Saint Peter圣彼得

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Saint Peter was the most prominent of Jesus Christ's disciples.圣彼得是耶稣的门徒中最突出的。 Originally named Simon son of Jonah (Matt. 16:17), he was given the Aramaic name Cephas by Jesus or the early church; the name means "rock" and is translated into Greek as Peter.最初名为西蒙的儿子约拿(马太福音16:17),他是耶稣或早期教会的阿拉姆语的名称矶法;名字的意思是“岩石”,被翻译成希腊文彼得。

All that is known of Peter's life before he was called by Jesus is that he was a Galilean fisherman with a brother named Andrew.之前,他是耶稣叫彼得的生活,他是一个名为安德鲁一个弟弟伽利略渔夫。Peter is mentioned numerous times in the Gospels and first 15 chapters of Acts.彼得是在福音和使徒行传第15章节中提到过无数次。 He is pictured as a leader and spokesman of the disciples; he identifies Jesus as Messiah (Mark 8:27; Matt. 16:16) and is selected as the rock on which the church will be built (Matt. 16:18).图为他的弟子作为一个领导者和发言人,他标识为耶稣是弥赛亚(马克8点27分,马特16点16分)和教会将建成岩(马太福音16:18)中选择。 He is several times mentioned with the brothers James and John, with whom he witnesses the Transfiguration and Jesus' agony in Gethsemane.他多次提到与谁他证人的变形和耶稣在客西马尼园的痛苦,与兄弟詹姆斯和约翰。After Jesus' arrest Peter denies knowing him three times and later repents his denial (Matt. 26:69-75; John 18:10-27).之后耶稣逮捕彼得否认知道他三次,后来悔改,他拒绝(太26:69-75;约翰福音18:10-27)。

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In Acts, Peter is a leader in the Jerusalem church and engages in missionary activity in Samaria, Galilee, Lydda, Sharon, and Joppa.在使徒行传,彼得在耶路撒冷教会的领导者,在从事传教活动在撒马利亚,加利利,利达,沙龙,并约帕。 He favors admission of Gentiles into the church but occupies a middle position between James (the "brother" of Jesus), who wants to keep Christianity very Jewish in practice, and Paul, who wishes to minimize requirements for Gentile converts.他主张接纳外邦人进入教会,但占据了詹姆斯(耶稣的“兄弟”),要保持基督教非常犹太人在实践中,保罗,谁的意愿,以尽量减少詹蒂莱转换的要求之间的中间位置。

The New Testament says nothing about Peter's life after his presence at the meeting in Jerusalem with James and Paul (Acts 15).新约说,他在耶路撒冷与詹姆斯和保罗(徒15)会议后对彼得的生活一无所知。 Later sources say that Peter went to Rome, was martyred (64-68) under Nero, and buried on Vatican Hill.后来的消息人士说,彼得前往罗马,以身殉国(64-68)下NERO,埋在梵蒂冈山。Evidence concerning his presence, activity, and death in Rome is slight.关于他的存在,活动和死亡在罗马的证据是轻微的。

New Testament documents assign Peter a variety of roles.新约文件分配彼得的各种角色。He is seen as a missionary fisherman, pastoral shepherd, martyr, recipient of special revelation, confessor of the true faith, magisterial protector, healer, and repentant sinner.他被看作是一个传教士的渔夫,牧人的田园,烈士,接受特别的启示,真正的信仰的忏悔,威严的保护者,治疗师,和悔改的罪人。 These roles and images help explain the wealth of later stories and legends surrounding Peter and his high status in Christian literature, including his role in Roman Catholic belief as founder of the papacy.这些角色和图像有助于解释后来的故事和周围的彼得和他的基督教文学中的高的地位传说,包括他在罗马天主教教皇的创始人的信念的角色的财富。 The two Epistles of Peter are ascribed to Peter, although the attribution is questioned.彼得的两个书信归因于彼得,虽然归属的质疑。Many postbiblical books were also produced in his name, notably the Acts of Peter.他的名字,尤其是彼得的行为也产生了许多postbiblical书籍。Feast day: June 29 (with Saint Paul).盛宴的日子:6月29日(圣保罗)。

Anthony J. Saldarini安东尼J. Saldarini

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Brown, R., et al., eds., Peter in the New Testament (1973); Cullmann, Oscar, Peter, Disciple, Apostle, Martyr, trans.布朗,R.等,EDS,在新约中的彼得(1973);。Cullmann,奥斯卡,彼得的门徒,使徒,烈士,跨。by FV Filson, 2d ed. FV菲尔森,2D版。(1962); Murphy, WF, Upon This Rock (1987); O'Connor, DW, Peter in Rome (1969); Taylor, WM, Peter, The Apostle (1990); Thomas, WH, The Apostle Peter: His Life and Writings (1984); Winter, Michael M., Saint Peter and the Popes (1960; repr. 1979). (1962年);墨菲,永丰,在这磐石(1987年);奥康纳,德国之声,彼得在罗马(1969);泰勒,WM,彼得,使徒(1990年),托马斯,WH,使徒彼得:他的生命著作(1984年);冬季,迈克尔M.,圣彼得和教皇(1960年1979年,再版)。


Saint Peter圣彼得

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Peter, originally called Simon (=Simeon , ie, "hearing"), a very common Jewish name in the New Testament.彼得,最初叫西蒙(=西麦,即“听证会”),在新约中的一个非常普遍的犹太名字。He was the son of Jona (Matt. 16:17).他JONA的儿子(马太福音16:17)。His mother is nowhere named in Scripture.他的母亲是在圣经无处命名。He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42).他有一个弟弟叫安德鲁,他第一次给他带来了耶稣(约翰福音1:40-42)。His native town was Bethsaida, on the western coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged.他的家乡是伯赛大,西部海岸的加利利海,这也菲利普属于。Here he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was trained to the occupation of a fisher.在这里,他被带到加利利海岸边,并接受了培训,占领一个费舍尔。His father had probably died while he was still young, and he and his brother were brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1).他的父亲可能死亡,而他还年轻,他和他的兄弟被带到下照顾号Zebedee和他的妻子莎乐美“(马太福音27:56;马克十五时40分,16时01分)。 There the four youths, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in constant fellowship.有四名青年,西蒙,安德鲁,詹姆斯和约翰,他们在不断的奖学金度过的童年和早期气概。

Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah.西蒙和他的兄弟无疑享有一个宗教训练的优势,早在“圣经”的熟人和伟大的预言关于弥赛亚的到来指示。They did not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study of the law under any of the rabbis.然而,他们没有可能享受,任何法律研究拉比任何特殊的培训。When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13).当彼得在公会出现了,他看上去像一个“胸无点墨的人”(徒4:13)。"Simon was a Galilean, and he was that out and out The Galileans had a marked character of their own. They had a reputation for an independence and energy which often ran out into turbulence. They were at the same time of a franker and more transparent disposition than their brethren in the south. In all these respects, in bluntness, impetuosity, headiness, and simplicity, Simon was a genuine Galilean. “西蒙是伽利略,他是不折不扣的 加利利有一个属于自己的标记字符,他们经常跑进动荡的独立性和能源的声誉,他们在同一时间,比他们的弟兄在南方坦率和更加透明的处置,在所有这些方面,在直率,急躁,性急,和简单,西蒙是一个真正的伽利略。

They spoke a peculiar dialect.他们谈到一个奇特的方言。They had a difficulty with the guttural sounds and some others, and their pronunciation was reckoned harsh in Judea.他们有一个与喉音的声音和其他一些困难,他们的发音,估计在朱迪亚恶劣。The Galilean accent stuck to Simon all through his career.伽利略的口音坚持西蒙通过他的职业生涯。It betrayed him as a follower of Christ when he stood within the judgment-hall (Mark 14:70).作为基督的追随者,它背叛了他,当他站在内的判断厅(马可福音14:70)。It betrayed his own nationality and that of those conjoined with him on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:7)." It would seem that Simon was married before he became an apostle. His wife's mother is referred to (Matt. 8:14; Mark 1:30; Luke 4:38). He was in all probability accompanied by his wife on his missionary journeys (1 Cor. 9:5; comp. 1 Pet. 5:13).它背叛了自己的国籍与他的那些连体和五旬节(徒2:7)。“这似乎西蒙结婚之前,他成为使徒,他的妻子的母亲被称为(马太福音8时14分,马可福音1:30;路加福音4点38分),他是在由他的妻子陪同他的传教行程(1肺心病9时05分所有的可能性。比赛彼前5:13)。

He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the age of thirty.他似乎已经定居在迦百农,当基督进入他的公共事务部,并可能达到超过三十岁。His house was large enough to give a home to his brother Andrew, his wife's mother, and also to Christ, who seems to have lived with him (Mark 1:29, 36; 2:1), as well as to his own family.他的房子是大到足以给他的弟弟安德鲁,他的妻子的母亲,和基督,似乎与他住(马克1时29分,36; 2:1)的家,以及他自己的家庭。It was apparently two stories high (2:4).这显然​​是两个故事(2:4)。At Bethabara (RV, John 1:28, "Bethany"), beyond Jordan, John the Baptist had borne testimony concerning Jesus as the "Lamb of God" (John 1:29-36). Bethabara(房车,约翰1点28分,“伯大尼”),在超越乔丹,施洗约翰承担证词关于耶稣为“神的羔羊”(约翰福音1:29-36)。Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus, and abode with him where he was.安德鲁和约翰听力它,跟随耶稣,并与他同住,他在哪里。

They were convinced, by his gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he was the Messiah (Luke 4:22; Matt. 7:29); and Andrew went forth and found Simon and brought him to Jesus (John 1:41).他们确信,他亲切的话,与他交谈的权威,他是弥赛亚(路加福音4:22;马特7:29);和安德鲁出去,发现西蒙和带他到耶稣(约翰福音1 :41)。Jesus at once recognized Simon, and declared that hereafter he would be called Cephas, an Aramaic name corresponding to the Greek Petros, which means "a mass of rock detached from the living rock."耶稣一次认识到西门,并宣布,此后他将称为矶法,阿拉姆名称相应希腊佩特罗斯,意思是“从生活岩的岩体分离。”The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him (Matt. 17:25; Mark 14:37; Luke 22:31, comp. 21:15-17).阿拉姆语名字不会再出现,但名字彼得逐渐取代旧名称西蒙,虽然我们的主自己一直使用的名称西蒙解决他(马太17时25马克14时37分,卢克22时31分,比赛。 21:15-17)。We are not told what impression the first interview with Jesus produced on the mind of Simon.我们没有告诉什么印象第一次面试与耶稣生产西蒙心中。When we next meet him it is by the Sea of Galilee (Matt. 4:18-22).当我们下次见面他是加利利(太4:18-22)海。

There the four (Simon and Andrew, James and John) had had an unsuccessful night's fishing.有四个(西蒙和安德鲁,詹姆斯和约翰)曾有过不成功的夜的捕鱼。Jesus appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him launch forth and let down the nets.耶稣突然出现,并进入西蒙的小船,叫他发射出来,让篮网。He did so, and enclosed a great multitude of fishes.他这样做,并且附上了极多的鱼类。This was plainly a miracle wrought before Simon's eyes.这是明明白白之前,西蒙的眼睛所造成的奇迹。The awe-stricken disciple cast himself at the feet of Jesus, crying, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord" (Luke 5:8).畏惧弟子投自己在耶稣的脚,哭了,“离开我,因为我是一个罪孽深重的人,耶和华”(路加福音5:8)。Jesus addressed him with the assuring words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work.耶稣处理他与保证的话,“不要怕,”他并宣布了他一生的工作。Simon responded at once to the call to become a disciple, and after this we find him in constant attendance on our Lord.西蒙回应调用一次成为门徒,并在此之后,我们发现在我们的主,他不断出席。He is next called into the rank of the apostleship, and becomes a "fisher of men" (Matt. 4:19) in the stormy seas of the world of human life (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:13 19; Luke 6:13-16), and takes a more and more prominent part in all the leading events of our Lord's life.他是下一个所谓的使徒的职级,并成为“费舍尔的男人”(太4:19)在人类生活的世界惊涛骇浪中(太10:2-4;马克3点13 19路加福音6:13-16),并注意到一个越来越突出的部分,我们的主的生命在所有领先事件。

It is he who utters that notable profession of faith at Capernaum (John 6:66-69), and again at Caesarea Philippi (Matt. 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-20).这是他说出的信心显着的行业,在迦百农(约翰福音6:66-69),并再次在该撒利亚腓立比(太16:13-20,马可福音8:27-30,路加福音9:18-20)。 This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church."这个专业在该撒利亚是一个极为重要的,和我们在回应主使用这些令人难忘的话:“你是彼得,在这磐石上我要建立我的教会。” "From that time forth" Jesus began to speak of his sufferings.“从那个时候提出”耶稣开始讲他的痛苦。For this Peter rebuked him.对于本彼得斥责他。But our Lord in return rebuked Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any other of his disciples (Matt. 16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33).但是我们在返回主斥责彼得,在严峻的话来说,他比他曾经使用过任何其他的弟子(太16:21-23;马克8:31-33)。

