Nun尼姑

General Information一般资料

A nun is a member of a religious community of women ordinarily bound by the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.一个尼姑是一个宗教的妇女通常由贫穷,贞洁,服从的誓言的约束,社会的成员。Nuns are generally thought of as Christian, but the term is also used in other religions.尼姑普遍认为作为基督徒,但这个词也用于其他宗教。Roman Catholic church law uses nun to refer only to women with solemn vows and sister for those whose vows are not solemn.罗马天主教教会法使用尼姑仅指妇女与庄严的誓言没有庄严的誓言和妹妹。

Bibliography 参考书目
Campbell-Jones, Suzanne, In Habit (1979); Lieblich, Julia, Holy Women (1988).坎贝尔 - 琼斯,苏珊的习惯,(1979年); Lieblich,朱莉娅,圣洁的妇女(1988)。

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Nun尼姑

General Information一般资料

A Nun is a member of a religious order for women, living in a convent under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.一个修女是为妇女的宗教秩序的成员,居住在一座修道院下誓言贫穷,贞洁,服从。 Female monasticism occurs notably in Roman Catholicism, although it is not limited to that church or to Christianity.女修道发生,特别是在罗马天主教,虽然它并不限于该教会或基督教。In Roman Catholicism the orders vary in the stipulations of the vows, some being permanent and others only for fixed periods of time.在罗马天主教的订单的誓言的规定不尽相同,有的只为固定的时间内永久性的和其他人。The orders vary in dress, purpose, and rule, but all follow generally the same basic principles.订单不同的礼服,目的和规则,但都遵循大致相同的基本原则。The nuns are devoted to a purely contemplative life or to a life of charity, including teaching and nursing.修女是一个纯粹的沉思的生活或生活,包括教育和护理的慈善投入。The heads of convents are variously called abbesses, prioresses, and mothers superior, and a nun is generally addressed as "Sister."元首修道院是不同的称为abbesses,prioresses,和优越的母亲,和一个尼姑一般是作为解决“大姐。”


Nuns尼姑

Catholic Information天主教信息

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY一,起源和历史

The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various religious orders to the practice of a life of perfection, dates from the first ages of the Church, and women may claim with a certain pride that they were the first to embrace the religious state for its own sake, without regard to missionary work and ecclesiastical functions proper to men.尼姑姐妹,谁投入在各种不同的宗教订单自己完美的生活实践的机构,日期从第一个教会的年龄,和女性可能具有一定的自豪声称,他们是第一个接受宗教的国家为了自身利益,不考虑传教工作和教会的功能,适当的男性。 St. Paul speaks of widows, who were called to certain kinds of church work (1 Timothy 5:9), and of virgins (1 Cor., vii), whom he praises for their continence and their devotion to the things of the Lord.圣保禄谈到寡妇,被称为教会的工作(1提摩太后书5:9)的某些种类,和处女(1肺心病,第七章),他称赞他们的克制和他们奉献给主的事情。 The virgins were remarkable for their perfect and perpetual chastity which the Catholic Apologists have extolled as a contrast to pagan corruption (St. Justin, "Apol.", I, c. 15; Migne, "PG", VI, 350; St. Ambrose, "De Virginibus", Bk. I, C. 4; Migne, "PL", XVI, 193).处女显着天主教维护者作为对比异教腐败(圣贾斯汀,赞美他们的完美和永恒的贞节,我15 C.“APOL”。米涅,“PG”,六,350元;圣刘汉铨,“德Virginibus”,浅滩我,C 4。米涅,“PL”,十六,193)。Many also practiced poverty.许多人还实行贫困。From the earliest times they were called the spouses of Christ, according to St. Athanasius, the custom of the Church ("Apol. ad Constant.", sec. 33; Migne, "PG", XXV, 639).从最早的时候,他们被称为基督的配偶,根据圣athanasius,教会自定义(“APOL恒定的广告。”秒33;米涅,“家长指引”,二十五,639)。 St. Cyprian describes a virgin who had broken her vows as an adulteress ("Ep. 62", Migne, "PL", IV, 370).圣塞浦路斯描述了一个人打破了她作为一个淫妇(“EP 62”,米涅,“PL”,IV,370)誓言处女。Tertullian distinguishes between those virgins who took the veil publicly in the assembly of the faithful, and others known to God alone; the veil seems to have been simply that of married women.德尔图良的区分参加公开的面纱大会的忠实,和其他已知的只有上帝的处女的面纱,似乎已经是已婚妇女的根​​本。Virgins vowed to the service of God, at first continued to live with their families, but as early as the end of the third century there were community houses known as partheuones; and certainly at the beginning of the same century the virgins formed a special class in the Church, receiving Holy Communion before the laity.处女发誓上帝服务,继续与家人同住,但早在第三世纪结束还有作为partheuones知名社区房屋;处女肯定在同一个世纪的开始形成一个特殊的类在教会,接受圣餐前俗人。 The office of Good Friday in which the virgins are mentioned after the porters, and the Litany of the Saints, in which they are invoked with the widows, shows traces of this classification.办公室在提到处女后,搬运工,耶稣受难日和一长串的圣徒,他们在与寡妇调用,显示了这种分类的痕迹。 They were sometimes admitted among the deaconesses for the baptism of adult women and to exercise the functions which St. Paul had reserved for widows of sixty years.有时,他们之间的执事承认为成年女性的洗礼,行使圣保罗六十年的寡妇保留的功能。When the persecutions of the third century drove many into the desert, the solitary life produced many heroines; and when the monks began to live in monasteries, there were also communities of women.时的第三个世纪的迫害,驱车进入沙漠,孤独的生活产生了很多的女英雄;时,僧人开始在寺院生活,也有社区的妇女。St. Pachomius (292-346) built a convent in which a number of religious women lived with his sister.圣Pachomius(292-346)建立了一个修道院,在一些宗教妇女生活与他的姐妹。St. Jerome made famous the monastery of St. Paula at Bethlehem.圣杰罗姆在伯利恒著名的圣保拉修道院。St. Augustine addressed to the nuns a letter of direction from which subsequently his rule was taken.圣奥古斯丁给尼姑从哪个方向,随后他的统治被送往信。There were monasteries of virgins or nuns at Rome, throughout Italy, Gaul, Spain, and the West.在罗马的处女或尼姑寺院,整个意大利,高卢,西班牙,和西方。The great founders or reformers of monastic or more generally religious life, saw their rules adopted by women.伟大的创始人或改革者的寺院或更一般的宗教生活,看到妇女通过自己的规则。The nuns of Egypt and Syria cut their hair, a practice not introduced until later into the West.埃及和叙利亚的修女修剪头发,不介绍到西方,直到后来的做法。Monasteries of women were generally situated at a distance from those of men; St. Pachomius insisted on this separation, also St. Benedict.寺院的妇女与男子的距离一般位于圣Pachomius坚持这种分离,圣本笃。 There were, however, common houses, one wing being set apart for women and the other for men, more frequently adjoining houses for the two sexes.然而,有共同的房子,一翼被设置除了为妇女和男性,更经常的男女两个毗邻的房屋。 Justinian abolished these double houses in the East, placed an old man to look after the temporal affairs of the convent, and appointed a priest and a deacon who were to perform their duties, but not to hold any other communication with the nuns.查士丁尼取消这种双重的房子在东,放置一个老人照顾的修道院的世俗事务,并任命一名牧师和执事履行职责,但不举行任何其他的沟通与尼姑。 In the West, such double houses existed among the hospitallers even in the twelfth century.在西方,这种双重房子存在之间,甚至在12世纪医院骑士。In the eighth and ninth centuries a number of clergy of the principal churches of the West, without being bound by religious profession, chose to live in community and to observe a fixed rule of life.在第八届和第九届世纪的西方主要教堂神职人员没有被宗教专业的约束,选择了生活在社会和遵守固定的生活规则。This canonical life was led also by women, who retired form the world, took vows of chastity, dressed modestly in black, but were not bound to give of their property.由退休的妇女,形成了世界,这是典型的生活导致了贞节的誓言,身着黑色谦虚,但并没有必然给他们的财产。Continence and a certain religious profession were required of married women whose husbands were in Sacred Orders, or even received episcopal consecration.遗和某些宗教专业所需的已婚妇女,其丈夫在神圣的订单,甚至收到主教奉献。

