Mecca, Makka, Makkah麦加

General Information, Note一般信息,请注意

Mecca is the most important city to Muslims, and they are required to face it when they Pray.麦加是穆斯林,最重要的城市,他们必须要面对它当他们祈祷。It is important because Muslims believe that the Patriarch Abraham personally built the Kaaba (cube-shaped building), using the Black Stone in its construction.重要的是因为穆斯林相信族长亚伯拉罕亲自建造的天房(立方体形建筑),在其建设使用的黑石头。Abraham's son Ishmael assisted in that construction, according to Islamic beliefs.亚伯拉罕的儿子以实玛利的协助下,在建设,根据伊斯兰信仰。Because Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son because the Lord asked him to do so, clearly indicated that Abraham was the first truly Devout believer in the One God (Allah).因为亚伯拉罕是愿意牺牲自己的儿子,因为主问他这样做,清楚地表明,亚伯拉罕是第一个真正的虔诚信奉一个上帝(真主)。 This makes Abraham the central human figure in Muslim beliefs, the first of the Patriarchs.这使得中央人力图在穆斯林信仰的始祖亚伯拉罕。(This is the very same Abraham that Christians and Jews similarly revere as Patriarch.) The fact that Muslims face Mecca is really them facing the Kaaba, in honor to Abraham. (这是非常相同的亚伯拉罕,基督徒和犹太人同样天尊为祖师。)事实上,穆斯林面对麦加是真的,他们在面对天房荣幸亚伯拉罕,。


Mecca麦加

General Information一般资料

Mecca (Arabic: Makkah), the birthplace of Muhammad, is the holiest city of the Islamic faith.麦加(阿拉伯语:麦加),穆罕默德的诞生地,是伊斯兰信仰的圣城。Capital of the Hejaz province of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is located 72 km (45 mi) east of Jidda, its port on the Red Sea, and about 485 km (300 mi) south of Medina.沙特阿拉伯希贾兹,麦加省的首府,位于72公里(45英里)以东,对红海港口吉达,麦地那以南约485公里(300英里)。 Mecca's population is 367,000 (1976 est.).麦加的人口367000人(1976年统计)。The city is located on the sandy, narrow valley of the Wadi Ibrahim and is surrounded by hills from 60 to 150 m (200 to 500 ft) high.城市位于旺地易卜拉欣在沙滩上,狭长的山谷中,是从60至150米(200至500英尺)高的小山包围。The 914-m-high (3,000-ft) Jabal Khandama is located nearby.位于附近的914米,高(3000英尺)Jabal的Khandama。

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Mecca is a holy city, and non-Muslims are not permitted to enter it.麦加是一个神圣的城市,和非穆斯林不得进入。But for Muslims the pilgrimage to Mecca, or the hajj, is one of the basic tenets of the religion.但对于穆斯林到麦加朝圣,或朝圣,是宗教的基本原则之一。Each year, over 1,000,000 people visit during the month of pilgrimage.每年超过1,000,000人在一个月的朝圣访问。The core of Mecca, including the commercial district, surrounds the al-Haram or Great Mosque, which can hold 300,000 people.麦加,包括商业区,核心围绕圣地的大清真寺,可容纳30人。Inside the mosque, the Kaaba (a shrine enclosing a sacred Black Stone) and the well of Zamzam are located.清真寺内,天房(神社附上一份神圣的黑石头)和Zamzam以及位于。They are the focus of the pilgrimage.他们是朝圣的重点。

The main economic activity in Mecca is the provision of services to pilgrims.的主要经济活动在麦加朝圣者提供服务。Merchants in particular benefit from the trade of travelers, as huge fairs are held during the month of the pilgrimage.招商,特别是从旅客的贸易利益巨大的交易会期间的朝圣月份举行。Because of the yearly influx of visitors, the city's transportation network is well developed.由于每年的游客涌入,城市的交通网络非常发达。Mecca is connected to Jidda and Riyadh by road, and the airport at Jidda serves Mecca.麦加是连接吉达和利雅得的公路,并在吉达机场服务麦加。

