Kaaba, Black Stone, hajr-e-aswad克尔白,黑石头

General Information一般资料

Kaaba (Arabic, "a square building"), Islam's most sacred sanctuary and pilgrimage shrine, is located in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca.天房(阿拉伯文,“广场大厦”),伊斯兰教最神圣的避难所和朝圣参拜靖国神社,是位于麦加的大清真寺的院子里。According to the Koran, the cubic-shaped structure was built by Adam according to a divine plan and rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael.立方米形结构,根据“可兰经”,是根据一个神圣的计划,亚当和亚伯拉罕和以实玛利重建。 A trough in which they reputedly mixed mortar stands near the door and is a popular place of prayer.一个低谷,他们据说混砂浆门站附近,是一个受欢迎的地方祷告。The Kaaba houses the Black Stone, the most venerated object for Muslims.克尔白房子的黑石头,对穆斯林最崇敬的对象。Probably of meteoric origin, the stone is reputed to have been given to Ishmael by the angel Gabriel.可能是流星原产地,石头是驰名已获得由天使加布里埃尔以实玛利。When Muhammad began to preach to the Meccans, the Kaaba was a shrine for the pagan deities of the Arabs.当穆罕默德开始传教的麦加天房是一个阿拉伯人的异教神的神社。After the Prophet established control of Mecca, the shrine was rededicated to Allah.先知建立控制的麦加后,靖国神社是重新致力于向真主。All Muslims face toward the Kaaba during their daily prayers.所有穆斯林对着天房在日常的祈祷。

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Kaaba, Caaba天房,Caaba

General Information一般资料

Kaaba is the central shrine of Islam, a cube-shaped, one-room stone structure in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.天房是伊斯兰教的中央神殿,一个立方体形,一间在沙特阿拉伯的麦加,石结构。It already attracted pilgrimages as the most important sanctuary (haram) in pre-Muslim Arabia, and the traditional belief that it was built by Abraham and Ishmael (to whom the Arabs trace their descent) was confirmed by the Qur'an (Koran).它已经吸引了作为最重要的避难所(圣地)在预穆斯林阿拉伯朝圣,和传统的信仰,它是由亚伯拉罕和以实玛利(阿拉伯人追踪他们的后裔)内置是“古兰经“(古兰经)证实。 The annual pilgrimage to the Kaaba takes place in the first ten days of Dhu al-Hijja, the last lunar month of the Islamic calendar. The Black Stone set on the outside of one corner of the structure is solemnly kissed by all pilgrims who can gain access to it. Lesser pilgrimages are performed throughout the year.一年一度的朝觐天房东华大学AL - Hijja,最后伊斯兰历法的正月的前10天的地方。结构的一个角落外的黑石头设置郑重吻了所有朝圣者能够获得访问它。全年完成次级朝圣。

For Muslims, the Kaaba is the "House of God," where the divine touches the mundane. It is washed annually and covered with a dark silk cloth. 对于穆斯林,天房是“神之府,”神圣的接触世俗的,它每年被冲刷,并用深色的丝绸布覆盖。The Kaaba has been greatly expanded since Muhammad's times, a mosque-court having been built around it; recently a gate of solid gold was added.天房自穆罕默德时代已经大大扩大,最近一个清真寺法院各地已建成;纯金门。

Fazlur RahmanFazlur拉赫曼


Kaaba, Ka'aba - The House of Allah天房克尔白​​ - 安拉的众议院

Advanced Information先进的信息

In the province of Hejaz in the western part of Arabia, not far from the Red Sea, there lies the town of Makka.在希贾兹在沙特西部部分省,不远处的红海,所在的Makka镇。In the centre of this town there is a small square building made of stones, about 60 feet long, 60 feet wide and 60 feet high.在这个城市的中心有一个小广场建设结石,约60英尺长,60英尺宽,60英尺高。Since time immemorial this town and this stone built house has been known to world travellers.自远古以来,这个镇和石头建成的房子一直被称为世界的旅客。This is Baitullah, the House of Allah.这是Baitullah,众议院安拉。Its sanctity and antiquity is older than history itself.它的神圣和古老是年纪比历史本身。

