Jewish Articlesof Faith犹太文章的信仰

General Information一般资料


No Fixed Dogmas没有固定的教条

In the same sense as Christianity or Islam, Judaism can not be credited with the possession of Articles of Faith. Many attempts have indeed been made at systematizing and reducing to a fixed phraseology and sequence the contents of the Jewish religion. 在同样的意义基督教或伊斯兰教,犹太教不能计入拥有信条,许多尝试确实已系统化和减少一个固定用语和序列的内容犹太宗教。But these have always lacked the one essential element: authoritative sanction on the part of a supreme ecclesiastical body.但这些一直缺乏一个基本要素:对一个至高无上的教会机构的一部分权威的制裁。And for this reason they have not been recognized as final or regarded as of universally binding force.基于这个原因,他们没有被确认为最终还是普遍约束力。Though to a certain extent incorporated in the liturgy and utilized for purposes of instruction, these formulations of the cardinal tenets of Judaism carried no greater weight than that imparted to them by the fame and scholarship of their respective authors.虽然在一定程度上成立的礼仪和教学的目的而使用,这些配方犹太教的大是大非的原则进行更大的重量不超过向他们传授各自的作者的名气和奖学金。

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None of them had a character analogous to that given in the Church to its three great formulas (the so-called Apostles' Creed, the Nicene or Constantinopolitan, and the Athanasian), or even to the Kalimat As-Shahadat of the Mohammedans.他们没有类似的字符在教会的三个伟大的公式(所谓的使徒们的信条,尼西亚或Constantinopolitan,和阿他那修), 甚至Kalimat作为 Shahadat的伊斯兰教。The recital of this "Kalimah" is the first of the five pillars of practical religion in Islam, and one converted to Islam must repeat it verbatim; so that among the conditions required of every believer with reference to confession is the duty to repeat it aloud at least once in a lifetime.这个“Kalimah”的演奏会是五大支柱实际宗教伊斯兰教,并皈依伊斯兰教,必须逐字地重复它,以便在每一个信徒表白所需要的条件是责任大声重复在一生中至少一次。 None of the many summaries from the pens of Jewish philosophers and rabbis has been invested with similar importance and prominence.没有许多犹太哲学家和拉比的钢笔摘要已投资具有类似的重要性和突出。The reasons for this relative absence of official and obligatory creeds are easily ascertained.这种官方和强制性的信条相对缺乏的原因是很容易确定的。

No Need for Creeds in Judaism没有犹太教教义的需要

The remark of Leibnitz, in his preface to the "Essais de Theodicee," that the nations which filled the earth before the establishment of Christianity had ceremonies of devotion, sacrifices, libations, and a priesthood, but that they had no Articles of Faith and no dogmatic theology, applies with slight modification to the Jews.莱布尼茨的话,在他的序言“Essais Theodicee,”填补地球之前建立的基督教国家仪式的奉献,牺牲,libations和神职人员,但他们的信仰没有文章没有教条式的神学,适用于犹太人稍加修改。 Originally race-or perhaps it is more correct to say nationality-and religion were coextensive.本来比赛或者是更正确的说,国籍和宗教coextensive。Birth, not profession, admitted to the religio-national fellowship.的诞生,而不是专业,承认宗教国家奖学金。As long as internal dissension or external attack did not necessitate for purposes of defense the formulation of the peculiar and differentiating doctrines, the thought of paragraphing and fixing the contents of the religious consciousness could not insinuate itself into the mind of even the most faithful.只要内部分裂或外部的攻击没有必要为制定国防奇特,与众不同的学说的目的,段落和固定的宗教意识的内容的思想不能影射​​到,即使是最忠实的头脑。 Missionary or proselytizing religions are driven to the definite declaration of their teachings.传教士或劝诱宗教驱动的明确声明他们的教诲。

The admission of the neophyte hinges upon the profession and the acceptance of his part of the belief, and that there may be no uncertainty about what is essential and what non-essential, it is incumbent on the proper authorities to determine and promulgate the cardinal tenets in a form that will facilitate repetition and memorizing.招收新手铰链后的专业和接受他的信仰的一部分,有可能没有什么是必要的,非必要的不确定性,这是适当的机关义不容辞的责任,以确定和颁布的大是大非的原则在一个表单,将有利于重复和记忆。 And the same necessity arises when the Church or religious fellowship is torn by internal heresies.出现相同的必要性时,教会或宗​​教团契撕裂内部异端邪说。Under the necessity of combating heresies of various degrees of perilousness and of stubborn insistence, the Church and Islam were forced to define and officially limit their respective theological concepts.在打击perilousness和顽固坚持不同程度的歪理邪说的必要性,教会和伊斯兰教被迫界定,并正式限制各自的神学观念。

Both of these provocations to creed-building were less intense in Judaism.信条建设的这些挑衅都在犹太教激烈。The proselytizing zeal, though during certain periods more active than at others, was, on the whole, neutralized, partly by inherent disinclination and partly by force of circumstances.传教热情,虽然在一定时期比别人更积极,就整体而言,瓦解,部分固有的厌恶和部分的情况下生效。Righteousness, according to Jewish belief, was not conditioned of the acceptance of the Jewish religion.义,根据犹太人的信仰,没有条件接受犹太宗教。And the righteous among the nations that carried into practice the seven fundamental laws of the covenant with Noah and his descendants were declared to be participants in the felicity of the hereafter.到实践进行“公约”与挪亚和他的后裔的七个基本法律的国家之间的正义被宣布为来世幸福的参与者。This interpretation of the status of non-Jews precluded the development of a missionary attitude.非犹太人的地位的这种解释,排除了一个传教士的态度发展。Moreover, the regulations for the reception of proselytes, as developed in course of time, prove the eminently practical, that is, the non-creedal character of Judaism.此外,接收proselytes,随着时间的推移开发的规定,证明非常实用,那就是犹太教非creedal字符。

