Book of Kells, Illuminated Bible Manuscripts凯尔斯书

General Information一般资料

The large Irish Illuminated Manuscript of the four Gospels known as the Book of Kells is one of the most famous of all medieval books.大型爱尔兰称为Kells书四福音的照明手稿是最有名的中世纪书籍之一。Now in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, it was probably begun by monks at the island monastery of Iona and completed at the Irish monastery of Kells sometime between the mid-8th and the early 9th century.现在,在都柏林三一学院的图书馆,它可能开始在Iona的岛屿寺院僧侣和之间中期8日和9世纪初的爱尔兰修道院的凯尔斯完成。 The gospels are written on thick vellum and lavishly illuminated with the rich ornamentation characteristic of Celtic Art of this period.福音书都写上了厚厚的牛皮纸和凯尔特艺术的丰富的纹饰,这一时期的特点与华丽照明。In addition to 31 full-page illustrations, fanciful figures and tightly interlaced bands, knots, and spirals of extraordinary intricacy and density occur throughout the book.除了31个整版图文并茂,奇特的数字和紧密隔行扫描的频段,疙瘩,和非同寻常的复杂性和密度的螺旋发生贯穿全书。

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Alton, EH, and Meyer, Peter, The Book of Kells, 3 vols.奥尔顿,EH,和迈耶,彼得,凯尔斯,3卷书。 (1950-51); Henry, Francoise, The Book of Kells (1974).(1950-1951年);亨利,弗朗索瓦,Kells书(1974)。

Book of Kells预订的凯尔斯

Catholic Information天主教信息

An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian canons, known also as the "Book of Columba", probably because it was written in the monastery of Iona to honour the saint.爱尔兰手稿包含四福音,希伯来文的名字片段,Eusebian大炮,也被称为“鸽书”,可能是因为它是写在Iona的修道院履行圣人。 It is likely that it is to this book that the entry in the "Annals of Ulster" under the year 1006 refers, recording that in that year the "Gospel of Columba" was stolen.这是可能的,这是这本书,在今年1006是指记录在这一年的“鸽福音”被偷走,在“阿尔斯特通志”的条目。

According to tradition, the book is a relic from the time of Columba (d. 597) and even the work of his hands, but, on palæographic grounds and judging by the character of the ornamentation, this tradition cannot be sustained, and the date of the composition of the book can hardly be placed earlier than the end of the seventh or beginning of the eighth century.根据传统,这本书是由鸽时间(卒于597),甚至他的手的工作的遗物,但palæographic理由和纹饰的特点来看,这个传统不能持久,而且日期书的组成难以摆在前面的第七或第八世纪初结束。 This must be the book which the Welshman, Geraldus Cambrensis, saw at Kildare in the last quarter of the twelfth century and which he describes in glowing terms (Topogr. Hibern., II, xxxviii).这必须是书中的威尔士,Geraldus Cambrensis,只见在基尔代尔在十二世纪的最后一个季度,而他喜形于色的描述(Topogr. Hibern,二,三十八)。We next hear of it at the cathedral of Kells (Irish Cenannus) in Meath, a foundation of Columba's, where it remained for a long time, or until the year 1541.接下来,我们听到它在凯尔斯(爱尔兰Cenannus)在米斯,鸽的,它仍然很长一段时间的基础,大教堂或1541年之前。 In the seventeenth century Archbishop Ussher presented it to Trinity College, Dublin, where it is the most precious manuscript (AI 6) in the college library and by far the choicest relic of Irish art that has been preserved.在17世纪大主教厄舍尔都柏林三一学院,它是最珍贵的手稿在高校图书馆和爱尔兰艺术的彩虹已保存的遗物(AI 6)。 In it is to be found every variety of design typical of Irish art at its best.在它被发现各种各样的每一个设计在其最好的爱尔兰艺术的典型。

Some small portions at the beginning and end of the manuscript have been lost, but otherwise it is in a very good state of preservation.一些小的手稿的开头和结尾部分已丢失,但否则它保存在一个非常良好的状态。It was apparently left unfinished, since some of the ornaments remain only in outline.这显然​​是未完成的,因为一些饰物仍然只在大纲。It is written in part black, red, purple or yellow ink, and it has been thought that the hands of two scribes, neither of whom is known to us by name, are discernible in the writing and illumination of the manuscript.这是写在部分黑色,红色,紫色或黄色墨水,它已被认为两个文士的手,任何一人是已知的名称,是在对稿件的写作和照明明显。 The most characteristic ornaments of the Book of Kells, as of other illuminated Irish manuscripts of the period, are the closely coiled spirals connected with each other by a number of curves and terminating in the so-called "trumpet pattern". Kells书的最有特色的饰物,其他明亮的爱尔兰手稿期间,紧密盘绕曲线和相互连接,在所谓的“小号模式”终止螺旋。Almost equally characteristic are the zoomorphic interlacements, coloured representations of fanciful beings, or of men, animals, birds, horses, dogs, and grotesque, gargoyle-like human figures, twisted and hooked together in intricate detail.兽形interlacements,彩色的幻想的人表示,或男人,动物,鸟,马,狗,怪诞,石像鬼般的人物,扭曲和一起挂在错综复杂的细节,几乎是同样的特征。 Other frequently occurring designs are a system of geometrical weaving of ribbons plaited and knotted together, and a simpler ornamentation by means of red dotted lines.其他频繁发生的设计是一个几何彩带编织和打结编织在一起的系统,和一个简单装饰的红色虚线。The versatility and inventive genius of the illustrator surpasses all belief.插画的多功能性和创造性的天才超越了所有的信念。Lines diverge and converge in endless succession, and the most intricate figures, in lavish abundance and with astounding variety of ornament, are combined and woven into one harmonious design.线发散和收敛生生不息,并组合和最复杂的人物,在豪华的丰度和惊人的各种装饰品,编织成一个和谐的设计。In spite of the extent of the work and its thousands of exquisite initials and terminals, there is not a single pattern or combination that can be said to be a copy of another.尽管精湛的缩写和终端的工作和其成千上万的程度,没有一个单一的模式或组合,可以说是另一个副本。The artist shows a wonderful technique in designing and combining various emblems, the cross, vine, dragon, fish, and serpent.艺术家展示了一个美妙的技术设计,并结合各种标志,在十字架上,藤,龙,鱼,蛇。The drawing is perfection itself.绘图本身是完美的。It has been examined under a powerful magnifying glass for hours at a time and found to be, even in the most minute and complicated figures, without a single false or irregular line.它已被一个强大的放大镜下检查几个小时的时间和被发现,即使在最细微和复杂的数字,没有一个单一的虚假或不规则线。Some of the most accomplished of modern draughtsmen have attempted to copy its elaborate designs, but, such is the delicacy of the execution, that they had to abandon the task as hopeless.最现代绘图员完成一些试图复制其精心设计的,但是,这样执行的微妙,他们不得不放弃无望的任务。In a space of one inch square were counted no less than 158 interlacings of white ribbon with a black border on either side.在一平方英寸的空间计算与两边的黑色边框不低于158 interlacings白色缎带。On the other hand, the pictures of the personages delineated are feeble and primitive and show but a limited knowledge of the human figure and its relative proportions.另一方面,划定人士的照片是软弱和原始显示,但一个人的数字和相对比例的知识有限。

No words can describe the beauty and the extreme splendour of the richly coloured initial letters, which are more profuse in the "Book of Kells" than in any other manuscript.没有任何语言可以形容的美丽和色彩丰富的首字母,这是比任何其他的手稿“凯尔斯书”更丰富的极端的辉煌。The only thing to which they can be compared is a bed of many coloured crocuses and tulips or the very finest stained glass window, which they equal in beauty of colouring and rival in delicacy of ornament and drawing.唯一他们可以比较许多颜色的番红花和郁金香或非常优秀的彩色玻璃窗,这等于在美丽的着色和精致的装饰品和绘画中的对手是一个床。 The artist possessed a wonderful knowledge of the proportion of colour and the distribution of his material -- sienna, purple, lilac, red, pink, green, yellow, the colours most often used -- and he managed the shading and tinting of the letters with consummate taste and skill.艺术家拥有一个美妙的颜色和他的物质的分布比例知识 - 赭,紫色,淡紫色,红色,粉色,绿​​色,黄色,最常用的颜色 - 和他管理的着色和着色字母用精湛的口味和技能。It is remarkable that there is no trace of the use of silver or gold on the vellum.值得注意的是,没有一丝的使用银色或金色的羊皮纸。Sometimes the colours are laid on in thick layers to give the appearance of enamel, and are here and there as bright and soft and lustrous as when put on fresh more than twelve hundred years ago.有时颜色是在厚层放在搪瓷外观,明亮,柔软,光泽新鲜超过1200年前在这里和那里。Even the best photographic and colour reproductions give but a faint idea of the beauty of the original.即使是最好的摄影和彩色复制,但淡淡的原始之美的想法。Especially worthy of notice is the series of illuminated miniatures, including pictorial representations of the Evangelists and their symbols, the Blessed Virgin and the Divine Child, the temptation of Jesus, and Jesus seized by the Jews.尤其值得注意的是一系列发亮的微缩模型,包括图案交涉圣母和神圣的儿童,诱惑耶稣,和耶稣的福音和他们的符号,检获的犹太人。 These pictures reach their culminating point in what is, in some respects, the most marvellous example of workmanship that the world has ever produced, namely the full page monogram XPI which occurs in the text of the Gospel of St. Matthew.这些照片达到什么是他们的最高点,在某些方面,做工,世界上有史以来生产的最奇妙的例子,即整页会标的XPI发生的福音的圣马太文字。 It is no wonder that it was for a long time believed that the "Book of Kells" could have been written only by angels.这也难怪,它相信“凯尔斯书”可能被写入只能由天使很长一段时间。

Publication information Written by Joseph Dunn.约瑟夫邓恩编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Paul Knutsen.转录由保罗Knutsen。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Illuminated Manuscripts照明手稿

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. ORIGIN一,原产地

A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be presented under several forms:绘饰品,可根据几种形式呈现大量的手稿,包括:

initials of chapters or paragraphs, ornamented sometimes very simply, sometimes on the other hand with a great profusion of interlacings, foliage, and flowers; these are developed along the whole length of the page and within are sometimes depicted persons or scenes from everyday life; paintings on the margin, in which some scene is carried over several pages; borders around the text (interlacing colonnades, etc.), the most remarkable example is that of the evangelistic canons of the Middle Ages; full-page paintings (or such as cover only a part of the page), but forming real pictures, similar to frescoes or easel pictures; these are chiefly found on very ancient or very recent manuscripts (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries);缩写章节或段落,装饰有时很简单,有时在一个interlacings,叶子,花朵丛​​生另一方面,这些都是沿整个页面长度内,有时是描绘人或从日常生活的场景;保证金,进行了几页,其中一些场景的画作;文本周​​围的边框(隔行柱廊等),最显着的例子是中世纪的传福音的大炮;整版绘画(或如支付页面的一部分),但形成真正的图片,类似的壁画或画架的照片,这些都是主要发现很古老或非常近的手稿(第十四和第十五世纪);

finally, there exist rolls of parchment wholly covered with paintings (Roll of Josue in the Vatican; Exultet Roll of S. Italy; see below).最后,存在着卷羊皮纸全覆盖画(若苏埃在梵蒂冈的轧辊; Exultet卷意大利的S.;见下文)。