Tradition goes that the Kaaba was ordained by Allah to be built in the shape of the House in Heaven called Baitul Ma'amoor.传统可以,天房是由安拉晋建在众议院在天上的形状,称为Baitul Ma'amoor。Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place.真主在他的无限慈悲受戒类似的地方在地球上和先知亚当率先建成的这个地方。The Bible, in the Chapter of Genesis describes its building when God ordained Abraham to erect a Shrine for worship when Abraham was ordered to go to the Southern desert with his wife Hagera and infant son Ismael.圣经创世纪“一章中,介绍自身建设时,上帝受戒亚伯拉罕竖立一个敬拜靖国神社时,亚伯拉罕被勒令去南部沙漠与他的妻子Hagera和襁褓中的儿子伊斯梅尔。 The Old Testament describes this building as the Shrine of God at several places, but the one built at Ma'amoor is very much similar to the one at Makka.旧约描述为神的靖国神社在几个地方的建设,但建立在Ma'amoor一个非常类似Makka之一。There is no doubt that it was referring to the stone built house at Makka.毫无疑问,这是指在Makka建造房子的石头。

Qora'an brought this story into the full light of history.Qora'an带进历史的全光这个故事。 In Sura 3 Verse 90 Qora'an says “Allah has spoken the Truth, therefore follow the creed of Ibrahim, a man of pure faith and no idolater”.在苏拉3新诗90 Qora'an说,“阿拉讲的真理,因此遵循信条的易卜拉欣的人,一个纯粹的信仰和不拜偶像”。The first house established for the people was at Makka, a Holy place and a guidance to all beings. Makka,一个神圣的地方和指导众生为人民建立的第一所房子。Qora'an firmly establishes the fact that Ibrahim was the real founder of the Holy Shrine. Qora'an确立的事实,易卜拉欣圣地的真正创始人。

When Prophet Ibrahim built the Holy Shrine in Makka, his prayers were that this place should remain a centre of worship for all good and pious people; that Allah should keep his family the custodians of the Holy place.当先知易卜拉欣建在Makka圣地,他的祈祷,这个地方应该保持所有好和虔诚的人崇拜的中心;安拉应该保持他的家人圣地的保管人。 Ever since, Ismael the son of Ibrahim who helped his father to build this place and his descendants remained the custodians of the Holy Shrine.于是乎,伊斯梅尔易卜拉欣的儿子帮助父亲建立这个地方和他的后裔仍圣地的保管人。History tells us that centuries passed and the guardianship of the Kaaba remained in the family of Ismael until the name of Abde Manaf came into the limelight.历史告诉我们,世纪过去了,天房监护伊斯梅尔家庭仍然ABDE Manaf的名字,直到成为公众关注的焦点。He inherited this service and made it much more prominent.他继承了这一服务,并更加突出。His son Hashim took this leadership and extended it to many other towns of Hejaz so much so that many pilgrims flocked annually to this place and enjoyed Hashims's hospitality.他的儿子哈希姆了这一领先地位,并扩展到许多其他城镇的希贾兹以至于许多香客络绎不绝,每年到这个地方,并享有Hashims的好客。 A feast was given in honour of the pilgrims, food and water was served to all guests by the family of Hashim.一个节日是纪念朝圣者,送达的食物和水是哈希姆家族的所有客人。This prominence created jealousies and his brother Abdushams' adopted son Ummayya tried to create trouble.这突出创建的嫉妒和他的弟弟Abdushams“通过儿子Ummayya试图制造事端。There was a dispute in which Umayya failedand left Makka to settle down in the Northern provinces of Suria(Sham) currently known as Syria.Umayya failedand左Makka苏利亚(深水)的北方省份,目前,叙利亚在解决争端。After Hashim his brother Muttalib and after him Hashim's son Shyba who became known as Abdul Muttalib assumed the leadership of the family.后,哈希姆他的兄弟Muttalib和哈希姆的儿子Shyba,成了被称为阿卜杜勒Muttalib后,他承担了家庭的领导。 He organised feasts and supplies of water to the pilgrims during the annual festival of Pilgrimage to the Holy Shrine.他组织节日和供水的朝圣者,在一年一度的节日,朝圣的圣地。