Even before Muhammad's birth (570), the city was an important commercial and religious center (the Black Stone was sacred in early Arabic religions).即使在穆罕默德的诞生(570),城市是一个重要的商业和宗教中心(黑石头是在早期的阿拉伯宗教的神圣)。 Muhammad began to preach in the city c.613 but was forced to flee to Medina in 622 (the Hegira).穆罕默德开始传教,在城市c.613但被迫逃往麦地那622(Hegira)。In 630 he returned with 10,000 men to conquer the city and establish it as the center of the Islamic world.在630年,他回到10,000人征服的城市,并建立它作为伊斯兰世界的中心。The city was ruled by the Carmathians from 930 until 1269, when the Egyptian Mamelukes gained control.这个城市被排除在Carmathians从930直到1269,当埃及Mamelukes获得控制。

The Ottoman Turks ruled from 1517 until 1916, when the Hejaz region became independent, with Mecca as its capital.奥斯曼土耳其人统治从1517直到1916年,希贾兹地区为首都麦加,成为独立。Mecca fell to Ibn Saud in 1924, and in 1932 Hejaz became a province of Saudi Arabia.麦加下降到1924年,伊本沙特和汉志在1932年成为沙特阿拉伯的一个省。In November 1979 a group of 200 Muslim zealots seized Mecca's Great Mosque; they were driven out by Saudi troops after 10 days, and many were executed. 1979年11月一组200名穆斯林狂热分子占领了麦加的大清真寺;他们赶出沙特部队10天之后,许多被处决。In 1987, Iranian pilgrims staged violent demonstrations in the city.1987年,伊朗朝圣者在城市上演的暴力示威。

Ira Sheskin艾拉Sheskin

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Gaury, Gerald de, Rulers of Mecca (1951; repr. 1982); 1982); Hirashima, HY, The Road to Holy Mecca (1972); Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs, 10th ed. Gaury,杰拉尔德德,麦加的统治者(1951年再版1982年); 1982年); Hirashima,“神圣的麦加(1972)之路”HY;希提,菲利普K,阿拉伯人的历史,第10版。(1970); Steward, D., Mecca (1980).(1970年),麦加管家,D.(1980)。


Mecca麦加

General Information一般资料

Mecca, also Makkah (ancient Macoraba), is a city in western Saudi Arabia, located in Al Hijâz (Hejaz) Province, near Jiddah.麦加,也麦加(古代Macoraba),是在沙特西部城市,位于阿尔Hijâz(希贾兹)省,靠近吉达。Mecca is the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, and the most sacred of the Muslim holy cities.麦加是先知穆罕默德,伊斯兰教的创始人,和最神圣的穆斯林圣地城市的发源地。According to Islamic tradition, Muslims around the world must face Mecca during their daily prayers.根据伊斯兰传统,世界各地的穆斯林必须面对麦加在日常的祈祷。Every year, during the last month of the Islamic calendar, more than 1 million Muslims make a pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca.每年,在伊斯兰历的最后一个月,超过100万穆斯林朝圣,或朝觐,麦加。The city's location on several trade routes has made it commercially important since ancient times.城市的几个国家的贸易通道上的位置,取得了商业自古以来的重要。Mecca was a religious center before the time of Muhammad, and several holy sites within the sacred precincts of the great mosque, called al-Haram, had religious significance in pre-Islamic times.麦加是一个宗教中心,穆罕默德时代前,前伊斯兰时期内几个大清真寺的神圣领域,所谓人的圣地,圣地的宗教意义。

The Kaaba (or Caaba), a windowless cube-shaped building in the courtyard of the mosque, is believed to have been built by the Hebrew patriarch Abraham.天房(或Caaba)在清真寺的院子里,一个没有窗户的立方体形的建筑,被认为已建立希伯莱族长亚伯拉罕。In the southeastern corner of the Kaaba is the Black Stone, supposedly given to Abraham by the angel Gabriel.在天房的东南角,是黑石头,理应给予亚伯拉罕由天使加布里埃尔。Also within the precincts of the mosque is the sacred well, called the Zamzam (Zemzem), which was reputedly used by Hagar, mother of Abraham's son Ishmael.也就是神圣的好,就叫Zamzam(Zemzem),据说这是夏甲,亚伯拉罕的儿子以实玛利的母亲清真寺范围内。 The city is first mentioned by the Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy, who in the 2nd century AD called it Macoraba.这个城市是第一次提到亚历山大的地理学家托勒密,在公元2世纪,Macoraba。