All these ornaments are called "eluminures", illuminations, or miniatures, a world used since the end of the sixteenth century.所有这些饰品称为“eluminures”,灯饰,或缩影,自十六世纪末世界。At first the "miniator" was charged with tracing in red minium the titles and initials.起初被控“miniator”红铅丹的名称和缩写的跟踪。Despite its limitations, the art of illumination is one of the most charming ever invented; it exacts the same qualifications and produced almost as powerful effects as painting; it even calls for a delicacy of touch all its own.尽管有其局限性,照度是有史以来最发明迷人的艺术,它需要付出同等的资历和生产几乎像画一样的强大影响,它甚至一个精致的触摸自己的要求。 And whereas most of the paintings of the Middle Ages have perished, these little works form an almost uninterrupted series which afford us a clear idea of the chief schools of painting of each epoch and each region.而中世纪的绘画最丧生,这些小工程,形成了一个几乎不间断的系列,我们提供一个清晰的思路绘画每个时代,每个地区行政学校。 Finally, in the history of art the rôle of illuminated manuscripts was considerable; by treating in their works scenes of sacred history the manuscript painters inspired other artists, painters, sculptors, goldsmiths, ivory workers, etc.; it is especially in miniature that the ebb and flow of artistic styles during the Middle Ages may be detected.最后,在艺术史的照明手稿的作用相当,在他们的作品的神圣的历史场景治疗手稿画家激发了其他艺术家,画家,雕刻家,金匠,象牙工人等,特别是在微型低潮,并在中世纪的艺术风格的流量可能会被检测出来。 In the Orient must be sought the origin of this art, as well as that of the manuscripts themselves.在东方,必须寻求这种艺术的起源,以及手稿本身。The most ancient examples are found on Egyptian papyri, where in the midst of the texts, and not separated from it, portraits are painted, most frequently in profile, according to the Egyptian method.埃及纸莎草纸,在中间的文本,而不是从它分开,画像画,最常见的在外形上最古老的例子,根据埃及的方法。After having drawn the outline in black in the artist filled in the drawing in colours.后绘制在绘图充满色彩的艺术家在黑色的轮廓。The art seems to have been also cultivated by the Greek artists of Alexandria.艺术似乎也已经由亚历山大的希腊艺术家耕地。The papyrus containing the poems of Timotheus (fourth century BC) found at Abousir, has a long-legged bird in the body of the text as a mark of division.纸莎草Abousir发现提摩太(公元前四世纪)的诗歌,有一个长脚的鸟作为划分的标志,在正文中。A fragment of a romance on a papyrus (Paris, Bib. Nat., supp. Gr. 1294; first century AD) displays a text broken by groups of miniatures: men and women in bluish-gray or pink costumes stand out in relief from the background of the papyrus itself.一个上一个纸莎草纸的浪漫片段(巴黎,背带裤NAT,增刊GR 1294;公元一世纪)显示文字微缩模型组打破了男性和女性在蓝灰色或粉红色的服饰,站在救灾,从的纸莎草纸本身的背景。Latin writers show us that the miniature was introduced into Rome as early as the first century BC (Pliny, "Hist. Nat.", XXV, 8).拉丁美洲作家向我们展示介绍到罗马,微型早在公元前一世纪(普林尼,“组织胺。NAT。”十五,8)。Martial (XIV, 1865) mentions a portrait of Virgil painted on a parchment manuscript, and Varro collected seven hundred such portraits of illustrious men.武术(XIV,1865年)提到了维吉尔的画像画在羊皮纸手稿,并沃罗收集七百杰出的男子画像。(The portraits of the Evangelists in medieval manuscripts result from this tradition.) None of these works remains and the only traces of the illuminations of antiquity are found in the following manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries: (从这一传统在中世纪手稿的福音肖像),这些作品都没有仍然在以下的第四和第五世纪的手稿发现的古代灯饰的唯一痕迹:

the "Virgil" of the Vatican (Lat. 3225), written by a single hand, has fifty miniatures which appear to be the work of at least three different painters.“维吉尔”梵蒂冈(Lat. 3225),由单手的书面,有五十微缩模型,这似乎是至少有三个不同的画家的工作。These are small pictures bordered by coloured bands (six of them fill a whole page); some of them, especially in the "Georgics", represent country landscapes the freshness of which is worthy of the text they illustrate.这些彩色带(其中6填满一整页)接壤的小图片,特别是在“Georgics”,其中一些代表国家景观的新鲜感,这是值得他们的文字说明。 The background of buildings and temples recalls the paintings at Pompeii; the "Iliad" of Milan (similar technic);背景的建筑物和庙宇回忆在庞培的作品;“伊利亚特”米兰(类似的技术);

the Bible of Quedlinburg (Berlin), containing the most ancient Christian miniatures known;奎德林堡(柏林)的圣经,包含已知的最古老的的基督教缩;

the "Calendar" of Philocalus, composed in 354, the original of which, acquired by Peiresc, has disappeared, but the copies at Brussels, Vienna and the Barberini Library evidence a work of a purity thoroughly antique; the most curious portion is an illustrated calendar in which each month is symbolized by a scene of country life; this is a species of illustration of ancient origin which recurs very frequently in the miniatures of the Middle Ages. “日历”Philocalus,在354组成,Peiresc收购,原来,已经消失了,但在布鲁塞尔,维也纳和纯度彻底古董的工作barberini图书馆证据复印件;最好奇的部分是一本图文并茂日历在每月象征着乡村生活的场景,这是一个古老的起源,在中世纪的微缩复发非常频繁的插图的物种。



The tradition of miniatures on papyrus was preserved till the Christian era.对纸莎草纸微缩的传统被保留下来,直到基督教时代。On a Berlin papyrus (Emperor Frederick Museum) we find a picture of Christ curing a demoniac.在柏林纸莎草(皇帝冯检基博物馆),我们发现基督的固化一个邪恶的图片。In the Goleniscev collection there are sixteen leaves of a universal Coptic chronicle on papyrus, dated 392 and decorated with miniatures in a very barbarous style, intended as illustrations of the text.在Goleniscev集合中,有16个叶子的纸莎草上的科普特人的一种普遍纪事月392和饰有一个非常野蛮的风格缩影,拟作为插图的文本。 In the margin are seen successively the months (women crowned with flowers), the provinces of Asia (fortified gateways), the prophets, the kings of Rome, Lydia, Macedonia, Roman emperors, and perhaps the Patriarch Tehophilus presiding at the destruction of the Serapeum.保证金先后个月(妇女与花荣登),亚洲(强化网关)的省份,先知,罗马,沈殿霞,马其顿,罗马的皇帝,也许祖师Tehophilus主持国王在破坏Serapeum。 The author was a native monk and a complete stranger to Hellenic art.作者是一个本地的和尚和一个完全陌生的古希腊艺术的。

Syria and Mesopotamia叙利亚和美索不达米亚

The existence of Persian manuscripts on parchment very rich in miniatures, is proved by allusions of St. Augustine (Adv. Faustum, XIII, 6, 18).非常丰富,在微缩模型的波斯在羊皮纸手稿的存在,证明了圣奥古斯丁(Adv. Faustum,第十三,6,18)的典故。 As early as the fifth century schools of miniaturists were formed in the Christian convents of Syria and Mesopotamia which drew some of their inspiration from Greek art (draped figures), but relied mainly on the ornamental traditions of the ancient Orient.早miniaturists第五世纪学校形成叙利亚和美索不达米亚的基督教修道院,吸引了来自希腊艺术(搭着数字),他们的灵感,但主要依赖于观赏传统的古老的东方。 The masterpiece of this school is the Syriac Evangeliary written in 586 at the Monastery of Zagba (Mesopotamia) by the monk Rabula (since the fifteenth century in the Laurentian Library, Florence).这所学校的杰作,是叙利亚文Evangeliary书面Zagba(美索不达米亚)修道院和尚Rabula(劳伦图书馆15世纪以来,佛罗伦萨)在586。 The miniatures are real pictures with a decorative frame formed of zigzags, curves, rainbows, etc. The Gospel canons are set in arcades ornamented with flowers and birds.微缩模型是实拍的曲折形成了一个装饰架,曲线,彩虹等福音大炮花鸟装饰商场设置。The scene of the Crucifixion is treated with an abundance of detail which is very rare at this period.在十字架上的场景是用大量的细节,这是非常罕见的,在此期间。The works of the Syro-Mesopotamian School seem to have missed the meaning of the Hellenic figures (figures in flowing draperies) of which they retained the tradition. Syro美索不达米亚的学校的作品似乎已经错过了希腊数字(在流动的窗帘数字),其中保留了传统的意义。On a Syriac evangeliary in the Borgian Museum (manuscripts Syr., 14, f, k.) men and animals are painted in unreal colours and are bordered with black lines which give to the illuminations the appearance of cloisonné enamels.在一个叙利亚文evangeliary在Borgian博物馆(手稿锡尔河,14,F,K)人和动物画在虚幻的色彩,并镶上黑色线条给灯饰的外观景泰蓝搪瓷。 The work, which is dated 1546, seems to have been inspired by an older model.工作,这是日期为1546,似乎已经由一个旧的模式的启发。


The Armenian School of illuminating also belongs to Syria.亚美尼亚学校的照明也属于叙利亚。 It is represented by the evangeliary of Etschmiadzin (tenth century), the miniatures of which are derived from a sixth-century model; the evangeliary of Queen Mlke (Venice, Monastery of the Mechitarists, dated 902), and the evangeliary of Tübingen, dated 1113.它是由代表Etschmiadzin evangeliary(十世纪),其中微缩来自第六世纪的模型;皇后Mlke evangeliary(威尼斯,寺院的Mechitarists,902日),和蒂宾根大学evangeliary月1113。In all these works the richness of the framework and the hieratic character of the human face are noteworthy.在所有这些作品中丰富的框架和神职的人脸特征值得注意。

