Mithraism, Mithra密特拉教

General Information一般资料

Mithraism, the worship of the ancient Indo-Iranian god of light, Mithra, became early Christianity's most serious rival as the mystery cult rapidly spread from Syria and Anatolia throughout the western Mediterranean and into Gaul and Britain. Mithraism,古老的印度-伊朗的光,神密特拉的崇拜,成为早期基督教的最严重的从叙利亚和安纳托利亚迅速蔓延到整个地中海西部和高卢和英国的神秘邪教的对手。 Its cultic origins remain obscure.其邪教的起源仍然不清楚。

Although the Persian god Mithra, the chief ally of Ahura Mazda, the force of good in later Zoroastrianism, is identical with the Roman deity, Western worship of Mithra had few connections with Zoroastrianism apart from its emphasis on the eternal struggle between good and evil.虽然波斯神密特拉,阿胡拉马自达在以后的拜火教的力量,良好的的主要盟友,是与罗马的神相同,西方崇拜密特拉与祆教,除了强调善与恶之间永恒的斗争的几个连接。 There were seven grades of initiation into the cult, completion of which conferred immortality.到邪教有七个等级萌生,其中完成赋予不朽。The most important ritual was the slaying of the bull, a reenactment of Mithra's killing of the cosmic bull of creation, which symbolized the conquest of evil and death.最重要的仪式被杀害的牛市,密特拉的杀害,这象征着邪恶和死亡的征服宇宙的创造牛市再现。Astrology and sun worship also played a role in Mithraism.占星术和太阳崇拜,也起到了Mithraism作用。

Introduced into the West in the 1st century AD by Roman soldiers who had fought against the Parthians, the cult remained particularly popular among the military--the god embodied such soldierly values as victory, courage, and loyalty--and merchant classes.引入西方在公元1世纪罗马士兵对帕提亚人打,邪教仍然特别是在军队中流行 - 神体现了这样的军人价值观的胜利,勇气和忠诚 - 和商人类。Women were excluded from the cult.妇女被排除在邪教。One of the most powerful religious movements in the Roman Empire by the 4th century, Mithraism, along with other non-Christian sects, suffered persecution after the conversion of Constantine and gradually died out.在4世纪的罗马帝国最强大的宗教活动之一,Mithraism,以及与其他非基督教宗派,康斯坦丁转换后遭受迫害,并逐渐死亡。 Significantly, Mithra's birth was commemorated on December 25.值得注意的是,密特拉的诞辰纪念12月25日。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Cumont, Franz, The Mysteries of Mithra, 2d rev.Cumont,弗朗茨,密特拉,2D转之谜。ed., trans.版,跨。by Thomas J. McCormack (1956); Hinnells, JR, ed., Mithraic Studies, 2 vols.马克托马斯J.(1956); Hinnells,JR,编辑,Mithraic研究,2卷。(1975); Laeuchli, Samuel, ed., Mithraism in Ostia: Mystery Religion and Christianity in the Ancient Port of Rome (1967); Vermaseren, MJ, Mithras: The Secret God, trans.(1975年); Laeuchli,萨穆埃尔,编辑,在奥斯蒂亚Mithraism:神秘的宗教和基​​督教在罗马古老的港口(1967); Vermaseren,MJ,米希尔斯:秘密神,反。by Therese and Vincent Megaw (1963); Wynne-Tyson, Esme, Mithras (1958; repr. 1985).贷瑞莎和圣文森特梅高(1963年);怀恩,泰森,埃斯梅,米希尔斯(1958年,1985年再版)。



Mithraism Mithraism

Catholic Information天主教信息

A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra.一个异教徒的宗教主要包括古老的印度 - 伊朗太阳神密特拉的崇拜。It entered Europe from Asia Minor after Alexander's conquest, spread rapidly over the whole Roman Empire at the beginning of our era, reached its zenith during the third century, and vanished under the repressive regulations of Theodosius at the end of the fourth century.来自小亚细亚进入欧洲后,亚历山大的征服,在我们这个时代的的开始,整个罗马帝国的迅速蔓延,在第三世纪达到了顶峰,并在第四世纪结束的狄奥多西的镇压法规下消失。 Of late the researches of Cumont have brought it into prominence mainly because of its supposed similarity to Christianity.后期的Cumont的研究带来了突出,主要是因为其所谓的相似性基督教。

