL简历)中写道,他是由当地的主教谴责。Agobard of Lyons at the same time thought that no external signs of reverence should be paid to images; but he had few followers.Agobard里昂同时认为任何外部迹象崇敬应支付给图像,但他有几个随从。Walafrid Strabo ("De. eccles. rerum exordiis et incrementis" in PL, CXIV, 916-66) and Hincmar of Reims ("Opusc. c. Hincmarum Lauden.", xx, in PL CXXVI) defended the Catholic practice and contributed to put an end to the exceptional principles of Frankish bishops.Walafrid斯特拉波(“。埃克尔斯。rerum exordiis等incrementis”,916-66,CXIV在PL)和兰斯安克马尔(“Opusc。Hincmarum Lauden。”XX在PL CXXVI,)捍卫天主教的实践和贡献杜绝法兰克主教的特殊原则。But as late as the eleventh century Bishop Jocelin of Bordeaux still had Iconoclast ideas for which he was severely reprimanded by Pope Alexander II.但迟作为11世纪的主教Jocelin波尔多仍孤星叛逆者的想法,他由教皇亚历山大二世被严重谴责。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.阿德里安Fortescue的书面公开信息。 Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.转录由迈克尔Tinkler。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,第七卷。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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