Nineveh尼尼微

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Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria, lies on the left bank of the Tigris River opposite present-day Mosul, Iraq.古代亚述的首都尼尼微,位于现今伊拉克摩苏尔的底格里斯河对面的左岸。Prehistoric occupation of the site dates back to at least the 6th millennium BC.史前占领该网站可以追溯到至少公元前3000年第六届。Holding an important position on the main river crossing in the fertile northern Mesopotamian plain but only intermittently governed by local rulers, Nineveh was dominated in the 3d millennium BC by the Agade and Ur empires and in the 2d millennium by the Mitanni and Kassite empires.持有重要的位置上的主要河流穿越在肥沃的美索不达米亚平原北部,但只是间歇性地管辖当地的统治者,尼尼微为主米坦尼和Kassite帝国在公元前3000年的3D Agade和乌尔帝国,在2D千年。

With the rise of Assyrian power in the late 2d millennium, the city became a royal residence and was finally established as the capital by King Sennacherib (r. 704-681 BC), who replanned the city and built for himself a magnificent palace.随着亚述人的权力,在后期的二维千年的崛起,城市成为一个皇家住所和王西拿基立(河704-681年),重新规划城市,并为自己建造一个宏伟的宫殿,终于建立资本。 Sacked (612 BC) by the Medes, Nineveh declined, although occupation of the site continued through the Seleucid and Parthian periods until medieval times.袋装玛代(公元前612),尼尼微下降,虽然占领的网站继续通过塞琉古和帕提亚的时期,直到中世纪时代。

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Sennacherib's city wall, more than 12 km (7.5 mi) long, enclosed an area of about 700 ha (1730 acres); it was pierced by 15 great gates, five of which have been excavated.森纳赫里布的城墙,超过12公里(7.5英里)长,封闭面积约700公顷(1730亩),它是由15个伟大的盖茨,其中5个已发掘刺穿。 The northern Nergal Gate, with its original flanking bull colossuses, has been restored.北部Nergal门,其原有的侧翼牛市colossuses,已经恢复。Canals provided water to the city and to municipal gardens that were stocked with unusual plants and animals.运河提供水的城市,市政园林,是不寻常的植物和动物放养。Sections of an aqueduct built by Sennacherib still stand at Jerwan, 40 km (25 mi) away.森纳赫里布建一个输水管道的部分仍然站在Jerwan,40公里(25英里)的距离。The palaces of Sennacherib and his grandson Ashurbanipal stand at Kuyunjik, the citadel of the site.西拿基立的宫殿和他的孙子在Kuyunjik,该网站的堡垒亚述巴尼拔立场。Their walls and doorways were lined with sculptured reliefs, many of which are now in the Louvre, Paris, and the British Museum, London (including Ashurbanipal's famous Lion Hunt reliefs, now in the British Museum).他们的墙和门道内衬雕塑浮雕,其中有许多是在卢浮宫,巴黎,和大英博物馆,伦敦(包括亚述巴尼拔的著名的狮子狩猎浮雕,现在在大英博物馆)。 Sennacherib's palace comprised at least 80 rooms; the throne room suite, now partially restored, still contains some of its bas-reliefs depicting scenes of conquest.森纳赫里布的宫殿至少有80间客房组成;宝座房间的套房,现已部分恢复,仍包含一些其浮雕描绘的场景征服。Archives of cuneiform tablets were found in both palaces, but the library of Ashurbanipal forms an unrivaled epigraphic source for current knowledge of Mesopotamian history.档案馆的楔形文字片被发现在这两个宫殿,但亚述巴尼拔图书馆形成一个无与伦比的美索不达米亚的历史知识的碑铭源。 One of the greatest treasures of ancient Mesopotamia, it contains more than 20,000 tablets and fragments, many of which are copies of ancient Mesopotamian texts such as the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh and the Babylonian Flood story; its subjects range from literature to religion, the sciences, and lexicography.古代的美索不达米亚的镇馆之宝之一,它包含了超过20,000片和碎片,其中有许多是古代的美索不达米亚的文本,如“苏美尔吉尔伽美什史诗和巴比伦的洪水故事的副本,其学科范围从文学,宗教,科学和辞书。