ORIGIN原产地

The origin of the cult of Mithra dates from the time that the Hindus and Persians still formed one people, for the god Mithra occurs in the religion and the sacred books of both races, ie in the Vedas and in the Avesta.的密特拉的日期崇拜,印度教徒和波斯人仍然形成一个人的神密特拉,从时间的起源发生在宗教和神圣的书籍两场比赛,即在吠陀在阿维斯塔。 In Vedic hymns he is frequently mentioned and is nearly always coupled with Varuna, but beyond the bare occurrence of his name, little is known of him (Rigveda, III, 59).吠陀赞美诗,他经常提到的,几乎总是加上伐楼拿,但裸发生超出了他的名字,很少有人对他称为“(Rigveda,三,59)。 It is conjectured (Oldenberg, "Die "Religion des Veda," Berlin, 1894) that Mithra was the rising sun, Varuna the setting sun; or, Mithra, the sky at daytime, Varuna, the sky at night; or, the one the sun, the other the moon. In any case Mithra is a light or solar deity of some sort; but in vedic times the vague and general mention of him seems to indicate that his name was little more than a memory. In the Avesta he is much more of a living and ruling deity than in Indian piety; nevertheless, he is not only secondary to Ahura Mazda, but he does not belong to the seven Amshaspands or personified virtues which immediately surround Ahura; he is but a Yazad, a popular demigod or genius. The Avesta however gives us his position only after the Zoroastrian reformation; the inscriptions of the Achaemenidae (seventh to fourth century BC) assign him amuch higher place, naming him immediately after Ahura Mazda and associating him with the goddess Anaitis (Anahata), whose name sometimes precedes his own. Mithra is the god of light, Anaitis the goddess of water. Independently of the Zoroastrian reform, Mithra retained his place as foremost deity in the north-west of the Iranian highlands. After the conquest of Babylon this Persian cult came into contact with Chaldean astrology and with the national worship of Marduk. For a time the two priesthoods of Mithra and Marduk (magi and chaldaei respectively) coexisted in the capital and Mithraism borrowed much from this intercourse. This modified Mithraism traveled farther north-westward and became the State cult of Armenia. Its rulers, anxious to claim descent from the glorious kings of the past, adopted Mithradates as their royal name (so five kings of Georgia, and Eupator of the Bosporus). Mithraism then entered Asia Minor, especially Pontus and Cappadocia. Here it came into contact with the Phrygian cult of Attis and Cybele from which it adopted a number of ideas and practices, though apparently not the gross obscenities of the Phrygian worship. This Phrygian-Chaldean-Indo-Iranian religion, in which the Iranian element remained predominant, came, after Alexander's conquest, in touch with the Western World. Hellenism, however, and especially Greece itself, remained remarkably free from its influence. When finally the Romans took possession of the Kingdom of Pergamum, occupied Asia Minor and stationed two legions of soldiers on the Euphrates, the success of Mithraism in the West was secured. It spread rapidly from the Bosporus to the Atlantic, from Illyria to Britain. Its foremost apostles were the legionaries; hence it spread first to the frontier stations of the Roman army.据推测(Oldenberg,“死”吠陀宗教DES,“柏林,1894年),密特拉是初升的太阳,伐楼拿夕阳;或密特拉,在白天,伐楼拿,在夜空的天空;或一个太阳,月亮在任何情况下密特拉是某种形式的光或太阳神;。但在吠陀时代,他的含糊和笼统的提及似乎表明,他的名字比内存更小的阿维斯塔远超过印度虔诚的生活和执政神,不过,他不只是辅助阿胡拉马自达,但他不属于7 Amshaspands或人格化的美德,立即包围阿胡拉,他是但Yazad,流行然而,阿维斯塔。半仙能人给我们他的位置后,才拜火教的改革; Achaemenidae铭文(第七至公元前四世纪)分配给他amuch更高的地方,后立即任命他为阿胡拉马自达和关联他与女神Anaitis(字“ ),他的名字有时先自己。密特拉是光明之神,Anaitis水的女神。独立拜火教的改革,密特拉在伊朗高原西北部的最重要的神保留他的位置。征服巴比伦后开始接触这个波斯邪教加尔丁礼占星术和国家崇拜的马尔杜克,一时间,在资本和Mithraism共存神职人员密特拉和马尔杜克(分别是法师和chaldaei)借用从这个性交,这个修改过的的Mithraism前往更远北向西成为亚美尼亚的国家的邪教组织,它的统治者,急着要求从过去的光荣国王的血统,通过他们的皇家名称(格鲁吉亚等五王,和博斯普鲁斯Eupator)Mithradates。Mithraism然后进入亚洲未成年人,尤其是庞和卡帕多西亚。在这里开始接触阿迪斯和Cybele弗里吉亚的邪教组织,从它通过一些的想法和做法,但显然不是总值猥亵弗里吉亚崇拜。弗里吉亚底-印支伊朗宗教,其中的伊朗元素依然突出,来到亚历山大的占领后,在与西方世界接触希腊,但是,和特别是希腊本身,仍然显着它的影响力自由。当终于入乡随俗了藏帕加马王国被占领的小亚细亚,并派驻了两个军团的士兵在幼发拉底河上,在西方的成功的Mithraism担保迅速蔓延,从博斯普鲁斯海峡到大西洋,从伊利里亚到英国,其首要使徒的军团;。因此它的传播第一罗马军队在边境站。