Muslim Art穆斯林艺术

All the above characteristics carried to extremes are found in the Muslim schools of miniatures (Arabic, Turkish, and Persian manuscripts); the oldest date only from the thirteenth century.所有极端的上述特点,被发现在穆斯林学校的微缩模型(阿拉伯语,土耳其语和波斯语的手稿),只有从十三世纪的最古老的日期。 Together with copies of the Koran, admirably illuminated with purely geometrical figures radiating symmetrically around a central motif like the design of a carpet, there is found especially in Persia, a fruitful school of painters which did not fear to depict the human face.与“古兰经”的副本,令人钦佩与辐射对称地围绕中央像地毯的设计图案的纯几何数字照亮,有发现,尤其是在波斯,一个没有恐惧,描绘出人脸的画家进行了富有成果的学校。 Nothing is more picturesque than the varied scenes intended to illustrate the books of chronicles, legends, etc. Besides fantastic scenes ("Apocalypse of Mohomet", Paris, Bib. Nat., supp. Turk., 190) are found contemporary reproductions of scenes from real life which take us into the streets of Bagdad in the thirteenth century or permit us to follow an army or a caravan on the march ("Maqâmât" of Hariri, Bib. Nat., Paris, supp. Arab., 1618).没有比这更比的不同场景,旨在说明除了梦幻般的场景(“启示​​录Mohomet”,巴黎,背带裤。NAT,增刊。土耳其人,190)的编年史书,传说等风景如画发现当代的场景复制从现实生活中,考虑到巴格达的街道或允许我们在13世纪我们遵循的征途上(“Maqâmât”哈里里,背带裤。NAT。巴黎,增刊。阿拉伯,1618)的军队或大篷车。 Eastern artists, whether Christian or Muslim, frequently portray their subjects on backgrounds of gold; in Persian manuscripts, however, are found attempts at landscape backgrounds, several of which betray a Chinese influence.东方的艺术家,无论是基督徒还是穆斯林,经常描绘的黄金背景科目;然而,在波斯手稿被发现企图景观背景,其中有几个出卖中国的影响力。


The history of Byzantine miniatures is yet to be written; it is impossible at present to determine its origin or to study its development.拜占庭微缩模型的历史还没有被写入,它是目前无法确定其来源或研究其发展。It seems more and more evident that Byzantine art, far from being an original creation, is no more than a prolonged survival of the Hellenic-oriental art of the fourth to the sixth centuries.它似乎越来越明显,拜占庭艺术,远离独创,没有比希腊的第四至第六世纪东方艺术的生存期延长。The Greek monks charged with the illumination of manuscripts never ceased to copy models, following the fashion and the occupation of the time, these models sometimes varies; hence Byzantine art has undergone a development more apparent than real.希腊僧侣被控照明手稿从未停止复制模型,时尚和占领的时间后,这些模型有时不同,因此,拜占庭艺术经历了一个比实际的发展更加明显。 Under present conditions, without seeking to determine the schools, we must be content to indicate the principal groups of manuscripts.在目前的条件下,,而寻求确定学校,我们必须内容表明手稿的主要群体。

Fifth and Sixth Centuries第五和第六世纪

Several of the Biblical manuscripts in gold letters on purple parchment have been rightly compared with one another, viz.几个紫色羊皮纸上的金色字母“圣经”手稿已正确地彼此,即相比。 the Genesis of the Imperial Library of Vienna, the Evangeliarium of Rossano, and the fragment of the Gospel of St. Matthew discovered at Sinope (since 1900 in the Bib. Nat., Paris).维也纳,Rossano Evangeliarium帝国图书馆,圣马太的福音片段的起源在Sinope发现(自1900年背带裤。NAT。,巴黎)。In these three manuscripts the painting has an anecdotic character; it is intended to illustrate the text, and sometimes two periods of a scene are represented in a picture.在这三个手稿画anecdotic的字符,它的目的是说明文,有时两个期间的一个场景是在一个图片代表。Both the evangelaries show a bearded face of Christ, majestic and severe, which already suggests the "Pantocrator" of church cupolas.无论是evangelaries显示了基督,雄伟和严重,这已经表明“Pantocrator”教堂的圆屋顶胡子的脸。 From the same period date two works which appear to be the transcription on parchment of an original on papyrus; one is the Roll of Josue in the Vatican Library, which displays a series of miniatures, eleven yards long, relating to the history of Josue; the other is the manuscript of the voyage of Cosmas Indicopleustes (Vatican), a monk of Sinai; in this, together with symbolic representations of various parts of the world, are many scenes and personages of the Bible, painted opposite the text, with the manuscript itself as background.从同期日期两部作品,这似乎是原对纸莎草纸羊皮纸上的转录;之一是若苏埃在梵蒂冈图书馆,其中显示了一系列的微缩模型,11码长,若苏埃的历史有关的登记册;另一种是手稿科斯马斯Indicopleustes(梵蒂冈),西奈半岛的和尚航程;在此,连同世界各地的符号表示,许多场景和人物的圣经“,画对面的文,与手稿本身作为背景。 Very different is the illustration of medical manuscripts such as the "Dioscorides" of Vienna, executed about the year 500, for Juliana, daughter of Placidia.非常不同的是插图医疗手稿,如“Dioscorides”维也纳大约一年500执行,Placidia的女儿朱莉安娜,。 Heron are found real pictures copied from ancient originals (portraits of physicians and of Juliana).苍鹭发现古代原件复制的真实图片(医生和朱莉安娜的画像)。

Eighth to Eleventh Century第八至11世纪

The Iconoclastic crisis was fatal to illumination and painted manuscripts were either mutilated or destroyed.特立独行的危机是致命的照明和画手稿被肢解或销毁。An attempt was made to substitute for religious representations a purely ornamental art.试图替换为一个纯粹的观赏性的艺术宗教交涉。Probably to this school belongs an evangeliary of Paris (Bib. Nat., Gr. 63), in which the motifs of decoration are borrowed from flora and fauna.大概是这所学校属于巴黎evangeliary(Bib. NAT。63,GR),其中的装饰图案是从借来的植物群和动物群。The triumph of images in the eleventh century was also the triumph of religious miniature painting, which together with calligraphy underwent great development in the scriptorium of Studion.图像在11世纪的胜利,也是胜利,微型宗教绘画与书法一起经历了很大的发展,在Studion写字间。One of the books illustrated by preference by the monks was the Psalter, of which the paintings comprise two elements: the scenes of the history of David, and the symbolic allusions to the life of Christ contained in the Psalms.僧侣的偏好说明了书籍的诗篇,其中的画作包括两个元素:大卫的历史场景,并在诗篇中的基督的生命符号典故。There are to be distinguished (1) the aristocratic psalter, represented by the Psalter of Paris (Gr. 139); the miniatures extend over the whole page within a rich border, and appear to be the reproduction from an ancient original of the third-fourth century; some pictures, such as that of David tending his flocks, have a quite Pompeian freshness.有加以区别:(1)贵族的诗篇,由巴黎的诗篇(希腊语139)代表;的微缩模型扩展到整个页面内丰富的边境,并出现从一个古老的原始繁殖的第三第四个世纪,如大卫抚育他的羊群的一些图片,有相当庞贝的新鲜感。 Antique influence makes itself felt by a large number of allegories personified and draped in Hellenic costumes; (2) the monastic and theological psalter in which the miniatures placed in the margin follow the text step by step.古董的影响力使得自己觉得大量的人格化,并披上希腊服饰的寓言;(2)寺院和神学的诗篇中,在保证金上的微缩文字步骤一步。 The Chloudov Psalter of Moscow (ninth cent.), those of Vatopedi (tenth cent.), the Vatican (Barberini Library: dated 1059), etc. are the principal specimens of this class.莫斯科Chloudov诗篇“(第九届%)。Vatopedi(第十百分之。),梵蒂冈(barberini图书馆:日期为1059年)等都是这个类的主要标本。 Some miniatures of the Chloudov Psalter represent episodes of the Iconoclastic conflict. Chloudov诗篇一些微缩代表特立独行的冲突事件。Another manuscript often illustrated at this period was the "Menologion", which contained sometimes besides the liturgical calendar, and abbreviation of the lives of the saints for each day.在这个时期往往说明另一个手稿“Menologion”,其中载有时除了礼仪日历,圣人每天的生活的缩写。The most celebrated is that of the Vatican, decorated for Basil II (976-1025) by seven artists who left their names attached to each miniature.最有名的是梵蒂冈,由七位艺术家们留下他们的名字附在每个缩影的瓦西里二世(976-1025)的装饰。A great variety of colours relieved a rather extreme monotony of inspiration; everywhere are found the same architectural backgrounds, the same sufferings in the midst of the same landscapes.种类繁多的颜色松了一口气的灵感,而极端单调;到处都发现了同样的建筑背景,在相同的景观之中同样的苦难。 The beautiful manuscript of the "Homilies" of Gregory of Nazienzus (Paris, Bib. Nat., Gr. 510: end of ninth century) was composed for Basil II; it is unfortunately damaged but it presents a remarkable series of the most varied pictures (portraits of St. Gregory of Nazienzus and of Basil I; sessions of Councils; Biblical scenes, etc.).美丽的“颂歌”Nazienzus格雷戈里的手稿“(巴黎,背带裤纳特,GR 510:第九世纪末)由罗勒二,这是不幸的损坏,但它提出了一个显着的系列的最多样的照片(圣格雷戈里Nazienzus和罗勒我的肖像;议会会议;圣经的场面,等)。 This period was decidedly the golden age of Byzantine illumination.这一时期是决定性的拜占庭式的照明的黄金时代。The manuscripts, even those which lack pictures, have at least ornamented initial letters, which in the earlier examples are very simple, but in course of time became surrounded with foliage, in the midst of which animals or small figures disported themselves.手稿,即使是那些缺乏图片,至少有装饰的首字母,在前面的例子是很简单的,但随着时间的推移变得与枝叶包围在中间,其中动物或小的数字disported自己。 (These initials, however, never attained the same dimensions as in Western manuscripts.). (然而,这些缩写,从来没有在西方手稿达到相同的尺寸。)。

Twelfth Century12世纪

The lofty traditions of Byzantine miniature painting were upheld until the fall of Constantinople in 1204.拜占庭式的微型绘画的崇高传统的坚持,直到在1204年君士坦丁堡陷落。A group of the Octateuch (Smyrna, Athos, Vatican and Seraglio libraries) seems to have the same origin.一个组的Octateuch(士麦那,阿托斯,梵蒂冈和后宫诱逃库)似乎有相同的起源。The artists were chiefly concerned with illustrating the text, following it step by step; some of the scenes are spirited and picturesque, but the inspiration seems derived from ancient models (such as the Roll of Josue).艺术家们主要是说明文字,下面一步一步的场景,一些活泼和美丽如画的,但灵感似乎来自古模型(如一卷若苏埃)派生。 The specimen at the Seraglio was composed for Prince Isaac, some of Alexius I Comnenus.在后宫诱逃的标本是由王子艾萨克,克修斯我一世。A manuscript whose picture exercised great influence on Byzantine art is that of the "Homilies on the Virgin", by James, a monk of Coxynobaphos (Vatical 1162; Paris, 1208).手稿的图片行使拜占庭艺术的影响很大,“圣母的颂歌”,由詹姆斯,Coxynobaphos和尚(Vatical 1162;巴黎,1208)。The initials are remarkable for richness, and the paintings develop all the events of the life of the Blessed Virgin until the birth of Christ (cf. the mosaics in the narthex of the Kahrié-Djami at Constantinople).缩写显着,为丰富和绘画的发展基督(参见Kahrié - Djami在君士坦丁堡的前厅马赛克)的诞生,直到所有的圣母的生活事件。