Hence in the ninth century the list of women vowed to the service of God included these various classes: virgins, whose solemn consecration was reserved to the bishop, nuns bound by religious profession, deaconesses engaged in the service of the church, and wives or widows of men in Sacred Orders.因此在第九世纪的妇女名单,发誓要为天主服务包括这些不同类:处女,其庄严的奉献是保留给主教,宗教界约束的修女,执事从事教会服务,和妻子或寡妇男人在神圣的订单。 The nuns sometimes occupied a special house; the enclosure strictly kept in the East, was not considered indispensable in the West.修女有时会占据一个特殊的房子;外壳严格保持在东,不被视为在西方不可或缺的。Other monasteries allowed the nuns to go in and out.其他寺庙允许尼姑出入。In Gaul and Spain the novitiate lasted one year for the cloistered nuns and three years for the others.在高卢和西班牙的见习期,历时一年,为他人,为与世隔绝的修女和三年。In early times the nuns gave Christian education to orphans, young girls brought by their parents, and especially girls intending to embrace a religious life.尼姑在早期基督教教育的孤儿,他们的父母带来的年轻女孩,尤其是女孩有意拥抱的宗教生活。Besides those who took the veil of virgins of their own accord, or decided to embrace the religious life, there were others who were offered by their parents by their parents before they were old enough to be consulted.除了那些参加自己的处女的面纱,还是决定拥抱的宗教生活,有提供他们的父母,他们的父母,他们要咨询的人。In the West under the discipline in force for several centuries, these oblates were considered as bound for life by the offering made by their parents.根据现行的纪律西方几百年,这些献主会被视为对生命的约束,由他们的父母提供。The profession itself might be expressed or implied.行业本身可能明示或暗示。One who put on the religious habit, and lived for some time among the professed, was herself considered as professed.谁把宗教习惯,住一些时间之间的自称,是她自己视为自称。Besides the taking of the veil and simple profession there was also a solemn consecration of virginity which took place much later, at twenty-five years.除了采取的面纱和简单的专业也有一个庄严的贞操奉献多发生在二十五年后,。In the thirteenth century, the Mendicant Orders appeared characterized by a more rigorous poverty, which excluded not only private property, but also the possession of certain kinds of property in common.在十三世纪,乞讨订单出现了更严格的贫困,这不仅排除私有财产的特点,但某些种类的财产共同占有。 Under the direction of St. Francis of Assisi, St. Clare founded in 1212 the Second Order of Franciscans.圣嘉勒在阿西西的圣弗朗西斯的方向,在1212创立方济二阶。St. Dominic had given a constitution to nuns, even before instituting his Friars Preachers, approved 22 December, 1216.圣星给予了宪法,甚至在提起他的天主教方济会传教士,修女,批准,1216年12月22日。The Carmelites and the Hermits of St. Augustine also had corresponding orders of women; and the same was the case with the Clerks Regular dating from the sixteenth century, except the Society of Jesus.加尔默罗和圣奥古斯丁的隐士也有相应的订单;妇女和相同的是文员定期约会从16世纪的情况下,除了耶稣会,。

From the time of the Mendicant Orders, founded specially for preaching and missionary work, there was a great difference between the orders of men and women, arising from the strict enclosure to which women were subjected.从乞丐订单的时间,成立专门的说教和宣教工作,有之间的男性和女性的订单是一个很大的差别,其中妇女受到严格的外壳所产生的。 This rigorous enclosure usual in the East, was imposed on all nuns in the West, first by bishops and particular councils, and afterwards by the Holy See.这种严格的外壳通常在东,是强加给所有修女在西方,首先由主教和特别委员会,由教廷之后,请参阅。Boniface VII (1294-1309) by his constitution "Periculoso", inserted in Canon Law [c.博尼法斯他的宪法“Periculoso”第七章(1294至1309年),插在佳能法[C.un, De statu regularium, in VI (III, 16)] made it an inviolable law for all professed nuns; and the Council of Trent (sess. XXV, De Reg. et Mon., c. v) confirmed that constitution.德statu regularium,在VI(三16)]联合国,它为所有自称修女的神圣法律;和安理会的遄达(sess.二十五,德注册等星期一,C. v。)证实了该宪法。Hence it was impossible for religious to undertake works of charity incompatible with the enclosure.因此,这是不可能的宗教从事慈善工作,与机箱不兼容。The education of young girls alone was permitted to them, and that under somewhat inconvenient conditions.单靠年轻女孩的教育,他们被允许和条件下有点不方便。It was also impossible for them to organize on the lines of the Mendicant Orders, that is to say to have a superior general over several houses and members attached to a province rather than to a monastery.它也不可能为他们举办的乞丐常规的线,那是说有几所房屋和一个省的成员,而不是一个修道院,优于一般。The difficulty was sometimes avoided by having tertiary sisters, bound only by simple vows, and dispensed from the enclosure.的困难,有时避免具有大专姐妹,仅由简单的誓言的约束,并从机箱配。The Breviary commemorates the services rendered the Order of Mercy by St. Mary of Cervellione.祈祷书纪念所提供的服务Cervellione玛丽圣观音订购。St. Pius V took more radical measures by his constitution "Circa pastoralis", of 25 May, 1566.圣皮乌斯V了他的宪法“大约pastoralis”,5月25日,第1566更激进的措施。Not only did he insist on the observance of the constitution of Boniface VIII, and the decree of the Council of Trent, but compelled the tertiaries to accept the obligation of solemn vows with the pontifical enclosure.他不仅坚持遵守宪法波尼法爵八,安理会的遄达法令,但迫使tertiaries接受义务的庄严誓言与罗马教皇外壳。 For nearly three centuries the Holy See refused all approbation to convents bound by simple vows, and Urban VIII by his constitution "Pastoralis" of 31 May, 1631 abolished an English teaching congregation, founded by Mary Ward in 1609, which had simple vows and a superior general.近三个世纪,罗马教廷拒绝了所有的赞许他的宪法“Pastoralis的”5月31日由简单的誓言,和市八所约束的修道院,1​​631废除英语教学众,玛丽病区成立于1609年,有简单的誓言和优于一般。

This strictness led to the foundation of pious associations called secular because they had no perpetual vows, and leading a common life intended for their own personal sanctification and the practice of charity, eg the Daughters of Charity, founded by St. Vincent de Paul.导致虔诚协会的基础严格世俗所谓的,因为他们没有永恒的誓言,并领导一个共同的生活,为自己的个人成圣和慈善实践,例如慈善的女儿,由圣文森特德保罗创立。 The constitution of St. Pius V was not always strictly observed; communities existed approved by bishops, and soon tolerated by the Holy See, new ones were formed with the sanctions of the diocesan authorities.圣皮乌斯五世宪法并不总是严格遵守;社区存在的主教批准,并很快由罗马教廷的耐受性,形成了新的教区当局的制裁。 So great were the services rendered by these new communities to the poor, the sick, the young, and even the missions, that the Holy See expressly confirmed several constitutions, but for a long time refused to confirm the congregations themselves, and the formula of commendation or ratification contained this restriction citra tamen approbationem conservatorii (without approbation of the congregation).如此之大的这些新社区的穷人,病人,年轻的,甚至任务提供服务,教廷明确证实几个宪法,但很长一段时间拒绝证实自己的会众,和公式斯特拉tamen approbationem conservatorii(不认可的众)表彰或批准载有此限制。As political difficulties rendered less easy the observance of solemn vows, especially for women, the Holy See from the end of the eighteenth century declined to approve any new congregations with solemn vows, and even suppressed in certain countries, Belgium and France, all solemn professions in the old orders of women.由于政治上的困难作出那么容易遵守庄严的誓言,特别是妇女,罗马教廷从十八世纪末拒绝批准任何新的庄严誓言众,甚至在某些国家,比利时和法国,所有庄严的职业抑制在妇女的旧订单。 The constitution of Benedict XIV, "Quamvis justo" of 30 April, 1749, on the subject of the Congregation of English Virgins was the prelude to the legislation of Leo XIII, who by his constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, laid down the laws common to congregations with simple vows, dividing these into two great classes, congregations under diocesan authority, subject to the bishops, and those under pontifical law.本笃十四宪法“Quamvis胡斯托”4月30日,1749年,是英语处女毕业典礼的主题利奥十三世,立法的序幕,他的宪法“Conditae”12月8日,1900年,放下用简单的众共同的法律的誓言,这些分成两大类,根据教区管理局众,主教,和那些在宗座法律之下。