At the close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was transfigured before them.我们的主在他短暂的逗留在caesarea密切带着彼得,雅各和约翰,到“山高,除了”,并在他们面前变形。Peter on that occasion, under the impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it is good for us to be here : let us make three tabernacles" (Matt. 17:1-9).彼得在那个场合,在他的脑海中产生的场景下的印象,惊呼,“主啊,这是对我们有好处,在这里让我们三个住棚节”(太17:1-9)。 On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Ex. 30:15), came to Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matt. 17:24-27).在他返回迦百农庙税的收藏家(一个didrachma,半神圣谢克尔),其中20岁及以上的每一个以色列人已经支付(出埃及记30:15),来到彼得,并提醒他,耶稣不支付(太17:24-27)。

Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the tax, viz., a stater, or two half-shekels.我们的主指示彼得去,搭上了在湖中的鱼,并从它的嘴的税,即所需的确切数额,stater,或两个半舍客勒。 "That take," said our Lord, "and give unto them for me and thee."“称取,说:”我们的上帝,“,对他们给予我和​​你”。As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John (Luke 22:7-13) into the city to prepare a place where he should keep the feast with his disciples.至于到底是绘图夜间,我们的主送入城市彼得和约翰(路加福音22:7-13)准备的地方,他应该保持与他的弟子的盛宴。 There he was forewarned of the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell (22:31-34).在那里,他凡事预则可怕的罪到他事后下跌(22:31-34)。He accompanied our Lord from the guest-chamber to the garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22:39-46), which he and the other two who had been witnesses of the transfiguration were permitted to enter with our Lord, while the rest were left without.他陪同我们的主从来宾室客西马尼(路加福音22:39-46),他和其他两个人已经变身证人被允许进入我们的主花园,而其余的人没有。

Here he passed through a strange experience.在这里,他通过一个奇怪的经验。Under a sudden impulse he cut off the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth to take Jesus.在一个突然的冲动,他切断了出来采取耶稣带之一马尔休斯(47-51),耳。Then follow the scenes of the judgment-hall (54-61) and his bitter grief (62).然后按照判断大厅的场景(54-61)和他的苦悲伤(62)。He is found in John's company early on the morning of the resurrection.他是在约翰的公司早在复活上午。He boldly entered into the empty grave (John 20:1-10), and saw the "linen clothes laid by themselves" (Luke 24:9-12).他大胆地进入空的坟墓(约翰福音20:1-10),并看到了“亚麻布衣服奠定自己”(路加福音24:9-12)。 To him, the first of the apostles, our risen Lord revealed himself, thus conferring on him a signal honour, and showing how fully he was restored to his favour (Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5).对他来说,第一使徒的,我们复活的主发现自己,从而赋予他的一个信号的荣誉,显示他完全恢复到他赞成(路加福音24:34;哥林多前书15时05分)。 We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?"我们下一个读上加利利的海,在那里他三次问他岸,我们的主的奇异采访彼得,“约拿的儿子西门,,lovest你我吗?”(John 21:1-19). (约21:1-19)。

After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he again appears with the others at the ascension (Acts 1:15-26).这一幕在湖边后,我们听到彼得一无所知,直到他再次出现与他人在阿森松(使徒行传1:15-26)。It was he who proposed that the vacancy caused by the apostasy of Judas should be filld up.这是他建议,叛教犹大所造成的空缺,应filld。He is prominent on the day of Pentecost (2:14-40).他是突出的圣灵降临节(2:14-40)当天。The events of that day "completed the change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall and all the lengthened process of previous training had been slowly making. He is now no more the unreliable, changeful, self-confident man, ever swaying between rash courage and weak timidity, but the stead-fast, trusted guide and director of the fellowship of believers, the intrepid preacher of Christ in Jerusalem and abroad.的那一天所发生的事件“完成彼得本人,他的秋天和所有以前的培训过程延长痛苦的纪律,已慢慢改变,他现在没有更多的不可靠,多变的,自信的男子,不断摇曳之间皮疹的勇气和薄弱胆怯,但代之而起的快速,值得信赖的指导和导演信徒的团契,基督在耶路撒冷和海外的勇敢的布道者。

And now that he is become Cephas indeed, we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5, 32; 15:14), and he is known to us finally as Peter." After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3) persecution arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. He boldly defended himself and his companions at the bar of the council (4:19, 20). A fresh outburst of violence against the Christians (5:17-21) led to the whole body of the apostles being cast into prison; but during the night they were wonderfully delivered, and were found in the morning teaching in the temple. A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts 5: 29-32), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go." The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem.而现在,他成为矶法确实,我们听到的名字西蒙(仅适用于10时05分,32;十五点14),几乎一无所知,他被称为最后彼得“后,在寺庙门口的奇迹。 (使徒3)产生对基督徒的迫害,以及彼得被关进监狱投,他大胆地为自己辩护和他的同伴在酒吧理事会(4:19,20)。基督徒的新鲜爆发的暴力行为(5:17 -21)导致全身被关进监狱投的使徒,但在夜间他们奇妙的交付,并在寺庙上午在教学中发现彼得捍卫他们摆在安理会面前的第二次(徒5:29。 -32),“当他们所谓的使徒和殴打他们,让他们走。”时机已经成熟彼得离开耶路撒冷。

After labouring for some time in Samaria, he returned to Jerusalem, and reported to the church there the results of his work (Acts 8:14-25).一段时间在撒马利亚的劳动后,他回到耶路撒冷,并报告给教会,他的工作结果(徒8:14-25)。Here he remained for a period, during which he met Paul for the first time since his conversion (9:26-30; Gal. 1:18).在这里,他保持一段时间,在此期间,他会见了保罗的第一次,因为他的转换(9:26-30;加仑1:18)。Leaving Jerusalem again, he went forth on a missionary journey to Lydda and Joppa (Acts 9:32-43).离开耶路撒冷再次,他又提出一个传教士的旅程利达,并约帕(使徒行传9:32-43)。He is next called on to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch. 10).他旁边所谓的基督教教堂的大门打开撒利亚哥尼流(章10)录取外邦人。After remaining for some time at Caesarea, he returned to Jerusalem (Acts 11:1-18), where he defended his conduct with reference to the Gentiles.在留一段时间在该撒利亚后,他回到耶路撒冷(徒11:1-18),他捍卫了他的行为与参考外邦人。