Thirteenth to Fifteenth Century第十三至第十五世纪

The studios of miniature paintings for a long time felt the effects of the catastrophe of 1204, and after the thirteenth century the monks ceased to illuminate luxuriously liturgical manuscripts.很长一段时间的微型画工作室感到1204的灾难的影响,和十三世纪后的僧人不再照亮豪华礼仪手稿。One of the manuscripts most characteristic of this period is that of the "Chronicle" of Skylitzes (Madrid, National Library, thirteenth century).其中一个最大特点就是这一时期的手稿Skylitzes(马德里13世纪),国家图书馆,“纪事报”。The colours are clear in tone and very fresh, but the artist having no ancient model before him and left to his own resources, has executed veritable bons-hommes, which nevertheless charm by the vivacity of their movements and their picturesque attitudes.颜色清晰的语调,很新鲜,但艺术家面前他没有古代模型,留给自己的资源,已经执行了名副其实的丝宝,地球社,不过他们的动作和风景如画的态度活泼魅力。 The imitation of antiquity however was not abandoned, as is shown by the portraits of Dosiades and of Theocritus (Cod. Paris, Gr. 28- 32) composed in the fourteenth century, but probably copied from Alexandrian originals of the third and fourth centuries.然而,模仿古代没有放弃,因为Dosiades Theocritus(GR Cod.巴黎,28 - 32)的画像在14世纪的组成,但可能是由第三和第四世纪的亚历山大原件复制。lastly attention is called to certain fourteenth-century manuscripts of Western or even Italian inspiration (Cod. Paris, Gr. 135; dated 1362; on this manuscript, written by a scribe of John V Cantacuzenus, there is a Gothic monster, a knight with buckler ornamented with fleur-de-lis, etc.).最后注意的是某些西方甚至意大利的灵感(Cod.巴黎,GR 135十四世纪手稿;日期为1362;这个手稿,写由约翰五世Cantacuzenus隶,是一个哥特式的怪物,与骑士,圆盾装饰鸢尾花等)。In the Slavic countries, the illuminated manuscripts of the Bulgarian, Russian or Serbian monasteries belong to the Byzantine school, but have also been directly influenced by the Orient, especially by Syria.在斯拉夫国家,保加利亚,俄罗斯或塞尔维亚寺庙照明手稿属于拜占庭式的学校,但也直接受到东方的影响,特别是叙利亚。 Some Russian manuscripts were illuminated in the sixteenth century (eg the Book of the Tsars, 1535-53).一些俄罗斯的手稿是在16世纪照明(如沙皇“,1535年至1553年)。Scandinavian influences appear in Russian manuscripts (monsters and interlacings of initials); and one of the most remarkable monuments of Slavic miniature painting is the Servian Psalter of Munich, in which the paintings are executed by an impressionistic artist, who uses contrasting colours instead of pen designs.斯堪的纳维亚的影响出现在俄罗斯的手稿(怪兽和缩写interlacings);斯拉夫微型画的最显着的古迹之一,是慕尼黑Servian诗篇,在执行印象派艺术家的绘画,谁使用对比色,而不是钢笔设计。


The evolution of miniature painting in the Occident was quite different; the imitation of ancient models was never as complete as in the Orient, and as in all other arts, the time came when the illuminator of manuscripts abandoned tradition and attempted to copy nature.在欧美的微型画的演变是相当不同的,模仿古代模型从来没有像在东方的完整,并在所有其他的艺术,时间来到照明手稿时抛弃传统,并试图复制自然。 In the Occident even more than in the Orient, it is possible to follow a real development of illuminated books.在欧美甚至比在世界的东方,有可能按照一个真正的发展照亮书籍。

Sixth to Eighth Century第六至第八世纪

Until the Carolingian epoch the sole original school of illumination is to be sought in the Irish monasteries, or in those founded on the Continent by Irish monks.直到加洛林时代的唯一照明原来的学校是要寻求在爱尔兰寺庙,或在大陆成立由爱尔兰僧侣。The works of the Irish school are characterized by wonderful decorative sense, far removed from naturalism.爱尔兰学校的作品的特点是美妙的装饰感,从自然相去甚远。Nothing is more graceful than the large initials formed by ribbons ornamented with interlacings, in the midst of which are sometimes human heads or animals.没有比这更优美的比,彩带装饰在中间,有时是人头或动物与interlacings形成了庞大的缩写。Some borders decorated with spirals, rose-work, and interlacings recall, by their display of fancy, pages of the illuminated Korans.一些边境,装饰与螺旋上升-工作,interlacings记得,花哨,照明可兰经的网页显示。 Indeed there are in Irish art elements which are frankly Oriental, and the geometrical and symmetrical aspect of the human form in Irish manuscripts may be compared to what we find on certain Coptic monuments, buildings, or bas-reliefs.事实上,有坦言东方的爱尔兰艺术元素,并可能在爱尔兰手稿的人形式几何和对称方面进行比较,我们发现某些科普特古迹,建筑物,或浮雕。 In Ireland as in the Orient, ancient ornamentation finds little place; foliage is entirely absent from this decoration, which consists almost exclusively of geometrical elements.爱尔兰在东方,古代纹饰找到的小地方,树叶是完全从这种装饰,这几乎完全由几何元素的缺席。The kinship of these motifs with those found on the barbaric jewels or the stone sculptures of Ireland is evident.与野蛮的珠宝或爱尔兰的石雕中发现的这些图案的亲缘关系是显而易见的。Among the most celebrated works of this school may be cited: the "Book of Kells" (Trinity College, Dublin), the transcription of which is ascribed to St. Columba, but which in reality belongs to the seventh century; the "Evangeliarum of Durham", belonging to the Diocese of Lindisfarne (British Museum, Cotton manuscripts, Nero D. IV), copied in honour of St. Cuthbert by Bishop Eadfrith (698-721), bound by Bishop Æthilwald, and ornamented with precious stones by the monk Billfrith, is also of great value.在这所学校最有名的作品可能会引:“凯尔斯书”(都柏林三一学院),其中的转录是归因于圣鸽,但在现实中属于第七世纪; Evangeliarum“达勒姆“,属于林迪斯法恩(大英博物馆,棉花的手稿时,Nero D.四)在纪念圣伯特Eadfrith主教(698-721)的约束,由主教Æthilwald复制,并与宝石装饰的,教区和尚Billfrith,也是很有价值的。 Although copied in an English monastery it possesses all the characteristics of Irish art; large initials decorated with interlacings and without foliage, the predominance of simple colours (violet, green, yellow, red) absence of gold and silver, portraits of the evangelists similar to those on Byzantine manuscripts.虽然在英国的修道院复制,它拥有爱尔兰艺术的所有特征; interlacings没有枝叶装饰的大型缩写,简单的颜色占主导地位(紫色,绿色,黄色,红色)黄金和白银的情况下,画像福音相似那些拜占庭式的手稿。

Beginning with the sixth century this art of illumination was brought by Irish monks, not only to England but also to the Continent, where the monasteries of Luxeuil, Würzburg, St. Gall, and Bobbio became centres of Irish art.六世纪开始,这种照明的艺术所带来的爱尔兰僧侣,不仅是英格兰,但也到大陆,Luxeuil,维尔茨堡,圣加仑,和博比奥寺院成为爱尔兰艺术中心。 As specimens of this expansion may be cited: the "Evangeliarium of St. Willibrord" (d. 730), Apostle of the Frisians (Cod. Paris, supp. Lat. 693), of which the initials resemble those of the manuscript of Durham; the "Evangeliarum of Maeseyck" (Belgium) eighth century; the manuscript of the Bible called Codex Bigotianus (Cod. Paris; Lat. 281 and 298), the work of the Abbey of Fécamp, eighth century; the so-called St. Cainim manuscript (now with the Franciscans of Dublin, but originating in Italy), in reality of the tenth and eleventh centuries.由于这种扩张的标本可引:“圣威利布罗德Evangeliarium”(D. 730),使徒的弗里斯兰(Cod.巴黎,增刊纬度693),其中的英文缩写类似的手稿达勒姆;“Maeseyck Evangeliarum”(比利时),十八世纪,“圣经”手稿称为法典Bigotianus(Cod.巴黎纬度281和298),FECAMP修道院的工作,十八世纪的所谓圣Cainim手稿(现在都柏林方济会,但在意大利的),在第十届和第十一届世纪的现实。 Several manuscripts of St. Gall contain miniatures of this school, but showing foreign influence.圣加仑几个手稿包含这所学校的微缩模型,但显示外国的影响。

In the rest of Europe, among the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Burgundians, there were schools of calligraphy similar to those of Ireland, with more marked traces of ancient art (absence of interlacings which were replaced by garlands, sturdy foliage, etc.).在欧洲其他国家之间的西哥特人,法兰克人,勃艮第,有类似爱尔兰的古老的艺术更加明显的痕迹(没有花环,坚固枝叶等取代interlacings学校的书法, )。As an example may be mentioned the initial of the Burgundian papyri of Geneva, sixth century (Homilies of St. Avitus).作为一个例子,可能会提到日内瓦勃艮第的纸莎草纸,六世纪(圣Avitus颂歌)的初始。A celebrated Bible, the ornamentation of which remains a problem, must be considered apart.一个著名的圣经,这仍然是一个问题的纹饰,除了必须考虑。This is the famous manuscript of St. Gatien at Tours, stolen by Libri about 1846, and returned to the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale in 1888, after having figured in the Ashburnham collection.这是著名的圣Gatien手稿,Libri被盗约1846年,在旅游和Ashburnham收集想通后,于1888年返回巴黎的国家图书馆。

This Pentateuch, written in seventh-century uncials, is adorned with large full-page miniatures framed in red bands and presenting a number of scenes arranged on different margins, but without symmetry.这五经,写在第七世纪uncials,装饰着大的全页框在红色条带和微缩模型,提出一个场景安排在不同的利润率,但没有对称性。 What is striking about the manuscript is its aim at picturesqueness and movement, and the wholly Oriental character of the design and especially of the costumes of the personages (the women wear the tall head-dress and veil of the bas- reliefs of Palmyra) and of the architectural backgrounds (bulbous cupolas alternating with pedimented buildings).是什么引人注目的手稿是picturesqueness和运动的宗旨,全东方的设计,尤其是人物服饰(妇女穿的巴尔米拉浮雕高大的头饰和面纱)和字符和建筑背景(球根圆屋顶pedimented建筑物交替)。 The arrangement of the scenes recalls certain fourteenth-century Persian manuscripts.安排的场面回忆某些第十四世纪波斯手稿。 In this instance we have to do perhaps with the reproduction of a cycle of miniatures conceived in the East to illustrate the Vulgate of St. Jerome.在这种情况下,我们要做的或许与繁殖周期的设想在东的微缩模型,来说明圣杰罗姆的武加大。