II.二。VARIOUS KINDS OF NUNS各种修女

(1) As regards their object they may be purely contemplative, seeking personal perfection by close union with God; such are most of the strictly enclosed congregations, as Premonstratensian Canonesses, Carmelites, Poor Clares, Collettines, Redemptoristines; or they may combine this with the practice of works of charity, foreign missions, like the White Sisters of Cardinal Lavigerie, and certain Franciscan Tertiaries; the eduction of young girls, like the Ursulines and Visitandines; the care of the sick, orphans, lunatics, and aged persons, like many of the congregations called Hospitallers, Sisters of Charity, Daughters of St. Vincent de Paul, and Little Sisters of the Poor. (1)至于他们的对象,他们可能是纯粹的沉思,寻求个人的完善与上帝的密切联盟等最严格封闭众Premonstratensian Canonesses,加尔默罗,贫困Clares,Collettines,Redemptoristines,或他们可能会结合这教育的年轻女孩,像苏林和Visitandines;照顾病人,孤儿,疯子,和中年人士,如工程的慈善机构,外国使团,像红衣主教Lavigerie白姐妹,某些方济Tertiaries实践许多会众称为医院骑士,慈善修女会,圣文森特德保罗,和可怜的小姐妹的女儿。 When the works of mercy are corporal, and above all carried on outside the convent, the congregations are called active.当怜悯的作品是体罚,上述所有修道院外,众被称为活跃。Teaching communities are classed rather among those leading a mixed life, devoting themselves to works which in themselves require union with God and contemplation.教学社区分类,而那些领先的混合生活当中,投身到工程本身需要与神和沉思联盟。The constitution "Conditae" of Leo XIII (8 December, 1900) charges bishops not to permit sisters to open houses as hotels for the entertainment of strangers of both sexes, and to be extremely careful in authorizing congregations which live on alms, or nurse sick persons at their homes, or maintain infirmaries for the reception of inform persons of both sexes, or sick priests.宪法“Conditae”利奥十三世(12月8日,1900年)收费主教不允许姐妹们打开陌生人的男女娱乐酒店住房,并在授权的毕业典礼上的施舍生活非常小心,或护士生病人在自己的家园,或维持疗养院的接待,告知男女,或生病祭司的人。 The Holy See, by its Regulations (Normae) of 28 June, 1901, declares that it does not approve of congregations whose object is to render certain services in seminaries or colleges for male pupils, or to teach children or young people of both sexes; and it disapproves their undertaking the direct care of young infants, or lying-in women.罗马教廷及其实施细则(Normae)6月28日,1901年,宣布它不批准的,其目的是使男学生在学院或高校的某些服务,或教孩子或男女青年的众;它不赞成其承诺的婴幼儿的直接护理,或躺在妇女参与。 These services should be given only in exceptional circumstances.只有在特殊情况下,应给予这些服务。

(2) As regards their origin, congregations are either connected with a first order or congregation of men, as in the case of most of the older congregations, Carmelites, Poor Clares, Dominicans, Reformed Cistercians of La Trappe, Redemptoristines etc., or are founded independently, like the Ursulines, Visitandines, and recent institution. (2)至于他们的起源,众是与一阶或众男子,在最旧的教会,加尔默罗,贫困Clares,多米尼加的La霉改革熙,Redemptoristines等的情况下,或成立独立,像苏林,Visitandines,以及最近的机构。 In the regulations of 28 June, 1901, Art.在28日的规定,1901年6月,艺术。19, 52, the Holy See no longer approves of double foundations, which establish a certain subordination of the sisters to similar congregations of men. 19,52,罗马教廷不再批准的双重基础,建立一定的姐妹从属于男子的类似众。(3) As regards their juridical condition, we distinguish (a) nuns properly so-called, having solemn vows with papal enclosure, whose homes are monasteries; (b) nuns belonging to the old approved orders with solemn vows, but taking only simple vows by special dispensation of the Holy See; (c) sisters with simple vows dependent on the Holy See; (d) sisters under diocesan government. (3)至于他们的司法状况,我们区分(一)尼姑妥善所谓,有庄严的誓言与罗马教皇的外壳,其家庭是寺庙;(二)修女属于旧的庄严誓言批准的订单,但只是简单的誓言教廷的特别豁免;(三)依赖于罗马教廷姐妹们用简单的誓言;(四)根据教区政府的姐妹。 The house of sisters under simple vows, and the congregations themselves are canonically called conservatoria.姐妹们下简单的房子誓言,并会众本身是规范所谓conservatoria。These do not always fulfil all the essential conditions of the religious state.这并不履行宗教的国家所有的必要条件。 Those which do are more correctly called religious congregations than the others, which are called piae congregationes, piae societates (pious congregations or pious societies.) Nuns of the Latin Church only are considered here.这些,更正确地称为比别人,这是所谓piae congregationes,piae societates(虔诚的​​教友或虔诚的社会。)拉丁教会修女的宗教团体被认为是在这里。

III.三。NUNS PROPERLY SO CALLED妥善CALLED修女

Nuns properly so-called have solemn vows with a strict enclosure, regulated by pontifical law which prevents the religious from going out (except in very rare cases, approved by the regular superior and the bishop), and also the entrance of strangers, even females, under pain of excommunication.妥善所谓的尼姑有庄严的誓言与严格的外壳由宗座法律监管,防止走出去(除在极少数情况下,由经常优势和主教批准)的宗教,也对陌生人的入口,甚至女性根据疼痛的禁教。 Even admission to the grated parlor is not free, and interviews with regulars are subject to stringent rules.甚至加入磨碎殡仪馆是不是免费的,并与常客的采访受到严格的规则。Though some mitigations have been introduced partly by local usage, partly (in the case of certain convents in America) by express concession of the Holy See.虽然一些缓解措施已经部分推出由本地使用,部分表达教廷的让步(在一定修道院在美国的情况下)。The building should be so arranged that the inner courts and gardens cannot be overlooked from outside, and the windows should not open on the public road.建设应该是这样安排的,不能被忽视,内心的法院和花园以外,窗户不应公开的公共道路上。By the fact of their enclosure, these monasteries are independent of one another.其外壳的事实,这些寺庙是相互独立的。 At the head of the community is a superior often called the abbess, appointed for life by the chapter, at least outside Italy, for in Italy, and especially in the two Sicilies, the constitution "Exposcit debitum" (1 January, 1583) of Gregory XIII requires that hey should be re-elected every three years (see "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 420, vol. 4, 158).在社会的头一个优越的,通常被称为女修道院院长,终身任职的章节,至少在意大利以外,在意大利,尤其是在两西西里,宪法“Exposcit debitum”(1月1日,1583年)格雷戈里第十三要求嘿应该重新当选每三年(见“Periodica DE Religiosis”,N. 420,第4卷,158页)。The election must be confirmed by the prelate to whom the monastery is subject, the pope, the bishop,or the regular prelate.选举必须确认修道院是受人的主教,教皇,主教,或经常主教。The bishop presides over the ballot, except in the case of nuns subject to regulars, and he has always the right to be present at the election.主教主持的选票,除的修女受到常客,和他一直有权出席选举。The president collects the votes at the grating.总统在光栅收集的选票。Without having jurisdiction, the abbess exercises authority over all in the house, and commands in virtue of their vows.不具有管辖权,女修道院院长行使权力的所有房子,并凭借他们的誓言中的命令。Monasteries not exempt are subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop; exempt monasteries are placed, some under the immediate authority of the Holy See, others under that of a regular First Order.寺庙不能免除受主教的管辖范围;豁免寺院放置,教廷,其他的直接授权下,一个普通的一阶下。In the absence of any other formal direction, the Holy See is understood to delegate to the bishop the annual visitation of monasteries immediately subject to the pope, to the exclusion of other superiors.罗马教廷在没有任何其他正式的方向,了解委托给主教立即受到教皇的寺院每年探视,以排除其他上级。 This visitation is made by the regular prelate in the case of monasteries dependent on a First Order; but the bishop has in all cases authority to insist on the maintenance of the enclosure, and to control the temporal administration; he also approves the confessors.在寺庙依赖于一阶的情况下进行定期探视是由主教,但主教在所有情况下,管理局已坚持外壳的维护,控制时间的管理,他还批准的忏悔。