Mithraism was emphatically a soldier religion: Mithra, its hero, was especially a divinity of fidelity, manliness, and bravery; the stress it laid on good fellowship and brotherliness, its exclusion of women, and the secret bond amongst its members have suggested the idea that Mithraism was Masonry amongst the Roman soldiery. Mithraism是强调一个士兵的宗教:密特拉,它的英雄,尤其是保真度,男子气概和勇敢的神威;的压力,奠定了良好的奖学金和兄弟情谊,其排斥妇女,和其成员的秘密债券上提出这个想法这Mithraism之间的罗马士兵类砌体。 At the same time Eastern slaves and foreign tradesmen maintained its propaganda in the cities.东方奴隶和国外的各类技工的同时保持其在城市的宣传。When magi, coming from King Tiridates of Armenia, had worshipped in Nero an emanation of Mithra, the emperor wished to be initiated in their mysteries.当贤士,从亚美尼亚国王Tiridates,在Nero崇拜密特拉流溢,皇帝希望在其奥秘发起。As Mithraism passed as a Phrygian cult it began to share in the official recognition which Phrygian worship had long enjoyed in Rome.随着Mithraism一个弗里吉亚邪教组织通过它开始分享弗里吉亚崇拜早已在罗马享有的正式承认。 The Emperor Commodus was publicly initiated.皇帝Commodus公开发起。Its greatest devotee however was the imperial son of a priestess of the sun-god at Sirmium in Pannonia, Valerian, who according to the testimony of Flavius Vopiscus, never forgot the cave where his mother initiated him.然而,其最大的奉献是帝国在西锡尔米乌姆在潘诺尼亚,缬草,太阳神的女祭司的儿子,根据证词弗拉菲乌斯Vopiscus,从来没有忘记,他的母亲发起他的洞穴。 In Rome, he established a college of sun priests and his coins bear the legend "Sol, Dominus Imperii Romani".在罗马,他成立了一个太阳祭司学院和他的硬币承担溶胶,Dominus Imperii罗姆“传奇”。Diocletian, Galerius, and Licinius built at Carnuntum on the Danube a temple to Mithra with the dedication: "Fautori Imperii Sui".戴克里先,加莱里乌斯,李锡尼在Carnuntum建在多瑙河上以密特拉与奉献的圣殿:“Fautori Imperii随”。But with the triumph of Christianity Mithraism came to a sudden end.但是,与基督教Mithraism的胜利突然结束。Under Julian it had with other pagan cults a short revival.在朱利安,它与其他异教邪教的一个简短的复兴。The pagans of Alexandria lynched George the Arian, bishop of the city, for attempting to build a church over a Mithras cave near the town.亚历山大的异教徒企图建造一座教堂附近的一个小镇米希尔斯洞穴私刑,城市的主教,乔治阿里安。 The laws of Theodosius I signed its death warrant.狄奥多西的法律,我签署了死刑令。The magi walled up their sacred caves; and Mithra has no martyrs to rival the martyrs who died for Christ.贤士了他们神圣的洞穴壁和密特拉没有对手为基督死亡的烈士的烈士。

