Melchites, MelkitesMelchites

General Information一般资料

Melchites or Melkites (Syriac mlaka; Aramaic malik,"king") is a name given in the 5th century to the Christians of the patriarchates of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch who accepted the definition by the Council of Chalcedon (451) of the two natures of Christ, a position also accepted by the pope and the Byzantine emperor. Melchites或Melkites(叙利亚文mlaka;马利克阿拉姆,“王”)是在5世纪的基督徒,耶路撒冷,亚历山大和安提阿牧首辖区接受Chalcedon委员会(451)的两个定义一个名称基督的性质,还接受了由教皇和拜占庭皇帝的位置。 The name Melchites ("royalists," that is, followers of the emperor) was given to them by the Monophysites, who held that Christ has only one (divine) nature and who therefore rejected the position of the council (see Monophysitism).该monophysites,他们认为基督只有一个神圣的性质,因此拒绝了安理会的立场(见基督一)给他们的名称Melchites(“保皇党”,即皇帝的追随者)。

The Melchites adhered to the Eastern church after the schism with Rome in 1054, but in the following centuries some groups of Melchites shifted their allegiance back to Rome; they became known as the Melchite Catholic church, one of the Eastern Rite churches. Melchites坚持在1054年与罗马分裂后的东正教,但在接下来的几个世纪Melchites一些群体转向效忠回到罗马,他们成为Melchite天主教教堂,东部成年礼教堂之一。 Rome recognized a Catholic Melchite patriarch in 1724.于1724年,罗马承认一个天主教Melchite族长。There are about 270,000 Catholic Melchites in this patriarchal territory, which is centered in Damascus, Syria, and more than 200,000 outside it.还有约27万天主教Melchites在这个重男轻女的领土,这是在叙利亚大马士革为中心的,比外面200000。Their priests are allowed to marry; services are conducted in Arabic or, with due authorization, in the vernacular of the country.他们的教士被允许结婚;服务阿拉伯语或适当授权在该国的白话。The Melchites in the US number about 55,000.在美国大约55,000数量Melchites。They are under the jurisdiction of an exarchate province established in 1966 with its headquarters in Boston.他们是成立于1966年,其总部设在波士顿的一个分会 - 签订省管辖下的。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件

Melchites Melchites

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Melkites).(Melkites)。

ORIGIN AND NAME原产地及名称

Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite. Melchites是,叙利亚,巴勒斯坦,和埃及的人仍然忠实Chalcedon委员会(451)时,大部份转向基督一性。The original meaning of the name therefore is an opposition to Monophysism.因此,该名称的本义是Monophysism反对。 The Nestorians had their communities in eastern Syria till the Emperor Zeno (474-491) closed their school at Edessa in 489, and drove them over the frontier into Persia.在叙利亚东部的景教他们的社区,直到皇帝芝诺(474-491)收于埃德萨489他们的学校,并在边境开车到波斯。 The pople of western Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were either Melchites who accepted Chalcedon, or Monophysites (also called Jacobites in Syria and Palestine, Copts in Egypt) who rejected it, till the Monothelite heresy in the seventh century further complicated the situation.西部叙利亚,巴勒斯坦和埃及的pople要么Melchites接受迦克墩,或基督一性(也被称为Jacobites在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦,埃及的科普特人)拒绝,直到公元七世纪Monothelite异端情况变得更为复杂。 But Melchite remained the name for those who were faithful to the great Church, Catholic and Orthodox, till the Schism of Photius (867) and Cerularius (1054) again divided them.但Melchite仍然是那些忠于伟大的教会,天主教和东正教的名字,直到分裂Photius(867)和Cerularius(1054)再次划分。

From that time there have been two kinds of Melchites in these countries, the Catholic Melchites who kept the communion of Rome, and schismatical (Orthodox) Melchites who followed Constantinople and the great mass of eastern Christians into schism.从那个时候已经出现了两种在这些国家Melchites,天主教Melchites保持罗马的共融,和分裂的(东正教)Melchites其次君士坦丁堡和东部基督徒分裂的伟大的群众。 Although the name has been and still is occasionally used for both these groups, it is now commonly applied only to the Eastern-Rite Catholics.虽然名字已经为这些群体仍然是偶尔使用,它是目前常用仅适用于东部成年礼的天主教徒。 For the sake of clearness it is better to keep to this use; the name Orthodox is sufficient for the others, whereas among the many groups of Catholics, Latin and Eastern, of various rites, we need a special name for this group.为了清晰起见,它是更好地保持这种使用;名东正教是对他人有足够的,而当中的各种仪式,天主教徒,拉丁美洲和东欧的许多团体,我们需要为这一群体的特殊名称。 It would be, indeed, still more convenient if we could call all Byzantine-Rite Catholics "Melchite."事实上,这将是更加方便,如果我们可以称之为所有拜占庭成年礼天主教徒“Melchite。”But such a use of the word has never obtained.但从来没有获得这样一个词的使用。One could not with any propriety call Ruthenians, the Eastern Catholics of southern Italy or Rumania, Melchites.无法与任何礼调用鲁塞尼亚,从意大利南部或罗马尼亚,Melchites东部天主教徒。One must therefore keep the name for those of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, all of whom speak Arabic.因此,我们必须保持,叙利亚,巴勒斯坦,和埃及的名字,所有的人讲阿拉伯语。We define a Melchite then as any Christian of these lands in communion with Rome, Constantinople, and the great Church of the Empire before the Photian schism, or as a Christian of the Byzantine Rite in communion with Rome since.我们再定义一个Melchite这些土地的任何共融的基督教与罗马,君士坦丁堡,伟大的教会和帝国之前Photian分裂,或作为一个基督徒的共融与罗马拜占庭成年礼,因为。

As the word implied opposition to the Monophysites originally, so it now marks the distinction between these people and all schismatics on the one hand, between them and Latins or Catholics of other rites (Maronites, Armenians, Syrians, etc.) on the other.由于这个词暗示反对该monophysites原本,所以现在标志着一方面区分这些人所有schismatics的,它们之间的拉丁人或其他仪式的天主教徒,(马龙派教徒,亚美尼亚人,叙利亚人,等等)其他。 The name is easily explained philologically.这个名字很容易解释语言学。It is a Semitic (presumably Syriac) root with a Greek ending, meaning imperialist.这是一个犹太人的根与希腊的结局(大概叙利亚文),意思是帝国主义。Melk is Syriac for king (Hebrew melek, Arab. malik).梅尔克是叙利亚文为王(melek希伯来语,阿拉伯。马利克)。The word is used in all the Semitic languages for the Roman Emperor, like the Greek basileus.在所有的罗马帝国皇帝的犹太人的语言,像希腊巴赛勒斯,这个词是用来。By adding the Greek ending -- ites we have the form melkites, equal to basilikos.通过加入希腊的结局 - ITES,我们已经形成melkites,等于basilikos。It should be noted that the third radical of the Semitic root is kaf: there is no guttural.应当指出,第三激进犹太人的根是KAF:有没有喉音。Therefore the correct form of the word is Melkite, rather than the usual form Melchite.因此,这个词的正确形式是Melkite,而不是通常的形式Melchite。The pure Syriac word is malkoyo (Arab. malakiyyu; vulgar, milkiyyu).纯叙利亚字malkoyo(Arab. malakiyyu;庸俗,milkiyyu)。