From the time of Muhammad, Mecca was besieged on various occasions.从穆罕默德时代,麦加被围困在各种场合。It was taken by the Egyptians in the 13th century.它是在13世纪的埃及人。In the 16th century control passed to Turkey.在16世纪控制传递给土耳其。From 1517 the sharifs, or descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, governed Mecca for the Turks.从1517 sharifs,穆罕默德的后裔通过哈桑的儿子穆罕默德的儿子,女婿阿里,土耳其人统治麦加。The latter were driven from the city in 1916 by Grand Sharif Husein ibn Ali, later first king of Al Hijâz.后者被赶出城市在1916年由大谢里夫侯赛因伊本阿里,后来铝Hijâz的第一位国王。In 1924 the city was occupied by Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, then sultan of Najd (Nejd), who made Mecca the religious capital of Saudi Arabia.在1924年被占领的城市由阿卜杜勒阿齐兹伊本沙特,苏丹Najd(Nejd),沙特阿拉伯麦加的宗教资本。Population (1994 estimate) 1,500,000.的人口(1994年估计)1500000。


Mecca麦加

Catholic Information天主教信息

Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city of the Mohammedans, is situated in the district of Hijaz about 21°30' N. latitude and 40°20' E. longitude, some seventy miles east of the Red Sea.资本和阿拉伯的伊斯兰教圣城麦加,Hijaz区,坐落在约21 ° 30'北纬40 ° 20'E.经度,一些70英里以东的红海。It lies in a sandy valley surrounded by rocky hills from two hundred to five hundred feet in height, barren and destitute of vegetation.它位于从两百年五几百英尺的高度,植被荒芜和特困岩石山丘环抱的沙质谷。