DOCTRINE教义

The first principle or highest God was according to Mithraism "Infinite Time"; this was called Aion or Saeculum, Kronos or Saturnus.第一个原则或最高神是根据Mithraism“无限的时间”,这被称为永恒之塔或Saeculum,克罗诺斯或Saturnus。 This Kronos is none other than Zervan, an ancient Iranian conception, which survived the sharp dualism of Zoroaster; for Zervan was father of both Ormuzd and Ahriman and connected the two opposites in a higher unity and was still worshipped a thousand years later by the Manichees.这克罗诺斯是没有其他比Zervan,伊朗一个古老的概念,幸存下来的琐罗亚斯德尖锐的二元论;为Zervan Ormuzd和阿里曼的父亲,并连接在一个更高的统一的两个对立面,仍然供奉了一千多年后的Manichees 。This personified Time, ineffable, sexless, passionless, was represented by a human monster, with the head of a lion and a serpent coiled about his body.这种人格化的时间,不可言喻的,无性,情欲,是代表一个人的怪物,头狮子和一条蛇盘绕,关于他的身体。He carried a sceptre and lightning as sovereign god and held in each hand a key as master of the heavens.他作为主权上帝的权杖和闪电,每手举行了天上的主键。He had two pair of wings to symbolize the swiftness of time.他有一双翅膀,象征着时间的迅捷。His body was covered with zodiacal signs and the emblems of the seasons (ie Chaldean astrology combined with Zervanism).他的身体覆盖着黄道十二宫和季节的标志(即加尔丁礼占星术与Zervanism相结合)。This first principle begat Heaven and Earth, which in turn begat their son and equal, Ocean.这第一原则,生了天地,这反过来又生了他们的儿子和平等,海洋。As in the European legend, Heaven or Jupiter (Oromasdes) succeeds Kronos.至于在欧洲的传说,天堂或木星(Oromasdes)成功克罗诺斯。Earth is the Speñta Armaiti of the Persians or the Juno of the Westerns, Ocean is Apam-Napat or Neptune.地球是波斯人的西部片朱诺Speñta Armaiti,海洋是APAM Napat或海王星。The Persian names were not forgotten, though the Greek and Roman ones were habitually used.波斯的名字并没有被遗忘,尽管希腊和罗马的使用习惯。Ahura Mazda and Spenta Armaiti gave birth to a great number of lesser deities and heroes: Artagnes (Hercules), Sharevar (Mars), Atar (Vulcan), Anaitis (Cybele), and so on.阿胡拉马自达和Spenta Armaiti生下了一个较小的神和英雄的伟大号码:Artagnes(大力神),Sharevar(火星),阿塔尔(火神),Anaitis(Cybele),依此类推。 On the other hand there was Pluto, or Ahriman, also begotten of Infinite Time.另一方面是冥王星,或阿里曼,也可以无限时间的独生子。 The Incarnate Evil rose with the army of darkness to attack and dethrone Oromasdes.化身邪恶与黑暗的军队攻击和废黜Oromasdes上升。They were however thrown back into hell, whence they escape, wander over the face of the earth and afflict man.然而,他们后仰到地狱,从那里他们逃脱,漫步在地球表面和折磨的人。It is man's duty to worship the four simple elements, water and fire, air and earth, which in the main are man's friends.这是男人的责任崇拜四个简单的元素,水,火,空气和地球,这主要是人类的朋友。The seven planets likewise were beneficent deities.七个行星同样是仁慈的神灵。The souls of men, which were all created together from the beginning and which at birth had but to descend from the empyrean heaven to the bodies prepared for them, received from the seven planets their passions and characteristics.收到来自七个行星他们的激情和特色,这些都是从一开始就和出生时从九天天堂沦落为他们准备的机构共同创建的,男性的灵魂。 Hence the seven days of the week were dedicated to the planets, seven metals were sacred to them, seven rites of initiation were made to perfect the Mithraist, and so on.因此,一周7天,奉献给了行星,七个金属是神圣的,7入会仪式作了完美的Mithraist等。As evil spirits ever lie in wait for hapless man, he needs a friend and saviour who is Mithra.辟邪在等待不幸的男子谎言,他需要的是密特拉的朋友和救星。Mithra was born of a mother-rock by a river under a tree.密特拉一河出生在一棵大树下,一个母亲岩。He came into the world with the Phrygian cap on his head (hence his designation as Pileatus, the Capped One), and a knife in his hand.他来到世上,在他的头上弗里吉亚帽(因此,他指定为Pileatus上限),并在他的手刀。It is said that shepherds watched his birth, but how this could be, considering there were no men on earth, is not explained.牧羊人说,看着他的出生,但是这怎么可能,考虑到有地球上没有男人,不解释。