II.二。HISTORY BEFORE THE SCHISM BEFORE分裂的历史

The decrees of the Fourth General Council (Chalcedon, 451) were unpopular in Syria and still more in Egypt.法令的第四次总理事会(迦克墩,451)不得人心在叙利亚和埃及。Monophysism began as an exaggeration of the teaching of St. Cyril of Alexandria (d.444), the Egyptian national hero, against Nestorius. Monophysism开始作为一个夸张的圣西里尔亚历山大(d.444),埃及的民族英雄,对涅斯教学。In the Council of Chalcedon the Egyptians and their friends in Syria saw a betrayal of Cyril, a concession to Nestorianism.在安理会的迦克墩埃及人和他们的朋友在叙利亚看到的西里尔的背叛,景教让步。Still more did national, anti-imperial feeling cause opposition to it.还有更多的国家,反帝国主义的感觉引起反对。The Emperor Marcian (450-457) made the Faith of Chalcedon the law of the empire.马尔奇安皇帝(450-457),迦克墩帝国的法律的信仰。Laws passed on 27 February and again on 13 March, 452, enforced the decrees of the council and threatened heavy penalties against dissenters. 2月27日和3月13日,452通过的法律,执行理事会的法令,并威胁对持不​​同政见者重罚。From that time Dyophysism was the religion of the court, identified with loyalty to the emperor.从那个时候Dyophysism宗教法庭,忠君确定。In spite of the commpromising concessions of later emperors, the Faith of Chalcedon was always looked upon as the religion of the state, demanded and enforced on all subjects of Caesar.尽管在后来的帝王commpromising优惠,一向瞧不起的迦克墩的信仰作为宗教的国家,要求和凯撒所有科目执行。 So the long-smouldering disloyalty of these two provinces broke out in the form of rebellion against Chalcedon.因此,这两个省的长期郁积的不忠爆发迦克墩反抗形式。For centuries (till the Arab conquest) Monophysism was the symbol of national Egyptian and Syrian patriotism.几个世纪以来,直到阿拉伯征服Monophysism国家埃及和叙利亚的爱国主义的象征。The root of the matter was always political.问题的根源始终是政治。

The people of Egypt and Syria, keeping their own languages and their consciousness of being separate races, had never been really amalgamated with the Empire, originally Latin, now fast becoming Greek.埃及和叙利亚的人,保持自己的语言和其作为单独的种族意识,从来没有得到真正的合并与帝国,最初的拉丁,正迅速成为希腊。 They had no chance of political independence, their hatred of Rome found a vent in this theological question.他们没有政治上的独立的机会,他们对罗马的仇恨发现在这个神学问题的一种发泄。The cry of the faith of Cyril, "one nature in Christ", no betrayal of Ephesus, meant really no submissoin to the foreign tyrant on the Bosphorus.西里尔信仰的呐喊,“在基督的性质”,没有背叛的以弗所,这意味着submissoin真的没有外国的暴君,在博斯普鲁斯海峡。 So the great majority of the population in these lands turned Monophysite, rose in continual rebellion against the creed of the Empire, committed savage atrocities against the Chalcedonian bishops and officials, and in return were fiercely persecuted.因此,在这些地区的人口绝大多数转向基督一性,在不断的叛乱起来反对帝国的信条,对Chalcedonian主教和官员犯下的野蛮暴行,并返回被激烈的迫害。

The beginning of these troubles in Egypt was the deposition of the Monophysite Patriarch Dioscur, and the election by the government party of Proterius as his successor, immediately after the council.开始在埃及的这些麻烦的基督一性祖师Dioscur的沉积,并作为他的继任者Proterius执政党的选举后,立即理事会。 The people, especially the lower classes and the great crowd of Egyptian monks, refused to acknowledge Proterius, and began to make tumults and riots that 2000 soldiers sent from Constantinople could hardly put down.的人,尤其是低下阶层和大群的埃及僧侣,拒绝承认Proterius,并开始tumults和骚乱,派出2000名士兵从君士坦丁堡难以放下。 When Dioscur died in 454 a certain Timothy, called the Cat or Weasel (ailouros), was ordained by the Monophysites as his successor.当Dioscur一定蒂莫西在454死了,所谓的猫或猫鼬(ailouros),作为他的继任该monophysites受戒。 In 457 Proterius was murdered; Timothy drove out the Chalcedonian clergy and so began the organized Coptic (Monophysite) Church of Egypt.在457 Proterius被谋杀;提摩太赶出Chalcedonian神职人员等开始举办的科普特埃及教会(基督一性)。In Syria and Palestine there was the same opposition to the council and the government.在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦,是会和政府同样的反对。The people and monks drove out the Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Martyrius, and set up one Peter the Dyer (gnapheus, fullo), a Monophysite as his successor.人民和僧侣赶出安提阿,Martyrius东正教大主教,并成立了彼得大帝代尔(gnapheus,fullo),作为他的继任者的基督一性。 Juvenal of Jerusalem, once a friend of Dioscur, gave up his heresy at Chalcedon.尤维纳利斯耶路撒冷,一次Dioscur朋友,放弃他的异端邪说在迦克墩。When he came back to his new patriarchate he found the whole country in rebellion against him.当他回到他的新宗主教,他发现对他在整个国家的叛乱。He too was driven out and a Monophysite monk Theodosius was set up in his place.他也被赶出了一个基督一性和尚狄奥多西在他的地方。

So began the Monophysite national churches of these provinces.所以开始对这些省份的基督一性的国家教会。Their opposition to the court and rebellion lasted two centuries, till the Arab conquest (Syria, 637; Egypt, 641).他们反对法院和叛乱持续了两个世纪,直到阿拉伯征服(叙利亚,637;埃及,641)。During this time the government, realizing the danger of the disaffection of the frontier provinces, alternated fierce persecution of the heretics with vain attempts to conciliate them by compromises (Zeno's Henotikon in 482, the Acacian Schism, 484-519, etc.) It should be realized that Egypt was much more consistently Monophysite than Syria or Palestine.政府在这段时间内,实现边疆省份的不满的危险,交替激烈的异端迫害,妄图调解妥协(Zeno的Acacian分裂,482,484-519等Henotikon)意识到,埃及是远远超过叙利亚,巴勒斯坦一贯基督一性。 Egypt was much closer knit as one land than the other provinces, and so stood more uniformly on the side of the national party.埃及针织为一体的土地比其他省份更密切,所以站在国家党一侧更均匀。(For all this see MONOPHYSISM.) (对于这一切看到MONOPHYSISM的。)