Prophet Ibrahim built this House for devout worship to one God. But within his lifetime people disobeyed his orders and began to put idols inside the Kaaba.先知易卜拉欣建立一个神的虔诚崇拜这个房子,但在他的一生,人们不服从他的命令,并开始把里面的天房的偶像。 Ibrahim had to clean the House of these idols and of Idle worshippers.易卜拉欣了清洁这些空闲崇拜者的偶像,的房子。He told the people that this was a symbolic house of God.他告诉人们,这是神的象征性的房子。God does not live there for He is everywhere.上帝不生活在那里,因为他是无处不在。People did not understand this logic and no sooner had Ibrahim died the people, out of reverence, filled the place with idols again.人们不理解这个逻辑,不早了易卜拉欣死于出崇敬的人,填补了与偶像的再次发生。They thronged to this place annually and worshipped their personal gods, It was over Four Thousand years later that the last of the line of prophet (SA), Muhammad Ibne Abdullah entered Makka triumphantly, went inside the Ka'aba and, with the help of his cousin and son in law Ali Ibne Abi Talib, (AS) destroyed all the idols of Ka'aba with their own hands.他们挤满每年到这个地方,并崇拜他们个人的神,这是超过四千年后,最后的先知(SA)线,阿卜杜拉穆罕默德Ibne进入Makka扬扬,克尔白内的帮助下,他的表妹和儿子在法律阿里Ibne ABI利布()用自己的双手摧毁了克尔白的所有的偶像。At one stage of this destruction of idols, the tallest of the idol Hubbol was brought down after Ali had to stand on the shoulders of the Prophet to carry out God's orders.在这种破坏的偶像,偶像Hubbol最高的一个阶段被击落之后,阿里站在先知的肩膀上进行真主的命令。The Prophet of Islam was reciting the Verse from the Qur'an伊斯兰教先知背诵“古兰经”的诗句

“Truth hath come and falsehood hath vanished.”“真理上帝来谬误祂所消失。”
This was done in the 8th year of Hijra, January 630 AD after the bloodless victory at Makka by the Prophet of Islam.这样做的希吉拉8年,公元630年1月后,在Makka伊斯兰教先知的不流血的胜利。

Historically when Ibrahim was ordered by Allah to build the Shrine for worship over a small he uncovered the original foundations of the Kaaba built by Adam.从历史上看,当易卜拉欣是真主的命令建立在一个小的用于祭祀的靖国神社,他发现由亚当建造天房的原始基础。Ibrahim with the help of his son Ismael erected the new shrine on the same foundations.帮助他的儿子伊斯梅尔易卜拉欣竖立在同一基础的新的靖国神社。Originally it contained only four walls without a roof .最初,它包含只有四面墙壁,没有屋顶。Centuries later during the timeof Kusayi who was the leader of the Tribe of Quraish in Makka a taller building was completed with a roof and a quadrangle wall around it to give it the shape of a sanctuary and doors all around the sanctuary walls.几个世纪以后在timeof Kusayi谁Makka Quraish的部落领导人,一个高的建筑物屋顶和它周围的一个四合院墙的完成,给它一个庇护所和各地的避难所墙门的形状。 People entered through these doors to come to the Ka'aba for worship.通过这些门进入的人来崇拜的克尔白。It is now about 60 feet high, 60 feet wide from east to west and 60 feet from north to south. A door is fixed about 7 feet above ground level facing North East.现在高约60英尺,从东到西,从北到南60英尺宽60 英尺,一进门是固定的地面水平面临着东北约7英尺以上。A Black stone (Hajar al Aswad) was fixed into its eastern corner. In front of the building was Maqame Ibrahim, the arch shape gate known as that of Banu Shayba and the Zamzam Well. 一个黑色的石头(哈吉尔人阿斯瓦德)固定到东北角。Maqame易卜拉欣,拱形门巴努Shayba Zamzam好,在楼前。Just outside are the Hills called Safa and Merwa and thedistance between the hills is about 500 yards.外面的山叫萨和Merwa thedistance之间的丘陵地带约500码。These days both of the hills are enclosed into the sanctuary walls with a roof over it.这些天的丘陵都是封闭进入圣域的墙壁,用在它的屋顶。

The whole building is built of the layers of grey blue stone from the hills surrounding Makka.整个建筑是建立层层的灰蓝色的石头从Makka周边丘陵。The four corners roughly face the four points of the compass.四个角大致面对四点的指南针。At the East is the Black stone (Rukn el Aswad), at the North is el Ruken el Iraqi, at the west al Rukne el Shami and at the south al Rukne el Yamani.在东,是黑色的石头(Rukn EL阿斯瓦德),在北,是EL鲁肯EL伊拉克,在西部人Rukne EL沙米和南部人Rukne EL亚马尼。The four walls are covered with a curtain (Kiswa).四个墙壁上挂满了帷幕(Kiswa)。The kiswa is usually of black brocade with the Shahada outlined in the weave of the fabric. kiswa通常是黑色的Shahada锦缎面料编织概述。About 2/3rd's of the way up runs a gold embroidered band covered with Qur'anic text.关于2/3rd“的方式最多运行一个金绣带,覆盖着古兰经经文。

