Mamelukes 马穆鲁克

General Information一般资料

The Mamelukes, a military, landholding aristocracy, long figured prominently in Middle Eastern history.Mamelukes,军事,拥有土地的贵族,长期占有突出地位,在中东的历史。They were originally recruited from non-Arab slaves imported to serve various traditional Muslim rulers as soldiers and officials.他们最初招募的进口为军人和官员的各种传统的穆斯林统治者的非阿拉伯奴隶。Typically, the erstwhile slaves assumed power themselves in time and continued to replenish their ranks by importing more military slaves.通常情况下,昔日的奴隶上台自己的时间,并继续以补充他们的行列,通过进口更多的军事奴隶。 Between the 13th and 19th centuries Mameluke regimes appeared throughout the Muslim world, including India, Iraq, and most notably Egypt. 13世纪和19世纪之间的Mameluke制度整个穆斯林世界的出现,其中包括印度,伊拉克,最显着埃及。Until 1382 the dominant Mamelukes were mostly of Turkish ethnic origin; after that date, the majority was generally of Circassian origin.直到1382主导Mamelukes大多是土耳其民族的起源,在该日期之后,多数是切尔克斯起源一般。

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The Egyptian Mamelukes emerged to prominence in 1250 when they overthrew the Ayyubid dynasty and inaugurated a line of more than 50 independent sultans.埃及M​​amelukes出现在1250到突起,当他们推翻了艾优卜王朝的王朝,开创了超过50个独立的苏丹。 These sultans presided over an unruly but culturally brilliant era until the Ottoman conquest of 1517.这些苏丹主持不羁,但文化的辉煌时代,直到1517奥斯曼帝国征服。From their capital in Cairo they ruled parts of Syria, Arabia, Libya, and Sudan.从他们在首都开罗,他们统治,叙利亚,沙特,利比亚和苏丹的部分地区。An awesome cavalry force when united, the Mamelukes checked the Mongol invasions of Syria, defeated the Crusaders, and suppressed the Assassins.真棒骑兵部队时,美国,Mamelukes检查蒙古人入侵叙利亚,击败了十字军,镇压刺客。When no outside threats loomed, however, they divided into quarreling factions that seldom cooperated.当没有外部的威胁迫近,然而,他们分为争吵派别,很少合作。Most of the sultans had short reigns ending in violence.苏丹大部分已结束的暴力统治。

Ottoman rule did not hurt the Mamelukes as a class.奥斯曼帝国统治没有伤害作为一个阶级的Mamelukes。 They continued to share effectively in the rule and wealth of Egypt.他们继续在埃及的统治和财富,有效地分享。On the eve of the French invasion in 1798, Egypt's 20,000 Mamelukes enjoyed virtual independence.法国在1798年入侵前夕,埃及20,000 Mamelukes享受虚拟的独立性。Muhammad Ali, who consolidated his own control over Egypt following the French occupation, finally destroyed the Mamelukes in 1811 when he systematically massacred the culturally stagnant old ruling caste.拳王阿里,巩固了他自己的控制了埃及,法国占领后,终于在1811年摧毁Mamelukes时,他系统地屠杀的文化停滞的旧的统治种姓。

Robert G. Landen罗伯特G. Landen

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Glubb, John, Soldiers of Fortune: The Story of the Mamluks (1973); Muir, William, The Mameluke, or Slave Dynasty of Egypt, 1260-1517 (1896; repr. 1973); Ziadeh, Nicola A., Urban Life in Syria Under the Early Mamluks (1953). Glubb,约翰,雇佣兵:马穆鲁克王朝(1973)的故事;缪尔,威廉,Mameluke或奴隶埃及王朝,一二六○年至1517年(1896年,再版1973); Ziadeh,尼古拉A.,城市生活叙利亚在早期马穆鲁克王朝(1953)。


Mamelukes Mamelukes

General Information一般资料

Mamelukes, purchased slaves converted to Islam who advanced themselves to high military posts in Egypt.Mamelukes,皈依伊斯兰教购买奴隶先进自己在埃及的军事哨所。From this class sprang two ruling dynasties, the Bahri (1250-1382), made up of Turks and Mongols, and the Burji (1382-1517), made up of Circassians; both were named for places where the troops who seized power had been quartered.从这个类窜出两个统治王朝,巴赫里(1250年至1382年),土耳其人和蒙古人,和Burji(1382年至1517年),切尔克斯人组成,均夺取政权的军队曾去过的地方命名扎营。 The founding of the Bahri dynasty in 1250 began a succession that brought territorial gains and great prosperity to Egypt.巴赫里王朝在1250成立开始,到埃及的领土和巨大的繁荣带来了一个继承。

After 1341 the power of the Bahri sultan passed gradually to troop commanders, and by 1381 the first Burji ruler was able to take over the throne.巴赫里苏丹的权力后,1341通过逐步向部队指挥官,1381第一Burji统治者能够接管王位。His rule and that of his successors was troubled by palace revolts, civil wars, and foreign conquests, culminating in the defeat of Egypt in 1517 by Selim I, sultan of Ottoman Turkey.塞利姆一世,奥斯曼土耳其苏丹的宫殿起义,内战和外国征服,最终在1517年在埃及击败他和他的继任者规则是困扰。 Egypt was then subject to the authority of a Turkish representative, the pasha, but actual power remained in the hands of Mameluke beys, or governors of districts or minor provinces.埃及当时受到了土耳其的代表,帕夏的权威,但实际权力仍然在Mameluke beys,或地区或轻微省州长手中 When Napoleon Bonaparte, seeking to expand French power in the Mediterranean, invaded Egypt, he defeated the Mamelukes in the Battle of the Pyramids on July 21, 1798.当拿破仑波拿巴,寻求扩大法国在地中海的权力,入侵埃及的金字塔之战1798年7月21日,他击败了Mamelukes。 After the French evacuated Egypt, the Mamelukes struggled with the Turks for power but were completely routed; the massacres at Cairo in 1805 and 1811 destroyed the power of the Mamelukes.法国撤离埃及后,Mamelukes挣扎与土耳其人的权力,但完全路由;在开罗举行的大屠杀在1805年和1811 Mamelukes的力量摧毁了。The survivors fled to Nubia.幸存者逃到努比亚。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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