Meanwhile against the nationalist party stood the minority on the side of the government and the council.同时站在反对民族主义党少数政府和立法会的一侧。These are the Melchites.这些都是Melchites。Why they were so-called is obvious: they were the loyal Imperialists, the emperor's party.为什么他们所谓是显而易见的:他们是忠诚的帝国主义​​,皇帝的党。The name occurs first in a pure Greek form as basilikos.这个名字首先出现在一个纯粹的希腊形式basilikos。Evagrius says of Timothy Sakophakiolos (The Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria set up by the government when Timothy the Cat was driven out in 460) that some called him the Imperialist (on oi men ekaloun basilikon) (HE, II,11).Evagrius说,一些所谓的他的帝国主义​​(爱男人ekaloun basilikon)(HE,二,11)蒂莫西Sakophakiolos(东正教大主教亚历山大由政府蒂莫西猫带动460)。These Melchites were naturally for the most part the government officials, in Egypt almost entirely so, while in Syria and Palestine a certain part of the native population was Melchite too.这些Melchites自然大部分的政府官员,在埃及几乎完全如此,而在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦的外来人口的某一部分是Melchite太。 Small in numbers, they were until the Arab conquest strong through the support of the government and the army.少,他们是通过政府和军队的的支持,直到阿拉伯征服强。The contrast between Monophysites and Melchites (Nationalists and Imperialists) was expressed in their language.基督一性和Melchites(国民党和帝国主义)之间的对比是在他们的语言表达。The Monophysites spoke the national language of the country (Coptic in Egypt, Syriac in Syria and Palestine), Melchites for the most part were foreigners sent out from Constantinople who spoke Greek.该monophysites谈到该国的民族语言(科普特人在埃及,叙利亚和巴勒斯坦叙利亚文)中,大部分Melchites是从君士坦丁堡发送外国人发言的希腊。

For a long time the history of these countries is that of a continual feud between Melchites and Monophysites; sometimes the government is strong, the heretics are persecuted, the patriarchate is occupied by a Melchite; then again the people get the upper hand, drive out the Melchite bishops, set up Monophysites in their place and murder the Greeks.很长一段时间,这些国家的历史是不断之间Melchites和基督一的宿怨,有时政府是强大的,异端的迫害,东正教会是由Melchite占用,然后再人得势,赶Melchite主教,成立了自己的位置和谋杀希腊人的基督一性。 By the time of the Arab conquest the two Churches exist as rivals with rival lines of bishops.由两个教会存在着与对手主教的对手的阿拉伯征服的时间。But the Monophysites are much the larger party, especially in Egypt, and form the national religion of the country.但该monophysites很多较大的一方,特别是在埃及,并形成国家的民族宗教。The difference by new expresses itself to a great extent in liturgical language.新的差异表现在很大程度上礼仪语言。Both parties used the same liturgies (St. Mark in Egypt, St. James in Syria and Palestine), but while the Monophysites made a point of using the national language in church (Coptic and Syriac) the Melchites generally used Greek.双方使用相同的礼仪(圣马克在埃及,圣詹姆斯在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦),但同时该monophysites使用民族语言在教堂(科普特和叙利亚)Melchites一般使用希腊。 It seems, however, that this was less the case than has been thought; the Melchites, too, used the vulgar tongue to a considerable extent (Charon, Le Rite byzantin, 26-29).然而,现在看来,这是少比一直以为案件; Melchites,用庸俗的舌头在相当程度上“(冥卫一,乐,爱色丽byzantin,26日至29日)。

When the Arabs came in the seventh century, the Monophysites, true to their anti-imperial policy, rather helped than hindered the invaders.当阿拉伯人在第七个世纪来了,该monophysites,真正的反帝国主义的政策,而是帮助比阻碍了侵略者。 But they gained little by their treason; both churches received the usual terms granted to Christians; they became two sects of Rayas under the Moslem Khalifa, both were equally persecuted during the repeated outbursts of Moslem fanaticism, of which the reign of Al-Hakim in Egypt (996-1021) is the best known instance.但是,他们获得了他们的叛国罪小;教堂都收到授予基督徒的一般条款,他们成了两个教派Rayas穆斯林哈里发下,两个同样的迫害,在反复爆发的穆斯林狂热,其中哈基姆统治埃及(996-1021)是最有名的实例。 In the tenth century part of Syria was conquered back by the empire (Antioch reconquered in 968-969, lost again to the Seljuk Turks in 1078-1081).在10世纪的一部分,叙利亚被征服回帝国(安提重新征服968-969,失去了再次在1078年至一〇八一年塞尔柱土耳其人)。 This caused for a time a revival of the Melchites and an increase of enthusiasm for Constantinople and everything Greek among them.这导致了一段时间的Melchites的复苏和增加君士坦丁堡和一切其中希腊的热情。

Under the Moslems the characteristic notes of both churches became, if possible, stronger.根据穆斯林的两个教会的特征说明,如果可能的话,成为更强。The Monophysites (Copts and Jacobites) sank into isolated local sects.该monophysites(科普特和Jacobites)陷入孤立的地方教派。On the other hand, the Melchite minorities clung all the more to their union with the great church that reigned free and dominant in the empire.另一方面,Melchite少数民族坚持工会与伟大的教会在帝国统治的自由和主导。This expressed itself chiefly in loyalty to Constantinople.这表示本身,主要是到君士坦丁堡的忠诚。Rome and the West were far off; the immediate object of their devotion was the emperor's court and the emperor's patriarch.罗马和西方为期不远,他们献身的即时对象是皇帝的法院和皇帝的族长。The Melchite patriarchs under Moslem rule became insignificant people, while the power of the Patriarach of Constantinople grew steadily.穆斯林统治下的Melchite始祖成为无关紧要的人,而君士坦丁堡Patriarach的电源稳步增长。So, looking always to the capital for guidance, they gradually accepted the position of being his dependents, almost suffragans.所以,期待总是以资本为指导,他们逐渐接受了被他的家属,几乎suffragans的立场。

When the Bishop of Constantinople assumed the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" it was not his Melchite brothers who protested.当君士坦丁堡的主教担任“普世牧首”的称号,这不是他的抗议Melchite兄弟。This attitude explains their share in his schism.这种态度解释了他分裂他们的份额。The quarrels between Photius and Pope Nicholas I, between Michael Cerularius and Leo IX were not their affair; they hardly understood what was happening.Photius和教皇尼古拉一世,迈克尔Cerularius和Leo IX之间的争吵,不是他们的恋情,他们很难理解发生了什么事。But naturally, almost inevitably, when the schism broke out, in spite of some protests [Peter III of Antioch (1053-1076?) protested vehemently against Cerularius's schism; see Fortescue, Orthodox Eastern Church, 189-192], the Melchites followed their leader, and when orders came from Constantinople to strike the pope's name from their diptychs they quietly obeyed.但自然,几乎是不可避免的,当发生分裂,尽管在一些抗议,彼得的安提阿III(1053年至1076年)抗议,强烈反对Cerularius的分裂; Fortescue的,东正教,189-192],Melchites其次领导者,当订单从君士坦丁堡罢工从他们diptychs的教皇的名字,他们悄悄地服从。