Compliance with certain rites - baptism, circumcision, and sacrifice - is the test of the would-be convert's faith.遵守洗礼,割礼,和牺牲 - - 有一定的仪式是想成为转换的信心的考验。He is instructed in the details of the legal practice that manifests the Jew's religiosity, while the profession of faith demanded is limited to the acknowledgement of the unity of God and the rejection of idolatry (Yorei De'ah, Germ, 268, 2).他指示在法律实践,体现了犹太人的宗教性的细节,而信仰的专业要求是有限的承认神和偶像崇拜(Yorei De'ah,胚芽,268,2)拒绝的团结。Judah ha-Levi ("Cuzari," i. 115) puts the whole matter very strikingly when he says:犹大公顷 - 利维(“Cuzari,”一115)把整件事情非常惊人时,他说:

"We are not putting on an equality with us a person entering our religion through confession alone [Arabic original, bikalamati =by word]. We require deeds, including in that term self-restraint, purity, study of the Law, circumcision, and the performance of other duties demanded by the Torah." “我们不会把一个平等与我们一个人单独=按字[阿拉伯文原始,bikalamati]我们需要的事迹,包括中,长期自我约束,纯度,研究法,割礼,并供认通过进入我们的宗教其他职务的性能要求“托拉”。
For the preparation of the convert, therefore, no other method of instruction was employed than for the training of one born a Jew.编制的转换,因此,没有其他教学方法采用比一个犹太人出生的培训。The aim of teaching was to convey a knowledge of the Law, obedience to which manifested the acceptance of the underlying religious principles; namely, the existence of God and the holiness of Israel as the people of his covenant.教学的目的是要传达的法律知识,服从,这体现了宗教的基本原则的接受,即神和以色列作为他的约人民的圣洁的存在。

The controversy whether Judaism demands belief in dogma or inculcates obedience to practical laws alone, has occupied many competent scholars. Moses Mendelssohn, in his "Jerusalem," defended the non-dogmatic nature of Judaism, while Low, among others, (see his "Gesammelte Schriften," i. 31-52, 433 et seq. 1871) took the opposite side. 的争论是否犹太教要求在教条的信仰,或灌输服从实际的法律,已经占据了很多能干的学者。摩西门德尔松,在他的“耶路撒冷”,捍卫犹太教的非教条式的性质,而低,等等,(见他的“ Gesammelte Schriften,“一31-52,433及以下。1871)则持相反的一面。Low made it clear that the Mendelssohnian theory had been carried beyond its legitimate bounds.低讲明Mendelssohnian理论已超出其合法的范围进行。The meaning of the word for faithful and belief in Hebrew [ emunah ] had undoubtedly been strained too far to substantiate the Mendelssohnian thesis.忠诚和信仰在希伯来文这个词的意义[emunah]无疑是紧张过头证实Mendelssohnian论文。 Underlying the practice of the Law was assuredly the recognition of certain fundamental and decisive religious principles culminating in the belief in God and revelation, and likewise in the doctrine of retributive divine justice.相关法律的做法是稳妥地承认某些最终在上帝和启示的信仰,并同样在报应神圣的正义主义的根本和决定性的宗教原则。

Evolution of Judaism犹太教的演变

The modern critical view of the development of the Pentateuch within the evolution of Israel's monotheism confirms this theory. The controversy of the Prophets hinges on the adoption by the people of Israel of the religion of YHWH, that excluded from the outset idolatry, or certainly the recognition of any other deity than YHWH as the legitimate Lord of Israel; that, in its progressive evolution, associated YHWH the concepts of holiness, justice, and righteousness; and that which culminated in the teaching of God's spirituality and universality. 在现代的pentateuch发展的关键观点在以色列的一神教的演变证实这一理论 。“耶和华,即在一开始就偶像崇拜排除,宗教的以色列人民的争论通过的先知铰链或肯定承认以色列的合法主耶和华比任何其他神;,在其逐步演变,耶和华的圣洁,正义和正气的概念相关联的;最终在上帝的灵性和普遍性的教学。 The historical books of the Bible, as recast in accordance with these latter religious ideas evince the force of a strong and clearly apprehended conviction concerning the providential purpose in the destinies of earth's inhabitants, and more especially in the guidance of Israel. “圣经”的历史书籍,因为改写按照这些后者的宗教思想表示出了一个强烈和明确逮捕定罪关于天赐的目的,在地球上的居民的命运,尤其是在以色列的指导力量。

Discussions and Dogmatism Disfavored不受欢迎的讨论和教条主义

The Psalms and Wisdom books manifest the predominance of definite religious beliefs.诗篇和智慧方面的书,体现了一定的宗教信仰的优势。To say that Judaism is a barren legalistic convention, as Mendelssohn avers, is an unmistakable exaggeration.若要说,犹太教是一个荒芜的法律性公约,门德尔松的断言,是一个明确无误的夸张。The modicum of truth in his theory is that throughout Biblical Judaism, as in fact throughout all later phases of Jewish religious thinking and practice, this doctrinal element remains always in solution.一点在他的理论是真理,整个圣经犹太教,实际上在整个犹太宗教思想和实践的所有后期阶段,这个教义元素仍然总是在溶液中。 It is not crystallized into fixed phraseology or rigid dogma.它不是结晶成固定用语或僵化的教条。And, moreover, the ethical and practical implications of the religion are never obscured.此外,宗教伦理和实际意义是从来没有遮挡。This is evidenced by the Biblical passages that, in the opinion of many, partake of the nature of Articles of Faith, or are of great value as showing what, in the opinion of their respective authors, constitutes the essence of religion.这是证明了圣经,在许多人认为,分享信仰章程的性质,或显示,在各自的作者看来,构成了宗教的本质巨大的价值。 Among these the most noteworthy are Deut.其中最值得一提的是申。vi.VI。4; Isa., xlv.4,ISA,XLV。 5-7; Micah vi.5-7;弥迦书第六。 8; Ps.8,PS。xv.; Isa.第十五;。伊萨。i.16, 17; xxxiii.16,17; XXXIII。15. 15。