In the Eastern corner about 5 feet above ground the Hajar el Aswad (the blackstone) is fixed into the wall.在高出地面约5英尺的东北角哈吉尔EL阿斯瓦德(黑石)固定到墙上。Its real nature is difficult to determine, its visible shape is worn smooth by hand touching and kissing.其真正的性质是难以确定的,其可见的形状是穿光滑,用手触摸和亲吻。Its diameter is around 12 inches.它的直径是12英寸左右。Opposite the North west wall but not connected with it, is a semi circular wall of white marble.对面的北西壁,但不与它相连,是一个半的白色大理石圆形围墙。It is 3 feet high and about 5 feet thick.这是3英尺高,约5英尺厚。This semi circular space enjoys an especial consideration and pilgrims wait in queue to find a place to pray there.这种半的圆形空间,享有特殊的考虑和朝圣者在排队等待找一个地方祈祷那里。The graves of Ismael and his mother Hajera are within this semi circular wall.伊斯梅尔和他母亲Hajera的坟墓是在这个半的圆形围墙。Between the archway and the facade (NE) is a little building with a small dome, the Maqame Ibrahim.之间的拱门和门面(NE)是一个小圆顶,Maqame易卜拉欣的小建设。Inside it is kept a stone bearing the prints of two human feet.里面是保持轴承的两个人脚的打印石头。Prophet Ibrahim is said to have stood on this stone when building the Ka'aba and marks of his feet are miraculously preserved.先知易卜拉欣说,这块石头上时,站在建设克尔白和他的脚标志着奇迹般地保存。

On the outskirts of the building to the North East is the 'Zamzam Well' (this is now put under ground).在建设东北郊外的“Zamzam好”(这是目前地下)。

History of the building of the Ka'aba.克尔白的建设的历史。

Qur'an in Sura Baqra Verses 121 to 127 described it clearly that Allah had ordained his servant Ibrahim to build the Shrine there for worship of One God.古兰经苏拉Baqra诗篇121至127描述清楚,安拉了祝他的仆人易卜拉欣建立靖国神社有一个神的崇拜。During Kusayi's time it was rebuilt and fortified.在Kusayi的时间重建和强化。During the early years of Prophet Muhammad (SA) before he announced his ministry, the Ka'aba was damaged by floods and it was rebuilt again.先知穆罕默德(SA)之前,他宣布他的部的早年期间,克尔白被洪水损坏,它再次被重建。 When the Black stone was to be put in its place the Makkans quarrelled among themselves as to who should have the honour to place it there.当黑色的石头是Makkans争吵,彼此之间应该有地方的荣誉。They had just decided that the first comer to the quadrangle should be given the task of deciding as to who should have the honour.他们刚刚决定第一的后起之秀四边形应给予决定谁应该很荣幸的任务。Muhammad (SA) came in and was assigned this task.穆罕默德(SA),排在被分配给这一任务。He advised them to place the stone in a cloak and ordered the heads of each Tribe each to take an end and bring the cloak nearer the corner on the eastern side.他劝他们放置在斗篷的石头,并下令每个部落的首长每到结束,带来接近东侧角落的外衣。He himself then took out the stone and placed it in its position.他自己再掏出石头,并把它放在其位置。It has been fixed there ever since.它被固定在那里,自从。