III.三。FROM THE SCHISM TO THE BEGINNING OF THE UNION从该联盟的分裂开始

So all the Melchites in Syria, Palestine and Egypt broke with Rome and went into schism at the command of Constantinople.因此,叙利亚,巴勒斯坦和埃及的所有Melchites打破了罗马和君士坦丁堡命令分裂了。Here, too, they justified their name of Imperialist.在这里,他们的理由他们帝国主义的名称。From this time to almost our own day there is little to chronicle of their history.从这个时候几乎是我们自己的一天有一点他们的历史纪事。They existed as a "nation" (millet) under the Khalifa; when the Turks took Constantinople (1453) they made the patriarch of that city head of this "nation" (Rum millet, ie, the Orthodox Church) for civil affairs.他们作为一个“国家”(小米)存在下,哈利法;时土耳其人把君士坦丁堡(1453),他们提出了城头,这个“民族”(朗姆酒小米,即东正教)民政部族长。 Other bishops, or even patriarchs, could only approach the government through him.其他主教,甚至长者,唯一的办法,通过他的政府。This further increased his authority and influence over all the Orthodox in the Turkish Empire.这进一步增加了他的权威,对所有在土耳其帝国东正教和影响力。During the dark ages that follow, the Ecumenical Patriarch continually strove (and generally managed) to assert ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Melchites (Ort. Eastern Ch., 240, 285-289, 310, etc.).在随后的黑暗时代,君士坦丁堡宗主教的不断努力(和一般管理),断言在Melchites教会的司法管辖区(。Ort.东部通道,240,285-289,310等)。

Meanwhile the three patriarchs (of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem), finding little to do among their diminished flocks, for long periods came to live at Constantinople, idle ornaments of the Phanar.同时三个始祖(亚历山大,安提阿和耶路撒冷),找到减少鸡群间不大,很长一段时间,来到住在君士坦丁堡,Phanar闲置的饰物。 The lists of these patriarchs will be found in Le Quien (loc. cit. Below).这些元老的名单,会发现乐Quien(如上。下同)。 Gradually all the people of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine since the Arab conquest forgot their original languages and spoke only Arabic, as they do still.以来的所有阿拉伯人征服埃及,叙利亚和巴勒斯坦人逐渐忘了他们原来的语言,只会讲​​阿拉伯语,因为它们仍然。This further affected their liturgies.这进一步影响了他们的礼仪。Little by little Arabic began to be used in church.小一点阿拉伯语开始在教堂中使用。Since the seventeenth century at the latest, the native Orthodox of these countries use Arabic for all services, though the great number of Greeks among them keep their own language.最迟在十七世纪以来,这些国家的本土东正教使用阿拉伯语的所有服务,但其中大量的希腊人保持自己的语言。

But already a much more important change in the liturgy of the Melchites had taken place.但是,已经成为礼仪的Melchites更重要的变化发生了。We have seen that the most characteristic note of these communities was their dependence on Constantinople.我们已经看到,这些社区最有特色的的说明了他们对君士坦丁堡的依赖。That was the difference between them and their old rivals the Monophysites, long after the quarrel about the nature of Christ had practically been forgotten.这是他们和他们的老对手该monophysites之间的差异,长后,有关基督的性质争吵几乎被人遗忘了。The Monophysites, isolated from the rest of Christendom, kept the old rites of Alexandria and Antioch-Jerusalem pure.该monophysites,从基督教的其余部分隔离,保持亚历山大和安提阿,耶路撒冷纯的旧仪式。They still use these rites in the old languages (Coptic and Syriac).在旧的语言(科普特和叙利亚),他们仍然可以使用这些仪式。The Melchites on the other hand submitted to Byzantine influence in their liturgies.另一方面Melchites提交的拜占庭式的影响,在他们的礼仪。The Byzantine litanies (Synaptai), the service of the Ptoskomide and other elements were introduced into the Greek Alexandrine Rite before the twelfth or thirteenth centuries; so also in Syria and Palestine the Melchites admitted a number of Byzantine elements into their services (Charon, op. Cit., 9-25).拜占庭litanies(Synaptai),Ptoskomide和其他元素的服务引入到希腊的亚历山大仪式第十二或十三世纪前,在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦也Melchites承认他们的服务拜占庭元素(冥卫一,OP前,9-25)。 Then in the thirteenth century came the final change.然后是在13世纪最后的变化。The Melchites gave up their old rites altogether and adopted that of Constantinople. Melchites了旧有的礼仪完全通过君士坦丁堡的。Theodore IV (Balsamon) of Antioch (1185-1214?) marks the date of this change.西奥多四安提阿(Balsamon)(1185年至1214年),标志着这一变化的日期。The crusaders held Antioch in his name, so he retired to Constantinople and lived there under the shadow of the Ecumenical Patriarch.十字军以他的名义举行的安提阿,所以他退休了君士坦丁堡,君士坦丁堡宗主教的阴影下生活。 While he was there he adopted the Byzantine Rite.当他在那里,他通过拜占庭成年礼。In 1203, Mark II of Alexandria (1195-c.1210) wrote to Theodore asking various questions about the liturgy.1203马克亚历山大二世(1195 - c.1210)写信给西奥多要求有关礼仪的各种问题。Theodore in his answer insists onn; both churches received the usual terms granted to Christians; they became two sects of Rayas under the Moslem Khalifa, both were equally persecuted during the repeated outbursts of Moslem fanaticism, of which the reign of Al-Hakim in Egypt (996-1021) is the best known instance.他的回答西奥多坚持ONN;教堂都收到授予基督徒的一般条款,他们成了两个教派Rayas根据穆斯林哈里发,都同样在反复爆发的穆斯林狂热的迫害,其中哈基姆在埃及的统治(996-1021)是最有名的实例。 In the tenth century part of Syria was conquered back by the empire (Antioch reconquered in 968-969, lost again to the Seljuk Turks in 1078-1081).在10世纪的一部分,叙利亚被征服回帝国(安提重新征服968-969,失去了再次在1078年至一〇八一年塞尔柱土耳其人)。 This caused for a time a revival of the Melchites and an increase of enthusiasm for Constantinople and everything Greek among them.这导致了一段时间的Melchites的复苏和增加君士坦丁堡和一切其中希腊的热情。Under the Moslems the characteristic notes of both churches became, if possible, stronger.根据穆斯林的两个教会的特征说明,如果可能的话,成为更强。The Monophysites (Copts and Jacobites) sank into isolated local sects.该monophysites(科普特和Jacobites)陷入孤立的地方教派。On the other hand, the Melchite minorities clung all the more to their union with the great church that reigned free and dominant in the empire.另一方面,Melchite少数民族坚持工会与伟大的教会在帝国统治的自由和主导。This expressed itself chiefly in loyalty to Constantinople Rome and the West were far off; the immediate object of their devotion was the emperor's court an the use of Constantinople as the only right one, for all the Orthodox, and Mark undertook to adopt it (PG, CXXXVIII, 935 sq.) When Thheodosius IV of Antioch (1295-1276) was able to set up his throne again in his own city he imposed the Byzantine Rite on all his clergy.这表示本身主要是在君士坦丁堡的罗马和西方的忠诚是为期不远;了他们献身立即对象是皇帝的法院一个君士坦丁堡的使用的唯一的权利之一所有的东正教,,和马克承诺,以通过它(PG CXXXVIII,935平方米)当Thheodosius安提(1295年至1276年)第四是能够建立在自己的城市,他对他的僧侣拜占庭成年礼他的王位。 At Jerusalem the old liturgy disappeared at about the same time.在耶路撒冷旧礼仪大约在同一时间消失。(Charon, op. Cit., 11-12, 21, 23).(冥卫一,同上,11-12,21,23)。