Whatever controversies may have agitated Israel during the centuries of the Prophets and the earlier post-exilic period, they were not of a kind to induce the defining of Articles of Faith counteract the influences of heretical teaching.无论争议,可能已经激动在百年的先知和先前后exilic期间以色列,他们不是一种诱导定义文章的信仰,抵制邪教的影响。 Dogmatic influences manifest themselves only after the Maccabean struggle for independence.教条主义的影响,只有经过自己的独立的马加比斗争。But even these differences were not far-reaching enough to overcome the inherent aversion to dogmatic fixation of principles; for, with the Jews, acceptance of principles was not so much a matter of theoretical assent as of practical conduct.但即使是这些差异不影响深远,足以克服固有的厌恶原则的教条式的固定;,与犹太人,接受原则,与其说是实际进行理论同意的事。 Though Josephus would have the divisions between the Pharisees and the Sadducees hinge on the formal acceptance or rejection of certain points of doctrine - such as Providence, resurrection of the body, which for the Pharisees, was identical with future retribution -- it is the consensus of opinion among modern scholars that the differences between these two parties were rooted in their respective political programs, and implied in their respectively national and anti-national attitudes, rather than in their philosophical or religious dogmas.虽然约瑟夫有法利赛人和撒都该铰链上正式接受或拒绝某些点的学说之间的分歧 - 如普罗维登斯,复活的身体,法利赛人,与未来的报应相同 - 这是共识在这两个政党之间的分歧植根于他们各自的政治纲领,并在各自国家和反国家的态度,而不是在他们的哲学或宗教教条,暗示现代学者的意见。

If the words of Sirach (iii. 20-23) are to be taken as a criterion, the intensely pious of his days did not incline to speculations of what was beyond their powers to comprehend.如果西拉奇(20-23 III.)的话作为标准,激烈的虔诚的日子并不倾向于理解超出了他们的权力是什么猜测。 They were content to perform their, religious duties in simplicity of faith.他们的内容来执行简单的信仰,宗教职责。The Mishnah (Hag. 11. 1) indorsed this view of Sirach, and in some degree, discountenanced theosophy and dogmatism.该mishnah“(Hag. 11 1)背书西拉奇查看,并在一定程度上,discountenanced神智和教条主义。Among the recorded discussions in the schools of the Rabbis, dogmatic problems commanded only a very inferior degree of attention ('Er. 13b: controversy concerning the, value of human life; Hag. 12a: concerning the order of Creation).教条式的问题,其中的拉比学校的讨论记录,指挥的关注程度很自卑(尔13B:关于人的生命价值的争议; HAG 12A:关于创建顺序)。

Nevertheless, in the earliest Mishnah is found the citation of Abtalion against heresy and unbelief (Ab. i. 11 [12]); and many a Baraita betrays the prevalence of religious differences (Ber. 12b; 'Ab. Zarah 17a).然而,在被发现的最早的mishnah Abtalion对异端和不信的引用(ab.一11 [12]),以及许多Baraita背叛​​宗教差异的患病率(Ber. 12B;'抗体Zarah 17A)。These controversies have left their impress upon the prayer-book and the liturgy.这些争议已经离开祈祷书和礼仪时,他们留下深刻的印象。This is shown by the prominence given to the Shema'; to the Messianic predictions in the Shemoneh-Esreh (the "Eighteen Benedictions"), which emphasized the belief in the Resurrection; and, finally, to the prominence given to the Decalogue -- though the latter was again omitted in order to counteract the belief that it alone had been revealed (Tamid v. 1; Yer. Ber. 6b; Bab. Ber. 12a).这是玛“突出显示的Shemoneh Esreh(”18祝福“),其中强调在复活的信仰弥赛亚的预言;,最后,给予十诫突出 - 尽管后者又被省略以抵消它仅已发现(1 Tamid诉。。也门里亚尔的误码率6B;。巴布误码率12A)信仰。These expressions of belief are held to have originated in the desire to give definite utterance and impressiveness to the corresponding doctrines that were either rejected or attenuated by some of the heretical schools.信仰这些表达式举行有相应的学说,被拒绝或衰减一些邪教学校给予一定的话语和感人的愿望的起源。But while the se portions of the daily liturgy are expressive of the doctrinal contents of the regnant party in the synagogue, they were not cast into the form of catalogued Articles of Faith.不过,虽然表现在犹太教堂的统治党的理论内容本身的日常礼仪部分,他们没有投成编目物品的信仰形式。

The first to make the attempt to formulate them was Philo of Alexandria. The influence of Greek thought induced among the Jews of Egypt the reflective mood. 首先使试图制定是亚历山大的斐洛。希腊的影响,认为埃及的犹太人心情的反射引起的。Discussion was undoubtedly active on the unsettled points of speculative belief; and such discussion led, as it nearly always does, to a stricter definition of the doctrines.讨论投机信仰连同未交收点,无疑是积极的;这样的讨论,因为它几乎总是以一个严格的教义的定义。In his work "De Mundi Opificio," lxi., Philo enumerates five articles as embracing the chief tenets of Mosaism:在他的作品“德蒙迪Opificio”,LXI, 斐洛列举拥抱Mosaism行政原则五篇文章:

  1. God is and rules;上帝和规则;
  2. God is one神是独一
  3. The world was created;创建世界;
  4. Creation is one;创新是一个;
  5. God's providence rules Creation.上帝的普罗维登斯规则建立。