The hero-god first gives battle to the sun, conquers him, crowns him with rays and makes him his eternal friend and fellow; nay, the sun becomes in a sense Mithra's double, or again his father, but Helios Mithras is one god.的英雄,神首先给战斗在阳光下,征服了他,克朗与射线他和他他的永恒的朋友和同胞;不仅如此,太阳变成一个意识密特拉的一倍,或再次他的父亲,但太阳神米希尔斯是一个神。 Then follows the struggle between Mithra and the bull, the central dogma of Mithraism.接着密特拉和牛市,Mithraism中央教条之间的斗争。Ahura Mazda had created a wild bull which Mithra pursued, overcame, and dragged into his cave.阿胡拉马兹达创造了一个野生牛市密特拉追求,克服了,和他的洞穴一拖再拖。This wearisome journey with the struggling bull towards the cave is the symbol of man's troubles on earth.这是象征着地球上的人的烦恼与挣扎的公牛对洞穴的跋涉。Unfortunately, the bull escapes from the cave, whereupon Ahura Mazda sends a crow with a message to Mithra to find and slay it.不幸的是,公牛从洞中逃脱,于是阿胡拉马自达发送消息,以密特拉找到一只乌鸦,并杀死它。Mithra reluctantly obeys, and plunges his dagger into the bull as it returns to the cave.密特拉勉强服从,和他的匕首,因为它返回到洞穴陷入牛市。Strange to say, from the body of the dying bull proceeds all wholesome plants and herbs that cover the earth, from his spinal marrow the corn, from his blood the vine, etc. The power of evil sends his unclean creatures to prevent or poison these productions but in vain.说来也怪,收益从垂死的公牛的身体覆盖地球的所有有益健康的植物和草药,从他的脊椎骨髓的玉米,从他的血藤等邪恶的力量将他不洁的动物,以防止或毒药这些制作,但徒劳的。 From the bull proceed all useful animals, and the bull, resigning itself to death, is transported to the heavenly spheres.从牛市进行一切有用的动物,和公牛,辞职本身死亡,被运送到天球。Man is now created and subjected to the malign influence of Ahriman in the form of droughts, deluges, and conflagrations, but is saved by Mithra.男子现正创建和遭受干旱,deluges,和火灾等形式的阿里曼有害的影响,但由密特拉保存。Finally man is well established on earth and Mithra returns to heaven.最后,男子是公认的对地球和密特拉返回天堂。He celebrates a last supper with Helios and his other companions, is taken in his fiery chariot across the ocean, and now in heaven protects his followers.他最后的晚餐庆祝太阳神和他,其他的同伴在他火热的战车在大洋彼岸,现在在天上保护他的追随者。For the struggle between good and evil continues in heaven between the planets and stars, and on earth in the heart of man.在天堂的行星和恒星之间的良好和邪恶继续之间的斗争,并在人的心脏的地球上。Mithra is the Mediator (Mesites) between God and man.密特拉神与人之间的中保(Mesites)。This function first arose from the fact that as the light-god he is supposed to float midway between the upper heaven and the earth.这个函数首先,光神,他应该是上层天地之间浮动中途出现。Likewise a sun-god, his planet was supposed to hold the central place amongst the seven planets.同样的,太阳神,他的星球本来持有七大行星之间的中心位置。The moral aspect of his mediation between god and man cannot be proven to be ancient.他的神和人之间的调解的道德方面不能被证明是古代。As Mazdean dualists the Mithraists were strongly inclined towards asceticism; abstention from food and absolute continence seemed to them noble and praiseworthy, though not obligatory. Mithraists作为Mazdean二元论的强烈倾向对禁欲主义;从食品和绝对可控弃权似乎他们高尚的和值得称道的,虽然不是强制性的。They battled on Mithra's side against all impurity, against all evil within and without.他们作战密特拉的反对一切污秽的一面,对所有内部和外部的的邪恶。They believed in the immortality of the soul, sinners after death were dragged off to hell; the just passed through the seven spheres of the planets, through seven gates opening at a mystical word to Ahura Mazda, leaving at each planet a part of their lower humanity until, as pure spirits, they stood before God.他们相信灵魂不死,罪人死后被拖到地狱;刚刚通过行星的七个领域,通过七个开放在一个神秘的词,阿胡拉马自达,盖茨在每个星球上留下一个较低的部分,人类,作为纯粹的精神,直到他们站在神的面前。 At the end of the world Mithra will descend to earth on another bull, which he will sacrifice, and mixing its fat with sacred wine he will make all drink the beverage of immortality.在世界密特拉年底将下凡,另一个牛市,他会牺牲,神圣的葡萄酒和混合其脂肪,他将尽一切不朽的饮料喝。He will thus have proved himself Nabarses, ie "never conquered".因此,他将证明自己Nabarses,即“从来没有征服”。