We have then for the liturgies of the Melchites these periods: first the old national rites in Greek, but also in the languages of the country, especially in Syria and Palestine, gradually Byzantinized till the thirteenth century.然后我们Melchites礼仪这些时期:第一个是古老的希腊国家仪式,而且在该国的语言,特别是在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦,直到13世纪逐渐Byzantinized。 Then the Byzantine Rite alone in Greek in Egypt, in Greek and Syriac in Syria and Palestine, with gradually increasing use of Arabic to the sixteenth or seventeenth century.拜占庭成年礼仅在希腊,埃及,希腊和叙利亚在叙利亚和巴勒斯坦,与逐渐增加使用阿拉伯语,十六或十七世纪,。Lastly the same rite in Arabic only by the natives, in Greek by the foreign (Greek) patriarchs and bishops.最后,在阿拉伯语相同的仪式,只由当地人,在希腊的外国(希腊)先祖和主教。

The last development we notice is the steady increase of this foreign (Greek) element in all the higher places of the clergy.最后的发展,我们看到的是这个外国(希腊)元素的稳步增长,在较高的场所的神职人员。As the Phanar at Constantinople grew more and more powerful over the Melchites, so did it more and more, inruthless defiance of the feeling of the people, send them Greek patriarchs, metropolitans, and archmandrites from its own body.由于在君士坦丁堡Phanar越想越在Melchites强大,也越来越多,inruthless无视人民的感情,发送希腊始祖,大都市,并从自己的身上archmandrites。 For centuries the lower married clergy and simple monks have been natives, speaking Arabic and using Arabic in the liturgy, while all the prelates have been Greeks, who often do not even know the language of the country.几个世纪以来,已婚的神职人员和简单的僧人已被当地人讲阿拉伯语和阿拉伯语的使用,在礼仪,而所有的主教已希腊人,他们往往甚至不知道该国的语言。 At last, in our own time, the native Orthodox have rebelled against this state of things.最后,在我们自己的时间,本土东正教反抗这个国家的事情。At Antioch they have now succeeded in the recognition of their native Patriarch, Gregory IV (Hadad) after a schism with Constantinople.在安提阿,他们现在已经成功地在其原生的祖师,分裂与君士坦丁堡后格雷戈里四(哈达)的认可。 The troubles caused by the same movement at Jerusalem are still fresh in everyone's mind.同样的动作在耶路撒冷所造成的麻烦,在每个人的脑海里仍然记忆犹新。It is certain that as soon as the present Greek patriarchs of Jerusalem (Damianos V) and Alexandria (Photios) die, there will be a determined effort to appoint natives as their successors.可以肯定的是,尽快目前希腊始祖耶路撒冷(Damianos五)和亚历山大(Photios)死于会有下决心聘请当地人作为自己的接班人。 But these quarrels affect the modern Orthodox of these lands who do not come within the limit of this article inasmuch as they are no longer Melchites.但这些争吵会影响这些土地不属于本文的限制,因为它们都不再Melchites现代东正教。

IV.四。EASTERN-RITE CATHOLICS东部RITE天主教徒

We have said that in modern times since the foundation of Byzantine Catholic churches in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, only these Uniates should be called Melchites.我们已经说过,近代以来,在叙利亚,巴勒斯坦,埃及和拜占庭天主教教堂的基础,只有这些Uniates应称为Melchites。 Why the old name is now reserved for them it is impossible to say.为什么现在是为他们保留的旧名称,这是很难说。It is, however, a fact that it is so.然而,这是一个事实,它是如此。One still occasionally in a western book finds all Christians of the Byzantine Rite in these countries called Melchites, with a further distinction between Catholic and Orthodox Melchites; but the present writer's experience is that this is never the case among themselves. One仍偶尔发现拜占庭成年礼在这些国家所谓的Melchites所有的基督徒,在西方的书,进一步与天主教和东正教Melchites之间的区别,但目前笔者的经验是,这是从来没有彼此之间的情况下。 The man in union with the great Eastern Church in those parts never now calls himself or allows himself to be called a Melchite.工会在这些部分与伟大的东方教会的人从来没有现在自称或允许自己被称为Melchite。He is simply "Orthodox" in Greek or any Western language, Rumi in Arabic.他是简单的“正统”在希腊或任何西方语言,阿拉伯语鲁米。Everyone there understands by Melchite a Uniate.每个人都明白Melchite一个Uniate。It is true that even for them the word is not very commonly used.这是事实,即使是他们的字是不是很常用。They are more likely to speak of themselves as rumi kathuliki or in French Grecs catholiques; but the name Melchite, if used at all, always means to Eastern people these Catholics.他们更容易鲁米kathuliki或在法国Grecs CATHOLIQUES自己说话,但名称Melchite,如果使用,总是意味着这些天主教徒东欧人。It is convenient for us too to have a definite name for them less entirely wrong than "Greek Catholic" for they are Greeks in no sense at all.这是方便,对我们也有一个明确的名称完全比“希腊天主教”,因为他们是没有意义的希腊人在所有错误。A question that has often been raised is whether there is any continuity of these Byzantine Catholics since before the great schism, whether there are any communities that have never lost communion with Rome.一个经常被提出的问题是,是否有任何这些拜占庭天主教徒的连续性,因为伟大的分裂前,是否有任何从未失去了与罗马共融的社区。 There are such communities certainly in the south of Italy, Sicily, and Corsica.在意大利南部,西西里岛和科西嘉岛肯定有这样的社区。 In the case of the Melchite lands there are none.Melchite土地的情况下有没有。It is true that there have been approaches to reunion continually since the eleventh century, individual bishops have made their submission at various times, the short-lived unions of Lyons (1274) and Florence (1439) included the Orthodox of these countries too.这是事实,有团聚的方法,不断十一世纪以来,个别主教使他们在不同的时间提交,里昂(1274)和佛罗伦萨(1439)短命的工会也包括这些国家的东正教。 But there is no continuous line; when the union of Florence was broken all the Byzantine Christians in the East fell away.但有没有连续行;佛罗伦萨联盟被打破时,在东拜占庭基督徒下跌了。The present Melchite Church dates from the eighteenth century.本Melchite教会历史可追溯至十八世纪。