After the martyrdom of the family of the Prophet at Kerbala in 61 Hijri (681 AD), the Ummayad Caliph Yazid Ibne Moawiya did not stop there in the pursuit of his destruction.回历61殉难后,在卡尔巴拉的先知的家庭(681 AD),伍麦叶王朝的哈里发耶齐德Ibne Moawiya没有就此打住在追求他的毁灭。He sent a large contingent under the command of Haseen Ibne Namir to Madina which destroyed the Mosque of the Prophet.他送了一个大队伍Haseen Ibne南月明到麦地那,摧毁了清真寺的先知的指挥下。They did not stop there but proceeded to Makka and demolished the four walls of the Ka'aba and killed thousands of muslims who protested.他们并没有停止,但Makka和拆毁的克尔白的四壁和杀害了成千上万的穆斯林谁抗议。 Yazid died and Ibne Namir returned to Damascus, Ka'aba was rebuilt by Abdullah Ibne Zubayr and his associates.耶齐德死亡,Ibne南月明返回大马士革,克尔白是重建Ibne祖拜尔阿卜杜拉和他的同伙。Umawi forces came back to Makka and killed Abdullah Ibne Zubayr, hung his body on the gates of the Ka'aba for three months for all to see the Umawi power. Umawi部队回来Makka杀害阿卜杜拉Ibne祖拜尔,他的身体挂3个月对所有克尔白的门,看到Umawi电源。But eventually this arrogance of power brought its own consequences and Mukhtar became the ruler in Iraq.但最终这种权力的傲慢带来了自己的后果和穆赫塔尔成为在伊拉克的统治者。Under his guidance the Ka'aba was refurbished and pilgrims began to arrive in safety to perform Hajj.克尔白在他的指导下进行了翻新和朝圣者开始在安全到达朝觐。

The Ka'aba successfully withstood the Karamatian invasion of 317/929, only the Blackstone was carried away which was returned some twenty years later.克尔白成功地经受住了929分之317Karamatian入侵,只有黑石这是大约20年后返回的被抬走。In the year 1981 the Wahabis brought tanks inside the Ka'aba to crush the kahtani revolution against the Saudi regime and almost demolished the South Eastern Wall.在1981年带来瓦哈比派克尔白内的坦克,粉碎卡赫塔尼革命对沙特政权几乎拆毁东南墙。This was later restored with the help of the Makkan people.这是后来Makkan人的帮助下恢复。

Every man living in Makka in the 6th and 7th century must out of necessity have had some relationship with the Ka'aba.每个人在Makka生活中的第6和第7世纪,必须出于需要有一些克尔白的关系。 On the Muhammad (SA), the Prophet of Islam, the Qur'an is silent during the Makkans period in this respect. All that is known is that the muslim community of the period turned towards Jerusalem in prayers. Subsequently about a year and a half after the Hijra the Muslims were ordered during prayers which were lead by the Prophet of Islam himself to turn towards Makka.穆罕默德(SA),伊斯兰教的先知,“古兰经”在Makkans期间在这方面是无声的,是已知的是在祈祷期间的穆斯林社会对耶路撒冷,随后约一年后半希吉拉穆斯林被勒令在祈祷,这是由伊斯兰教本人的先知转向Makka导致。 The particular mosque in Madina where this happened is called Masjide Qiblatain, meaning the mosque with two Qiblas.特别是在麦地那清真寺的地方发生这种情况被称为Masjide Qiblatain,这意味着两个Qiblas清真寺。 The Qur'an tells the muslims, “ turn then thy face towards the sacred mosque and wherever ye be turn your faces towards that part ”Qur'an II,139/144.古兰经告诉穆斯林,“转向神圣的清真寺,然后你的脸,无论你们转向那一部分你的脸”古兰经“第二,144分之139。

At this same period the Qur'an began to lay stress on the religion of Ibrahim, presenting Islam as a return to the purity of the religion of Ibrahim which, obscured by Judaism and Christianity, shone forth in its original brightness in the Qur'an. The pilgrimage's to the Ka'aba and ritual progressions around the building were continued, but were now for the glorification of One God. The Abrahimic vision of the Ka'aba created a means of discerning an orthodox origin buried in the midst of pagan malpractices to which the first muslims pointed the way. “古兰经”,在这同一时期开始奠定的易卜拉欣的宗教上的压力,呈现伊斯兰教作为一种回归的易卜拉欣的宗教,犹太教和基督教所遮蔽的纯度在“古兰经”规定,在其原有的亮度照亮朝圣的克尔白和周围建筑物的仪式级数继续,但现在是一个上帝颂扬 。克尔白Abrahimic视力创建雪亮的埋在异教的不当行为中的正统起源的一种手段其中的第一个穆斯林指明了方向。

Every year after the Hajj ceremony the place is closed for one month and on the Day of Ashura the Ka'aba is washed from inside by the Water from the well of Zamzam and a new Kiswa is brought to cover the Ka'aba for the next year.每年朝觐仪式后的地方被关闭1个月和修罗克尔白节是洗涤水从内从Zamzam和一个新的Kiswa以及带来覆盖下的克尔白一年。