The E-mashmash temple, dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, also stood on Kuyunjik; its series of superimposed structures, dating back to the 3d millennium BC, were maintained by successive rulers of Assyria and survived until at least AD 200.电子mashmash寺庙,献给女神伊什塔尔,还放着Kuyunjik;其一系列叠加结构,可追溯至公元前3000年的3D,是由连续亚述统治者保持,直到公元200年至少存活。 The imperial arsenal, built by Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon (r. 680-669 BC), stands largely unexcavated at Nebi Yunus, a mound on the city wall 1.6 km (1 mi) south of Kuyunjik.皇家阿森纳,西拿基立的继任者以撒哈顿(河680-669年)所建,矗立在一个土堆上城墙1.6公里(1英里)以南Kuyunjik Nebi尤努斯,在很大程度上unexcavated。It is still covered by modern buildings, among them a mosque reputed to contain the tomb of Jonah.它仍然是受现代建筑,其中一座清真寺被誉为遏制墓约拿。

Nineveh was first surveyed in 1820; intermittent excavation by various expeditions took place from 1842 to 1931; more recent work, including some restoration, has been undertaken by the Iraq Department of Antiquities.尼尼微在1820年首次调查,由间歇​​性挖掘各种探险发生从1842年到1931年更近的工作,包括一些恢复,已经被伊拉克古物部进行。

Kate Fielden凯特Fielden

Bibliography 参考书目
Goodspeed, George S., A History of the Babylonians and the Assyrians (1978); Hancock, Percy SP, Mesopotamian Archaeology (1912; repr. 1977); Olstead, Albert T., History of Assyria (1923; repr. 1975); Thompson, R. Campbell, and Hutchinson, Richard W., A Century of Exploration at Nineveh (1929).古德斯皮德,乔治S,巴比伦人和亚述人(1978)的历史,汉考克,柯利达SP,美索不达米亚的考古(1912年,1977年再版); Olstead,阿尔伯特T.,亚述的历史(1923年,再版1975年); R.坎贝尔,汤普森和Hutchinson,理查德W.,在尼尼微(1929年)的探索的世纪。


Nineveh尼尼微

Advanced Information先进的信息

Nineveh is first mentioned in Gen. 10: 11, which is rendered in the Revised Version, "He [ie, Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh."首先提到尼尼微是在将军10:11,这是在修订版中提供的,“他[即尼姆罗德]走进亚述和尼尼微builded等等。” It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3;4:11) as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:36; Isa. 37:37).它是不会再注意到,直到约拿天,当它被描述(约拿书3:3; 4:11)作为一个伟大的和人口最多的城市,繁荣的资本亚述帝国(2国王队19点36分;伊萨37。 37)。The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against this city.先知那鸿书几乎完全是对这个城市的预言谴责。Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold (Nah.1:14; 3:19, etc.).其破坏和极度荒凉的预言(Nah.1:14; 3:19等)。 Zephaniah also (2:13-15) predicts its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was the capital.西番雅(2:13-15)预测,随着帝国,它是资本的下降,其破坏。From this time there is no mention of it in Scripture till it is named in gospel history (Matt. 12:41; Luke 11:32).从这个时候它没有提及在圣经中,直到它是在历史的福音(马太12时41分,卢克11时32分)的名字命名。

This "exceeding great city" lay on the eastern or left bank of the river Tigris, along which it stretched for some 30 miles, having an average breadth of 10 miles or more from the river back toward the eastern hills.这种“超伟大的城市”打下东部,沿绵延约30英里的河流底格里斯河左岸上,对东部山区10英里或更多从河的平均广度。 This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins.这整个广阔的空间,现在是一个巨大的废墟。Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became the greatest of all ancient cities.位于地中海和印度洋之间的公路上的中央位置,从而团结东方和西方,它从许多来源的财富流入,使其成为所有古老的城市中最大的。 About BC 633 the Assyrian empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about BC 625, being joined by the Babylonians and Susianians, again attacked it, when it fell, and was razed to the ground.约公元前633亚述帝国开始显现疲态,玛代,随后,约公元前625,加入由巴比伦人和Susianians,再次攻击它,当它下跌,而被夷为平地的攻击和尼尼微。