Already in the seventeenth century tentative efforts at reunion were made by some of the Orthodox bishops of Syria.早在十七​​世纪,暂定在团聚的努力作了一些叙利亚东正教会主教。A certain Euthymius, Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon, then the Antiochene Patriarchs Athanasius IV (1700-1728) and the famous Cyril of Berrhoea (d. 1724, the rival of Cyril Lukaris of Constantinople, who for a time was rival Patriarch of Antioch) approached the Holy See and hoped to receive the pallium.某Euthymius,提尔和西顿市,然后安提阿学派始祖亚他那修四(1700年至1728年)和著名的Berrhoea西里尔(D. 1724年,君士坦丁堡的西里尔Lukaris的对手,一时间谁是安提阿的对手祖师)走近罗马教廷,并希望收到的大脑皮层。But the professions of faith which they submitted were considered insuffiecient at Rome.但他们提交的信仰被认为是专业insuffiecient在罗马举行。The latinizing tendency of Syria was so well known that in 1722 a synod was held at Constantinople which drew up and sent to the Antiochene bishops a warning letter with a list of Latin heresies (in Assemani, "Bibl. Orient.", III, 639).叙利亚latinizing倾向是那么广为人知,主教会议于1722年制定了在君士坦丁堡举行,发送到安提阿学派主教(在Assemani与拉丁美洲歪理邪说的警告信,“Bibl。东方”,三,639 )。However, in 1724 Seraphim Tanas, who had studied at the Roman Propaganda, was elected Patriarch of Antioch by the latinizing party.然而,塞拉芬Tanas,曾在罗马的宣传研究,于1724年当选latinizing党牧安提。He at once made his submission to Rome and sent a Catholic profession of faith.一次他做了他提交给罗马,并派出一个信仰天主教界。 He took the name Cyril (Cyril VI, 1274-1759); with him begins the line of Melchite patriarchs in the new sense (Uniates).他把名称西里尔(西里尔六,1274年至1759年);与他开始在新的意义(Uniates)Melchite始祖。 In 1728 the schismatics elected Sylvester, a Greek monk from Athos. 1728年当选schismatics西尔维斯特,从希腊阿索斯和尚。He was recognized by the Phanar and the other Orthodox churches; through him the Orthodox line continues.他被公认为Phanar和其他东正教教堂;通过他的正统路线的继续。Cyril VI suffered considerable persecution from the Orthodox, and for a time had to flee to the Lebanon.西里尔六东正教遭受了相当大的迫害,并在一段时间内不得不逃离黎巴嫩。He received the pallium from Benedict XIV in 1744.1744年,他获得了本笃十四大脑皮层。In 1760, wearied by the continual struggle against the Orthodox majority, he resigned his office.在1760年,由反对东正教多数的不断斗争的厌倦,他辞去了他的办公室。Ignatius Jauhar was appointed to succeed him, but the appointment was rejected at Rome and Clement XIII appointed Maximus Hakim, Metropolitan of Baalbek, as patriarch (Maximus II, 1760-1761).伊格内修Jauhar被任命接替他,但拒绝任命是在罗马和克莱门特第十三任命的Maximus哈基姆,作为族长的巴勒贝克大都会(Maximus的二,1760年至1761年)。 Athanasius Dahan of Beruit succeeded by regular election and confirmation after Maximus's death and became Theodosius VI (1761-1788).亚他那修Beruit大汉成功鲆的死亡,并通过定期选举和确认后成为狄奥多西六(1761年至1788年)。 But in 1764 Ignatius Jauhar succeeded in being re-elected patriarch.伊格内修Jauhar但在1764年成功连任的族长。The pope excommunicated him, and persuaded the Turkish authorities to drive him out.教皇逐出教会了他,并说服土耳其当局赶他出去。In 1773 Clement XIV united the few scattered Melchites of Alexandria and Jerusalem to the jurisdiction of the Melchite patriarch of Antioch.1773年克莱门特第十四美国一些零星的亚历山大和耶路撒冷Melchites Melchite族长的安提阿管辖。When Theodosius VI died, Ignatius Jauhar was again elected, this time lawfully, and took thename Athanasius V (1788-1794).当狄奥多西六死,依纳爵Jauhar再次当选,这一次合法,thename亚他那修了五(1788年至1794年)。 Then followed Cyril VII (Siage, 1794-1796), Agapius III (Matar, formerly Metropolitan of Tyre and Sidon, patriarch 1796-1812).随后西里尔第七(Siage,1794年至1796年),Agapius三(马塔尔,以前提尔和西顿,1796年至1812年族长大都会)。 During this time there was a movement of Josephinism and Jansenism in the sense of the synod of Pistoia (1786) among the Melchites, led by Germanus Adam, Metropolitan of Baalbek.在这段时间内有一个Josephinism和詹森在主教的皮斯托亚(1786年)之间的Melchites Germanus亚当,大都市的巴勒贝克领导意识的运动。This movement for a time invaded nearly all the Melchite Church.这一段时间的运动几乎所有的Melchite教会侵略。In 1806 they held a synod at Qarqafe which approved many of the Pistoian decrees. 1806年,他们举行了主教在Qarqafe批准Pistoian许多的法令。The acts of the synod were published without authority from Rome in Arabic in 1810; in 1835 they were censured at Rome.出版没有权威阿拉伯语在1810年罗马主教的行为,于1835年,他们在罗马谴责。Pius VII had already condemned a catechism and other works written by Germanus of Baalbek.第七皮乌斯已经谴责教义和巴勒贝克Germanus书面的其他作品。Among his errors was the Orthodox theory that consecration is not effected by the words of institution in the liturgy.在他的错误是东正教的理论,奉献是不是在礼仪机构的话影响。Eventually the patriarch (Agapius) and the other Melchite bishops were persuaded to renounce these ideas.最后族长(Agapius)和其他Melchite主教被说服放弃这些想法。In 1812 another synod established a seminary at Ain-Traz for the Melchite "nation."另一个主教会议1812年设立“国家在AIN - Traz Melchite温床。”The next patriarchs were Ignatius IV (Sarruf, Feb.-Nov., 1812, murdered), Athanasius VI (Matar, 1813), Macarius IV (Tawil, 1813-1815), Ignatius V (Qattan, 1816-1833).未来始祖四,依纳爵(Sarruf 2月,11月,1812年被谋杀),亚他那修六(马塔尔,1813年),第四米加利阿斯(泰维勒,1813年至1815年),伊格内修斯V(Qattan,1816年至1833年)。 He was followed by the famous Maximus III (Mazlum, 1833-1855).在他之后是由著名的Maximus III(Mazlum,1833年至1855年)。 His former name was michael.他以前的名字是迈克尔。He had been infected with the ideas of Germanus of Baalbek, and had been elected Metropolitan of Aleppo, but his election had not been confirmed at Rome.他被感染的巴勒贝克Germanus的思想,并曾当选阿勒颇大都会,但他的竞选在罗马尚未证实。Then he renounced these ideas and became titular Metropolitan of Myra, and procurator of his patriarch at Rome.然后,他放弃了这些想法,成为有名无实的大都会迈拉,检察长在罗马和他的族长。During this time he founded the Melchite church at Marseilles (St. Nicholas), and took steps at the courts of Vienna and Paris to protect the Melchites from their Orthodox rivals.在此期间,他创办了在马赛(圣尼古拉斯)Melchite教会,并参加了在维也纳和巴黎的法院的步骤,以保护他们的正统的对手Melchites。