The erection of a monastery requires the consent of the bishop, and (at least in practice nowadays) of the Holy See.竖立一座修道院的主教的同意,要求和罗马教廷(至少在实践现今)。The bishop, by himself, or in consultation with the regular superior, determines the number of nuns who can be received according to the amount of their ordinary revenues.主教,由他本人,或在与定期优于协商,决定谁可以接收普通收入的金额修女。The recent Council of Bishop of Latin America, at Rome in 1899, required that the number should not be less than twelve.安理会最近拉丁美洲的主教,于1899年在罗马,所需的数量不应该超过十二个月。It is sometimes permitted to receive a certain number of supernumeraries who pay a double dowry, never less than four hundred crowns, and remain supernumeraries all their lives.它有时被允许接收一定数量的编外人员缴付双倍的嫁妆,从来没有低于四百克朗,并保持编外他们的生活。According to the decree of 23 May, 1659, candidates must be at least fifteen years old.根据该法令,1659年5月23日,考生必须至少15岁。The decree "Sanctissimus" of 4 January, 1910, annuls the admission to the novitiate or to any vows, if granted without the consent of the Holy See, of pupils expelled for any grave reason from a secular school, or for any reason whatever from any institution preparatory to the religious life, or of former novices or professed sisters expelled from their convents.该法令“Sanctissimus”,1910年1月4日,废止入场的见习期或任何誓言,如果不同意教廷严重的原因,任何一个世俗学校开除的学生,授予,或因任何理由无论从任何的宗教生活,或前新手或自称姐妹机构的筹备驱逐出他们的修道院。 Professed sisters dispensed from their vows cannot, without the consent of the Holy See, enter any congregation, but the one they have quitted (see NOVICE; POSTULANT; "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 368, vol. 5, 98).自称姐妹免除他们的誓言不能,不同意教廷,进入任何众,但他们退出(见初学者; POSTULANT“Periodica Religiosis”,N. 368,第5卷,98)。之一。The admission is made by the chapter, but, before the clothing, and also before the solemn profession, it is the duty of the bishop, by himself or (if he is prevented) by his vicar-general or some person delegated by either of them, to inquire into the question of the candidate's religious vocation, and especially as to her freedom of choice.入场的章节,但之前的服装,也庄严界之前,它是主教的职责,由本人或(如果他是禁止的),他的副主教一般或任委派一些人他们打探到候选人的宗教使命的问题,特别是作为她选择的自由。 The candidate must provide a dowry of at least two hundred crowns unless the founder consents to accept a smaller sum.候选人必须提供嫁妆至少两百冠,除非创始人同意接受一个较小的总和。With certain exceptions, the dowry of choir sisters cannot be dispensed with; it must be paid before the clothing, and invested in some safe and profitable manner.合唱团姐妹的嫁妆,除了某些例外,不能缺一不可,必须支付之前的服装,并在​​一些安全和有利可图的方式投资。On solemn profession, it becomes the property of the convent, which has, however, no right of alienation; it is returned as a matter of equity to a religious who enters another order, or to one who returns to the world and is in want.在庄严的职业,成为修道院,然而,没有异化的权利属性,它是作为一个公平的问题回到一个宗教人士进入另一种秩序,或者一个人返回到世界在想。

After the novitiate the religious cannot at first, according to the decree "Perpensis" of 3 May, 1902, take any but simple vows whether perpetual or for a year only, if it is customary to take annual vows.的见习期后的宗教不能在第一,根据法令“Perpensis”,1902年5月3日,但简单的誓言是否永久或只为一年,如果是习惯采取每年誓言。 The admission to vows is made by the chapter, with the consent of the regular superior or the bishop.誓言入场是由章,与常规的上级或主教同意。Some writers hold that the bishop is bound, before this profession, to make a fresh inquiry into the vocation of the novice, and this inquiry does not dispense from that which the Council of Trent prescribes before solemn profession (see the answer of 19 January, 1909; "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 317, vol. 4, 341.) This period of simple vows ordinarily lasts for three years, but the bishop or the regular prelate may prolong it in the case of nuns who are under twenty-five years.有些作家认为,主教是必然的,在此之前专业,到新手的职业新鲜调查,这项调查并不免除,安理会的遄达庄严界之前规定(见1月19日的答复, 1909年。“Periodica DE Religiosis”,N. 317,第4卷,341)这一段简单的誓言通常为期三年,但主教或经常主教可能延长修女正在20五年。During this period, the religious keeps her property, but makes over the administration of it to any one she may choose.在此期间,宗教使她的财产,但在它的管理,使她可以选择任何一个。She is bound to the rules and the choir, but not to the private recitation of the Divine Office; she can take part in chapters, except in those in which others are admitted to vows; she cannot be elected superior, mother-vicaress, mistress of novices, assistant, counsellor, or treasurer.她是必然的规则和合唱团,不是在神圣的办公室私人背诵;她可以采取章节中的部分除中,别人都承认,以誓言,;她可以不被当选优越,母亲的vicaress,情妇新手,助理员,辅导员,或司库。 She participates in all the indulgences and spiritual privileges of those who have taken their solemn vows; and although the solemnly professed take precedence, once the solemn profession is made, the seniority is regulated by the date of simple profession, without regard to any delay in proceeding to solemn profession.她参加的所有的宽容和精神的特权,那些有自己的庄严誓言,虽然郑重宣称的优先考虑,是一次庄严的专业,资历是由简单的专业的日期监管,不考虑任何延迟继续庄严界。 The dispensation of vows and dismissal of nuns are reserved to the Holy See.省却誓言和解雇的修女保留罗马教廷。The outward solemnity of profession takes place at the first simple profession, the other takes place without any solemnity.向外严肃的专业需要在第一个简单的专业的地方,其他地方没有任何严肃的。Only the prelate or the ordinary can admit to the latter, but a consultative chapter is held, whose decision is announced by the superior.只有主教或普通承认后者,而是一个协商本章举行,其决定是由上级公布。Solemn profession carries with it the inability to possess property (except in case of a papal indult such as that enjoyed by Belgium and perhaps Holland), annuls a marriage previously contracted but not consummated, and creates a diriment impediment to any subsequent marriage.庄严界带有无法拥有财产(如所享有的比利时和荷兰也许教皇indult的情况下除外),废止以前签约但没有完善的婚姻,并创建一个diriment阻碍任何后续的婚姻。 Nuns are generally obliged to recite the Divine office, like religious orders of men; but the Visitandines and some monasteries of Ursulines recite only the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, even in choir.修女们一般都必须背诵神圣的办公室,像男性的宗教订单,但Visitandines和一些寺庙的苏林背诵圣母的小办公室,甚至在合唱团。 The obligation of this office, even choral, does not bind under pain of mortal sin, as the Holy See has declared for the Ursulines; whether it can be omitted without venial sin depends apparently upon the constitutions.该办公室的义务,甚至合唱,不约束下弥天大罪的痛苦,罗马教廷宣布的苏林;是否可以省略无venial单取决于宪法显然。

