Ismailis伊斯玛仪 (什叶派)

General Information一般资料

The Ismailis are members of a sect of Muslim Shiites who recognize Ismail as the seventh and last Imam until the return of his son at the end of time.伊斯玛仪的承认第七和最后的伊玛目,直到时间结束后,他的儿子伊斯梅尔穆斯林什叶派的教派成员。They are also called Sabiyah, or Seveners. The sect originated after the death (765) of the sixth Shiite imam, Jafar ibn Muhammad.他们也被称为Sabiyah,或Seveners节起源死亡后,伊本穆罕默德贾法第六什叶派伊玛目(765)。 Most Shiites accepted his younger son, Musa al-Kazim, as his successor; the Ismailis were those who supported his older, disinherited son, Ismail.多数什叶派人士的接受他的小儿子,穆萨AL - Kazim,作为他的继任者;伊斯玛仪是那些支持他的年纪大了,剥夺继承权的儿子,司马义。The sect attained its greatest influence under the Fatimids, who claimed descent through Ismail's son from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad.该教派达到其最大的影响下法蒂玛,声称通过先知穆罕默德的女儿法蒂玛,伊斯梅尔的儿子后裔。This dynasty, established in Tunis in 908, ruled in Egypt from 969 to 1171.这个王朝,在突尼斯建立了908,在埃及的统治从969到1171。

Late in the 11th century a split occurred between the Mustalis, who recognized al-Mustali as the caliph-imam (concentrated in Egypt, Yemen, and India), and the Nizaris, named for Mustali's brother Nizar, with strongholds in Iran and Syria.在11世纪后期发生的Mustalis,谁承认哈里发伊玛目(集中在埃及,也门,和印度)的Nizaris,命名为Mustali的弟弟尼扎尔哈姆人,Mustali与伊朗和叙利亚的据点,一个分裂。 The latter, who became known as the Assassins in Crusader stories, remained in power until the late 13th century.后者,成为十字军的故事刺​​客,仍然大权在握,直到13世纪晚期。A subsection, under the Aga Khan, moved to India in 1840.阿迦汗下,某款,在1840年转移到印度。In their interpretation of the Koran, the Ismailis distinguish between exoteric and esoteric knowledge, that is, between knowledge for the public and knowledge for the initiated.在“古兰经”的解释,伊斯玛仪区分通俗和深奥的知识,即知识之间,为市民和知识的人发起。The same distinction finds organizational expression in the Ismaili hierarchy from the imam, who alone has perfect knowledge, by way of the dais (missionaries) to the believers at various levels of knowledge and insight.同样的区别发现伊斯玛仪从伊玛目,谁就有完善的知识层次结构组织的表达方式的傣族(传教士)在各个层次的知识和洞察力的信徒。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Daftary, F., The Ismailis (1990); Lewis, Bernard, The Assassins (1967; repr. 1980) and The Origins of Ismailism (1940; repr. 1974); Ridley, A., The Assassins (1980). Daftary,楼,伊斯玛仪(1990);刘易斯,伯纳德,刺客(1967年再版1980)和Ismailism的起源(1940年再版1974);雷德利:刺客(1980)。


Ismailis伊斯玛仪

General Information一般资料

Ismailis, sect of Shiite Muslims, most important from the 10th to the 12th century.伊斯玛仪教派,教派的什叶派穆斯林,从10到12世纪最重要的。The Ismailis emerged from a dispute in 765 over the succession of Jafar al-Sadiq, whom Shiites acknowledged as the sixth imam, or spiritual successor to Muhammad.伊斯玛仪出现在765以上的贾法AL -萨迪克,其中什叶派第六伊玛目,或精神的继承者穆罕默德承认继承纠纷。The Ismailis recognized Ismail, the eldest son of Jafar, as his legitimate successor.伊斯玛承认他的合法继承者,对贾法的长子,司马义。On Ismail's death they acknowledged his son Muhammad as the seventh and last imam, whose return on Judgment Day they await. The Ismailis are also known as Seveners, because they accept only 7 imams, rather than the 12 who are recognized by other Shiites.在伊斯梅尔的死亡,他们也承认他的儿子穆罕默德作为第七和最后的伊玛目,其返回他们等待审判日伊斯玛仪也作为Seveners,因为他们接受,而不是其他什叶派承认的12个只有7个阿訇,。