Next we hear of his being cast into prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an angel of the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found refuge in the house of Mary.下一步,我们听到他被关进监狱投希律阿格里帕(12:1-19);但耶和华的使者在夜间打开了监狱大门,和他出去,发现玛丽家避难。 He took part in the deliberations of the council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-31; Gal. 2:1-10) regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the church.他在安理会的审议工作在耶路撒冷(徒15:1-31;加拉太2:1-10)关于外邦人的教会的关系。This subject had awakened new interest at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem.这个题目在安提阿惊醒了新的兴趣,并寻求和解是指在耶路撒冷的使徒和长老会。Here Paul and Peter met again.这里保罗和彼得又见面了。We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the Apostles.我们有没有进一步提及彼得在使徒行传。He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Gal. 2:11-16), who "rebuked him to his face."他似乎已经下降到安提阿后,安理会在耶路撒冷,并有已被拆解,为此,他受到严厉训斥保罗(加拉太书2:11-16),谁有罪“斥责他向他的脸。”

After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east, and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1 Pet. 5:13).在此之后,他似乎已经进行的福音东,在巴比伦的幼发拉底河(彼前5:13),劳苦了一段时间。There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever at Rome.有没有令人满意的证据证明他曾经在罗马。Where or when he died is not certainly known.或当他死了不能肯定。Probably he died between AD 64 and 67.也许他死于公元64和67之间。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Peter the Apostle使徒彼得

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Simeon (or Simon) bar-Jonah (Matt. 16:17; John 21:15), though his original name continued in use (Acts 15:14; II Pet. 1:1), was known in the apostolic church principally by the name which Jesus conferred on him, "the rock," in either its Aramaic from Kepa' (Gal. 2:9; I Cor. 1:2; 15:5) or Graecized as Petros (Gal. 2:7; I Pet. 1:1; II Pet. 2:1).西麦酒吧(西门)约拿(马太16时17分,约翰21时15),虽然他继续使用原来的名称(使徒15时14分;第二宠物1:1),被称为使徒教会主要由耶稣所赋予他的“岩石”,在其Kepa“阿拉姆(加拉太书2:9;林前1:2; 15:5)或佩特罗斯Graecized(加拉太书2:7;我的名称宠物1:1;第二宠物2:1)。Matthew associates this with the confession of Caesarea Philippi (Matt. 16:18), but we need not assume that this solemn endowment was the first time the name had been given (cf. Mark 3:16; John 1:42).马修与撒利亚腓(马太福音16:18)的忏悔,但我们不需要假设,这个庄严的捐赠是第一次的名字已获得(参见马克3:16;约翰1时42)。

He was a fisherman from Bethsaida (John 1:43), but had a home in Capernaum (Mark 1:29ff.).他是一个渔民从伯赛(约翰福音1:43),但在迦百农(马克1时29分几段)。家庭。His brother Andrew, who introduced him to Jesus, had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John 1:35ff.), and so possibly had he.他的弟弟安德鲁,谁介绍他到耶稣,当过施洗约翰(约翰福音1:35 FF)的弟子,所以他可能有。 The seashore call of Jesus (Mark 1:6) was evidently not the first meeting (John 1:41ff.).海滨致电(马可福音1:6)耶稣显然不是第一次会议“(约翰福音1:41 FF。)。

One of the original twelve, he is depicted by the Synoptic tradition as their leader and natural spokesman (cf. Matt. 15:15; Mark 1:36; 9:5; 10:28; 11:20; Luke 5:5), particularly in crises.原来的12个之一,他是描绘天气作为他们的领导和自然发言人的传统(参太15:15;马克1:36; 9:5; 10点28分; 11:20;路加福音5:5) ,特别是在发生危机。He makes the confession at Caesarea Philippi, expresses their revulsion at the idea of the suffering Messiah, and makes the disastrous representative boast (Mark 14:29-31) and denial (Mark 15:66ff.).他供认撒利亚腓,对苦难的弥赛亚思想的反感,使得灾难性的代表夸(马可福音14:29-31),并拒绝“(马可福音15:66 FF)。。Christ chooses him, with James and John, as an inner circle within the twelve (Mark 5:37; 9:2; 14:32).基督选择了他,詹姆斯和约翰,作为一个小圈子内的12个(马克5:37; 9:2; 14:32)。

Peter undoubtedly leads the first Jerusalem church.彼得无疑是导致第一耶路撒冷教会。He is the first witness of the resurrection (I Cor. 15:5; cf. Mark 16:7).他是第一个证人的复活(我肺心病15:5。比照马克16:7)。He leads in the gathered community before Pentecost (Acts 1:15ff.), and is the first preacher thereafter (Acts 2:14ff.) and the representative preacher of the early chapters of Acts (3:11ff.; 4:8ff.).他在收集社会信息前五旬节(使徒1时15 FF。),和其后的第一个传教士(使徒2时14 FF。)和行为的早期章节的代表布道者(3:11 FF; 4时08 FF) 。He presides in judgment (Acts 5:1ff.; 8:20ff.).他主持(使徒行传5时01 FF。FF 8时20分)在判断。Paul regards him as a "pillar" of the early church (Gal. 2:9).保罗对于他作为早期教会的一个“支柱”(加拉太书2:9)。

In a sense, he is also the first instrument of the Gentile mission (Acts 15:7), and his experience is representative of the intellectual revolution involved for Jewish Christians (Acts 10:1ff.).从某种意义上说,他也是詹蒂莱使命(徒15:7)的第一件乐器,他的经验是犹太基督徒(使徒10时01 FF)所涉及的知识革命的代表性。At the Jerusalem Council he urged the admission of Gentile converts without submission to the Mosaic law (Acts 15:7ff.) and had table fellowship in the mainly Gentile church of Antioch (Gal. 2:12) until, to Paul's disgust, he withdrew in deference to Jewish-Christian opinion.他呼吁在耶路撒冷议会接纳外邦不提交镶嵌法转换(使徒15时07 FF。),并在安提阿的主要外邦教会(加拉太书2:12)表奖学金,直到保罗的厌恶,他撤回在犹太基督教舆论的尊重。Essentially he was an "apostle of the circumcision" (Gal. 2:7ff.) but remained, despite obvious difficulties, a warm friend of Gentile Christians, whom he addresses in I Peter.从本质上讲,他是一个“割礼的使者”(加拉太书2时07分几段)。但仍然,尽管有明显的困难,一个热情的朋友外邦基督徒,他在彼得地址。