WORSHIP崇拜

There were seven degrees of initiation into the mithraic mysteries.有7度萌生到mithraic奥秘。The consecrated one (mystes) became in succession crow (corax), occult (cryphius), soldier (miles), lion (leo), Persian (Perses), solar messenger (heliodromos), and father (pater).献身(mystes)成为继承乌鸦(corax),潜血(cryphius),战士(公里),狮子(狮子座),波斯(Perses),太阳的使者(heliodromos),和父亲(佩特)。 On solemn occasions they wore a garb appropriate to their name, and uttered sounds or performed gestures in keeping with what they personified.在隆重的场合,他们穿着一件外衣,适合他们的名字,并说出他们人格化的声音或手势进行。"Some flap their wings as birds imitating the sound of a crow, others roar as lions", says Pseudo-Augustine (Quaest. Vet. N. Test. In PL, XXXIV, 2214). “一些皮瓣的乌鸦的声音模仿鸟的翅膀,其他的轰鸣声如狮”,说的伪奥古斯丁(Quaest.兽医。N.测试PL,三十四,2214)。Crows, occults and soldiers formed the lower orders, a sort of catechumens; lions and those admitted to the other degrees were participants of the mysteries.乌鸦,掩和士兵组成的下订单,慕道排序;狮子和承认其他学位的人参加的奥秘。The fathers conducted the worship.父亲进行祭祀。The chief of the fathers, a sort of pope, who always lived at Rome, was called "Pater Patrum" or Pater Patratus." The members below the degree of pater called one another "brother," and social distinctions were forgotten in Mithraic unity. The ceremonies of initiation for each degree must have been elaborate, but they are only vaguely known -- lustrations and bathings, branding with red-hot metal, anointing with honey, and others. A sacred meal was celebrated of bread and haoma juice for which in the West wine was substituted. This meal was supposed to give the participants super-natural virtue. The Mithraists worshipped in caves, of which a large number have been found. There were five at Ostia alone, but they were small and could perhaps hold at most 200 persons. In the apse of the cave stood the stone representation of Mithra slaying the bull, a piece of sculpture usually of mediocre artistic merit and always made after the same Pergamean model. The light usually fell through openings in the top as the caves were near the surface of the ground. A hideous monstrosity representing Kronos was also shown. A fire was kept perpetually burning in the sanctuary. Three times a day prayer was offered the sun toward the east, south, or west according to the hour. Sunday was kept holy in honour of Mithra, and the sixteenth of each month was sacred to him as mediator. The 25 December was observed as his birthday, the natalis invicti, the rebirth of the winter-sun, unconquered by the rigours of the season. A Mithraic community was not merely a religious congregation; it was a social and legal body with its decemprimi, magistri, curatores, defensores, and patroni. These communities allowed no women as members. Women might console themselves by forming associtions to worship Anaitis-Cybele; but whether these were associated with Mithraism seems doubtful. No proof of immorality or obscene practices, so often connected with esoteric pagan cults, has ever been established against Mithraism; and as far as can be ascertained, or rather conjectured it had an elevating and invigorating effect on its followers. From a chance remark of Tertullian (De Praescriptione, xl) we gather that their "Pater Patrum" was only allowed to be married once, and that Mithraism had its virgines and continentes; such at least seems the best interpretation of the passage. If, however, Dieterich's Mithras's liturgy be really a liturgy of this sect, as he ably maintains, its liturgy can only strike us as a mixture of bombast and charlatanism in which the mystes has to hold his sides, and roar to the utmost of his power till he is exhausted, to whistle, smack his lips, and pronounce barbaric agglomerations of syllables as the different mystic signs for the heavens and the constellations are unveiled to him.行政的父亲,一个人总是生活在罗马教皇,排序,被称为“佩特Patrum”或佩特Patratus。“佩特程度以下的成员呼吁一个又一个”兄弟“,和社会的区别Mithraic团结遗忘,每度的入会仪式必须有详细说明,但他们只是含糊地称为 - 。lustrations和bathings,用烧红的金属品牌,用蜂蜜恩膏,和别人是一种神圣的餐面包和好嘛汁庆祝在西方葡萄酒被替换下场。这顿饭是应该给学员超级自然的美德。供奉在山洞里,其中已发现了大量的Mithraists有奥斯蒂亚仅五年,但他们小,或许容纳至多200人。站在密特拉杀死石表示,在洞穴后殿中的牛市,一个平庸的艺术性,通常是一块雕塑,总是相同的Pergamean模型后,光通常是通过在顶部开口下跌洞穴附近的地面。代表克罗诺斯也显示了一个可怕的怪物。保持永远燃烧在圣域。火灾3次,每天祈祷,向东,南,或向西提供按小时的太阳星期天是保持神圣的密特拉的荣誉,和每月16是神圣的,他作为调解人。12月25日是他的生日,陈百祥invicti,冬天的太阳的重生观察,通过严格的unconquered季节一个Mithraic社会不只是一个宗教会众; decemprimi,magistri,curatores,保卫,并patroni的社会和法律机构,这些社区允许作为成员中没有女性,妇女可能控制台形成associtions崇拜Anaitis。 - Cybele; 但这些是否与Mithraism似乎令人怀疑任何不道德或淫秽行为的证据,因此往往与深奥的异教邪教连接,曾经建立了对Mithraism;尽可能可确定,而推测它有一个(德Praescriptione,XL)及其追随者的提升和振兴起了德尔图良的机会的话,我们收集“佩特Patrum”只允许一次要结婚了,那Mithraism virgines和continentes至少似乎然而,最好的解释通道。如果,迪特里奇的米希尔斯的礼仪真是一个这个教派的礼仪,因为他巧妙地保持,其礼仪只能罢工夸夸其谈和charlatanism在其中的mystes已持有他双方的混合物我们,和轰鸣声,直到他筋疲力尽,他的权力,最大限度地鸣笛,嫌他的嘴唇,和发音的音节作为不同的神秘标志亮相他的天空和星座的野蛮聚​​集。