Although Ismailis subscribe to basic orthodox Islamic doctrines, they also maintain esoteric teachings and corresponding interpretations of the Qur'an (Koran).虽然伊斯玛订阅基本的正统伊斯兰的教义,他们也保持深奥的教义和相应的解释“古兰经”(古兰经)。Developed in the 9th and 10th centuries under the influence of Gnosticism and Neoplatonism, these posit the creation of the universe by a process of emanation from God.在第九和第十世纪开发诺斯替主义和柏拉图的影响下,这些断定创造宇宙由神的化身过程。

In the late 9th century an Ismaili state was organized on communistic principles in Iraq by Hamdan Qarmat; his followers became known as Qarmatians.伊斯玛仪状态,在第九世纪后期在伊拉克的共产主义原则组织哈姆丹Qarmat;他的追随者成为Qarmatians已知。 His state soon disintegrated, but some of his followers combined with other Ismaili groups to form the Fatimid dynasty of North Africa in the 10th century.他的状态很快就解体了,但他的一些追随者与其他伊斯玛仪组相结合,形成于10世纪北非的法蒂玛王朝。The Fatimids conquered Egypt in 969 and developed a strong and culturally brilliant state that flourished until the 12th century.法蒂玛王朝征服埃及在969和开发了一个强大的和文化的辉煌状态,直到12世纪蓬勃发展。During the reign of the Fatimid dynasty the Ismailis gradually lost their original revolutionary fervor.法蒂玛王朝统治期间的伊斯玛逐渐失去了原有的革命热情。A splinter group of Ismailis, known to Westerners as Assassins, established a stronghold in the mountains of northern Iran in the 12th century and carried out terrorist acts of assassination against important religious and political leaders of Sunni Islam.一个刺客西方人,伊斯玛分裂集团,在伊朗北部山区在12世纪建立了一个据点,并开展对重要的逊尼派伊斯兰的宗教和政治领导人的恐怖暗杀行为。

The two main branches of Ismailis today are the Bohras, with headquarters in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India, and the Khojas, concentrated in Gujarât State, India.今天的两个主要分支伊斯玛Bohras,总部设在孟买(孟买),印度和Khojas,主要集中在印度古吉拉特邦,。 Another subsect, headed by the Aga Khan, has followers in Pakistan, India, Iran, Yemen, and East Africa.另一个分节,阿迦汗为首的,已经在巴基斯坦,印度,伊朗,也门,和东非的追随者。

Fazlur RahmanFazlur拉赫曼


Isma'iliyyahIsma'iliyyah

Advanced Information先进的信息

Doctrines教义

Like other Shi'ite traditions, Isma'iliyyah accepts the spiritual authority of the Imam.像其他什叶派的传统,Isma'iliyyah接受精神权威的伊玛目。However, unlike the mainstream Twelver Shi'as (also known as Imamiyyah), the Isma'ilis regard Muhammad's [sixth Imam] son Isma'il as the seventh Imam and continue the line of Imams through Isma'il and Muhammad's descendants.然而,不像主流Twelver的什叶派(也被称为Imamiyyah),Isma'ilis视为第七伊玛目穆罕默德的第六届伊玛目]儿子Isma'il,并继续阿訇通过Isma'il和穆罕默德的后裔。 For this reason Isma'iliyyah are known as Sevener Shi'ites.出于这个原因Isma'iliyyah被称为Sevener什叶派。(The Twelver Shi'ites regard Isma'il's younger brother, al Must'alias, as the seventh Imam and the line of Imams to continue from him.) (Twelver什叶派方面Isma'il的弟弟,人Must'alias,作为第七伊玛目和阿訇行继续从他。)