The bishop appoints the ordinary confessor, also the extraordinary or additional confessors of monasteries subject to him, and approves the confessor nominated by the regular prelate of a monastery subject to a First Order.主教任命普通忏悔,也受到他的寺院特殊或额外的忏悔,并批准由一个修道院受一阶常主教提名的忏悔。The approbation for one monastery is not valid for another.一个寺院的认可,是不是另一个有效。As a rule there should be only one ordinary confessor, who should be changed every three years.作为一项规则,应该只有一个普通的忏悔,谁应改为每三年。Since the Council of Trent (Sess. XXV De Reg., c. x), a confessor extraordinary should visit the monastery two or three times a year.由于安理会​​的遄达(Sess. XXV条。C. X),忏悔非凡参观寺院每年两次或三次。 Benedict XIV, by his Bull "Pastoralis" of 5 August, 1748, insisted on the appointment of a confessor extraordinary, and also on the provision of facilities for sick nuns.本笃十四,他的牛“Pastoralis的”1748年8月5日,,坚持一个忏悔非凡的任命,并也提供生病的修女设施。 More recently, the decree "Quem ad modum" of 17 October, 1890, ordains that, without asking for any reason, a superior shall allow her subjects to confess to any priest among those authorized by the bishops, as often as they think it necessary for their spiritual necessities.最近,法令“Quem广告modum”,1890年10月17日,ordains,没有要求任何理由,上级应让她的臣民之间的任何授权的主教神父坦白,往往因为他们认为有必要他们的精神必需品。 Besides the ordinary or extraordinary confessors, there are additional confessors, of whom the bishop must appoint a sufficient number.除了普通的或特别的忏悔,有更多的师,其中主教必须委任足够数量。The ordinary confessor cannot be a religious except for monasteries of the same order as himself; and in that case the extraordinary confessor cannot belong to the same order.普通忏悔不能是一个宗教除了作为自己的顺序相同寺院和非凡的忏悔,在这种情况下可以不属于相同的顺序。The same decree gives to confessors the exclusive right of regulating the communions of the nuns, who have the privilege of communicating daily since the decree "Sacra Tridentina" of 20 December, 1905 (see "Periodica de Religiosis", n 110, vol. 2, 66), and it forbids superiors to interfere unasked in questions of conscience.同一法令忏悔的独占权规范的修女,他们的日常沟通的法令“,1905年12月20日”萨克拉Tridentina(看到“Periodica德Religiosis”,N 110,第2以来的特权圣餐66),并禁止上级干预unasked的良心问题。The subjects are free to open their minds to their superiors but the later must not, directly or indirectly, demand or invite such confidence.科目免费开放自己的头脑,他们的上司,但后来不得直接或间接,要求或邀请这样的信心。

IV.四。NUNS OF THE OLD ORDERS WITHOUT SOLEMN VOWS修女的旧订单,不庄严誓言

Since the French Revolution, various answers of the Holy See have gradually made it clear that neither in Belgium nor in France are there any longer monasteries of women subject to papal enclosure, or bound by solemn vows.自法国大革命以来,罗马教廷的各种答案已逐渐明确表示,在比利时,也不在法国也不是有任何妇女受教皇圈地较长的寺院,或庄严誓言的约束。 (Cf. for France the reply of the Penitentiary of 23 December, 1835; for Belgium the declaration of the Apostolic visitor Corselis of 1836; Bizzarri, "Collectanea, 1st ed., p. 504, note; Bouix, "De regularibus", vol. 2, 123 sq.). After long deliberation, the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars decided (cf. letter of 2 September, 1864, to the Archbishop of Baltimore) that in the United States nuns were under simple vows only, except the Visitandines of Georgetown, Mobile, Kaskaskia, St. Louis, and Baltimore, who made solemn profession by virtue of special rescripts. It added that without special indult the vows should be simple in all convents erected in the future. Since then the monastery of Kaskaskia has been suppressed. The Holy See permitted the erection of a monastery of Visitandines with solemn vows at Springfield (Missouri). According to the same letter, the Visitandines with solemn vows must pass five years of simple vows before proceeding to solemn profession (Bizzarri, "Collectanea", 1st ed., 778-91). Except in the case of a pontifical indult placing them in subjection to a first order these nuns are bound by the following rules: (a) The bishop has full jurisdiction over them; he may dispense from all constitutions not reserved to the Holy See, and from particular impediments to admission, but may not modify the constitutions. The vows are reserved to the Holy See, but the French bishops have received power to dispense from all vows except that of chastity. The bishop presides and confirms all elections, and has the right to require an account of the temporal administration. (b) The superior retains such power as is adapted to the vows and the necessities of community life. (c) The obligation of the Divine Office is such as imposed by the rule; the enclosure is of episcopal law. (d) The vow of poverty does not prevent the possession of property. As a rule, disposition of property "inter vivos" and by will cannot be licitly made without the consent of the superior or the bishop. Unless forbidden by the bishop, the superior may permit the execution of such instruments as are necessary for the purpose. (e) Indulgences and spiritual privileges (among which may be reckoned the use of a special calendar) remain intact. (f) In principle, the prelate of the First Order is without authority over the nuns. (法国参见1835年12月23日,监狱的答复,比利时1836年的使徒游客Corselis的宣言; Bizzarri“丛书,第1版,第504页,注; Bouix,”regularibus“第2卷,123平方米)。长时间的审议后,决定圣主教和正规众(参见9月2日的信,1864年,巴尔的摩的大主教),在美国,修女下简单的誓言,除了乔治敦,移动,卡斯卡斯基亚,圣路易斯和巴尔的摩,凭借特殊rescripts庄严界Visitandines它补充说,无特殊indult的誓言,应在所有修道院竖立在未来的简单。从那时起修道院卡斯卡斯基亚已被压制。教廷允许的Visitandines寺院竖立在斯普林菲尔德(密苏里州)庄严的誓言。根据相同的信,与庄严的誓言Visitandines庄严界之前,必须通过简单的誓言五年(Bizzarri ,“丛书”,第1版,778-91)中的一个隶属宗座放置在他们这些修女是由以下规则的约束,一阶indult的情况下除外:(一)主教对他们有充分的管辖权。。他可免除不保留教廷所有宪法,并从特定的障碍入学,但不得修改宪法的誓言保留教廷,但已收到法国主教权力,免除所有的誓言,除了贞洁。主教主持,并确认所有的选举,并有权要求颞政府的帐户,(二)上级保留这种权力是适应的誓言和社会生活的必需品。(C)的义务如规则所施加的神圣的办公室;外壳主教法(D)发誓贫困并没有阻止占有的财产作为一项规则,处置的财产“间生前”,并通过将可以不被。无合法地作出的上级或主教的同意,除非禁止由主教,上级可能会允许这些文书的执行为目的所必需的。(E)的宽容和精神上的特权(其中不可忽视的使用一个特殊的日历)保持不变。(F)的原则,第一笔订单的主教,没有对权威修女。

V. RELIGIOUS CONGREGATIONS AND PIOUS SOCIETIES UNDER PONTIFICAL AUTHORITY五,宗教团体和虔诚社团根据宗座管理局

(a) Congregations(一)毕业典礼

Since the constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, and the Regulations of 28 June, 1901, we possess precise rules by which to distinguish the congregations governed by pontifical law.宪法“Conditae”12月8日,1900年,和“条例”6月28日,1901年以来,我们拥有精确的规则,由它来区分由宗座法律管辖的会众。 Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself.正式批准一众和其宪法之前,罗马教廷是习惯于先给予其表彰其创始人的意图和目的的基础,然后众本身。The second decree of commendation has the effect of bringing the congregation into the number of those which are governed by pontifical law, and especially by the second part of the constitution "Conditae".第二项法令表彰均受宗座法律,尤其是宪法“Conditae”的第二部分,使众的效果。 Bizzarri in his "Collectanea" gives a list of congregations so commended up to 1864 (1st ed., 864 sqq.).在他的“丛书”Bizzarri给出了一个列表众使赞扬最多到1864年(第1版,864 SQQ)。This approbation is not usually granted until the congregation has existed for some time under the authority of the bishop.这种认同通常不批准,直到教会主教的权威下一段时间的存在。The congregations are constituted on the model of the newer religious orders, that is to say they group several houses, each governed by a local superior, under the indirect authority of a superior general; many, but not all, are divided into provinces.会众对宗教的新订单的模式,也就是说组几间房屋,由当地优越的管辖下,一个优于一般的间接授权;很多,但并不是所有的构成,划分到省。 Many form communities of tertiaries, who as such have a share in the spiritual privileges of the order to which they are affiliated.tertiaries许多形式的社区,这样在它们所属的顺序精神特权的份额。Except in the case of a special privilege, like that which places the Daughters of Charity under the Superior General of the Priests of the Mission (see decree of 25 May, 1888) the Holy See no longer permits a bishop, or the delegate of a bishop, or the superior general of a congregation of men to be superior over a congregation of sisters.除了在一个特殊的特权的情况下,如哪些地方下的总会长团的祭司慈善的女儿(见25日颁布法令,1888年)罗马教廷不再允许主教,或委托主教或优于一般的一众男性优越的姐妹众。 Before the regulations of 1901 the rules of new congregations differed in many respects.在1901年之前的规定,新众规则在许多方面有所不同。The details of internal government which follow apply to newly established congregations rather than to older ones, like the Ladies of the Sacred Heart.政府内部的细节,适用于新成立的会众,而不是旧的,像圣心女士。