This is the story of the Ka'aba and the persons who protected it and remained its custodians and protectors from the satanic and evil forces throughout history.这是克尔白和保护它,并从撒旦和整个历史上的邪恶势力仍是其保管人和保护的人士的故事。Muhammad (SA) and the people of his household (Ahlulbayt) were the protectors of the Ka'aba, and currently the 12th Imam from the direct descent of the Prophet of Islam is the real protector, its custodian and guardian and shall remain as such while in concealment.穆罕默德(SA)和他的家庭的人(Ahlulbayt)克尔白的保护,目前从伊斯兰教先知的直接后裔第12伊玛目是真正的保护,其托管人及监护人,并应继续这样而隐蔽。 In the following pages we shall unfold the lives and times of these 14 Masoomeen Alaihimussalam.在以下的篇幅中,我们应开展这14 Masoomeen Alaihimussalam的生命和时间。


Editor's Notes编者的话

The text above is excerpted from much more complete scholarly presentations from the web-site: al-islam.org上面的文字是摘自网站更完整的学术演讲:AL - islam.org

Editor's Note编者按

This article seems to be the best available article (in English) regarding the Kaaba.这篇文章似乎是最好的文章(英文),天房。It includes a number of details not otherwise mentioned.它包括否则没有提到的细节。However, it mentions some details that seem extremely hard to believe are documented!然而,提到一些细节,似乎很难相信记录! There are a number of details about Abraham and Ishmael.亚伯拉罕和以实玛利的详细资料。That seems fine except that, at that era, writing and record-keeping essentially did not exist!这似乎很好,在那个时代,,除了写作和记录保存,基本上不存在!The few known records from that era are in stones engraved with heiroglyphic symbols, of major Kings and major wars.从那个时代的一些已知的记录都刻有重大国王和大规模战争,heiroglyphic符号的石块。It is somewhat hard to imagine that Abraham, Ishmael or their children would have somehow recorded all the personal experiences that this article seems to accept as facts.这是有点难以想象,亚伯拉罕,以实玛利或他们的子女会以某种方式记录所有的个人经验,这篇文章似乎接受事实。If there are archaeological artifacts to support these statements, excellent!如果有考古文物,以支持这些声明,优秀的!But this article did not provide any such documentation.但这篇文章没有提供任何此类文件。From a scientific viewpoint, this seems like a potential problem.从科学的角度看,这似乎是一个潜在的问题。

On a different subject, this article refers to very large numbers of travelers over the centuries mentioning the Kaaba.这篇文章在不同的主题,是指旅客非常大的数字,在提百年天房。This sounds like a VERY important subject to deeply research!这听起来像一个非常重要的课题,深入研究!If it is true that traveling Jews of 600 years before Muhammad mentioned the existence of the large building, and the many Romans who were in the area at that same time, and earlier Persians and other ancient traders and travelers also mentioned the building, it seems that it would provide VERY impressive evidence that the Kaaba was ancient enough to potentially have been erected by Abraham (2600 years before Muhammad).如果这是真的,行驶600年的犹太人穆罕默德之前提到的大型建筑的存在,和许多罗马人在这一地区,同时,和早期的波斯人和其他古代商人和旅客也提到了建设,似乎它提供了非常可观的证据表明,天房是古代不够潜在的亚伯拉罕(2600年之前,穆罕默德)已竖立。 We have made a moderate effort to locate such references, and have not yet found any.我们已经取得了适度的努力找到这种提法,尚​​未发现任何。If there are Muslim scholars who can point us to such pre-Muslim references to the building, we would appreciate it and would add them to this Note.如果有穆斯林学者可以指向我们这种预穆斯林引用的建设,我们将不胜感激,将它们添加到本说明。However, on the other side of the coin, if there are NOT quite a few such pre-Muslim references, of a rather large building in a city that was always on major trade routes, it might cast question on the actual antiquity of the Kaaba.然而,硬币的另一面,如果不存在不少穆斯林引用,主要贸易路线始终是相当大的一个城市的建设,,它可能蒙上天房的实际古代问题。 So far, we have not been able to find any references to the building before around 100 years before Muhammad, and we would appreciate aid by archaeologists, researchers and scholars, on any evidence either way.到目前为止,我们还没有能够找到之前约100年穆罕默德之前建设的任何引用,我们将不胜感激任何证据,无论哪种方式,由考古学家,研究人员和学者的援助。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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