Hitherto the Turkish government had not recognized the Uniates as a separate millet; so all their communications with the State, the berat given to their bishops and so on, had to be made through the Orthodox.迄今,土耳其政府不承认作为一个单独的小米Uniates的培拉特让他们与所有国家的通信,给他们的主教等,都必须通过东正教。 They were still officially, in the eyes of the law, members of the rum millet, that is of the Orthodox community under the Patriarch of Constantinople.他们还正式,在法律面前,糖酒会小米成员,东正教社会正在君士坦丁堡宗主教。This naturally gave the Orthodox endless opportunities of annoying them, which were not lost.这自然给了东正教恼人他们无穷的机会,这是不会丢失。In 1831 Mazlum went back to Syria, in 1833 after the death of Ignatius V he was elected patriarch, and was confirmed at Rome fter many dificulties in 1836.在1831年Mazlum了对叙利亚在1833年之后,伊格内修斯V死亡,他被选为族长,并证实在1836年在罗马fter许多困难。 His reign was full of disputes.他的统治争端。In 1835 he leld a national synod at Ain-Traz, which laid down twenty-five canons for the regulation of the affairs of the Melchite Church; the synod was approved at Rome and is published in the Collectio Lacensis (II, 579-592).1835年他在AIN - Traz leld国家的主教,下跌二十五个大炮奠定Melchite教会事务的规管;主教在罗马和批准Collectio Lacensis出版(二,579-592) 。During his reign at last the Melchites obtained recognition as a separate millet from the Porte.在他最后统治的Melchites获得承认作为一个单独的小米距离Porte。Maximus III obtained from Rome for himself and his successors the additional titles of Alexandria and Jerusalem, which sees his predecessors had administered since Theodosius VI.的Maximus III获得罗马为他自己和他的继承人亚历山大和耶路撒冷,看到他的前任,因为狄奥多西第六管理的额外标题。In 1849 he held a synod at Jerusalem in which he renewed many of the errors of Germanus Adam. 1849年,他在耶路撒冷举行的主教会议中,他再次Germanus亚当许多错误。Thus he got into new difficulties with Rome as well as with his people.因此,他钻进了新的困难与罗马以及他的人。But these difficulties were gradually composed and the old patriarch died in peace in 1855.但这些困难,逐步组成和老族长在和平于1855年去世。He is the most famous of the line of Melchite patriarchs.他是最有名的Melchite始祖。He was succeded by Clement I (Bahus, 1856-1864), Gregory II (Yussef, 1865-1879), Peter IV (Jeraïjiri, 1897-1902), and Cyril VIII (Jeha, the reigning patriarch, who was elected 27 June, 1903, confirmed at once by telegram from Rome, enthroned in the patriarchal church at Damascus, 8 August, 1903).他succeded我克莱门特(Bahus,1856年至1864年),格雷戈里II(优素福,1865年至1879年),彼得四(Jeraïjiri,1897年至1902年),和Cyril VIII(Jeha,不由的族长,谁当选6月27日, 1903年,在一次证实了从罗马电报,坐床,1903年8月8日在大马士革,重男轻女的教堂)。

V. CONSTITUTION OF THE MELCHITE CHURCH五,宪法的MELCHITE教会

The head of the Melchite church, under the supreme authority of the pope, is the patriarch.Melchite教会的头下,教皇至高无上的权威,是族长。His title is "Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and all the East."他的头衔是“安提阿,亚历山大,耶路撒冷和所有东族长。”"Antioch and all the East" is the old title used by all patriarchs of Antioch.“安提阿和所有东”是旧题安提阿始祖。It is less arrogant than it sounds; the "East" means the original Roman Prefecture of the East (Praefectura Orentis) which corresponded exactly to the patriarchate before the rise of Constantinople (Fortescue, Orth. Eastern Church, 21).这是比它听起来那么嚣张,“东”是指原东罗马县(Praefectura Orentis)前完全对应的东正教会君士坦丁堡的崛起(Fortescue的,奥思东正教,21)。。Alexandria and Jerusalem were added to the title under Maximus III.亚历山大和耶路撒冷被添加到标题下的Maximus III。It should be noted that these come after Antioch, although normally Alexandria has precedence over it.应该指出,这些安提阿后,虽然通常亚历山大在它的优先级。This is because the patriarch is fundamentally of Antioch only; he traces his succession through Cyril VI to the old line of antioch.这是因为族长是安提阿只有从根本上,他的痕迹,通过西里尔六,他的继任旧生产线的安提阿。 He is in some sort only the administrator of Alexandria and Jerusalem until the number of Melchites in Egypt and Palestine shall justify the erection of separate patriarchates for them.他是在某种只有亚历山大和耶路撒冷的管理员,直到在埃及和巴勒斯坦Melchites应有理由为他们单独牧首辖区的勃起。 Meanwhile he rules equally over his nation in the three provinces.与此同时,他的规则同样在他的国家在三个省份。There is also a grander title used in Polychronia and for special solemn occasions in which he is acclaimed as "father of Fathers, Shepherd of Shepherds, High Priest of High Priests and Thirteenth Apostle."还有一个宏大的标题,在Polychronia特别隆重的场合中,他是被誉为“父亲的父亲,牧羊人牧羊人,高牧师和第十三使徒的大祭司。” The patriarch is elected by the bishops, and is nearly always chosen from their number.族长是由主教选举产生,并从它们的数量几乎总是选择。The election is submitted to the Congregation for Eastern Rites joined to Propaganda; if it is canonical the patriarch-elect sends a profession of faith and a petition for confirmation and for the pallium of the pope.选举提交东部仪式的会众加入到宣传,如果它是典型的当选族长发送的信仰和进行确认和教皇的大脑皮层的请愿书。He must also take an oath of obedience to the pope.他还必须宣誓服从教皇。If the election is invalid, nomination devolves on the pope.如果选举无效,提名转予教皇。The patriarch may not resign without the pope's consent.族长没有教皇同意的情况下可能不会辞职。He must make his visit ad limina, personally or by deputy, every ten years.他必须使他的访问述职,亲自或由代理主席,每隔十年。 The patriarch has ordinary jurisdiction over all his church.族长对他的教会的普通管辖权。He confirms the election of and consecrates all bishops; he can translate or depose them, according to the canons.他确认的选举,并供奉所有主教,他可以翻译或罢免他们,根据的大炮。He founds parishes and (with consent of Rome) dioceses, and has considerable rights of the nature of dispensation from fasting and so on.他创立教区,教区(罗马同意),空腹等豁免的性质有相当大的权利。The patriarch resides at the house next to the patriarchal church at Damascus (near the Eastern Gate).族长居住在大马士革的宗法教堂(东门附近)的房子旁边。He has also residences at Alexandria and Jerusalem, where he spends at least some weeks each year; he is often at the seminary at Ain-Traz, not far from Beirut, in the Lebanon.他还曾在亚历山大和耶路撒冷,每年他花费至少几个星期的住宅;他往往是在温床AIN - Traz,不远处从贝鲁特在黎巴嫩。