Isma'ili doctrine considers history to be divided into seven periods. Isma'ili学说认为,被划分成七个时期的历史Each period begins with a prophet who is then followed by six infallible Imams. 每个时期的开始与一名先知,然后由六个犯错的伊玛目The first six prophets were Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. Each Imam was accompanied by an interpreter who taught the secret meaning of the Imam's teaching to a small circle of initiates. The previous six interpreters were Seth, Shem, Isaac, Aaron, Simon Peter and Ali . 在第一六个先知是亚当,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,摩西,耶稣和穆罕默德。每个伊玛目是一个口译谁教的的伊玛目的教学秘密的含义小圈子的启动伴随着。“以前的六个口译是赛斯,闪,以撒,亚伦,西门彼得和阿里The six Shi'a Imams (from al-Hasan to Isma'il) have followed Muhammad and his interpreter Ali.6名什叶派伊玛目(哈桑Isma'il)跟随穆罕默德和他的翻译阿里。The seventh Imam, Muhammad, did not die but went into hiding, and will appear as the Mahdi, inaugurating an era in which the old traditions, including Islam, will become obsolete.第七伊玛目,穆罕默德,并没有死,但随后就躲藏起来,和马赫迪将出现,标志着一个时代的旧传统,包括伊斯兰教,将成为过时的的。

The Isma'ilis believe that Islamic law (the Shari'ah) should be repealed. Isma'ilis认为应予废除伊斯兰法(伊斯兰教)。They reject the Qur'an and all forms of prayers in the main Sunni Islamic tradition. 他们拒绝在主要的逊尼派伊斯兰传统的古兰经和一切形式的祈祷They interpret Islamic teachings spiritually, which frees them from adhering to these laws and obligations such as prayer, fasting, and hajj. 他们精神上的解释伊斯兰教义,这使他们遵守这些法律和义务,如祈祷,禁食,并朝觐。

History历史

The origins of the Isma'ilis can be traced to the second half of the 8th century when a dispute occurred over who should succeed the sixth Imam Jaf'ar al-Sadiq (d.765). Isma'ilis的起源可以追溯到8世纪下半年,当争议发生在谁应该接替第六伊玛​​目Jaf'ar基地萨迪克(d.765)。The Imamate was originally intended to go to al-Sadiq's eldest son, Isma'il .Imamate本来是打算去AL -萨迪克的长子,Isma'il。However, Isma'il died five years before his father and it was therefore decided that the Imamate should go to Isma'il's younger brother, al-Must'alis.然而,Isma'il五年之前,他的父亲去世,因此决定Imamate应该去Isma'il的弟弟,AL - Must'alis。Various factions opposed the decision to give the Imamate to al-Must'alis.各派系反对的决定给予Imamate AL - Must'alis。Some claimed that Isma'i l did not die but was in hiding and would return; others said that the Imamate should go to Isma'il's son, Muhammad.有人声称Isma'i升没死,但躲藏起来,将返回;别人说的Imamate,应该去Isma'il的儿子穆罕默德。 Those factions that claimed that Muhammad was still alive soon died out, but the supporters of Muhammad continued and formed the moveme nt that later came to be known as Isma'iliyyah.这些派别声称,穆罕默德还活着不久就去世了,但穆罕默德的支持者继续形成moveme NT,后来被作为Isma'iliyyah。

Effective missionary activity spread Isma'iliyyah beyond Iraq into North Africa.有效的传教活动扩散到伊拉克Isma'iliyyah进入北非。In 909 the sect set up the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt, where it flourished until 1171 when the Fatimid caliphate was overthrown and the sect lost its official support.该教派在909设立在埃及法蒂玛王朝,在那里,直到1171蓬勃发展时,法蒂玛王朝哈里发被推翻,该教派失去了其官方支持。

Shortly before its defeat in Egypt, Isma'iliyyah split into two groups called Nizaris and Musta'lis.不久之前,其在埃及的失败,Isma'iliyyah分成两组Nizaris和Musta'lis。The schism occurred as a result of a second dispute over who should inherit the Imamate.比第二个争议,应继承的Imamate发生分裂。Following the death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir in 1094, the first of these sects emerged in support of the claims of al-Mustansir's elder son, Nizar, to succeed his father as the future Imam.继1094法蒂玛哈里发AL - Mustansir死亡,这些教派的第一次出现在Mustansir的长子,尼扎尔哈姆,索赔的支持,接替他的父亲作为未来的伊玛目。The assassination of Nizar and his family led his supporters to flee Egypt and to organize themselves in various regions of Iran and Syria.尼扎尔和他的家人被暗杀,他的支持者逃往埃及,并在伊朗和叙利亚的各地区组织。 Their stronghold was the fortress of Alamut in the Ehurz mountains of northern Iran.他们的据点是在伊朗北部Ehurz山区的阿拉穆特堡垒。From here the sect spread out until it was strong enough to establish an Isma'ili-Nizari state which survived for 150 years.该教派从这里传播出去,直到它强大到足以建立Isma'ili Nizari状态存活150年。Its downfall occurred in 1256 as a result of the expansion of the Mongol empire into Iran and Syria.作为蒙古帝国扩展到伊朗和叙利亚的结果,它的倒台发生在1256。