The government of the congregations is vested in the general chapter, and in the superior general assisted by a council with certain rights reserved to the bishops, under protection and supreme direction of the Sacred Congregation of Religious.众政府是在一般的篇章,并在与某些权利保留给主教,神圣的会众的宗教保护和最高法院的方向下,由理事会协助优于一般归属。 This is the only competent Congregation since the reform of the Roman Curia by the constitution "Sapienti" of 29 June, 1908.这是唯一的主管众宪法“Sapienti”6月29日,1908年罗马教廷改革以来。The general chapter includes in all cases the superior general, her counsellors, the secretary general, the treasurer general, and if the congregation is divided into provinces, the provincial superiors, and two delegates from each province, elected by the provincial chapter.本章包括在所有情况下优于一般,她的辅导员,秘书长,司库一般,如果众划分为省,省上级,并从每个省的两名代表,由省级章当选。 If there are no provinces, the general chapter includes (besides those mentioned above) all superiors of houses containing more than twelve nuns, accompanied by one religious under perpetual vows elected by all the professed sisters (including those under temporary vows) of such houses.如果有不省,一般章节包括:(除了上面提到的那些)所有含有超过12尼姑的房子上级,伴随着宗教下永恒的誓言当选的所有自称姐妹们,这样的房子(包括那些誓言在临时)。 The less important houses are grouped among themselves for this election, or annexed to a principal house.彼此之间不太重要的房屋归为这次选举,或附以一个主要的房子。This chapter ordinarily meets every six or twelve years, being summoned by the superior general or mother vicaress; but an extraordinary meeting may be called on the occurrence in the vacancy in the office of superior, or for any other grave reason approved by the Holy See.本章通常满足每半年或12年,优于一般或母亲vicaress的召唤,但可能发生的一次特别会议呼吁在上级部门的空缺,或看到罗马教廷批准的任何其他严重原因。 The general chapter elects by an absolute majority of votes in secret ballot the superior general, the counsellors or assistants general, the secretary general, and the treasurer general, and deliberates on important matters affecting the congregation.总章绝对多数票选举无记名投票优于一般,一般辅导员或助理,秘书长和司库一般,影响众的重要事项deliberates。 In many cases especially when there is a question of modifying the constitutions, the permission and confirmation of the Holy See are required.在许多情况下,特别是当有一个修改宪法的问题,教廷的权限和确认需要。The capitular decrees remain in force till the next chapter.牧师法令仍然有效,直到下一章节。The bishop as delegate of the Holy See, presides over the elections in person or by his representative.作为代表罗马教廷的主教,主持亲自或由其代表的选举。After the ballot he declares the election valid, and announces the result.抽签后,他宣布选举无效,并宣布结果。The provincial chapter, composed of the provincial, the superiors of houses containing at least twelve nuns, and a delegate from each provincial house (as above) has no office, according to common law, but to depute two sisters to the general chapter.省章,组成省,包含从每个省的内部(如上述)的至少12个修女,并委托房屋上级没有办公室,根据普通法,但提纯两姐妹一般的篇章。

The superior general is elected for six or twelve years; in the former case she may be re-elected but for a third consecutive term of six years, or a second of twelve years, she must receive two-thirds of the votes, and the consent of the Holy See.优于一般是六年或十二年;在前一种情况下,她可能会重新当选,但第三个任期6年,或第二个十二年来,她必须得到三分之二的票,和当选罗马教廷同意见。 She may not resign her office except with the consent of the Sacred Congregation, which has the power to depose her.她可能不是她的办公室,除了神圣的会众,其中有权力罢免她的同意辞职。The house in which she resides is considered the mother-house, and the permission of the Holy See is necessary for a change of residence.她居住的房子,其中被认为是母亲的房子,和教廷批准的居住变化是必要的。She governs the congregation according to the approved constitutions, and is bound to make a visitation either personally or by a deputy, to exercise a general control over the temporal administration, and to submit to the Sacred Congregation an official report countersigned by the ordinary of the principal house.她执政众根据批准的宪法,势必使探视亲自或由一名副行使一般控制在颞政府,神圣的会众,并提交一份正式报告,由普通的会签主要的房子。 (See the instruction accompanying the decree of 16 July, 1906, "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 124, vol. 2, 128 sqq.).(见指令陪同,1906年7月16日,“Periodica Religiosis”,N. 124,第2,128 SQQ的法令。)。The superior general nominates to the different non-elective offices, and decides the place of residence of all her subjects.优于一般提名到不同的非选举产生的职位,并决定她的臣民居住的地方。 The counsellors general assist the superior general with their advice, and in many mattes the consent of the majority is required.协助辅导员一般优于一般,他们的意见,并在许多遮罩多数人的同意是必需的。Two of them must live with the superior general, and the rest must be accessible.其中两个必须优于一般生活,而其余的必须是可访问的。 According to the regulations of 1901, the approval of the general council is required for the erection and suppression of houses, the erection and transfer of novitiates, the erection of new provinces, the principal nominations, the retention of a local superior for longer than the usual term of office, the dismissal of a sister or novice, the deposition of a superior, mistress of novices or counsellor, the provisional appointment of a counsellor deceased or deprived of office, the nomination of a visitor not a member of the council, the choice of a meeting place of the general chapter, the change of residence of the superior general, the execution of all contracts, the auditing of accounts, all pecuniary engagements, the sale or mortgage of immovable property, and the sale of moveable property of great value.据1901年的规定,总理事会批准的时间比需要的房屋的建造和抑制,novitiates勃起和转让,竖立新的省份,主要的提名,保留了当地优越的通常的任期,解雇一个姐姐或新手,出众的情妇的生手或辅导员,辅导员临时任命死者或剥夺的办公室,访问者不是理事会成员的提名,沉积选择会议地点的总章,优于一般的居住变化,所有合同的执行,审核帐目,所有的金钱订婚,不动产出售或抵押,出售动产的伟大值。 For an election there must be a full meeting of the council, and provision must be made to replace any members who are prevented from attending.为参加选举的,必须有理事会的一个会议,并规定必须作出更换阻止任何人出席的成员。In case of a tie, the superior has a casting vote.在领带的情况下,上级有权投决定票。