Ninth and Tenth Centuries第九届和第十届世纪

The Carolingian period was as decisive for the illumination of manuscripts as for other arts.加洛林王朝时期的手稿,为其他艺术照明的决定性。Thanks to the initiative of Charlemagne and his chief assistants, Alcuin, Theodulfus, etc., schools of miniature painting were formed in the principal monasteries of the empire, and our libraries possess a large number of their works.查理曼主动和他的首席助理,阿尔昆,Theodulfus等,微型画学校成立于帝国的主要寺院,而我们的图书馆拥有大量他们的作品。 The elements which compose this art were most varied; the influence of Irish and Anglo-Saxon illuminations is unquestionable, and to it was due the partiality for large initials which until the fifteenth century were one of the favourite ornaments of Western manuscripts.这种艺术的元素组成品种最多,爱尔兰和盎格鲁撒克逊灯饰的影响是毋庸置疑的,这是由于偏袒大型缩写直到15世纪西方手稿喜爱的装饰品之一。 Carolingian art was not exclusively Irish, and in the manuscripts of this period are found traces of ancient art and Oriental influences (evangeliary canons, symbolical motifs such as the fountain of life, etc.).加洛林艺术并不完全爱尔兰,并在这一时期的手稿被发现的古代艺术的痕迹和东方的影响(evangeliary大炮,象征性的图案,如生命的泉源等)。 With the assistance of these manuscripts a whole iconographical cycle may be formed, encyclopedic in character, in which side by side with religious history occur figures from the profane sciences (liberal arts, calendars, zodiacs, virtues and vices, etc.).随着这些手稿的协助下,整个iconographical周期可能形成的,在性质上的百科全书,这与宗教史方方从亵渎科学(文科,日历,生肖,美德和罪恶等)的数字出现。 Ornamentation is more luxurious, the colours are more vigorous and decided in tone, silver and gold have not been spared and there is even a return to manuscripts in gold letters on a purple ground.纹饰更豪华,更具活力的颜色是和音,银和金的决定,也不能幸免,甚至还有一个紫色的地面手稿在大书特书的回报。Many of these Bibles, Psalters, or Evangeliaries were composed for sovereigns, whose portraits were presented on the first page in all their royal apparel; they are often surrounded by allegorical figures borrowed from antiquity.这些“圣经”,Psalters,或Evangeliaries许多人组成的主权国家,其肖像,在其所有的皇家服饰的第一页上,他们往往借用从古代的寓言数字所包围。 Beside these full-page paintings we find above all in these manuscripts beautiful initials of extraordinary variety; Irish interlacings alone or combined with antique foliage, purely zoomorphic initials, etc. The principal manuscripts of this period are: the Evangeliary of Godescalc, made for Charlemagne, 781-83 (Paris), text in gold letters on purple ground with a decorative framework which is different on each page; Bibles of Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans (Paris and Le Puy); Evangeliary of Charlemagne (Vienna); Bibles of Alcuin (Zurich, Bamberg, Vallicella, Tours); Bibles of Charles the Bald (Paris); Sacramentary of Drogo (Paris); Sacramentary of Gellone (Paris), has initials uniquely formed with fishes or birds; Evangeliary of Lothaire (Paris); Bible of St. Martial of Limoges (Paris, tenth cent.); Evangeliary of Cividale (Friuli); Codex Egberti (Trier), presented to Egbert, Archbishop of Trier, by two monks of Reichenau in 980.除了这些整版的绘画中,我们发现上述所有这些手稿非凡的各种美丽的缩写,单独或与古董的枝叶,纯粹的兽形的缩写,这一时期的主要手稿结合爱尔兰interlacings:Godescalc Evangeliary,查理曼,781-83(巴黎),在同一个框架,它是在每一页上不同的装饰; Theodulf“圣经”,奥尔良主教(巴黎勒皮); Evangeliary查理曼(维也纳)紫地大书特书的文本;阿尔昆“圣经” (苏黎世,班贝格,Vallicella,旅游);“圣经”查尔斯秃头(巴黎); Sacramentary Drogo(巴黎); Sacramentary Gellone(巴黎),具有独特的鱼类或鸟类组成的缩写; Evangeliary Lothaire(巴黎);圣经圣武术利摩日(巴黎,第十届%。); Cividale Evangeliary(弗留利);法典Egberti(特里尔),埃格伯特,特里尔大主教,两个和尚Reichenau 980。To the same school belong the manuscripts composed in the German monasteries for the Ottos.同一所学校属于Ottos德国寺院组成的手稿。Moreover, Irish or Anglo-Saxon art also produced remarkable monuments, among which may be mentioned the Psalter of Utrecht (tenth cent.), the Psalters of Winchester (British Museum), and the Benedictionaries of Jumièges (Rouen).此外,爱尔兰或盎格鲁 - 撒克逊人的艺术也产生了显着的古迹,其中可能会提到的乌得勒支(第十届%。)诗篇,温彻斯特(大英博物馆)Psalters,Jumièges(鲁昂)Benedictionaries的。

Tenth to Twelfth Century第十届至第十二届世纪

At the beginning of the eleventh century the fictitious unity in the artistic and intellectual sphere established by Charlemagne gave way to the diversity of the provincial schools, but if the boundaries of these schools may almost be traced when there is question of architecture, the task is more difficult in the study of miniatures; researches in this field have scarcely commenced.在十一世纪初,在查理曼建立的艺术和思想领域的虚构统一让位省级学校的多样性,但如果这些学校的界限可能是架构问题时,几乎可以追溯到的任务是在微缩模型的研究更加困难,在这一领域的研究几乎没有展开。 The illuminated manuscripts of this period were made in the monastic studios.这一时期的照明手稿是在寺院的工作室。As a general thing the writers were at once painters and calligraphers, such as Guillaume de St. Evroult, "Scriptor et librorum illuminator" (Ord. Vital., III, 7).作为一个一般的东西,一次画家和书法家,如纪尧姆德圣Evroult,“Scriptor等librorum照明灯”(号条例命门,三,七),作家。 Sometimes however the two professions were distinct; the manuscript of Peter Lombard (Valenciennes, 178) bears the inscription "Segharus me scripsit" and on the frontispiece "Sawalo me fecit".有时,然而,两个专业的区别;彼得伦巴第的手稿(瓦朗谢讷,178)承担的题词“Segharus我scripsit”卷首“Sawalo我fecit”。 Sawalo, a monk of St. Amand, is the illuminator and his name is found elsewhere. Sawalo,圣阿芒的和尚,是照明灯和其他地方发现他的名字。This period is marked by the extraordinary development of large initials while the full-page miniatures disappeared.这一时期的特点是超常发展的大缩写,而整版的微缩模型消失。Illustrations on several scales are still found in the margin.几个尺度上的插图仍发现在保证金。

These initials of the Romantic period follow the traditions of Carolingian illumination, but they are even more complex and the human figure assumes an increasingly important place.浪漫主义时期的这些缩写遵循加洛林照明的传统,但它们是更加复杂和人类的数字,假设一个日益重要的地方。Some of them are full-length portraits of prophets or apostles; in others complete scenes (battles, besieged cities, etc.) are developed in the midst of pillars.其中有些是完整长度的画像先知或使徒的,完整的场景(战斗,被围困的城市,等等),在其他发展支柱中。The great difference between this and the Carolingian period lies in the appearance of naturalism and of anachronism (prophets with pointed shoes, etc.).这与加洛林王朝时期的不同之处在于在自然主义的和不合时宜的外观(尖头皮鞋等,先知)。Lastly there are many points of resemblance between the development of miniature painting and that of other arts of design.最后,有许多相似点之间的微型绘画和其他艺术设计的发展。The short and badly drawn figures were succeeded, at the end of the twelfth century, by more slender portraits which resemble the elongated statues of Chartres.短期和严重绘制的数字成功,在十二世纪的结束,更多类似的chartres细长细长的雕像画像。Such is the character of the ornamental school which produced innumerable works in France, Germany, Northern Italy, Spain, and the Two Sicilies.观赏学校产生了无数的作品在法国,德国,意大利北部,西班牙,和两西西里的性格是这样。(Here it is difficult to trace the boundary between Western miniature painting and the Byzantine which made its influence felt in the workrooms of Monte Cassino and especially in the beautiful paintings of the rolls containing the text of the "Exultet" of Holy Saturday.) Also worthy of mention is an attempt of the Cistercians to infuse more simplicity into illuminating. (这里是难以追查,与西方的微型绘画和拜占庭式的,其影响力在蒙特卡西诺,尤其是在包含卷“Exultet”圣周六的文本美丽的画作工作室认为边界。)也值得一提的是熙照明注入更简单的尝试。 A model manuscript had been composed at Cîteaux, in which gold and painting were replaced by a calligraphic decoration in perfect taste.在Cîteaux模型的手稿已经组成,其中黄金和绘画是一个完美品味书法的装饰所取代。There is an intimate relation between this severe elegance and Cistercian architecture.这个严峻的优雅和修道院建筑之间有一种亲密的关系。

Thirteenth Century第十三世纪

In the thirteenth century illumination, like calligraphy, ceased to be the specialty of the monasteries.在13世纪照明,喜欢书法,不再是寺庙的特产。In France and about the University of Paris appeared the lay illuminators.出现在法国的巴黎大学奠定照明。The taste for illuminated manuscripts spread more and more, and important studios of illuminators arose, the heads of which often furnished sketches of miniatures to be executed.照明手稿的口味越来越多,传播,并出现了照明的重要工作室,首脑微缩经常布置草图,其中要执行。On the other hand the illuminations took a more and more important place at the expense of the text.另一方面灯饰牺牲的文字在一个越来越重要的地方。The artists were no longer satisfied with ornamented initials, but in a series of medallions arranged like those decorating the stained glass windows they developed whole cycles of sacred or profane history.艺术家们不再满足于装饰缩写,但在一系列安排纪念章喜欢那些装饰,彩绘玻璃窗,他们开发的整个周期神圣的或亵渎的历史。 There were then composed "Picture Bibles" made up of a continuous series of miniatures (Bible of Sir Thomas Philipps), or "Sermon Bibles", veritable illustrated theological summaries, giving for each verse of Scripture the literal, symbolical, and moral interpretations.有那么组成的“图片”圣经“所作的一系列连续的微缩模型(托马斯菲利普斯爵士圣经),或”讲道“圣经”,名副其实的神学概要说明,让每个圣经经文的文字,象征性的和道德的解释。 This immense work, which must have contained 5000 figures, has not reached us complete.这个巨大的工作,必须载有5000的数字,还没有达到我们完成。A manuscript in 3 vols.手稿3卷。of a Sermon Bible is divided between the Bodleian Library, the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris, and the British Museum.讲道,圣经是Bodleian图书馆,巴黎国家图书馆,和大英博物馆之间的划分。The Psalter of Ingeburg (Musée Condé at Chantilly) and that of Sts.Ingeburg诗​​篇(博物馆孔德在尚蒂伊)和STS。Louis and Blanche of Castile (Arsenal Library) belong by their ornamentation to the monastic art of the twelfth century.路易斯和卡斯蒂利亚 - 布兰奇(阿森纳图书馆)属于十二世纪修道院的艺术装饰。On the other hand new tendencies appear in the works of the second half of the thirteenth century, eg the Evangeliarium of the Sainte-Chapelle (Bib. Nat.), the two Psalters of St. Louis (Paris, Bib. Nat., and collection of HY Thompson), the works of profane literature (chansons de geste, etc.).另一方面,新趋势出现在下半年的13世纪的作品,如圣礼拜堂(Bib. NAT),圣路易斯两个Psalters(巴黎,背带裤。NAT。Evangeliarium收集的HY汤普森),亵渎文学(chansons DE geste等)的作品。Gothic ornamentation with its wealth of rose and quatrefoil decoration, gables, pinnacles, and foliage often forms the framework for these vignettes.其财富的玫瑰和quatrefoil装修,山墙,尖塔,和叶子的哥特式的装饰往往形式为这些插图的框架。The gold backgrounds are almost always covered with designs, sometimes in relief.黄金背景几乎总是盖设计,有时在救济。Instead of foliage and fantastic animals the human figure holds the predominant place.取而代之的枝叶和梦幻般的动物,人形持有的主要场所。In miniature painting as in the sculpture of the thirteenth century may be observed the progress of realism and the exact observation of the living model.在微型画在十三世纪的雕塑,可以观察到的现实主义的进步和生活模式的精确观察。These beautiful miniatures of the Books of Hours revive for us with their still admirable colours the costumes of the contemporaries of St. Louis and Philip the Fair.这些美丽的袖珍图书小时恢复为我们与他们仍然令人钦佩的圣路易斯和菲利普公平同时代的服装颜色。Such is the style which henceforth dominates French miniature painting and which speedily spread throughout Europe, especially England.就是这样的风格,从此主宰法国的微型画,并迅速蔓延整个欧洲,特别是英格兰。