The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them.亚述帝国然后走到了尽头,玛代和巴比伦人划分及其各省,它们之间。"After having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from beyond the Tigris to Asia Minor and Egypt, it vanished like a dream" (Nah. 2:6-11). “与可怕的专制和暴力,从高加索和里海到波斯湾,有超过六百多年统治后,从超越到小亚细亚和埃及的底格里斯河,它就像一个梦消失​​”(Nah. 2时06分-11)。Its end was strange, sudden, tragic.结束很奇怪,突然,悲惨。It was God's doing, his judgement on Assyria's pride (Isa. 10:5-19).这是神的做,他对亚述的骄傲(赛10:5-19)的判决。Forty years ago our knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank.40年前,我们伟大的亚述帝国,其宏伟的资本的知识几乎完全是一片空白。Vague memories had indeed survived of its power and greatness, but very little was definitely known about it.模糊的记忆确实存活它的力量和伟大,但很少被肯定知道。Other cities which had perished, as Palmyra, Persepolis, and Thebes, had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness; but of this city, imperial Nineveh, not a single vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood was only matter of conjecture.其他城市,已经灭亡,巴尔米拉,波斯波利斯和底比斯,留下的废墟,以纪念他们的网站,并告诉他们昔日的辉煌,但这个城市,帝国尼尼微,不是一个单一的痕迹似乎保持,非常到位它已经站在只是问题的猜想。

In fulfilment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place."预言的应验,神“的地方完全结束。” It became a "desolation."它变成了一个“苍凉”。In the days of the Greek historian Herodotus, BC 400, it had become a thing of the past; and when Xenophon the historian passed the place in the "Retreat of the Ten Thousand," the very memory of its name had been lost.在希腊历史学家希罗多德,公元前400天,它已经成为过去的事情;时色诺芬历史学家通过在“一万撤退”的地方,它的名字非常记忆已经失去。 It was buried out of sight, and no one knew its grave.被埋葬了人们的视线,没有人知道其严重。It is never again to rise from its ruins.这是永远不会再上升,从它的废墟。At length, after being lost for more than two thousand years, the city was disentombed.长度,失去了超过两千多年后,这个城市被disentombed。A little more than forty years ago the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river.略超过40年前的法国领事在摩苏尔开始搜索河对岸,沿广阔的土堆。The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon, one of the Assyrian kings.他在受雇于这些发掘的阿拉伯人,他们极大的惊喜,是根据建筑物的废墟赫尔萨巴德,土堆上,进一步探索,原来是萨尔贡皇家宫殿,亚述国王。 They found their way into its extensive courts and chambers, and brought forth from its hidden depths many wonderful sculptures and other relics of those ancient times.他们发现他们的方式到其广泛的法院和商会,并带来了从深处隐藏许多精彩的雕塑和其他的那些古代文物来回。

The work of exploration has been carried on almost continuously by M. Botta, Sir Henry Layard, George Smith, and others, in the mounds of Nebi-Yunus, Nimrud, Koyunjik, and Khorsabad, and a vast treasury of specimens of old Assyrian art has been exhumed.已进行的勘探工作几乎不断M.波塔,亨利莱亚德爵士,乔治史密斯,和其他Nebi,尤纳斯,尼姆鲁德,Koyunjik和赫尔萨巴德土墩,和广大老亚述艺术的标本国库已被挖掘出来。 Palace after palace has been discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs.后,宫宫已经发现,他们的装饰和雕刻砖,揭示了这个古代人的生活和举止,他们的战争与和平的艺术,他们的宗教,他们的架构风格的形式,和他们的君主的​​壮阔。 The streets of the city have been explored, the inscriptions on the bricks and tablets and sculptured figures have been read, and now the secrets of their history have been brought to light.在城市的街道已经探索,铭文上的砖头和片剂和雕塑数字已阅读,现在他们的历史的秘密已经败露。One of the most remarkable of recent discoveries is that of the library of King Assur-bani-pal, or, as the Greek historians call him, Sardanapalos, the grandson of Sennacherib (qv).最近发现的最显着的是国王亚述巴尼PAL,图书馆,或希腊历史学家打电话给他,Sardanapalos,森纳赫里布(QV)的孙子。