The secretary general keeps the minutes of proceedings, and has charge of the archives.秘书长会会议纪要,并负责档案。The treasurer general administers the property of the whole congregation.掌柜一般管理的整个会众的财产。The provinces and the houses have also their own property.各省和房子也有自己的财产。The Holy See insists that the safes containing valuables shall have three locks, the keys of which shall be kept by the superior, the treasurer, and the oldest of the counsellors.罗马教廷坚持,含有贵重物品的保险柜应当有三把锁,其中应保持优越,掌柜的钥匙,最古老的辅导员。In her administration the treasurer must be guided by the complicated rules of the recent instruction "inter ca" of 30 July, 1909, which refer especially to pecuniary engagements.掌柜,在她的政府,必须遵循复杂的规则最近的指令“除CA”7月30日,1909年,尤其是指金钱订婚。 The consent of the Holy See is required before any liability can be incurred exceeding ten thousand francs, and in case of smaller liabilities than this but still of any considerable amount, the superiors must take the advice of their councils.罗马教廷的同意是需要承担任何责任之前,可产生超过一万法郎,并在案件比这更小的负债,但仍然没有大量,上级必须采取议会的意见。 A council should at once be appointed if there is none already existing (cf. "Periodica de Religiosis", n. 331, vol. 5, 11 sqq.).应立即将被任命,如果有没有已经存在的(参见“Periodica DE Religiosis”,N. 331,第5,11 SQQ。)一局。The bishop must test the vocation of postulants before they take the veil, and before profession; he presides over chapters of election, permits or forbids collections from door to door; is responsible for the observance of partial enclosure, such as is compatible with the objects of the congregation.主教必须postulants职业测试之前,他们采取的面纱,和前界,他主持选举的章节,允许或禁止从门到门的集合;负责遵守部分外壳,如与兼容的对象众。 No house can be established without his consent.没有房子可以建立在未经他同意。To him also belongs the supreme spiritual direction of the communities, and the nomination of the chaplain and confessors.他也属于最高精神方向,社区和提名的牧师和忏悔。The Holy See reserves to itself the vows, even temporary ones.罗马教廷储备,以自己的誓言,甚至是临时的。The dismissal of a professed sister under perpetual vows must be ratified by the Holy See.解雇一个自称妹妹下永恒的誓言必须由罗马教廷批准。The dismissal of a novice or of a professed sister under temporary vows is within the power of the general council, if justified by grave reasons; but this dismissal does not relieve from vows for which recourse must be had to the Holy See.解雇一个新手,或根据临时誓言自称姐姐是在总理事会的权力,如果严重的原因证明;但这种解雇并不免除从誓言的追索权,必须考虑到罗马教廷。 The Holy See alone can authorize the suppression of houses, the erection or transfer of a novitiate, the erection of a province, the transfer of a mother-house, and any important alienations of property, and borrowings above a certain sum.教廷就可以授权房屋的抑制,竖立或转让见习,竖立的一个省,一个母亲的房子转让,任何重要的异化和财产,并超过一定数额的借款。

The Holy See permits, though it does not make obligatory, the division of a community into choir sisters or teaching sisters, and lay sisters.罗马教廷许可证,虽然它没有强制性,为合唱团姐妹或教学姐妹的分工社会,奠定姐妹。Though not opposed to the formation of associations which help the work of the congregation and have a share in its merits, it forbids the establishment of new third orders.形成协会的帮助众的工作,有其优点的份额虽然不反对,禁止成立新的第三个订单。A period of temporary vows should precede the taking of perpetual vows.一个时期临时誓言应先采取永恒的誓言。Such is the general law.就是这样的一般规律。At the expiration of the term, temporary vows must be renewed.任期届满,临时誓言必须更换。The vow of poverty does not generally forbid the acquisition and retention of rights over property, but only its free use and disposal.发誓的贫困一般不禁止采集和保留对财产的权利,但只有它的免费使用和处置。A dowry is generally required, of which the community receives the income only, until the death of the sister, and the fruits of their labours belong entirely to the congregation.嫁妆一般需要,社会收到的收入,直至死亡,姐姐和他们的劳动果实全部属于众。The vow of chastity creates only a prohibitory impediment to marriage.贞节的誓言只创建一个禁止的婚姻障碍。The bishops generally regulate the confessions of the religious under simple vows, by the same rules as those of nuns in strict enclosure; but in public churches sisters may go to any approved confessor.主教一般简单的誓言规范下的宗教供词,修女在严格的外壳相同的规则,但在公共教会姐妹可能去的任何经批准的忏悔。 In all that concerns communions and direction of conscience, the decrees "Quem ad modum" and "Sacra Tridentina" apply to these congregations as well as to monasteries of nuns.在所有的担忧圣餐和良心的方向,法令“Quem广告modum”和“萨克拉Tridentina”适用于这些众以及尼姑寺院。 These religious congregations have not generally any obligation of choir, but recite the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin and other prayers.这些宗教团体没有普遍合唱团的任何义务,但背诵圣母和其他祈祷的小办公室。They are bound to make a daily meditation of at least half an hour in the morning, sometimes of another half hour in the evening, and an annual retreat of eight days.他们必然要做出一个每天冥想至少一个半小时在早上,有时在晚上的另一半小时,和八天的年度务虚。

(b) Pious societies(二)虔诚社会

Pious societies, which can only be called congregations by a wide extension of the word, are those which have no perpetual vows, such as the Daughters of Charity, who are free for one day in each year, or those which, if they have perpetual vows, have no outward sign by which they can be recognized: this single fact is sufficient to deprive them of the character of religious congregations (see answer of 11 August, 1889, "De Religiosis Institutis", vol. 2, n. 13).虔诚的社会,它只能被称为一个字宽扩展众,是那些没有永恒的誓言,如慈善的女儿,一天每年,或者,如果他们有永久的誓言,没有向外的迹象,通过它们可以被承认:这个单一的事实是足以剥夺他们的宗教团体的字符(见1889年8月11日,回答,“德Religiosis Institutis”,第2卷,注13。) 。

VI.六。DIOCESAN CONGREGATIONS拔萃众

For a long time the bishops had great latitude in approving new congregations, and gave canonical existence to various charitable institutions.很长一段时间的主教很大的自由,在审批新众,规范的存在,给各种慈善机构。In order to avoid an excessive increase in their number, Pius X by his Motu Proprio "Dei Providentis" of 16 July, 1906, required the previous authorization of the Sacred Congregation before the bishop could establish, or allow to be established any new diocesan institution; and the Sacred Congregation refuses to authorize any new creation except after approval of the title, habit, object, and work of the proposed community, and forbids that any substantial change should be made without its authority.为了避免由他自行“之Providentis”7月16日,1906年,需要事先批准的神圣的会众前主教可以建立或允许建立任何新的教区机构过度增加其数量,碧岳X和神圣的会众拒绝授权以外的任何标题,习惯成自然,对象,和建议的社会工作后批准的新创造,并禁止任何重大变动,应无其权威。 Notwithstanding that pontifical intervention, the congregation remains diocesan.尽管罗马教皇的干预,会众仍然拔萃。 The bishop approves the constitutions only in so far as they are in accordance with the rules approved by the Holy See.主教批准,只有在宪法到目前为止,因为他们是按照罗马教廷批准的规则。As it remains diocesan we may conclude that the Roman disciplinary decrees do not affect it unless this is clearly stated.由于它仍然拔萃,我们可以得出结论,罗马纪律法令不会影响它,除非明确指出这是的。Diocesan congregations have the bishop as their first superior.教区教友为他们的第一个上级的主教。It is his duty to control admissions, authorize dismissals, and dispense from vows, except that one reserved to the Holy See, the absolute and perpetual vow of chastity.这是他的责任,控制招生,授权解雇,免除从誓言,除了一个预留给教廷,绝对的和永久的贞节的誓言。He must be careful not to infringe the rights acquired by the community.他必须要小心,不要侵犯社会收购的权利。Not only does he preside over elections but he confirms or annuls them, and may in case of necessity depose the superior, and make provision for filling the vacancy.他不仅主持选举,但他证实或废止,并可能在必要时罢免上级,并规定填补空缺。These congregations are sometimes composed of houses independent of one another; this is frequently the case with Sisters Hospitallers, and sometimes several houses and local superiors are grouped under one superior general.这些教友有时是相互独立的房屋组成,这是经常与姐妹医院骑士,有时几间房屋和当地上级下一个优于一般分组的情况下。 Some of the congregations are confined to one diocese, while others extend to several dioceses: in the latter case, each diocesan ordinary has under him the houses in his dioceses with power to authorize or suppress them.一些众局限于一个教区,而另一些扩展到几个教区:在后一种情况下,每个教区普通已根据他在他的教区与权力授权或打压他们的房子。 The congregation itself depends on the concurrence of the bishops in whose dioceses any houses are situated; and this concurrence is necessary for its suppression.众本身取决于对在主教的教区任何房屋位于同意;同意镇压是必要的。Such is the common law of the constitution "Conditae".这就是宪法“Conditae”普通法。Before it can spread into another diocese, a diocesan congregation must have the consent of the bishop to whom it is subject, and often by agreement among bishops a real superiority is reserved to the bishop of the diocese of origin.之前它可以传播到另一个教区,教区众必须有主教人的同意,它是受,和一个真正的优势,往往由主教同意保留起源教区主教。 As to the laws by which they are governed, a great number of congregations, especially those devoted to the care of the sick in hospitals, follow the rule of St. Augustine and have special constitutions; others have only constitutions peculiar to themselves; others again form communities of tertiaries.至于他们均受法律,大量的教会,特别是那些专门在医院照顾病人,按照圣奥古斯丁的规则,并有特殊的宪法;别人有自己特有的只有宪法;他人再次tertiaries形式的社区。 The curious institution of Beguines still flourishes in a few cities of Belgium. Beguines好奇机构在比利时的一些城市仍然盛行。