Early Fourteenth Century十四世纪初

This period is represented chiefly by the Parisian illuminator Jean Pucelle, whose name has been discovered on several manuscripts.) One of the most beautiful of his works is the Breviary of Belleville (Bib. Nat., Lat. 10483-84), executed in collaboration with Mahiet Ancelet and J. Chevrier.这一时期是巴黎照明让Pucelle,他的名字已在几个手稿发现。)他的作品中最美丽的之一,主要代表是贝尔维尔(Bib. NAT。纬度。10483-84)的祈祷书,在执行Mahiet Ancelet和J. Chevrier合作。The new school was remarkable for its borders, formed of wonderful garlands of interlaced foliage and flowers, no longer conventional as formerly, but copied from nature.新学校是显着它的边界,形成了奇妙的花环隔行扫描的枝叶和花朵,不再是以前传统,但来自大自然的复制。Between the border and the text were represented scenes of everyday life, sometimes of a humorous character, for example a piper playing for dancing peasants, or animals, birds, monkeys, butterflies, dragonflies intermingled, with the foliage, as on the sculptured panels of the cathedrals of the same period.边框和文本之间代表的日常生活场景,有时一个幽默的性格,例如一个吹笛,玩跳舞农民,或动物,鸟类,猴子,蝴蝶,蜻蜓交织,枝叶上的雕刻板,同一时期的大教堂。 Traces of Italian inspiration appear in the architecture, which is of a mixed Gothic character.意大利灵感的痕迹出现在建筑,哥特式混合字符。Among the works of this school the "Book of the Miracles of Our Lady" (Seminary of Soissons) is one of the most exquisite.在这所学校的作品“圣母的奇迹之书”(苏瓦松学院)是一个最精美的。During the same period the English miniaturists produced remarkable works such as "Queen Mary's Psalter" (Brit. Mus.), which belonged to Mary Tudor but which dates from the beginning of the fourteenth century.在同一时期,英国miniaturists产生杰出作品,如“玛丽的诗篇”(Brit.亩),其中属于玛丽都铎,但是从十四世纪开始日期。 It contains first more than two hundred scenes from the Old Testament bordered with a simple framework of foliage.首先它包含了两百多个从一个简单的枝叶框架镶上旧约的场景。The figures are graceful and elegant.优美典雅的数字。Then come scenes from the life of Christ executed on gold backgrounds with much greater richness in the midst of innumerable scenes of the chase, tourneys, games, grotesque subjects.然后来从基督的黄金背景执行更大的追逐,tourneys,游戏,怪诞科目的无数场景中的丰富的生活场景。The East Anglian abbeys (Norfolk, Suffolk) produced magnificent psalters during the same period (Psalter of Peterborough at Brussels; Psalter of Robert of Ormesby at Oxford) which belong to the same school.东盎格鲁修道院(诺福克,萨福克)制作在同一时期(彼得伯勒在布鲁塞尔举行的诗篇诗篇Ormesby罗伯特在牛津)的宏伟psalters,属于同一所学校的。 In Germany the miniaturists had long been imitating Byzantine art; beginning with the fourteenth century they also imitate French models.在德国miniaturists早已被模仿拜占庭艺术;十四世纪初,他们也模仿法国模式。 In Austria at the monastery of St. Florian is found the most ancient example of the Biblia Pauperum, executed about 1300 according to the same method as the Sermon Bibles.在奥地利圣弗洛修道院发现的最古老的例子Biblia Pauperum,按照相同的方法作为讲道圣经约1300执行。 The taste for miniatures was so keen at this period that they even went so far as to illuminate some important characters.在此期间为缩影的味道如此热衷,他们竟然以照亮一些重要人物。A copy of the house rules of the kings of Majorca shows each of the officials in the exercise of his functions (reproduced in "Acta SS. Bolland.", June, I; cf. list given by Delaborde in "Centenaire de la Société des Antiquaires de France", 93).马略卡国王的内部规则的副本显示,在行使其职能的官员(在转载,6月,我的“文献党卫军Bolland表示。”比照名单由Delaborde“Centenaire DE LA SOCIETE DES Antiquaires法国“,93)。

Late Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Century晚第十四和第十五世纪

It was in the second half of the fifteenth century that the art of miniature painting was most profoundly changed.这是在下半年的15世纪,微型画艺术最深刻的改变。It may even be said that the illuminators of this period were to a certain extent the precursors of modern painting.它甚至可以说,这一时期的照明灯,在一定程度上现代绘画的先驱。This new transformation seems to have been largely the work of the powerful "Ghildes" of the Flemish masters, versatile artists, many of them skilled like André Beauneveu in painting, sculpture and architecture, and obliged by stress of competition to leave their own country in order to offer their services to the lovers of beautiful manuscripts.这种新的转型似乎已很大程度上是强大的“Ghildes”佛兰芒大师,多才多艺的艺术家,其中不乏像安德烈Beauneveu这样的熟练的绘画,雕塑和建筑的工作,并通过竞争压力被迫离开自己的国家为了美丽的手稿爱好者提供服务。 They are found scattered throughout Europe, and some went even to Italy.他们发现,分散在欧洲各地,有的甚至到意大利。André Beauneveu became (1393-1397) the chief of the artists in the employ of Jean Duke of Berry. (1393年至1397年)安德烈Beauneveu成为让贝里公爵聘请首席艺术家。He made a Psalter (Bib. Nat., Paris) in which figures of prophets, and Apostles alternated in quiet tones.他做了一个诗篇“(Bib. NAT。巴黎),先知和使徒的数字,在安静的色调交替。It was at this time that manuscripts began to be painted in grisaille.正是在这个时候,开始在grisaille画手稿。The gold backgrounds were replaced by designs in colours, then by real landscapes.黄金背景更换颜色的设计,然后由真正的景观。 In this respect the "Très Riches Heures" of the Duke of Berry (Chantilly, Musée Condé), which have been attributed to Pol de Limbourg, mark a veritable revolution (beginning of the fifteenth century).在这方面,“特雷斯暴富Heures”贝里公爵(尚蒂伊,博物馆孔德),已被归因于波尔 - 林堡,标志着一个真正的革命(15世纪初)。In the pictures of the different months are represented all the châteaux of the prince in the midst of surprisingly true landscapes.在不同月份的照片是代表所有的令人惊讶的真实景观中的王子的城堡。Long before the Van Eycks, Pol de Limbourg was acquainted with aerial perspective.早在范Eycks,波尔 - 林堡熟悉空中透视。In his works are found the effects of snow, of starry nights, of dazzling summer lights, the grey tones of autumn, all of which were new in art.在他的作品中发现的繁星之夜的影响,雪,夏季耀眼的灯光,秋天的灰色色调,所有这些都是在新的艺术。Persons were treated with the same love of truth.人被视为同样的爱与真理。Physiognomies copied from nature without disguise of any defect, intensity of look (never was religious sentiment expressed with such power), minute truthfulness as to costumes and details of furnishing, such were the characteristics of this art.地貌从本质上没有任何缺陷,看强度(从来就没有这种权力所表达的宗教情感),服装和装饰细节的真实性分钟变相复制,这种艺术的特点。 Having arrived at this perfection miniature painting ceased to be a merely decorative art and was confounded with painting on a large scale.在到达这个完美的微型画不再仅仅是装饰艺术和绘画大规模混淆。The anachronism of costumes belonging to the fifteenth century, whether they have to do with characters from Terence or scenes from the Gospels, is not one of the least charms of these beautiful works.不合时宜的属于15世纪的服装,无论他们所要做的特伦斯或场景从福音的字符的,是不是这些美丽的作品的魅力之一。Similar are the other manuscripts of Jean de Berry, the "Grandes Heures", ascribed to Jacquemart de Hesdin, the "Très Belles Heures" (Brussels) by the same artist, the "Dukes' Terence" (Paris), which first belonged to the Duke Guyenne.类似吉恩de贝里,“Grandes Heures”,指相同的艺术家,“公爵”特伦斯“(巴黎),它首先属于Jacquemart DE Hesdin,”特雷斯佳丽Heures“(布鲁塞尔)的其他手稿杜克大学Guyenne。The "Heures de Turin" (destroyed by the fire of 1904), made for William IV, Count of Holland, belong to the same school.“Heures都灵”(由1904年的大火中被毁),为荷兰伯爵威廉四世,属于同一所学校。About 1450 we can distinguish the Flemish-Burgundian school (works executed for the Dukes of Burgundy) from the French school, whose chief representative is Jean Fouquet of Tours (1415-80).约1450,我们可以区分来自法国的学校,其主要代表是让旅游富凯(141​​5年至1480年),佛兰芒 - 勃艮第的学校(勃艮第公爵执行)。Flemish and Italian influences are confused in his works: "Jewish Antiquities" (Paris); "Books of Hours" of Etienne Chevalier (Chantilly); "Grands Chroniques de France" (Paris), etc. After him Jean Bourdichon, who about 1508 decorated the "Hours" of Anne of Brittany (Paris), may be considered the last representative of the great school of miniature painting.弗拉芒区和意大利的影响感到困惑:“犹太人古物”(巴黎);艾蒂安其士(蒂伊)“图书小时的”;“分站赛Chroniques法国”(巴黎),等等后,他在他的作品让Bourdichon世界卫生组织(世卫组织)关于1508装饰的“小时”的安妮布列塔尼(巴黎),可考虑的微型画的伟大学校的最后代表。 The progress of wood-engraving was as fatal to it, as was that of printing to calligraphy.木雕刻的进步是它的致命伤,作为印刷书法。Until modern times Books of Hours, works of heraldry, etc. have continued to be illuminated, but these miniatures do not possess a single personal quality.直到近代小时,纹章作品等书籍继续被照亮,但这些不具备单一的个人素质的缩影。