But among the Tannaim and Amoraim this example of Philo found no followers, though many of their number were drawn into controversies with both Jews and non-Jews, and had to fortify their faith against the attacks of contemporaneous philosophy as well as against rising Christianity.但发现没有追随者之间的斐洛tannaim和亚摩兰这个例子,尽管他们的人数很多人绘制成争议与犹太人和非犹太人,并巩固他们对当时的哲学的攻击的信念以及对上升基督教。 Only in a general way the Mishnah Sanh.只有在一般的方法的mishnah Sanh。xi.十一。1 excludes from the world to come the Epicureans and those who deny belief in resurrection or in the divine origin of the Torah.1排除从世界来的伊壁鸠鲁和那些否认复活或在“托拉”神圣的起源的信念。R. Akiba would also regard as heretical the readers of Sefarim Hetsonim-certain extraneous writings (Apocrypha or Gospels)-and such persons that would heal through whispered formulas of magic.河秋叶也将视为异端的读者一定Sefarim Hetsonim多余的著作(伪经或福音)等人将通过神奇的愈合低声公式。

Abba Saul designated as under suspicion of infidelity those that pronounce the ineffable name of the Deity.阿爸扫罗指定为下不忠的怀疑那些发音的神不可言喻的的名称。By implication, the contrary doctrine and attitude may thus be regarded as having been proclaimed as orthodox.暗示,相反的学说和态度可能会因此被视为已被宣布为正统。On the other hand, Akiba himself declares that the command to love one's neighbor the fundamental the principle of the Law; while Ben Asa i assigns this distinction to the Biblical verse, "This is the book of the generations of man " (Gen. vi; Gen. R. xxiv).另一方面,秋叶自己宣称命令爱一个人的邻居的根本“的原则;而本ASA I分配这种区别,以”圣经“经文”,这是几代人的书“(创六将军河XXIV)。The definition of Hillel the Elder in his interview with a would-be convert (Shab. 31a), embodies in the golden rule the one fundamental article of faith.希勒尔老在他的采访中定义一个会被转换(Shab. 31A),金科玉律,体现了一个根本信仰的文章。

A teacher of the third Christian century, R. Simlai, traces the development of Jewish religious principles from Moses with his 613 commands of prohibition and injunction, through David, who, according to this rabbi, enumerates eleven; through Isaiah, with six; Micah, with three; to Habakkuk who simply but impressively sums up all religious faith in the single phrase, "The pious lives in his faith" (Mak., toward end).一个基督教世纪的第三个老师,R. Simlai,跟踪从摩西的犹太宗教原则的发展与他的613禁止和强制令的命令,通过大卫,根据这个拉比,列举了11个;通过以赛亚书,有六个;米迦三个;哈巴谷简单但令人印象深刻总结了所有宗教的信仰,在单一的短语,“在他的信仰虔诚的生活”(完)Mak.,走向。 As the Halakhah enjoins that one should prefer death to an act of idolatry, incest, unchastity, or murder, the inference is plain that the corresponding positive principles were held to be fundamental articles of Judaism.由于哈拉哈责成一个人应该更喜欢死亡的偶像崇拜,乱伦,不贞洁,或谋杀行为,推论是纯相应的积极的原则,举行了犹太教的基本条款。

The Decalogue as a Summary十诫作为一个摘要

From Philo down to late medieval and even modern writers, the Decalogue has been held to be in some way a summary of both the articles of the true faith and the duties derived from that faith. According to the Alexandrian philosopher the order of the Ten Words is not accidental.从斐洛下来到中世纪晚期,甚至现代的作家,已经举行了十诫,在某种程度上总结了真正的信仰,从信仰派生的职责的文章 。据亚历山大哲学家的十个字的顺序不是偶然的。They divide readily into two groups: the first five summarizing man's relations to the Deity; the other five specifying man's duties to his fellows. Ibn Ezra virtually adopts this view.他们鸿沟随时分为两组: 第一个五年总结的人的关系的神,其他五个指定的人的职责,他的同伴伊本以斯拉几乎采用了这一观点He interprets the contents of the Decalogue, not merely in their legal-ritual bearing but as expressive of ethico-religious principles.他解释十诫的内容,而不仅仅是在他们的法律仪式轴承,但作为宗教伦理原则的表现。 But this view can be traced to other traditions.但这种观点可以追溯到其他传统。In Yer.在也门里亚尔。Ber.误码率。6b the Shema' is declared to be only an epitome of the Decalogue.6B的玛“被宣布为十诫只是一个缩影。That in the poetry of the synagogal ritual this thought often dominates is well known.这在诗歌的synagogal祭祀这种思想往往占主导地位是众所周知的。No less a thinker than Saadia Gaon composed a liturgical production of this character and R. Eliezer ben Nathan of Mayence enriched the prayer-book with a piyyut in which the six hundred and thirteen commands are rubricated in the order of and in connection with the Decalogue.不亚于萨蒂娅Gaon思想家组成的礼仪生产这种性格和河埃利泽本祈祷书在其中的六百和13个命令的秩序和十诫rubricated piyyut马扬斯丰富的弥敦道。

The theory that the Decalogue was the foundation of Judaism, its article of faith, was advocated Isaac Abravanel (see his Commentary on Ex. xx. 1); and in recent years by Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati in his "Catechism" and other writings.该理论认为十诫是犹太教的基础,其信仰的文章,有人主张艾萨克阿布拉瓦内尔(见他的前XX 1的评注。);近年来,在他的“问答”和其他由Isaac M.明智的辛辛那提著作。

The only confession of faith, however, which, though not so denominated, has found universal acceptance, forms a part of the daily liturgy, contained in all Jewish prayer-books.然而,信仰的唯一的供述,其中,虽然不是那么计价,发现普遍接受,形成了日常礼仪的一部分,在所有犹太祈祷书所载。 ln its original form it read somewhat as follows:在其原来的形式读有点如下:

"True and established is this word for us forever. True it is that Thou art our God as Thou wast the God of our fathers; our King as [Thou wast] the King of our fathers; our Redeemer and the Redeemer of our fathers; our Creator and the Rock of our salvation; our Deliverer and Savior -- from eternity is Thy name, and there is no God besides Thee." “这是对我们的词永远TRUE,并建立真那就是你的艺术,我们的上帝,正如你废我们列祖的神;我们的救主和我们的父辈的救赎; [你废]我们的父亲国王国王; 我们的造物主和我们的订购者信息和救主-拯救我们的岩石;从永恒是你的名字,除你以外没有神“