In his lifetime and later, anti-Pauline forces sought to use Peter, without his encouragement.在他的一生和后,反宝莲势力试图利用彼得,没有他的鼓励下。There was a Cephas party at Corinth (I Cor. 1:12), and in the pseudo-Clementine romances Peter confounds Paul, thinly disguised as Simon Magus.有一个矶法方在哥林多(林前1:12),并在伪克莱门汀恋情彼得混淆保罗,薄伪装为西蒙magus。Possibly party strife in Rome over the Jewish question (cf. Phil. 1:15) brought him thither.可能是党的纷争,在罗马的犹太人问题(参腓1:15)带来了他那里去。

There is no evidence that he was bishop of Rome or stayed long in the city.没有证据,他是罗马的主教或长期留在城市。I Peter was written there (so probably I Pet. 5:13), doubtless after Paul's death, for Silvanus and Mark were with him.我彼得写有(所以也许我的宠物。5:13),毫无疑问,保罗去世后,西拉和马克与他。Probably (cf. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, III. 39) Mark's Gospel reflects Peter's preaching.可能(参见尤西比乌斯,教会历史,三39)马克的福音,体现了彼得的说教。Peter died in Rome in the Neronian persecution (I Clement 5-6), probably by crucifixion (cf. John 21:18).彼得在罗马去世Neronian迫害(我克莱门特5-6),可能是被钉十字架(参约21:18)。Recent excavations reveal an early cultus of Peter, but the original grave is unlikely ever to be found.最近的发掘揭示彼得早礼拜,但原来的坟墓是永远不可能被发现。

Spurious writings in Peter's name, mainly in heretical interests, caused difficulties in the second century.在彼得的名字杂散著作,主要集中在邪教的利益,造成了在第二个世纪的困难。Canonical works reflecting his teaching (including Mark's Gospel and the Petrine speeches in Acts) unitedly reflect a theology dominated by the concept of Christ as the Suffering Servant and the thought of the ensuing glory.典型的作品,反映了他的教学(包括马克的福音和行为伯多禄发言)统一反映基督的概念为主受苦的仆人和随之而来的荣耀的思想作为一个神学。 Crises in the life of Christ (eg, the transfiguration, I Pet. 5:1; II Pet. 1:16ff.) have made a deep impression.我在基督的生命的危机(例如,变身,宠物5:1;。II宠物1点16分FF)作出了深刻的印象。

AF Walls自动对焦墙
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
O. Cullmann, Peter; J. Lowe, Saint Peter; FH Chase, HDB; H Chadwick, "St. Peter and St. Paul in Rome," JTS ns 8:3off.; TG Jalland, The Church and the Papacy; JE Walsh, The Bones of St. Peter; E. Kirschbaum, The Tombs of St. Peter and St. Paul; FF Bruce, Peter, Stephen, James and John; EJ Goodspeed, The Twelve.O. Cullmann,彼得J.罗威,圣彼得; FH大通银行,建屋发展局; H查德威克,“在罗马的圣彼得与保罗,”JTS的NS 8时03分关闭。TG Jalland,教会和教皇;乙脑沃尔什,骨骼的圣彼得大教堂; E. Kirschbaum,圣彼得和圣保罗的坟墓; FF布鲁斯,彼得,斯蒂芬,詹姆斯和约翰,EJ古德斯皮德,十二。


Primacy of PeterPrimacy的彼得

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Peter's primacy or leadership among the twelve apostles and in the primitive church is now generally accepted by Protestant and Catholic scholars alike. Differences on this matter arise rather between conservative biblical scholars, who accept the texts essentially as they stand, and more liberal ones who argue that a role Peter developed later was projected, somewhat inaccurately, back into the Gospel accounts. 彼得的首要地位或之间的十二使徒,并在原始教会的领导是现在普遍接受的新教和天主教的学者都在这个问题上的分歧出现保守的圣经学者,谁接受的文本基本上是因为他们的立场,更谁认为自由主义的之间,而彼得后来发展的作用,预计,有点不准确,放回福音帐户。 Protestants and Catholics do continue to differ, however, on what the implications of Peter's leadership are for later ages and structures of the church.新教徒和天主教徒继续有所不同,然而,彼得的领导下,为后世教会结构的影响。

Simon, son of Jona or John, was among the first of the apostles called (Mark 1:16-18; Matt. 4:18-20), appears first in all biblical lists of apostles (see esp. Matt. 10:2), became part of an inner group especially close to Jesus, and was probably the first apostle to see the resurrected Jesus (I Cor. 15:5; Luke 24:34). JONA​​或约翰的儿子西门,是其中的第一个所谓的使徒(马克1:16-18;太4:18-20),首先出现在所有使徒圣经列出(见ESP马特10点02分。 ),成为一种内在的组的一部分,尤其是接近耶稣,可能是第一使徒看到耶稣复活(我肺心病15时05分;路加福音24:34)。Repeatedly he served as an impetuous spokesman for all the apostles, and he also represented their collective desertion.他多次担任浮躁发言人所有的使徒,他也代表了他们的集体遗弃。Peter first confessed that Jesus was the Messiah (Mark 8:29; Matt. 16:16; Luke 9:20) or Holy One (John 6:69); Jesus surnamed him alone the "rock" upon which he would build his church (Mark 3:16; Matt. 16:18; John 1:42); and the risen Lord charged Peter with the pastoral office (John 21:15-17).彼得首次承认耶稣是弥赛亚(马克8点29分;马特16时16;路加福音9点二十)或圣地之一(约翰福音6:69),耶稣的姓,他独自的“石头”后,他将建立他的教会(马可福音3:16;马特16点18分,约翰1点42分);和复活的主被控与畜牧办公室(约翰福音21:15-17)彼得。 In the primitive church, as described in the Acts of the Apostles, Peter clearly emerges as leader, the preacher at Pentecost, the one who receives the vision which opens the way to Cornelius and other Gentiles, and the decisive speaker in this regard at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:7-11).在原始教会,使徒行传中所述,彼得清楚地浮现作为领导者,传道人在圣灵降临节,一个人收到的视野,开辟了道路哥尼流和其他外邦人,在这方面,在决定性的扬声器耶路撒冷委员会(徒15:7-11)。 Paul also singled him out (Gal. 1:18).保罗也挑他(加拉太书1:18)。Fragmentary evidence indicates he later did missionary work outside Palestine, beginning in Antioch and ending in Rome.零碎的证据表明他后来巴勒斯坦之外的宣教工作,开始在安提阿,在罗马结束。Yet, as Protestants have been quick to point out, James appears actually to have presided in Jerusalem, and after the council there Peter disappears almost completely from the biblical picture.然而,作为新教徒已迅速指出,詹姆斯似乎实际上已在耶路撒冷主持,和彼得后会出现从“圣经”的图片几乎完全消失。