Publication information Written by Arthur Vermeersch.亚瑟Vermeersch编写的出版物信息。 Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔巴雷特。Dedicated to the memory of women religious throughout the ages The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.专门到妇女的宗教天主教百科全书,卷席整个年龄段的内存。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Historical: BESSE, Les Moines d'Orient anterieurs au concile de Chalchedoine (451) (Paris, 1900); le Monachisme Africain, IV-VI, 5 (Paris, sd); BUTLER, The Lausiac Hist.历史:BESSE,得梅因市的Les D'东方anterieurs坳concile DE Chalchedoine(451)(巴黎,1900年);乐Monachisme Africain,IV - VI,5(巴黎,SD),巴特勒Lausiac组织胺。of Palladus (Cambridge, 1898); DE BUCK-TINNEBROECK, Examen Historicum et canonicum libri RD Verhoeven, De Regularium et Saecularium iuribus et officiis, I (Ghent, 1847); DUCHESNE, les origines du culte chretien (Paris); FUNK, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch. Palladus(剑桥,1898年); DE BUCK - TINNEBROECK,Examen Historicum等canonicum libri RD费尔赫芬,Regularium等Saecularium iuribus等officiis,我(根特,1847年); DUCHESNE,LES origines杜culte克雷蒂安(巴黎);临阵脱逃,Lehrbuch DER Kirchengesch。(Paderborn, 1898); GASQUET, Saggio storico della Costituzione monastica (Rome, 1896); HEIMBUCHER, Die Orden und Kongregationen der Katholischen Kirche (3 vol., Paderborn, 1896-1908); HELYOT, Hist.(帕德博恩,1898年);加斯奎特,活力豪杰storico德拉Costituzione monastica(罗马,1896年); HEIMBUCHER,模具勋章和Kongregationen DER Katholischen Kirche(3卷,帕德博恩,1896至1908年); HELYOT,历史。des ordres monastiques, religieux et militaires (8 vol., Paris, 1714-19); LADEUZE, Etude sur le cenobitisme Pakhomien pendant le Iv siecle et la premiere moitie du V (Louvain, 1898); MARIN, Les Moines de Constantinople depuis la fondation de la ville jusqu'a la mort de Photius (Paris, 1897), (cf. Pargoire infra); MARTENE, Commentarius in regulam SP Benedicti, De antiquis monachorum ritibus; PARGOIRE, Les debuts du monachisme a Constantinople in Revue des uestions historiques (vol. 65, 1899); SCHIEWIETZ, Das morgenlandische Monchtum (Mainz, 1904); SPREITZENHOFEZ, Die Entwicklung des alten monchtums in Italien von seiner ersten Anfangen bis zum Auftreten des h.DES ordres monastiques,religieux等军事(8卷,巴黎,1714年至1719年); LADEUZE,练习曲SUR LE cenobitisme Pakhomien吊坠乐四世纪末ET LA首映moitie杜五(鲁汶,1898年);马林,“得梅因君士坦丁堡depuis基金会DE LA威乐jusqu'a LA莫特DE Photius(巴黎,1897年),(Pargoire参见下文); MARTENE,regulam SP Benedicti,德antiquis monachorum ritibus Commentarius; PARGOIRE,莱斯首次亮相杜monachisme在杂志uestions historiques君士坦丁堡(1899年卷65); SCHIEWIETZ,DAS morgenlandische Monchtum(美因茨,1904年); SPREITZENHOFEZ,模具发展协会alten义大利冯围网渔船ersten Anfangen之二ZUM Auftreten DES H. monchtumsBenedict (Vienna, 1894); THOMASSIN, Vetus et nova Ecclesiae disciplina, I, 1, 3; WILPERT, Die Gottgeweihten Jungfrauen in der ersten Jahrhunderten der Kirche (Freiburg im Br., 1892); Doctrinal, besides the general works of the classical authors: BASTIEN, Directoire canonique a l'usage des Congregations a voeux simples (Maredsous, 1911); BATTANDIER, Guide canonique pour les Constitutions des Instituts a voeux simples (4th ed., Paris, 1908); BOUIX, Tractatus de iure regularium (2 vols., Paris, 1856); PELLIZARIUS, Tractatus de Monialibus (1761); PIAT, Praelectiones iuris Regularium (2 vol., Tournai, 1898); ROTARIUS, Theologia moralis regularum, 3 vols.; TAMBURINI, De iure abbatissarum et aliarum Monialium; VERMEERSCH in De Religiosis Institutis et Personis 2 vols.本笃(维也纳,1894年);汤玛森,Vetus等新星,该书disciplina,我,1,3; WILPERT,模具Gottgeweihten Jungfrauen DER ersten Jahrhunderten DER Kirche(弗莱堡BR,1892年);较浓,除了一般的经​​典作品作者:巴斯天,Directoire canonique一个欧莱雅的使用DES毕业典礼一个辅单纯(Maredsous 1911年); BATTANDIER指南canonique POUR LES宪法DES学院的一个辅单纯(第4版,巴黎,1908年); BOUIX,逻辑哲学论iure regularium( 2卷,巴黎,1856年); PELLIZARIUS,逻辑哲学论Monialibus(1761); PIAT,宜乌利斯Regularium Praelectiones(2卷,图尔奈,1898年); ROTARIUS,Theologia moralis regularum,3卷; TAMBURINI,iure abbatissarum等aliarum Monialium; Religiosis Institutis等Personis 2卷VERMEERSCH。(1st vol., 3nd ed., 1907; 2nd vol., 4th ed., 1910); De Religiosis et Missionariis Periodica, ab anna 1905.(,1907年,第三届版第1卷。。第二卷,第4版,1910年); Religiosis等Missionariis Periodica,AB安娜1905。


Listing of Women's Orders上市妇女的订单

General Information一般资料

We have tried to include locations and affiliations.我们曾尝试包括地点和背景。We hope to some day add a sentence or two describing the specific focus of each Order.我们希望有一天,加一两句​​话描述的每个订单的具体重点。Assistance on all this is appreciated!这一切的援助表示赞赏!

NOTE: We believe these above all to be Catholic.注:我们认为,上述这些天主教。Please inform us of others which we have not yet included, or errors in this listing.我们还没有包括对他人,或在此房源的错误,请通知我们。Several Nuns have told us that even the central Catholic Church does not seem to have a complete listing!几个尼姑告诉我们,即使是中央天主教似乎不会有一个完整的上市!There are many groups which are very small, a handful of individuals.有很多团体都非常小,极少数个人。

There are also non-Catholic Orders:也有非天主教的订单:


For a while, we optimistically thought that we were going to be able to collect a reasonably complete listing.有一段时间,我们乐观地认为,我们能够收集到一个合理的完整列表。We have realized that is far beyond our abilities!我们已经意识到,远远超出我们的能力!The Roman Catholic Church seems to have listings that include several thousand different groups of Nuns, but we have every indication that there may be more than a thousand others that even they do not list.罗马天主教会似乎已经上市,其中包括数千名修女不同群体,但我们有种种迹象表明,可能有超过一千人,即使他们没有列出。 So we have conceded that we are incapable of assembling such a listing!因此,我们必须承认,我们都不能组装上市!



Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Dominicans 多米尼加
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Convent 修道院
Friars 方济各会士
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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