This statement dates probably from the days of the Hasmoneans (see Landshuth, in "Hegyon Leb").本声明日期可能从哈斯摩年王朝的天(见Landshuth,在“Hegyon LEB”)。

Saadia's, Judah ha-Levi's and Bahya's Creed萨蒂娅,犹大公顷 - 利维和Bahya信条

In the stricter sense of the term, specifications in connected sequence, and rational analysis of Articles of Faith, did not find favor with the teachers and the faithful before the Arabic period.在严格意义上的连接顺序的术语,规格,和理性的分析文章的信仰,没有找到与前阿拉伯语时期教师和忠实的青睐。The polemics with the Karaites on the one hand, and, on the other, the necessity of defending their religion against the attacks of the philosophies current among both Mohammedans and Jews, induced the leading thinkers to define and formulate their beliefs.卡拉一方面,另一方面,论战,抵御他们的宗教哲学的攻击伊斯兰教徒和犹太人之间的电流的必要性诱导主要思想家的定义和制定自己的信念。 Saadia's "Emunot we-Deot" is in reality one long ex position of the main tenets of the faithful.萨蒂娅的“Emunot我们Deot”是一个长期的忠实的主要原则前的位置,在现实中。The plan of the book discloses a systematization of the different religious doctrines that, in the estimation of the author, constitute the sum total of his faith.计划书,公开了一种系统化的不同宗教的教义,在笔者的估计,构成了他的信仰的总和。They are, in the order of their treatment by him, the following:他们,在他们​​的待遇由他下面的顺序:
  1. The world is created;创建世界;
  2. God is one and incorporeal;上帝是一个无形的 ;
  3. belief in revelation (including the divine origin of tradition;信仰的启示 (包括传统的神圣的起源;
  4. man is called to righteousness and endowed with all necessary qualities of mind and soul to avoid sin;男子被称为义和赋予的头脑和灵魂,以避免罪的一切必要的素质 ;
  5. belief in reward and punishment;在奖励和惩罚的信念 ;
  6. the soul is created pure; after death it leaves the body; 的灵魂,是创建纯;死后离开身体;
  7. belief in resurrection;相信在复活;
  8. Messianic expectation, retribution, and final judgment. 弥赛亚的期望,报应,最终判决。

Judah ha-Levi endeavored, in his "Cuzari," to determine the fundamentals of Judaism on another basis.犹大公顷 - 利维在他的“Cuzari,”努力,另一个犹太教的基础上,以确定的基本原则。He rejects all appeal to speculative reason, repudiating the method of the Motekallamin.他拒绝所有上诉思辨理性,批判的Motekallamin方法。The miracles and traditions are, in their natural character, both the source and the evidence of the true faith.奇迹和传统,在他们的自然性质,来源和真正的信仰的证据。With them Judaism stands and falls.犹太教与他们的代表和跌倒。The book of Bahya ibn Pakuda ("Hobot ha-Lebabot"), while remarkable, as it is, for endeavoring to give religion its true setting as a spiritual force, contributed nothing of note to the exposition of the fundamental articles. Bahya本Pakuda(“Hobot公顷Lebabot”)的书,而显着的,因为它是,努力让宗教作为一种精神力量的真正设置,值得注意的贡献没有论述的基本条款。 It goes without saying that the unity of God, His government of the world, the possibilities of leading a divine life-which were never forfeited by man-are expounded as essentials of Judaism.不言而喻,上帝的团结,他对世界的政府,领导一个神圣的生命,这是从来没有人为犹太教要领阐述没收的可能性。

Ibn Daud and Hananel ben Hushiel伊本达乌德和Hananel本Hushiel

More interesting on this point is the work of R. Abraham ibn Daud (1120) entitled "Emnah Ramah" (The High Faithful).在这一点上更有趣的是R.亚伯拉罕伊本达乌德(1120),题为“Emnah拉玛”(高级忠实)的工作。In the second division of his treatise he discourses on the principles of faith and the Law.在他的论文的第二师中,他的话语的信仰和法律的原则。These principles are:这些原则是:

Less well known is the scheme of an African rabbi, Hananel b.少为人知的是一个非洲拉比的计划,Hananel B.Hushiel, about a century earlier, according to whom Judaism's fundamental articles number four:Hushiel,大约一个世纪以前,根据犹太教的基本条款四:

The Thirteen Articles of Maimonides迈蒙尼德13条

The most widely spread and popular of all creeds is that of Maimonides, embracing the thirteen articles. Why he chose this particular number has been a subject of much discussion. 流传最广的和所有流行的信条是迈蒙尼德,拥抱13条 ,他为什么选择这个特殊的数字一直是许多讨论的主题。Some have seen in the number a reference to the thirteen attributes of God. Probably no meaning attaches to the choice of the number.有人看到的数量,以神的13个属性的参考,也许没有任何意义,重视数量的选择。His articles are:他的文章:
  1. The existence of God;神的存在;
  2. His unity;他的团结;
  3. His spirituality;他的灵性;
  4. His eternity;他的永恒;
  5. God alone the object of worship;只有上帝崇拜的对象;
  6. Revelation through his prophets;通过他的先知的启示 ;
  7. the preeminence of Moses among the Prophets;之间的先知摩西的优势地位 ;
  8. God's law given on Mount Sinai;在西奈山上帝的法律;
  9. the immutability of the Torah as God's Law;作为上帝的“不变性的律法;
  10. God's foreknowledge of men's actions;神的预知男人的行为;
  11. retribution; 报应;
  12. the coming of the Messiah;未来的弥赛亚;
  13. Resurrection. 复活。