Christians have interpreted the scriptural image of Peter's "primacy" very differently over the ages.基督徒解释圣经彼得的“至上”形象非常不同的年龄超过。In reaction to the claims of Roman Catholics, Protestants have traditionally lent it no significance whatsoever.反应,罗马天主教徒索赔,新教徒传统借给它完全没有意义。Cullmann has argued more carefully that Peter himself was endowed with a special office as the primary eyewitness to our Lord and his resurrection, but that this was unique to him and therefore ceased upon his death. Cullmann更仔细地说,彼得自己拥有一个专门的办公室,我们的上帝和他的复活作为主要目击者,但,这是他独特的,因此他去世后停止。A few more ecumenically minded Protestants have been willing to see in Peter the chief scriptural model for the pastoral office, ie, the rock upon whose witness the church is built, the one authorized to bind and loose, the spokesman whose own faith is upheld by the Lord's prayer (Luke 22:32), and the shepherd who feeds the sheep.数更ecumenically志同道合的新教徒已愿意看到彼得牧区办公室行政圣经模型,即,其证人的教堂是建后,岩石,授权约束和松散的,这位发言人是坚持自己的信念主的祷告(路加福音22时32),和喂羊的牧羊人。

Roman Catholics believe that Peter's was a permanent office instituted by Christ and conferred upon the apostle's successors in the see of Rome, and that his primacy in the primitive church has fallen now to the bishops (popes) of Rome.罗马天主教徒相信彼得的是由基督设立一个常设办事处,并在罗马呼吁赋予使徒的接班人,他现在在原始教会的重要性已经下降到罗马主教(教皇)。 Most pointedly, and defined at Vatican Council in 1870, its First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, also known as Pastor aeternus, made it a matter of Catholic faith to believe that Christ conferred primacy of jurisdiction over the whole church directly and without mediation (this against conciliarists) upon Peter, that the Petrine office and its primacy persist through the ages in the bishops of Rome, and that they therefore possess universal, ordinary jurisdiction over all of Christ's church.最尖锐地指出,在梵蒂冈理事会在1870年定义,其第一又称牧师aeternus,基督的教会的教条式的宪法是一个​​信仰天主教的问题,相信基督赋予直接全教会的管辖权的首要地位,没有调解彼得(对conciliarists),该petrine办事处和它的首要坚持通过在罗马主教的年龄,和他们因此具有普遍性,普通管辖权的所有基督的教会。 Vatican Council II, in its constitution on the church (Lumen gentium), reaffirmed the foregoing, but then went on in fact to place great stress upon all bishops acting together collegially.梵二大公会议,在其宪法上教堂(流明gentium),重申了上述规定,但然后去其实呼吁所有主教合议共同行动的地方巨大的压力。 This Catholic claim to Petrine and Roman primacy rests upon two bases, one historical and the other theological.这天主教声称伯多禄和罗马的首要建立在两个基地,一个历史的和其他的神学。

The historical claim is that Peter died a martyr as the first bishop of Rome and passed to succeeding bishops there his office and primacy.历史上的说法是,彼得死于罗马的第一位主教是个烈士,通过成功的主教有他的办公室和首要地位。Protestants once vigorously attacked all stories about Peter's end, but the best evidence, as most scholars now agree, indicates that he in fact died a martyr in the time of Nero and that his cult originated very early in Rome, though Cullmann believes he was probably executed rather than buried at the present St. Peter's on the Vatican Hill.新教徒曾经大力抨击关于彼得的结束的所有报道,但最好的证据,为大多数学者现在同意,表示在Nero的时间,他实际上死于一名烈士和,他的崇拜起源非常早在罗马,虽然Cullmann认为他可能执行,而不是埋在目前的圣彼得梵蒂冈山。 The Roman Church enjoyed a certain preeminence very early (as evidenced, eg, in I Clement 5; Ignatius, Rom. 1; Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3), but down to the end of the second century Rome was always considered as founded by Peter and Paul, a tradition which never wholly disappeared.罗马教会享有一定的优势地位(在我克莱门特5证明,例如,依纳爵,ROM 1。爱任纽反对异端3.3)非常早,但下来的第二个世纪结束的罗马一直被认为彼得成立和保罗,一个传统,它永远不会完全消失。Singular emphasis upon Peter as the founder and first bishop of Rome first emerged in the third century and became prominent in the later fourth century, especially as articulated by the popes who reigned between Damasus (366-84) and Leo (440-61).奇异强调罗马第一的创始人和第一位主教彼得出现在第三个世纪,并成为后来的第四个世纪突出,特别是由教皇达玛斯(366-84)和狮子座(440-61)之间的统治挂接。 As papal claims expanded to take in the whole church and met stiff resistance from emperors and patriarchs in Constantinople, popes insisted ever more clearly that they were the living embodiment of Peter and therefore enjoyed his primacy over the whole church.由于教皇索赔扩大到全教会,并会见了在君士坦丁堡皇帝和始祖的顽强抵抗,教皇坚持越来越清楚,他们的彼得的生活的体现,因此在整个教会享有他的首要地位。 Leo's formulation of this in letters and sermons remained fundamental throughout the Middle Ages and beyond.狮子座的字母和说教的制定仍然是根本整个中世纪和超越。Throughout the early Middle Ages the pope's highest title was vicar (or placeholder) of St. Peter, which gave way in the twelfth century to vicar of Christ.在整个中世纪早期教皇的最高称号是副主教(或占位符)的圣彼得大教堂在12世纪的方式,这给了基督牧师。Pope Gregory VII, the first of the powerful high medieval popes, identified almost mystically with Peter, and his excommunication of the emperor took the form of a prayer to St. Peter.强大的中世纪教皇,教皇格列高利七世,发现几乎神秘与彼得,他的皇帝被逐出教会祈祷的形式,圣彼得大教堂。

Protestants have always objected that in Scripture especially and in the first century of the church's history there is no concern with Peter's rule in Rome or with provision for his supposed successors.新教徒一直反对,在圣经中,特别是在教会的历史上的第一个世纪,也没有与彼得在罗马的统治,或为他的接班人提供的关注。 In recent years the most fundamental attacks have come, ironically, from Roman Catholics promoting collegiality.近年来最根本的攻击,具有讽刺意味的​​,从罗马天主教徒促进合议。They have produced historical evidence to show that the Roman Church retained a presbyterial structure (making Peter and Clement merely spokesmen, not presiding bishops) into the second century, and that the church as a whole had a decentralized regional structure at least into the fourth, whereby councils of bishops ruled on larger issues and the Roman Church enjoyed at best a primacy of honor.它们产生的历史证据表明,罗马天主教会保留一个长老结构(彼得和克莱门特只是代言人,而不是主持主教)进入第二个世纪,教会作为一个整体,有一个权力下放的区域结构至少到第四,其中较大的问题和罗马教会统治的主教理事会享有充其量只是一种至高无上的荣誉。