Publication information Written by Louis Bréhier.路易Bréhier编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.转录由Bryan R.约翰逊。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全书,卷第九。Published 1910.发布1910。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


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Archéolog.picturis暨(米兰,1819年); STRZYGOWSKI,Eine Alexandrinische Weltchronik(维也纳,1905年);同上,DAS Etschmiadzin Evangeliar(维也纳,1891年);同上,Kleinarmenische Miniaturmaleres IM版= 94ffentlichungen DER Universitatsbibliothek祖蒂宾根大学,我; MIGEON,曼努埃尔D'艺术Musulman,二(巴黎,1907年),6-60; BLOCHET,莱斯ECOLES peinture EN Perse牧师Archéolog。(July, 1905); KONDAKOFF, Histoire de l'art byzantin d'après les miniatures (Fr. tr., Paris, 1886- 91); OMONT, Miniatures des manuscrits dreca de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris, 1902); MILLET, Histoire de l'art, I, III (Paris, 1906-09); RITTER AND WICKHOFF, Die Wiener Genesis (Vienna, 1895); HASELOFF, Codex purpureus Rossanensis (Leipzig, 1898); OMONT, Peintures de l'Evangile de St. Mathieu (die Sinope): Monuments Pict., VII (1901); EBERSOLT, Miniatures byzantines de Berlin in Revue Archéolog.(7月,1905年); KONDAKOFF,史DE L'艺术byzantin D' apr镳LES微缩模型(TR Fr.,巴黎,1886年 - 91。); OMONT,袖珍DES manuscrits dreca DE LA国家图书馆(巴黎,1902年);小米,史DE L'艺术,我,三(巴黎,1906至09年); Ritter和WICKHOFF,模具维纳创世记(维也纳,1895年),食品法典委员会purpureus Rossanensis(莱比锡,1898年)HASELOFF; OMONT,Peintures DE L' Evangile德圣马修(死Sinope)。古迹PICT,第七(1901年); EBERSOLT,袖珍拜占庭的柏林歌剧团Archéolog。 (July, 1905); Codices e Vaticani Selecti(7月,1905年);抄本个人Vaticani Selecti VIII, Il Menologio di Basilio, II (Turin, 1907); OUSPENSKY, Le manuscrit de l'Octateque du Sérail in Bulletin de l'Institut Archéol.八,IL Menologio DI巴西利奥,II(都灵,1907年); OUSPENSKY,乐manuscrit DE L' Octateque杜Sérail通报DE L'研究所Archéol。russe de Constantinople, XII (1907); STRZYGOWSKI, Die miniaturen des serbischen Psalters (Vienna, 1906); GILBERT, Fac-similies of national manuscripts of Ireland (London, 1874-1884); WESTWOOD, Fac-similes of the miniatures and ornaments of Anglo-Saxon and Irish manuscripts (London, 1868); UNGER, La miniature irandaise in Rev. 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Picture Bibles图片“圣经”

Catholic Information天主教信息

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching.在中世纪的教会使用图片作为教学的手段,以补充阅读或口语教学中获得的知识。For books only existed in manuscript form and, being costly, were beyond the means of most people.对于只存在于手稿,昂贵的书籍,超出了大多数人的一种手段。Besides, had it been possible for the multitude to come into the possession of books, they could not have read them, since in those rude times, education was the privilege of few.此外,被众人来成藏的书籍可能,他们可能没有看过,因为在那些粗鲁的时代,教育是少数人的特权。In fact, hardly anyone could read, outside the ranks of the clergy and the monks.事实上,几乎没有人能读,僧侣和僧侣的行列之外。So frescoes of scenes from the Old and New Testaments, stained-glass windows, an the like were set up in the churches, because, as the Synod of Arras (1025) said, "The illiterate contemplated in the lineaments of painting what they, having never learnt to read, could not discern in writing".所以场面的壁画的彩色玻璃窗,一个类似的新旧约,设立教会,因为作为世界主教会议的阿拉斯(1025)说,“文盲画他们的轮廓线的设想,从未学会阅读,无法分辨在写作“。 Especially did the Church make use of pictures to spread abroad a knowledge of the events recorded in the Bible and of the mutual connection between the leading facts of the Old and New Testaments, whether as type and antitype, or as prophecy and fulfillment.尤其是教会使用图片向国外传播知识记录的事件在“圣经”的旧约和新约的领导事实之间的相互连接,无论类型和antitype,或预言和履行。 For this purpose the picture Bibles of the Middle Ages were copied and put in circulation.为此中世纪的图片“圣经”被复制和流通。The most important of the picture Bibles of the Middle Ages which have survived is that variously styled the "Bible Moralisée", the "Bible Historiée", the "Bible Allégorisée" and sometimes "Emblémes Bibliques".幸存下来的中世纪的图片“圣经”中最重要的是,不同风格的“圣经Moralisée”,“圣经Historiée”,“圣经Allégorisée”,有时“Emblémes Bibliques”。It is a work of the thirteenth century, and from the copies that still survive there is no doubt that it existed in at least two editions, like to one another in the choice and order of the Biblical texts used, but differing in the allegorical and moral deductions drawn from these passages.这是一个十三世纪的工作,并从副本仍然屹立不倒,这是毫无疑问,它的存在至少有两个版本,要在选择和使用的圣经文本的顺序,但在不同的寓意和从这些经文的道德扣除。 The few remarks to be made here about the "Bible Moralisée" will be made in connection with copies of the first and second redactions which have come down to us.约“圣经Moralisée”在这里将要作出的的几句话,将在连接的第一和第二,已回落到我们的节录的副本。

The copy of the first edition, to which reference has been made, is one of the most sumptuous illustrated manuscripts, preserved to us from the Middle Ages.第一版的副本,其中提到已取得,是最丰盛的说明我们从中世纪保存的手稿,之一。Unfortunately, it no longer exists in the form of a single volume, nor is it kept in one place.不幸的是,它不再存在于一个单一的卷的形式,也不是在一个地方保存。It has been split up into three separate parts kept in three distinct libraries.它已经分裂成三个独立的部分,存放在三个不同的图书馆。The first part, consisting of 224 leaves, is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 224叶组成,第一部分,是在牛津大学Bodleian图书馆。The second part of 222 leaves is in the National Library in Paris; and the third part, made up of 178 leaves, is kept in the library of the British Museum. 222叶的第二部分是在巴黎的国家图书馆;和第三部分,由178叶,是保存在大英博物馆的图书馆。Six leaves of the third part are missing, so that it ought to contain 184 leaves.六叶第三部分丢失,因此,它应该包含184叶。When complete and bound together, therefore, the whole volume consisted of 630 leaves, written and illustrated on one side only.完成后,并结合在一起,因此,全卷包括630叶,只有一边说明。This Bible, as indeed all the picture Bibles of the Middle Ages, did not contain the full text of the Bible.这圣经“,事实上中世纪的所有图片”圣经“,不包含”圣经“全文。Short passages only were cited, and these not so as to give any continuous sense or line of thought.短的段落中被引用,并且这些不给任何连续感或思路。But the object of the writer seems to have been chiefly to make the texts cited the basis of moral and allegorical teaching, in the manner so common in those days.但作家的对象主要是使文本中引用的方式在那些日子里,共同的道德和寓言教学的基础上,似乎已经。In the Psalter he was content with copying out the first verse of each psalm; whilst when dealing with the Gospels he did not quote from each evangelist separately, but made use of a kind of confused diatessaron of all four combined.在诗篇,他是与复制每个诗篇的第一首诗歌的内容,而在处理时,与他没有报价分别从每个传道福音,但利用一种混淆diatessaron所有四个结合。 An attempt was made to establish a connection between the events recorded in the Old Testament and those recorded in the New, even when there does not seem to be any very obvious connection between them.试图建立在旧约中记录的事件和在新的记录之间的连接,即使似乎没有很明显它们之间的任何连接。Thus the sleep of Adam, recorded in the beginning of Genesis, is said to prefigure the death of Christ; and Abraham sending his servant with rich presents to seek a wife for his son is a type of the Eternal Father giving the Gospels to the Apostles to prepare the union of His Son with the Church.因此,据说是亚当的睡眠,记载在创世记开始,预示死亡的基督;和亚伯拉罕具有丰富的礼物送他的仆人,寻求他的儿子妻子是一个永恒之父类型的福音使徒准备他的儿子与教会的联盟。

The entire work contains about 5,000 illustrations.整个作品中包含了约5000插图。The pictures are arranged in two parallel columns on each page, each column having four medallions with pictures.照片被安排在两个平行的列在每一页上,每一列有四个徽章与图片。Parallel to the pictures and alternating with them are two other narrower columns, with four legends each, one legend to each picture; the legends consisting alternatively of Biblical texts and moral or allegorical applications; whilst the pictures represent the subjects of the Biblical texts or of the applications of them.平行的图片,并与他们交替其他两个窄列,每四个传说,每张图片的一个传说,传说交替组成的圣经文本和道德或寓言应用;而图片代表的“圣经”的文本或对象他们的申请。 In the manuscript copy of the "Bible Moralisée", now under consideration, the illustrations are executed with the greatest skill.在“圣经Moralisée”,现在正在审议的手稿副本,执行中的插图是最大的本事。The painting is said to be one of the best specimens of thirteenth-century work and the manuscript was in all probability prepared for someone in the highest rank of life.绘画被认为是13世纪的工作的最好的标本之一和手稿是在有人准备在人生的最高排名所有的概率。A specimen of the second edition of the "Bible Moralisée" is to be found in the National Library in Paris (manuscript Français No. 167).第二版“圣经Moralisée”的标本是发现在巴黎国家图书馆(手稿法语第167号)。Whilst it is identical with the copy which has just been examined in the selection and order of the Biblical passages, it differs from it in the greater simplicity and brevity of the moral and allegorical teaching based on them.虽然它刚刚在选择和秩序的圣经研究的副本是一样的,它不同于基于他们的道德和寓言的教学,更简单和简洁。Another important Bible, intended to instruct by means of pictures, was that which has been called the "Bible Historiée toute figurée".另一个重要的圣经,旨在指导手段通过图片,是那些被称为“圣经Historiée toute figurée”。It was a work of the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century.这是一个工作结束第十三或十四世纪初。In general outline and plan it resembles the class of Bible which has gone before, but it differs from it in the selection of Bible passages and in the allegorical explanations derived from them.在一般纲要和计划,它类似于之前已经“圣经”类,但它从不同经文的选择,并从中获得的寓言解释。Coming to the life of Our Lord, the author of the "Bible Historiée toute figurée" dispensed with a written text altogether, and contented himself with writing over the pictures depicting scenes of Our Saviour's life, a brief explanatory legend.我们的主的生命,配用书面文字的“圣经”Historiée toute figurée“的作者完全和自己满意写在描绘我们的救主的生命,一个简短的解释性传说中的场景照片。Many specimens of this Bible have come down to us, but we select part of one preserved in the National Library in Paris (manuscript Français No. 9561) for a brief description.本圣经“的许多标本回落给我们,但我们选择了一个简短的介绍,保存在巴黎国家图书馆(手稿法语号9561)的一部分。 In this manuscript 129 pages are taken up with the Old Testament.在这个手稿129页旧约。Of these the earlier ones are divided horizontally in the centre, and it is the upper part of the page that contains the picture illustrative of some Old Testament event.这些较早的中心分为水平,它是包含图片说明一些旧约事件的页面的上部。The lower part represents a corresponding scene from the New Testament.下部代表了相应的场景,新约。further on in the volume, three pictures appear in the upper part of the page, and three below.进一步音量,三张照片出现在页面的上部,和三段。Seventy-six pages at the end of the volume are devoted to depicting the lives of Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin.在卷的末尾的76个页面是专门描绘耶稣基督和圣母的生活。