This creed Maimonides wrote while still a very young man; it forms a part of his Mishnah Commentary, but he never referred to it in his later works (See S. Adler, "Tenets of Faith and Their Authority in the Talmud," in his "Kobez 'al Yad," p. 92, where Yad ha-Hazakah, Issure Biah, xiv, 2, is referred to as proof that Maimonides in his advanced age regarded as fundamental of the faith only the unity of God and the prohibition of idolatry). It did not meet universal acceptance; but, as its phraseology is succinct, it has passed into the prayer-book, and is therefore familiar to almost all Jews of the Orthodox school. The successors of Maimonides, from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century-Nahmanides, Abba Mari ben Moses, Simon ben Zemah, Duran, Albo, Isaac Arama, and Joseph Jaabez-reduced his thirteen articles to three:这个信条迈蒙尼德写,同时还是一个非常年轻的男子;它构成了他的米示拿评论的一部分,但他从来没有提到在他后来的作品(见S.阿德勒,“信条的信仰和他们在犹太法典的权威,”在他“Kobez”人屠杀“,第92页,屠杀公顷Hazakah,Issure Biah,第十四条,2,被称为证明,在他年事已高的迈蒙尼德只有神合一的信念和禁止的基本偶像崇拜),它不符合普遍接受;,但其用语简洁,它传递到祈祷书,并因此熟悉,几乎所有的犹太人的东正教学校的迈蒙尼德的接班人,从13 。十五世纪Nahmanides,阿爸马里本摩西,西蒙本Zemah,杜兰,Albo,艾萨克Arama和约瑟夫Jaabez他的13条减少三个:

Others, like Crescas and David ben Samuel Estella, spoke of seven fundamental articles, laying stress on free-will. On the other hand, David ben Yom-Tob ibn Bilia, in his "Yesodot ha- Maskil" (Fundamentals of the Thinking Man), adds to the thirteen of Maimonides thirteen of his own - a number which a contemporary of Albo (see "'Ikkarim," iii.) also chose for his fundamentals; while Jedaiah Penini, in the last chapter of his "Behinat ha-Dat," enumerated no less than thirty-five cardinal principles (see Low, "Judische Dogmen," in his "Gesammelte Werke," i. 156 et seq.; and Schechter, "Dogmas of Judaism," in "Studies of Judaism," pp. 147-181). 其他,如Crescas和大卫本塞缪尔特拉,发言的7个基本条款,奠定自由意志的压力,另一方面,大卫本赎罪TOB本Bilia,在他的“Yesodot HA - Maskil”(思想的人的基本要素),增加了十三迈蒙尼德他自己的13 - 当代Albo(见“Ikkarim”,“III)也为他的基本面选择一个号码; Penini耶大雅,在最后一章,他的”Behinat公顷DAT,“列举没有少于三十五个基本原则”(见低,“在他的”Gesammelte Werke公司,“一156起。;和谢克特,”Judische Dogmen,犹太教的教条“,在”犹太教的研究, “页147-181)。

In the fourteenth century Asher ben Jehiel of Toledo raised his voice against the Maimonidean Articles of Faith, declaring them to be only temporary, and suggested that another be added to recognize that the Exile is a punishment for the sins of Israel .在14世纪灰粉本杰希勒托莱多提出了他对信仰的Maimonidean文章语音,宣称他们只是暂时的,并建议,另一个是添加到承认,流亡以色列的罪孽的惩罚。 Isaac Abravanel, his "Rosh Amanah," took the same attitude towards Maimonides' creed.艾萨克阿布拉瓦内尔,他的“犹太Amanah,”采取同样的态度对迈蒙尼德'信条。While defending Maimonides against Hasdai and Albo, he refused to accept dogmatic articles for Judaism, holding, with all the cabalists, that the 613 commandments of the Law are all tantamount to Articles of Faith.而卫冕Hasdai和Albo对迈蒙尼德,他拒绝接受犹太教的教条式的文章,控股,与所有的cabalists,613法“的戒律都无异于信仰的文章。

In liturgical poetry the Articles of Faith as evolved by philosophical speculation met with metrical presentation.在礼仪诗歌,哲学思辨的信仰演变文章会见格律介绍。The most noted of such metrical and rhymed elaborations are the "Adon 'Olam," by an anonymous writer - now used as an introduction to the morning services (by the Sephardim as the conclusion of the musaf or "additional" service), and of comparatively recent date; and the other known as the "Yigdal," according to Luzzatto, by R. Daniel b.大多数的韵律和押韵的阐述中指出,“阿东”OLAM,“一个匿名的作家 - 现在使用介绍早上服务(Sephardim musaf或”额外“的服务结束),以及较近期的日期;和其他被称为“Yigdal,”根据卢扎托,R.丹尼尔B.Judah Dayyan.犹大Dayyan。

Modern Catechisms现代Catechisms

The modern catechisms abound in formulated Articles of Faith. These are generally intended to be recited by the candidates for confirmation, or to be used for the reception of proselytes (See Dr. Einhorn's "'Olat Tamid"). 现代catechisms比比皆是,在制定信仰的文章,这些通常是由考生确认,背诵或proselytes接待(博士艾因霍恩的“”OLAT Tamid“ )。The Central Conference of American Rabbis, in devising a formula for the admission of proselytes, elaborated a set of Articles of Faith.美国拉比中央会议,制定一个公式proselytes入场,阐述了一套信条。These modern schemes have not met with general favor - their authors being in almost all cases the only ones that have had recourse to them in practice.这些现代化的计划已不能满足一般的青睐 - 他们在几乎所有情况下的追索权,在实践中有他们的唯一作者。The points of agreement in these recent productions consist in:在这些最近制作的协议要点包括:

The declaration of principles by the Pittsburgh Conference (1885) is to be classed, perhaps, with the many attempts to fix in a succinct enumeration the main principles of the modern Jewish religious consciousness.匹兹堡会议(1885年)的原则宣言,或许与许多尝试,在一个简洁的枚举修复的现代犹太宗教意识的主要原则,被归类。