Theologically the Roman Catholic Church bases its position on Matt.罗马天主教神学的基础上马特的位置。 16:18, claiming that Peter is the "rock" upon which the church is founded, thus giving it the full power of binding and loosing.十六点18分,自称彼得是教会成立的“摇滚”,从而赋予其约束力和松动的全功率。The first certain application of this text to the Roman Church was by Pope Stephen I (254-57) in argument with Bishop Cyprian of Carthage over the baptism of heretics.这段文字的第一个一定的应用罗马教会的教皇斯蒂芬我(254-57)在异端的洗礼与主教的迦太基塞浦路斯的论点。 This interpretation prevailed in Rome and has been the mainstay of papal documents and claims to this day.盛行于罗马,这种解释一直是罗马教皇的文件,并声称,这一天的重要支柱。But other interpretations persisted elsewhere.但是其他的解释坚持别处。The most common Protestant view happens also to be that found in the earliest extant commentary on this text (by Origen), namely, that the "rock" upon which the church stands is Peter's confession of faith.最常见的新教的观点发生,也可以发现,在这段文字的现存最早的评论(奥利),即教会代表的“摇滚”是彼得的信条。Those concentrating upon the "power of binding and loosing" in that text generally saw it conferred upon the entire episcopate of which Peter was but a symbol or spokesman (this in Cyprian, Augustine, and much of the Eastern Orthodox tradition).集中后,在该文本中的“具有约束力的和失去的权力”一般看到它后,赋予整个主教团的彼得而是一个符号或发言人(这在塞浦路斯,奥古斯丁,和许多东正教传统)。

Modern exegesis has produced some surprising twists.现代训诂学已经产生了一些令人惊讶的曲折。Some Protestants say the rock clearly refers to Peter and only by extension to his faith, while liberal Protestants and Catholics claim that this is not an authentic saying of Jesus but rather reflects the coming of "early Catholicism" in the primitive church.一些新教徒说清楚的岩石是指彼得,只有延伸到他的​​信仰,而自由派新教徒和天主教徒声称这是不是正宗的耶稣说,而是体现了“早期天主教”在原始教会的未来。 Moreover, progressive Catholic theologians concede that this saying, whatever its exact meaning and referent, cannot serve as a direct proof text for the Roman papacy and its primatial claims.此外,渐进的天主教神学家承认,这句话,无论其确切含义和指涉,不能作为直接证明文本为罗马教皇及其primatial索赔。 Hans Kung has rejected entirely any scriptural basis for a Roman claim to primacy, whereas R. Brown, more cautiously, argues that the scriptural image of Peter's leadership and the Roman Church's early eminence together produce a "trajectory" from which Roman primacy is a defensible conclusion.汉斯昆已拒绝完全任何一个罗马索赔,以至高无上的圣经基础,而R.布朗,更为谨慎,认为,在彼得的领导和在罗马教会的早期卓越的圣经形象一起产生一个“轨迹”,从一个守得住罗马的首要结论。 Conservative Protestants continue to focus upon Peter's confessional recognition of Jesus as the Messiah as the foundational rock of the church and its disciplinary powers.保守的新教徒继续集中在彼得的自白承认耶稣作为弥赛亚教会的基础岩石和纪律处分的权力。

J Van EngenJ凡恩金
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
NCE, XI, 20-5; LTK, VIII, 334-41; O. Cullmann, Peter; R. Brown, K. Donfried, and J. Reumann, eds., Peter in the NT; P. Empie and T. Murphy, eds., Papal Primacy and the Universal Church.罗富国,第十一,20-5;浊水溪,八,334-41; O. Cullmann,彼得R.布朗,K. Donfried,J. Reumann,EDS,彼得在新台币; P. Empie和T.墨菲,EDS,教皇的首要地位和普世教会。

St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles圣彼得大教堂,王子的使徒

Catholic Information天主教信息

The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads:圣彼得的生活可方便地根据以下元首认为:

I. Until the Ascension of Christ一,直到基督的阿森松

II.二。St. Peter in Jerusalem and Palestine after the Ascension升天后的圣彼得在耶路撒冷和巴勒斯坦

III.三。Missionary Journeys in the East; The Council of the Apostles在东方的传教行程的使徒理事会

IV.四。Activity and Death in Rome; Burial-place活动和死亡在罗马;埋葬的地方

V. Feasts of St. Peter五,节日圣彼得

VI.六。Representations of St. Peter申述的圣彼得大教堂

I. UNTIL THE ASCENSION OF CHRIST一到的升天

Bethsaida伯赛大

St. Peter's true and original name was Simon, sometimes occurring in the form Symeon.圣彼得的真正的和原来的名称是西蒙,有时发生的形式Symeon。(Acts 15:14; 2 Peter 1:1). (使徒15时14分; 2彼得前书1:1)。He was the son of Jona (Johannes) and was born in Bethsaida (John 1:42, 44), a town on Lake Genesareth, the position of which cannot be established with certainty, although it is usually sought at the northern end of the lake.他JONA(约翰内斯)的儿子,出生在伯赛大(约1点42分,44),镇湖上Genesareth,其中不能肯定的既定立场,但它通常是寻求在北端湖。 The Apostle Andrew was his brother, and the Apostle Philip came from the same town.使徒安德鲁是他的弟弟,和使徒菲利浦从同一个镇。

Capharnaum Capharnaum

Simon settled in Capharnaum, where he was living with his mother-in-law in his own house (Matthew 8:14; Luke 4:38) at the beginning of Christ's public ministry (about AD 26-28).西蒙在Capharnaum定居,他在基督的公共事务部(约公元26-28年)开始与他的岳母住在自己的房子(马太8时14分;路加福音4点38分)。 Simon was thus married, and, according to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, III, vi, ed. Dindorf, II, 276), had children.西蒙因此,已婚,并根据克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(Stromata,三,六,。Dindorf,二,276),育有子女。 The same writer relates the tradition that Peter's wife suffered martyrdom (ibid., VII, xi ed. cit., III, 306).同一作家关乎传统彼得的妻子遭受殉道(同上,第七,第十一版前,三,306)。Concerning these facts, adopted by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., III, xxxi) from Clement, the ancient Christian literature which has come down to us is silent.关于尤西比乌斯(Hist.传道书,三,三十一)从克莱门特已回落到我们,古老的基督教文献通过这些事实,是沉默。 Simon pursued in Capharnaum the profitable occupation of fisherman in Lake Genesareth, possessing his own boat (Luke 5:3).西蒙追求Capharnaum渔民在湖Genesareth有利可图的职业,拥有自己的船(路加福音5:3)。