It must not be supposed that these were the only Bibles of this class that existed in the Middle Ages.它绝不能以为这是这个类的只有“圣经”在中世纪存在。On the contrary, from the great number of copies that have survived to our own day we may guess how wide their circulation must have been.相反,大量从生存到我们自己的一天的副本,我们可以猜测其流通必须已经有多宽。 We have a manuscript existing in the British Museum (addit. 1577) entitled "Figures de la Bible" consisting of pictures illustrating events in the Bible with short descriptive text.我们有一个现有的手稿在大英博物馆(addit. 1577),题为“数字DE LA圣经”图片说明简短的描述性文本“圣经”中的事件组成的。this is of the end of the thirteenth, or the beginning of the fourteenth, century.这是结束的第十三次,第十四,世纪初。 Of the same date is the "Historia Bibliæ metrice" which is preserved in the same library and, as the name implies, has a metrical text.同日是“Historia Bibliæ metrice”,这是保存在同一个库,顾名思义,有韵律的文本。But we have specimens of manuscript illustrated Bibles of earlier date.但是,我们有插图的手稿,早日圣经的标本。Such is the Bible preserved in the library of St. Paul's, outside the walls of Rome; that of the Amiens Library (manuscript 108), and that of the Royal Library of The Hague (manuscript 69).这是在圣保罗图书馆保存的圣经,罗马城墙外的亚眠图书馆(手稿108),海牙(手稿69)的皇家图书馆。So numerous are the surviving relics of such Bibles, back even so far as the eleventh and twelfth centuries, that it may be safely said that the Church made a systematic effort to teach the Scriptures in those days by means of illustrated Bibles.如此众多的如“圣经”中幸存的文物,甚至到目前为止,作为第十一届和第十二届世纪,它可安全地说,教会作出了系统的努力,说明“圣经”是指在那些日子里教的经文。


The Bibles that have come under notice so far illustrate the entire Scriptures.下通知来的“圣经”到目前为止,说明整个圣经。But what was done for the Bible in full was also done for its various parts.但什么是“圣经”在全面完成它的各个部分也做了。Numerous beautifully illustrated psalters have come down to us, some of them going as far back as the ninth century, as, for instance, the Psalter of the University of Utrecht.许多精美的插图psalters已回落到我们,他们中的一些早在第九世纪,例如,乌得勒支大学的诗篇。One thing that comes out clearly from a study of the contents and character of these psalters is that a very large proportion of them were executed by artists working in England.是一个非常大的比例,其中在英国工作的艺术家执行的一件事情,从研究的内容和这些psalters字符明确出来。 So, too, the book of Job and the Apocalypse were copied separately and adorned with numerous illustrations.因此,作业和启示的书被复制单独装饰与众多的插图。But, as we should have expected, the Gospels were a specially favourite field for the medieval artists who devoted their time to picture-painting.但是,正如我们预期,福音是一个中世纪的人把时间用于照片画的艺术家特别喜爱的领域。


A class of illustrated Bibles to which no allusion has been made, but which had a wide circulation especially in the fifteenth century was the "Biblia Pauperum".一个说明,没有提到已经取得了“圣经”类,但其中有一个广泛流传,特别是在15世纪是“Biblia Pauperum”。As it name indicates, it was especially intended for the poor and ignorant, and some say that it was used for purposes of preaching by the mendicant orders.正如它的名字表示,它是特别用于为穷人和无知,有些人说这是说教的目的乞丐订单。It existed at first in manuscript (indeed a manuscript copy is still in existence in the library of the British Museum); but at a very early period it was reproduced by xylography, then coming into use in Europe.它存在于第一手稿(的确是一个手稿的副本仍然是在大英博物馆图书馆的存在),但在非常早的时期,它是复制版刻,然后在欧洲投入使用。 As a consequence the "Biblia Pauperum" was published and sold at a much cheaper rate than the older manuscript picture Bibles.因此,“Biblia Pauperum”便宜得多的速度比旧手稿图片圣经出版和销售。The general characteristics of this Bible are the same as those of the earlier picture Bibles.本圣经的一般特点是较早图片圣经一样。The pictures are generally placed only on one side of the page, and are framed in a kind of triptych of architectural design.图片一般都是放在页面的一侧,并在建筑设计的一种三联陷害。In the centre is a scene from the New Testament, and on either side of it typical events from the Old Testament.该中心是从现场的新约,方任从旧约的典型事件。Above and below the central picture are busts of four noted prophets or other famous characters of the Old Testament.中央画面上方和下方是四个指出旧约先知或其他著名人物的半身像。In the corners of the picture are the legends.在画面的角落的传说。The number of these pictures in the "Biblia Pauperum" was usually from forty to fifty.这些图片在“Biblia Pauperum”通常从四十到五十。

Picture Bibles of the Middle Ages did not exhaust the resources of Christians in illustration of the Bible.中世纪的图片“圣经”没有用尽插图的“圣经”的基督徒的资源。Since the fifteenth century a host of artistic geniuses have contributed to make the events of Scripture live in colour before our eyes.十五世纪以来的艺术天才作出了贡献,使圣经的事件在我们眼前生活的颜色。Most noted amongst them were Michelangelo and Raphael; the former chiefly famous for his Pietà and the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel; the latter for seven cartoons illustrating events in the New Testament.最引人注目的,其中的米开朗基罗和拉斐尔;前者主要是他的圣母怜子图,并在西斯廷教堂的壁画而闻名,后者为七个漫画,说明在新约中的事件。 Perhaps no sacred picture has been so often copied as "The Last Supper" of Leonardo da Vinci painted in the refectory of the Dominican convent in Milan.也许没有任何神圣的图片已作为“最后的晚餐”达芬奇画在米兰多米尼加修道院食堂经常复制。Well known, too, are Fra Bartolomeo's "Presentation in the Temple" in Vienna, and Rubens's numerous Bible pictures, to be found in the Louvre, Brussels, Vienna, Munich, and London, but chiefly at Antwerp, where are his "Descent from the Cross", "Crucifixion", and "Adoration of the Magi", the most famous of his works.众所周知,太,是法兰克福机场巴托洛梅奥的“简报寺”在维也纳和鲁本斯的众多的圣经图片,以被卢浮宫,布鲁塞尔,维也纳,慕尼黑,伦敦发现,但主要是在安特卫普,他的“后裔从在哪里十字架“,”耶稣受难“,”贤士来朝“,他的作品中最有名的。 These are but a few out of a number of illustrious names too numerous to mention here and including Botticelli, Carrucci, Holman, Hunt, Leighton, Murillo, Veronese, Tintoretto, and Watts.这些都只是不胜枚举包括波提切利,Carrucci,霍尔曼,亨特顿,穆里略,委罗内塞,丁托列托,瓦数出了一些显赫的名字。

To study the works of the great Bible-illustrators is not so difficult as might be supposed.要学习伟大的圣经 - 插画家的作品,可能应该不是那么困难。For of late years a great number of collections of Bible prints have been made, some containing engravings of the most famous paintings.对于晚年大量的圣经打印的集合,已做出一些最有名的画作包含版画。In the first half of the last century Julius Schnorr collected together 180 designs called his "Bible Pictures, or Scripture History"; and another series of 240 pictures was published in 1860 by george Wigand; whilst later in the century appeared Dalziel's "Bible Gallery".在上个世纪上半年,朱利叶斯Schnorr收集在一起180的设计称为他的“圣经图片,或圣经的历史”;和另一系列240的图片是在1860年出版的由乔治Wigand;而在本世纪后出现达尔齐尔的“圣经”画廊“ 。Hodder and Stoughton have published excellent volumes reproducing some of the pictures of the greatest masters.霍德和斯托顿出版优秀卷,音响的一些最伟大的大师的图片。Such are "The Old Testament in Art" (2 parts); "The Gospels in Art", "The Apostles in Art", and "Bethlehem to Olivet", this latter being made up of modern pictures.这是“旧约艺术”(2件),“艺术的福音”,“使徒们在艺术”,以及“伯利恒科特”,后者是现代的图片。The Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge has not been behindhand, but has issued amongst other publications a volume on "Art Pictures from the Old Testament" with ninety illustrations, and another on the Gospels with 350 illustrations from the works of the great masters of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries.推广基督教知识学会不落后,但已发出九十插图“从旧约的艺术图片”,对福音另一个各卷的其他出版物350大师的作品插图第十四,第十五,十六世纪。

Publication information Written by JA Howlett.由司法机构政务长豪利特编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.转录由Bryan R.约翰逊。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


HORNE, Introduction to the Holy Scriptures (London, 1822), II, 3d ed.; HUMPHREY, History of the Art of Printing (London, 1868); LEVESQUE in VIG., Dict.霍恩,介绍圣经(伦敦,1822年),第二,3D​​版;汉弗莱,印刷(伦敦,1868年)的艺术史,VIG LEVESQUE,快译通。de la Bible (Paris, 1894), sv Bible en image; DELISLE, Hist.德拉圣经“(巴黎,1894年),SV圣经EN形象;迪赖尔,历史。littéraire de la France (Paris, 1893), XXXI, 213-285; BERJEAU, Biblia Pauperum, reproduced in facsimile from one of the copies in the British Museum, with an historical and bibliographical introduction (London, 1859).littéraire DE LA法国(巴黎,1893年),三十一,213-285; BERJEAU,Biblia Pauperum,转载传真机从在大英博物馆的副本之一,具有历史和书目介绍(伦敦,1859年)。

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