The Karaites are not behind the Rabbinites in the elaboration of Articles of Faith. The oldest instances of the existence of such articles among them are found in the famous word by Judah ben Elijah Hadassi, "Eshkol ha-Kofer." 的卡拉拟订信条Rabbinites背后存在的这类物品,其中最古老的实例中发现的著名的词,犹大本利亚Hadassi的“埃什科尔公顷Kofer 。“In the order there given these are the articles of the Karaite:有鉴于上述的顺序是Karaite文章:

  1. God is the Creator of all created beings;上帝是造物主创造人类的所有;
  2. He is premundane and has no peer or associate;他是premundane并没有同行或联营公司;
  3. the whole universe is created;创造了整个宇宙;
  4. God called Moses and the other Prophets of the Biblical canon;神叫摩西和其他先知的圣经佳能;
  5. the Law of Moses alone is true;仅摩西“是真实的;
  6. to know the language of the Bible is a religious duty;要知道“圣经”的语言是一种宗教义务;
  7. the Temple at Jerusalem is the palace of the world's ruler;在耶路撒冷的圣殿是世界的统治者的宫殿;
  8. belief in Resurrection contemporaneous with the advent of the Messiah;信仰在复活的弥赛亚的来临同期;
  9. final judgment;最后判决;
  10. retribution.报应。

The number ten here is not accidental.数十个这里不是偶然的。It is keeping with the scheme of the Decalogue. Judah Hadassi acknowledges that he had predecessors in this line, and mentions some of the works on which he bases his enumeration. 这是保持与十诫的计划 。犹大Hadassi承认说,他此行的前辈,并提到某些基地上,他的作品他的枚举。The most succinct cataloguing of the Karaite faith in articles is that by Elijah Bashyatzi (died about 1490).文章Karaite信仰的最简洁的编目是由利亚Bashyatzi(约1490死于)。His articles vary but little from those by Hadassi, but they are put with greater philosophical precision (see Jost, "Geschichte des Judenthums," ii. 331).他的文章有所不同,但很少从那些由Hadassi,但它们具有更大的哲学精度(见乔斯特,“历史DES Judenthums,”二331)。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Schlesinger, German translation of 'Ikkarim (especially introduction and annotations), xvi-xliii.施莱辛格,德语翻译“Ikkarim(特别是介绍和说明),XVI - XLIII 。620 et seq ., 640 et seq.; Low, Gesammelte Werke , i.620 及以下 ,640及以下;。低,Gesammelte Werke公司 ,一31-52, 133-176; Jost, Gesh.31-52,133-176;乔斯特,Gesh。des Judenthums und Seiner Sekten ; Hamburger, Realencyclopadie, sv Dogmen ; Rappoport, Biography of Hananel; Schechter, The Dogmas of Judaism , in Studies in Judaism , pp 147-181; J. Aub. Ueber die Glaubens-Symbole der Mosaischen Religion ; Frankel's Zeitschrift fur die Religiosen Interessen des Judenthums , 1845, 409, 449; Creizenach, Grundlehren des Israelitischen Glaubens , in Geiger's Wissensch. Zeitschrift fur Jud.DES Judenthums和围网渔船Sekten;汉堡包,Realencyclopadie,SV Dogmen; Hananel传Rappoport;谢克特,犹太教的教条犹太教 ,PP 147-181 研究 ,J.奥夫Ueber死Glaubens - Symbole DER Mosaischen宗教 ;弗兰克尔(杂志)皮草死Religiosen Interessen DES Judenthums,1845年,409,449; Creizenach,Grundlehren DES Israelitischen Glaubens,在盖格的Wissensch(杂志)皮草犹。Theologie , i.神学 ,岛39 et seq ., ii.39 等以下 ,II。6 8, 255.6月8日,255。


the Shloshah-Asar IkkarimShloshah ASAR Ikkarim

the Thirteen Articles of Faith信仰的13条

compiled from Judaism's 613 Commandments of Torah编制犹太教的613托拉十诫

[Editor Note: These MODIFIED Articles of Faith are presented by Messianic Jews and they include references to Jesus (Yeshua)][编者注:信仰这些修改后的的章程弥赛亚犹太人,他 ​​们包括:耶稣(耶稣) ]

The Thirteen Articles of Messianic Jewish Faith are as follows:弥赛亚犹太信仰的13条如下:

  1. I believe with a perfect faith in the existence of the Creator, be He Blessed, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Fundamental Source of all that exists. 我相信一个完美的信仰造物主的存在,他有福了,谁是完美的,在每一个存在的方式,是所有存在的根本源泉。
  2. I believe with a perfect faith in God's absolute and unparalleled Unity, His Echadness.我相信在上帝的绝对和无与伦比的团结,他Echadness完美信仰。
  3. I believe with a perfect faith in God's Essence, who is touch with the feelings of our infirmities.我相信,随着一个完美的信仰上帝的本质,谁是我们的软弱的感情联系。
  4. I believe with a perfect faith in God's Eternity.我相信,在上帝的永恒的完美信仰
  5. I believe with a perfect faith in the necessary to worship Him exclusively and no foreign counterfeit gods.我相信,在必要的一个完美的信仰崇拜他完全没有外国假冒神。
  6. I believe with a perfect faith that God communicates with man through prophecy, and through His Son, Yeshua the Messiah, and His Holy Spirit. 我相信,随着一个完美的信仰,上帝与人沟通,通过预言,并通过他的儿子,耶稣的弥赛亚,和他的圣灵。
  7. I believe with a perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses, The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him you shall lend an ear. That is our teacher Yeshua Messiah, and it is He to whom I shall lend my ear. 我相信,随着一个完美的信仰,摩西的预言, 耶和华你的神将提高祢从你中间的先知,你的兄弟,我像你们告诉他,你会借给一个耳朵,这是我们老师耶稣。弥赛亚,这是他给谁,我会借给我的耳朵。
  8. I believe with a perfect faith in the Divine origin of HaTorah - The Living Word.我相信,在神圣的起源,HaTorah完美的信仰 -生活的Word。
  9. I believe with a perfect faith in the endurance of the Torah, it will always stand.我相信在托拉耐力的完美的信念,它会始终站在。
  10. I believe with a perfect faith in Divine Omniscience and Divine Guidance of the Almighty One, Blessed be He.我相信在神的无所不知和全能的一个神圣指引的完美信仰,是应当称颂他
  11. I believe with a perfect faith in Divine reward and retribution. 我相信,在神圣的奖励和报应的完美信仰。
  12. I believe with a perfect faith in the arrival of the Yeshua Messiah a second time, and the Messianic age.我相信,随着一个完美的信仰耶稣的弥赛亚第二次,弥赛亚时代的到来
  13. I believe with a perfect faith in the Resurrection of the dead. 我相信,随着一个完美的信念,死人复活。