The birthplace of Mohammed and the seat of the famous Kaaba, it was celebrated even in pre-Islamic times as the chief sanctuary of the Arabs, and visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees.穆罕默德和著名的天房所在地的诞生地,它是著名的前伊斯兰时代,即使在行政避难所的阿拉伯人,以及无数的朝圣者和信徒访问。 The city presents an aspect more pleasing than that of the ordinary Eastern town, with comparatively wide streets and stone houses, usually of three stories, and well aired and lighted.城市呈现一个方面,更比普通东部城镇美观,具有较宽阔的街道和石头房子,通常是三个故事,,以及宣扬和点燃。The inhabitants, numbering about 60,000, are with few exceptions Arabians whose chief employment consists in lodging the pilgrims and serving the temple, although no inconsiderable amount of trade is carried on with the Bedouins of the surrounding desert.的居民,约60000人,其主​​要就业在住宿的香客和庙务由少数例外阿拉伯人,虽然没有不可小视的贸易金额是与周围的沙漠贝都因人上。 Mecca, the seat of government during the reign of the first five Khalifs, is now governed by a Sharif, chosen by the people from the Sayyids or the descendants of Mohammed, but under the immediate authority of the Sultan of Turkey (Hughes, "Dictionary of Islam", qv).麦加,政府的第一个五年Khalifs在位期间的座位,现在是由谢里夫,选择了从Sayyids人或穆罕默德的后裔,但土耳其苏丹的直接授权下(休斯,“词典伊斯兰教“,QV)。 Mecca is annually visited by some 80,000 pilgrims from all over the Mohammedan world.麦加是每年约80,000朝圣者来自全国各地的伊斯兰教世界的参观。On their way the pilgrims pass through Medina, the second sacred town of Arabia, and on approaching Mecca they undress, laying aside even their headgear, and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the left shoulder.在他们的朝圣者穿过麦地那,沙特第二神圣镇,接近麦加他们脱衣服,搁置甚至他们的头饰,穿上围裙的布片在左肩。 Then they perform the circuit of the Kaaba, kiss the Black Stone, hear the sermon on Mount Arafât, pelt Satan with stones in the valley of Mina, and conclude their pilgrimage with a great sacrificial feast.然后,他们执行的天房的电路,亲吻黑石头,听到毛皮撒旦阿拉法特山,米纳山谷的石头讲道,他们的朝圣之旅结束与一个伟大的牺牲盛宴。 In a year or two Mecca will be reached by the Hijaz Railway already completed as far as Medina (about eight hundred and fifty miles from Damascus).麦加在一年或两年将达到Hijaz铁路已经完成尽可能梅迪纳(大约八百五十英里从大马士革)。From Medina to Mecca the distance is two hundred and eighty miles, and from Mecca to Damascus about one thousand one hundred and ten miles.从麦地那到麦加的距离是两百八十英里,从麦加到大马士革约一千一百十英里。The railway passes through the old caravan route, Damascus, Mezarib, Maan, Medawara, Tebuk, Madain Saleh, El-Ula, Medina, and Mecca.铁路穿过旧的商队路线,大马士革,Mezarib,马安,Medawara,Tebuk,玛丹萨利赫,EL -乌拉,麦地那,和麦加。The early history of Mecca is shrouded in obscurity, although Mohammedan writers have preserved an abundance of legendary lore according to which the city dates back to Abraham who is said to have there worshipped the true God.麦加的早期历史是笼罩在朦胧,虽然穆罕默德作家都保留了丰富的传奇绝杀,根据城市的历史可以追溯到亚伯拉罕说,有崇拜的真神。 It is also stated that after the death of Abraham, the inhabitants of Mecca, owing to the evil influence of the heathen Amalekites, fell into idolatry and paganism, and the Kaaba itself became surrounded with their idols.它也指出,亚伯拉罕,麦加的居民,由于邪恶的异教徒亚玛力的影响,死亡后下降到偶像崇拜和异教,和天房本身成为周围与自己的偶像。 Hundreds of these idols were destroyed by Mohammed on his entrance into the city at the head of a Moslem army in the eighth year of the Hejira, or AD 629.由穆罕默德在穆斯林军队首长在城市的第八个年头的Hejira,或公元629数以百计的这些偶像被摧毁他的入口。During the century before Mohammed, we find the tribe of Quraish in undisputed possession of the city and the acknowledged guardians of the Kaaba.在穆罕默德之前的世纪,我们发现无可争议的占有城市和公认的监护人天房Quraish的部落。The leading events in Mecca at that period, such as the Abyssinian expedition against Yemen and the utter defeat of Arabia's army at the hand of the Meccans, have been already discussed in the article CHRISTIANITY IN ARABIA.在那个时期在麦加的事件,如对也门的阿比西尼亚探险和阿拉伯的军队在麦加的手彻底失败,已经讨论文章在阿拉伯基督教。

Publication information Written by Gabriel Oussani.加布里埃尔Oussani编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by WGKofron.转录WGKofron。With thanks to Fr.随着神父的感谢。John Hilkert and St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.约翰Hilkert和圣玛丽教堂,阿克伦,俄亥俄州天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

See the bibliography appended to the articles ARABIA, MOHAMMED AND MOHAMMEDANISM; BURKHARDT, Travels in Arabia (London, 1830); BURTON, Personal narrative of a Pilgrimage to El Medina and Mecca (London, 1857); HURGRONJE, SNOUCK, Mecca, mit Bilder Atlas, II (The Hague, 1888); IDEM, Het Mekkanische Feest (Leyden, 1888).见追加的文章,沙特阿拉伯,穆罕默德和伊斯兰教的书目;布克哈特,在阿拉伯半岛游记(伦敦,1830年);伯顿,厄尔尼诺麦地那和麦加朝圣的个人叙事(伦敦,1857年); HURGRONJE,SNOUCK,麦加,麻省理工学院Bilder阿特拉斯,II(海牙,1888年);同上,HET Mekkanische Feest(莱顿,1888年)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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