After the fall of Alamut the history of the Nizaris in Syria is largely one of subjugation and persecution at the hands of the Baybars, the Ottomans and the Nusayris.阿拉穆特下降后在叙利亚Nizaris的历史在很大程度上是Baybars,奥斯曼帝国和Nusayris手中的奴役和迫害。 The Nizaris in Iran also suffered persecution, and from the 14th century onwards many emigrated to India. Nizaris在伊朗也遭受迫害,从14世纪起,许多移居到印度。These came to be known as Khoja (from the Persian word khwaja, meaning master).这些人被称为加尼(波斯字khwaja,意思是主)。 These have made considerable concessions to their Indian context and attach little importance to traditional Islamic ritual and practice.这些都取得了长足的让步,印度环境和重视伊斯兰传统仪式和实践意义不大。 They follow the leadership of the Agha Khan.他们遵循的阿迦汗的领导。In the 19th century some Khojas emigrated to East Africa, where Khoja communities remain today.在19世纪,一些Khojas移居到东非,加尼社区今天依然。

The second branch, the Musta'lis, distinguished themselves from the Nizaris through their support of al-Mustansir's younger son, al-Musta'li.第二个分支,Musta'lis,杰出的Nizaris通过他们Mustansir的小儿子,AL - Musta'li的支持。Al-Must'ali and his descendants continued in Egypt until the fall of the Fatimid dynasty in 1171.铝Must'ali和他的子孙继续在埃及的法蒂玛王朝,直到1171秋季。Following the end of the Fatimid dynasty the leadership of the movement was transferred to Yemen.运动的领导的法蒂玛王朝结束之后被转移到也门。In Yemen the movement split again, with some remaining in Yemen and others emigrating to India.在也门的运动再次分裂,一些留在也门和其他移居到印度。Those who went to India are known as Bohras.前往印度的那些被称为Bohras。Today Musta'lian Isma'ilis are mainly to be found in the Indian province of Gujarat.今天Musta'lian Isma'ilis主要是在印度古吉拉特省发现。There are also communities in Arabia, the Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Burma.也有阿拉伯,波斯湾,东非和缅甸的社区。

Symbols符号

The Isma'ilis do not have a distinctive symbol system.Isma'ilis不具有鲜明的符号体系。

Adherents遗民

There are several hundred thousand Musta'lian Isma'ilis in the world today (Momen 1985, 56).有几十万Musta'lian Isma'ilis(魔门1985年,56)在当今世界。There are some 20 million Khojas, of whom 2 million live in Pakistan (Halm 1991, 191).有大约20万Khojas,其中200万居住在巴基斯坦(191 Halm 1991年,)。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

Historically the headquarters of the Nizaris has been the fortress of Alamut in the Elburz mountains of northern Iran.从历史上看,Nizaris总部已经在伊朗北部Elburz山区的阿拉穆特堡垒。Today there are Nizari communities in Pakistan, North-west India and the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang.今天,有巴基斯坦,北,西印度和中国的浙江仙省Nizari社区。The Khojas are mainly to be found in Gujarat and the Punjab.Khojas主要是在古吉拉特邦和旁遮普邦发现。There are also Khoja communities in East and South Africa, Ceylon and Burma.在东部和南部非洲,锡兰和缅甸也有加尼社区。

Bülent Þenay湍流Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project世界宗教项目概述


Editor's Note:编者按:

In this article above, the author made an obvious mis-statement (specifically in the second paragraph) regarding the name of the seventh Imam.在上面这篇文章中,笔者提出一个明显的错误陈述(特别是在第二段)第七伊玛目名称。 He mis-stated Muhammad, where the correct name should obviously be Ismail, his elder son.他MIS穆罕默德说,正确的名称显然应伊斯梅尔,他的长子。Other than that, the article appears accurate and informative.除此之外,文章似乎是准确和翔实。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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