It is the custom of many Congregations to recite the Thirteen Articles of Faith given by Moses Maimonides.这是许多毕业典礼的习俗背诵信仰的摩西迈蒙尼德13条。However, as Messianic Believers we need to state clearly that "we have an understand of these his principles, but in a new way."然而,作为弥赛亚的信徒,我们需要清楚说明,“我们有一个理解他的这些原则,但一种新的方式。”

Maimonides was a great teacher just like Moses was a great teacher, but Yeshua was the greatest of all teachers, the one prophet greater then Moses himself.迈蒙尼德是一个伟大的老师像摩西一样,是一个伟大的老师,但耶稣是全体教师的最大的,一个先知更大然后摩西本人。 It was given to Yeshua to codify the Scriptures for us, we need not look to Rabbinical Judaism for that.这是考虑到耶稣编纂“圣经”对我们来说,我们需要寻找拉比犹太教。

Rabbinical Judaism can teach us much, yes, I will not deny that, but it can also lead you astray from the teaching of Messiah Yeshua as well. We should all be like the noble Bereans, (Acts 17:11) who in the Synagogue heard the speakers, received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, to see whether what they heard was so. These brothers and sisters were called "noble" for a good reason, and that reason was - with readiness of mind they knew the Word of God is chief over all.拉比犹太教可以教我们很多,是的,我不会否认,但它也可以导致你从弥赛亚耶稣以及教学误入歧途,我们都应该像高贵Bereans,(徒17:11),在犹太教堂听到的发言,收到的心理准备与所有的话,每天搜查圣经,看看究竟他们听到的是这些兄弟姐妹们称为“贵族”一个很好的理由,原因是-与准备的。记住他们知道神的话语是对所有行政。 Believers in Messiah Yeshua must never forget that fact!在弥赛亚耶稣的信徒必须永远不会忘记这个事实!It is the hope that if your Messianic Fellowship does use the Thirteen Articles of Faith you might want to use these instead of those of Moses Maimonides.这是希望你的救世主的奖学金,如果不使用13条的信仰,你可能想使用这些而不是那些摩西迈蒙尼德。

FYI Note:仅供参考请注意:

The number thirteen is the last winding in the Tzitzit, it stands for God's Oneness and Love.人数十三Tzitzit最​​后绕组,它代表了神的统一性和爱。When all the other windings have been tied on the Tzitzit, what you have is a picture of God as "One" (Echad), and God as "Love" and that is the best Article of Faith we can claim.当所有其他的绕组已并列Tzitzit,你有什么是神的作为“一”(Echad),并神作“爱”,这是信心的最好的文章中,我们可以声称的图片。 To know your God as "One" and that He is "Love" brings one to want to Worship Him with all that is in you.为“一”要知道你的神,他是“爱”带来了一个想你是崇拜他。By the way, there are three ways of tying the Tzitzit, but the Ashkenazi way is the oldest form we are told, and would be the best one to use.顺便说一下,有三种方式搭售的Tzitzit,但德系的方式是最古老的形式告诉我们,将使用最好的之一。

Let me end with a Psalm of Praise from the Name of God.让我从神的名与赞美的诗篇结束。Verses one, and two are from the Septuagint, be sure to meditate on them.诗篇之一,从七十,他们一定要打坐。The Septuagint predates what we use today, and was used by the followers of Yeshua Messiah.七十早于我们今天使用的是什么,和弥赛亚耶稣的追随者。

138:1 - A Psalm of David138:1 - 一个大卫的诗篇

I will praise thee with my whole heart: will I sing praise unto You before the angels (gods- elohim); for you have heard all the words of my mouth.我要赞美你与我的整个心:我会唱歌颂你们之前的天使(神伊罗兴);你有听到我口中的话。
2 I will worship toward thy Holy Temple, and praise Your Name on account of your Mercy and your Truth; for you have magnified your Holy Name above everything. 2我会向你的圣殿崇拜,赞美你的名字,你的怜悯和你的真理,为您提供放大你的圣名高于一切。
3 In the day when I cried you answered me, and strengthened me with strength in my soul.在当天3时,我哭了,你回答我,并加强与我在我的灵魂的力量。
4 All the kings of the earth shall praise thee, O LORD, when they hear the words of your mouth. 4地球国王应当赞美你,耶和华啊,当他们听到你的嘴的话。
5 Yes, they shall sing in the ways of the LORD: for great is the Glory of the LORD. 5是,他们应星在主的方式:为伟大的,是耶和华的荣光。
6 Though the LORD be high, yet has he respect unto the lowly: but the proud he knows afar off.耶和华6虽然高,但他给卑微:但骄傲的,他知道远方的。
7 Though I walk in the midst of trouble, you will revive me: you shall stretch forth your hand against the wrath of my enemies, and your right hand shall save me. 7,虽然我在走路的麻烦之中,你会重振我:你提出应舒展你的手,对我的敌人的愤怒,和你的右手救我。
8 The LORD will perfect that which concerneth me: your Mercy, O LORD, stands forever: forsake not the works of your own hands.8耶和华将完善,concerneth我:你的慈悲,耶和华阿,身高永远放弃不是你自己的手中的作品。AGI德盛



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