RELATION TO CHRISTIANITY有关基督教

A similarity between Mithra and Christ struck even early observers, such as Justin, Tertullian, and other Fathers, and in recent times has been urged to prove that Christianity is but an adaptation of Mithraism, or at most the outcome of the same religious ideas and aspirations (eg Robertson, "Pagan Christs", 1903).密特拉和基督之间的相似性袭击,甚至早期的观察员,如贾斯汀,良,和其他父亲,在近代一直敦促证明,基督教,而是一个适应Mithraism,或在最相同的宗教思想的结果,愿望(如罗伯逊,“异教基督”,1903年)。 Against this erroneous and unscientific procedure, which is not endorsed by the greatest living authority on Mithraism, the following considerations must be brought forward.反对这种错误的和不科学的过程,这是不上Mithraism的最伟大的权威认可,必须提出以下考虑。(1) Our knowledge regarding Mithraism is very imperfect; some 600 brief inscriptions, mostly dedicatory, some 300 often fragmentary, exiguous, almost identical monuments, a few casual references in the Fathers or Acts of the Martyrs, and a brief polemic against Mithraism which the Armenian Eznig about 450 probably copied from Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428) who lived when Mithraism was almost a thing of the past -- these are our only sources, unless we include the Avesta in which Mithra is indeed mentioned, but which cannot be an authority for Roman Mithraism with which Christianity is compared. (1)我们有关Mithraism的知识是非常不完善的,约600个​​简短的铭文,大多是奉献,约300名往往是零碎的,稀少,几乎相同的纪念碑,烈士的父亲或行为数随意引用,并且对Mithraism简短的论战约450名亚美尼亚Eznig可能复制西奥多的摩普绥提亚(卒于428)Mithraism几乎是过去的事情,谁住 - 这是我们的唯一来源,除非我们包括其中确实提到密特拉阿维斯塔,但不能罗马Mithraism管理局与基督教相比。Our knowledge is mostly ingenious guess-work; of the real inner working of Mithraism and the sense in which it was understood by those who professed it at the advent of Christianity, we know nothing.我们的知识大多是巧妙的猜测工作;真正的内部工作Mithraism和意义,它是理解那些自称基督教的来临,我们什么都不知道。 (2) Some apparent similarities exist; but in a number of details it is quite probable that Mithraism was the borrower from Christianity.(2)存在一些明显的相似性,但在一些细节是相当可能Mithraism是从基督教的借款人。 Tertullian about 200 could say: "hesterni sumus et omnia vestra implevimus" ("we are but of yesterday, yet your whole world is full of us").约200德尔图良说:“hesterni sumus等OMNIA vestra implevimus”(“但我们的昨天,但你的整个世界都在我们”)。It is not unnatural to suppose that a religion which filled the whole world, should have been copied at least in some details by another religion which was quite popular during the third century.它不是自然假设,一个充满了整个世界的宗教,应该有被复制至少在一些细节另一种宗教,它是在第三世纪颇为流行。Moreover the resemblances pointed out are superficial and external.此外指出的相似之处是肤浅的和外部的。Similarity in words and names is nothing; it is the sense that matters.词汇和名称的相似是什么,它​​是意义的事项。During these centuries Christianity was coining its own technical terms, and naturally took names, terms, and expressions current in that day; and so did Mithraism.在这世纪,基督教是压印自己的技术术语,自然目前的这一天的名称,术语和表达式中;也Mithraism。But under identical terms each system thought its own thoughts.但在相同的条件每个系统都认为自己的想法。Mithra is called a mediator; and so is Christ; but Mithra originally only in a cosmogonic or astronomical sense; Christ, being God and man, is by nature the Mediator between God and man.密特拉被称为调解员;等是基督,但密特拉,原本只在一个宇宙起源或天文意义;基督,是神​​和人,自然是神与人之间的中保。 And so in similar instances.因此,在类似的情况。Mithraism had a Eucharist, but the idea of a sacred banquet is as old as the human race and existed at all ages and amongst all peoples. Mithraism了圣体圣事,但一个神圣的宴会想法是像人类一样古老,在所有年龄和所有人民之间存在着。Mithra saved the world by sacrificing a bull; Christ by sacrificing Himself.密特拉保存牺牲牛市的世界;基督牺牲自己。It is hardly possible to conceive a more radical difference than that between Mithra taurochtonos and Christ crucified.这几乎是不可能受孕比之间的密特拉taurochtonos和基督钉在十字架上,更激进的区别。Christ was born of a Virgin; there is nothing to prove that the same was believed of Mithra born from the rock.基督诞生的处女,没有什么来证明,同样是从岩石中出生的密特拉认为。Christ was born in a cave; and Mithraists worshipped in a cave, but Mithra was born under a tree near a river.基督出生在一个山洞里; Mithraists崇拜在一个山洞里,但密特拉是在一条河流附近的树出生。Much as been made of the presence of adoring shepherds; but their existence on sculptures has not been proven, and considering that man had not yet appeared, it is an anachronism to suppose their presence.高达牧羊人的崇拜存在,但他们对雕塑的存在还没有得到证明,并考虑该男子没有尚未出现,这是不合时宜的,假设它们的存在。 (3) Christ was an historical personage, recently born in a well known town of Judea, and crucified under a Roman governor, whose name figured in the ordinary official lists. (3)基督是一个历史人物,最近在知名的犹太镇出生,并根据一个罗马总督,他的名字在普通的正式名单想通钉在十字架上。Mithra was an abstraction, a personification not even of the sun but of the diffused daylight; his incarnation, if such it may be called, was supposed to have happened before the creation of the human race, before all history.密特拉是一个抽象的概念,甚至没有太阳,但扩散日光人格化,他的化身,如果这样可能会被调用,应该有发生之前,创造了人类所有的历史之前,。 The small Mithraic congregations were like masonic lodges for a few and for men only and even those mostly of one class, the military; a religion that excludes the half of the human race bears no comparison to the religion of Christ.数只,甚至那些大多是一类,军事和男子共济会小屋;排除人类的一半,不承担任何一种宗教的基督宗教的比较像的小Mithraic众。 Mithraism was all comprehensive and tolerant of every other cult, the Pater Patrum himself was an adept in a number of other religions; Christianity was essential exclusive, condemning every other religion in the world, alone and unique in its majesty. Mithraism全面和所有其他邪教的宽容,佩特Patrum自己是一个善于在其他一些宗教,基督教是必不可少的排他性,谴责在世界上,在单独的和独特的威严的每一个其他宗教。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.太平绅士Arendzen编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by John Looby.转录由约翰Looby。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,发布1911年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