The bishops are chosen according to the bull Reversurus, 12 July, 1867.主教是根据1867年7月12日,公牛Reversurus,选择。LAll the other bishops in synod with the patriarch choose three names, of which the pope selects one.拉尔其他主教在主教会议的族长选择三个名字,其中教宗的选择之一。All bishops must be celibate, but they are by no means necessarily monks.所有的主教必须是独身主义者,但他们没有一定的僧侣手段。 Priests who are notmonks may keep wives married before ordination, but as in all uniate churches celibacy is very common, and the married clergy are looked upon rather askance.牧师谁是notmonks可能保持协调前结婚的妻子,但在所有uniate的教堂独身是很常见的的,和已婚的神职人员后而为之侧目看着。 There are seminaries at Ain-Traz, Jerusalem (the College of St. Ann under Cardinal Lavigerie's White Fathers), Beirut, etc. Many students go to the Jesuits at Beirut, the Greek College at Rome, or St. Sulpice at Paris.AIN - Traz的神学院,耶路撒冷(在枢机主教Lavigerie的白神父的圣安学院),贝鲁特等许多学生在贝鲁特,希腊在罗马学院,或在巴黎的圣叙尔皮斯的耶稣会士。 The monks follow the Rule of St. Basil.僧侣们遵循规则圣罗勒。They are divided into two great congregations, that of St. John the Baptist at Shuweir in the Lebanon and that of St. Saviour, near Sidon.他们被分成两个伟大的教会,施洗者圣约翰在黎巴嫩Shuweir和圣救主,西顿附近的。Both have numerous daughter-houses.两者有许多女儿房子。The Shuweirites have a further distinction, ie between those of Allepo and the Baladites. Shuweirites有进一步的区分,即那些Allepo和Baladites。There are also convents of Basilian nuns.也有Basilian修女的修道院。

Practically all Melchites are natives of the country, Arabs in tongue.几乎所有的Melchites国家的当地人,在舌的阿拉伯人。Their rite is that of Constantinople, almost always celebrated in Arabic with a few versicles and exclamations (proschomen sophia orthoi, etc.) in Greek.他们的仪式是君士坦丁堡,几乎总是在阿拉伯语庆祝几个versicles和感叹词(proschomen索菲亚orthoi等),在希腊。 But on certain solemn occasions the liturgy is celebrated entirely in Greek.但是,在某些隆重的场合的礼仪庆祝完全在希腊。 The sees of the patriarchate are: the patriarchate itself, to which is joined Damascus, administered by a vicar; then two metropolitan dioceses, Tyre and Aleppo; two archdioceses, Bosra with Hauran, and Horus with Hama; seven bishoprics, Sidon, Beirut (with Jebail), Tripolis, Acre, Furzil (with Zahle), and the Beqaa, Paneas, and Baalbek.东正教会看到:东正教会本身,这是加入了大马士革,由一个教区牧师管理;然后两个大都市的教区,提尔和阿勒颇;两个archdioceses Hauran布斯拉,以及荷鲁斯与哈马; 7主教,西顿,贝鲁特( Jebail),特里波利斯,阿克里,Furzil(查赫勒),贝卡,Paneas和Baalbek。The patriarchates of Jerusalem and Alexandria are administered for the patriarch by vicars.耶路撒冷和亚历山大牧首辖区管理族长教区牧师。The total number of Melchites is estimated at 130,000 (Silbernagl) or 114,080 (Werner). Melchites总人数估计为130,000(Silbernagl)或114080(沃纳)。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.阿德里安Fortescue的书面公开信息。 Transcribed by John Looby.转录由约翰Looby。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

For the origin and history see any history of the Monophysite heresy.的起源和历史,看不到任何历史的基督一性异端。NEALE, History of the Holy Eastern Church (London, 1848-1850), IV and V: The Patriaarchate of Alexandria supplementary volume: The Patriarchate of Antioch, ed.尼尔,教廷东方教会(伦敦,1848至1850年),Ⅳ和V史:Patriaarchate亚历山大补充量,编辑安提阿宗主教。 Williams (London, 1873); Charon, Histoire des Patriarcats Melkites (Rome, in course of publication), a most valuable work; RABBATH, Documents inedits pour servir a l'histoire du christianisme en Orient (3 vols., Paris, 1907); Le Quien, Oriens Christianus (Paris, 1740), II, 385-512 (Alexandrine Patriarchs), 699-730 (Antioch), III, 137-527).威廉姆斯(伦敦,1873年);卡戎,Histoire DES Patriarcats Melkites,最有价值的工作(罗马,在出版过程中); RABBATH,文件inedits倒SERVIR一个L' histoire杜christianisme EN东方(3卷,巴黎,1907年。)乐Quien,Oriens Christianus(巴黎,1740年),二,385-512(亚历山大始祖),699-730(安提阿),三,137-527)。

For the present constitution: SILBERNAGL, Verfassung u.对于目前的宪法:SILBERNAGL,Verfassung U.gegenwartiger Bestand samtlicher Kirchen des Orients (Ratisbon, 1904), 334-341; WERNER, Orbis Terrarum Catholicus (Freiburg, 1890), 151-155.; Echos d'Orient (Paris, since 1897), articles by Charon and others; Kohler, Die Katholischen Kirchen des Morgenlands (Darmstadt, 1896), 124-1128; Charon, Le Rite byzantin dans les Patriarcats Melkites (extrait de chrysostomika) du Chant dans l'Eglise Grecque (Paris, 1906)gegenwartiger Bestand samtlicher Kirchen DES定向(拉蒂斯邦,1904年),334-341;维尔纳,奥比斯Terrarum Catholicus(弗赖堡,1890年),151-155;回声报德东方(巴黎,自1897年),冥卫一和其他物品;科勒模具Katholischen Kirchen Morgenlands(达姆施塔特,1896年),124-1128;卡戎,乐爱色丽byzantin DANS LES Patriarcats Melkites(extrait chrysostomika)杜咏DANS L' Eglise Grecque(巴黎,1906年)


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html