This library consists of about ten thousand flat bricks or tablets, all written over with Assyrian characters.该库由近万平砖或片,写亚述字符。They contain a record of the history, the laws, and the religion of Assyria, of the greatest value.它们包含的最大价值的历史记录,法律,和亚述的宗教,。These strange clay leaves found in the royal library form the most valuable of all the treasuries of the literature of the old world.在皇家图书馆中发现的这些奇怪的粘土叶形式最有价值的旧世界文学的所有国债。The library contains also old Accadian documents, which are the oldest extant documents in the world, dating as far back as probably about the time of Abraham.该库包含的旧Accadian文件,这是世界上现存最古老的文件,可以追溯到亚伯拉罕的时间为可能。(See SARGON.) "The Assyrian royalty is, perhaps, the most luxurious of our century [reign of Assur-bani-pa]. Its victories and conquests, uninterrupted for one hundred years, have enriched it with the spoil of twenty peoples.(见萨尔贡。)“亚述人的版税,也许,我们这个世纪最豪华的[在位的亚述巴尼 - PA] 它的胜利和征服,一百年不间断,有丰富的溺爱第二十人民。

Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites; Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers; Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal himself have pillaged Egypt and her great cities, Sais, Memphis, and Thebes of the hundred gates. Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G. Maspero, page 271). The bas-reliefs, alabaster slabs, and sculptured monuments found in these recovered palaces serve in a remarkable manner to confirm the Old Testament history of the kings of Israel. The appearance of the ruins shows that the destruction of the city was due not only to the assailing foe but also to the flood and the fire, thus confirming the ancient prophecies concerning it.萨尔贡已采取什么仍然是赫梯人;森纳赫里布克服迦勒底,巴比伦的宝藏被转移到他的库房;以撒哈顿和亚述 - 巴尼- PAL自己有抢劫埃及和她的最伟大的城市,最高审计机关,孟菲斯,百门底比斯 现在外商蜂拥而至到尼尼微,与他们带来了来自所有国家的最宝贵的生产,黄金和香水从阿拉伯南部和迦勒底海,埃及亚麻和玻璃工作,刻漆,金饰工作,锡,银,腓尼基紫;从黎巴嫩的雪松木,无懈可击的蠕虫;皮草和小亚细亚和亚美尼亚铁“(古埃及和亚述,由G.马斯伯乐​​,第271页),浅浮雕,雪花石膏砖,雕塑纪念碑发现。在这些回收的宫殿成为一个了不起的方式,确认以色列诸王旧旧约历史。废墟的外观显示,城市的破坏是由于,不仅调戏敌人,但也水灾和火灾,从而证实了关于它的古老预言。

"The recent excavations," says Rawlinson, "have shown that fire was a great instrument in the destruction of the Nineveh palaces. Calcined alabaster, charred wood, and charcoal, colossal statues split through with heat, are met with in parts of the Nineveh mounds, and attest the veracity of prophecy." “,”说罗林森,“最近发掘表明,火灾是一个伟大的工具,在尼尼微宫殿的破坏。雪花石膏煅烧,烧焦的木头和木炭,通过与热分裂的巨大雕像,会见了在尼尼微地区土墩,并证明了预言的真实性。“ Nineveh in its glory was (Jonah 3:4) an "exceeding great city of three days' journey", ie, probably in circuit.尼尼微在其荣耀(约拿书3:4)“伟大的城市超过三天的路程”,即可能在电路。This would give a circumference of about 60 miles.这将使周长大约60英里。At the four corners of an irregular quadrangle are the ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Karamless and Khorsabad.在一个不规则的四边形的四个角Kouyunjik,尼姆鲁德,Karamless和赫尔萨巴德的废墟。These four great masses of ruins, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as composing the whole ruins of Nineveh.这四个遗址的伟大的人民群众,与他们所绘制的线条从另一个形式的平行四边形内包括整个地区,一般都视为构成整个尼尼微废墟。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)



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