CUMONT, "Notes sur un temple Mithraique d'Ostie" (Ghent, 1891); IDEM, "Textes et Monuments figures relat. Aux Mysteres de Mithra" (2 vols., Brussels, 1896-1899); IDEM, "Les Mysteres de Mithra" (2nd., Paris, 1902), tr. CUMONT,河畔联合国寺Mithraique德Ostie“(根特,1891年);同上”注意事项“,等古迹数字relat Textes辅助Mysteres密特拉”(2卷,布鲁塞尔,1896年至1899年);同上,“莱斯Mysteres密特拉“(2nd.,巴黎,1902年),TR。 McCormack (London, 1903); IDEM, "Religions Orientales dans le Paganisme Romain" (Paris, 1906); MARTINDALE, "The Religion of Mithra" in "The Month" (1908, Oct., Nov., Dec.); IDEM, "The Religion of Mithra" in "Lectures on the Hist. Of Religions", II (CTS, London, 1910); DILL, "Roman Society from Nero to M. Aurelius" (London, 1904); ST.-CLAIR-TISDALL, "Mythic Christs and the True"; DIETERICH, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903); RAMSAY, "The Greek of the early Church and the Pagan Ritual" (Edinburgh, 1898-9); BLOTZER, "Das hedn. Mysterienwesen und die Hellenisierung des Christenthums" in "Stimmen aus Maria-Laach" (1906-7); ALES, "Mithraicisme et Christianisme" in "Revue Pratique d'Apologétique" (Pris, 1906-7); WEILAND, "Anklange der christl. Tauflehre an die Mithraischen Mystagogie" (Munich, 1907); GASQUET, "Essai sur le culte et les mysteres de Mithra" (Paris, 1890.麦科马克(伦敦,1903年);同上,“宗教东方DANS LE Paganisme罗曼”(巴黎,1906年); MARTINDALE,“密特拉的宗教”中的“月”(1908年10月,11月,12月);同上,“宗教的密特拉”宗教“讲座上的组织胺。”II(CTS,伦敦,1910年),莳萝,“罗马社会从Nero M.奥勒留”(伦敦,1904年);圣CLAIR的蒂斯,“神话基督和真正的”;迪特里奇,Eine Mithrasliturgie(莱比锡,1903年);拉姆齐,“希腊的早期教会和异教徒的仪式”(爱丁堡,1898-9);。BLOTZER,“资本hedn Mysterienwesen和死Hellenisierung DES Christenthums“中的”Stimmen AUS玛丽亚 - Laach“(1906-7);啤酒,”Mithraicisme等Christianisme“在”无疫通行证D'杂志Apologétique“(1906-7 PRIS,);韦兰德,”Anklange DER christl Tauflehre。一个死Mithraischen Mystagogie“(慕尼黑,1907年);加斯奎特,”Essai SUR LE culte ET LES mysteres的密特拉“(巴黎,1890年。



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