Peter meets Our Lord彼得符合我们的主

Like so many of his Jewish contemporaries, he was attracted by the Baptist's preaching of penance and was, with his brother Andrew, among John's associates in Bethania on the eastern bank of the Jordan.像这样他的犹太同时代的很多,他所吸引,浸会的说教的忏悔,并且与他的兄弟安德鲁Bethania约翰的联营公司之间,对约旦的东部银行,。 When, after the High Council had sent envoys for the second time to the Baptist, the latter pointed to Jesus who was passing, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God", Andrew and another disciple followed the Saviour to his residence and remained with Him one day.后高会时,曾派特使第二次浸,后者指出耶稣路过,说:“看哪,神的羔羊”,安德鲁和另一弟子跟随救主他的住所,并保持与他一天。 Later, meeting his brother Simon, Andrew said "We have found the Messias", and brought him to Jesus, who, looking upon him, said: "Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is interpreted Peter".后来,他的哥哥西门见面,安德鲁说:“我们已经发现的messias”,并把他带到了耶稣,谁,找他,说:“你的艺术西蒙JONA的儿子:你要称为矶法,这是解释彼得“。 Already, at this first meeting, the Saviour foretold the change of Simon's name to Cephas (Kephas; Aramaic Kipha, rock), which is translated Petros (Latin, Petrus) a proof that Christ had already special views with regard to Simon.目前,在这第一次会议,救世主预言矶法的变化西蒙的名字(Kephas;阿拉姆Kipha,摇滚),这是翻译佩特罗斯(拉丁语,佩特鲁斯)证明基督西蒙已经特别意见。 Later, probably at the time of his definitive call to the Apostolate with the eleven other Apostles, Jesus actually gave Simon the name of Cephas (Petrus), after which he was usually called Peter, especially by Christ on the solemn occasion after Peter's profession of faith (Matthew 16:18; cf. below).后来,可能是他的最终调用的的11个其他使徒传道时,耶稣实际上给西蒙矶法(柏图斯),名称之后,他通常是彼得,在庄严的场合,尤其是由基督彼得的专业,后信仰(马太福音16:18;比照以下)。 The Evangelists often combine the two names, while St. Paul uses the name Cephas.福音往往结合了这两个名字,而圣保罗使用的名称矶法。

Peter becomes a disciple彼得成为弟子

After the first meeting Peter with the other early disciples remained with Jesus for some time, accompanying Him to Galilee (Marriage at Cana), Judaea, and Jerusalem, and through Samaria back to Galilee (John 2-4).后第一次会议上与其他早期的门徒彼得与耶稣保持了一段时间,陪同他到加利利(婚姻在塔卡纳),犹太,耶路撒冷,并通过撒马利亚回到加利利(约翰2-4)。 Here Peter resumed his occupation of fisherman for a short time, but soon received the definitive call of the Saviour to become one of His permanent disciples.这里彼得恢复了他的时间很短的渔民占领,但很快得到最终调用救主,成为他永久的弟子之一。Peter and Andrew were engaged at their calling when Jesus met and addressed them: "Come ye after me, and I will make you to be fishers of men".彼得和安德鲁从事他们的召唤,当耶稣遇到和解决他们:“在我之后,你们快来,我会让你的男性渔民”。On the same occasion the sons of Zebedee were called (Matthew 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; Luke 5:1-11; it is here assumed that Luke refers to the same occasion as the other Evangelists).在同一场合,西庇太的儿子被称为(马修4:18-22,马可福音1:16-20,路加福音5:1-11;这里假定,卢克是指同一场合作为其他福音)。 Thenceforth Peter remained always in the immediate neighbourhood of Our Lord.从那时起,彼得仍然始终在我们的上帝的近邻。 After preaching the Sermon on the Mount and curing the son of the centurion in Capharnaum, Jesus came to Peter's house and cured his wife's mother, who was sick of a fever (Matthew 8:14-15; Mark 1:29-31).后山说教的说教和固化Capharnaum百夫长的儿子,耶稣来到彼得的房子,并治愈了他的妻子的母亲,谁是生病发烧(马太福音8:14-15,马可福音1:29-31)。 A little later Christ chose His Twelve Apostles as His constant associates in preaching the kingdom of God.过了一会儿,基督选择了他的十二使徒他不断的联系,在宣扬神的国度。

Growing prominence among the Twelve越来越十二突出

Among the Twelve Peter soon became conspicuous.其中十二彼得很快成为突出。Though of irresolute character, he clings with the greatest fidelity, firmness of faith, and inward love to the Saviour; rash alike in word and act, he is full of zeal and enthusiasm, though momentarily easily accessible to external influences and intimidated by difficulties.虽然优柔寡断的性格,他紧贴最大的保真度,信仰的坚定性,和外来的爱救主;皮疹言论和行动的一致好评,他是充满了热情和积极性,虽然暂时容易接触到的外部影响和困难吓倒。 The more prominent the Apostles become in the Evangelical narrative, the more conspicuous does Peter appear as the first among them.比较突出的福音叙事成为使徒,更加突出彼得出现作为其中的第一。In the list of the Twelve on the occasion of their solemn call to the Apostolate, not only does Peter stand always at their head, but the surname Petrus given him by Christ is especially emphasized (Matthew 10:2): "Duodecim autem Apostolorum nomina haec: Primus Simon qui dicitur Petrus. . ."; Mark 3:14-16: "Et fecit ut essent duodecim cum illo, et ut mitteret eos praedicare . . . et imposuit Simoni nomen Petrus"; Luke 6:13-14: "Et cum dies factus esset, vocavit discipulos suos, et elegit duodecim ex ipsis (quos et Apostolos nominavit): Simonem, quem cognominavit Petrum . . ."十二清单上的庄严号召的使徒之际,不仅彼得立场始终在他们的头,但由基督给他的姓佩特鲁斯,特别是强调(马太福音10:2):“Duodecim autem Apostolorum nomina haec:普里默斯西蒙归仁dicitur佩特鲁斯“;马克3:14-16:”。。等fecit UT埃森特duodecim暨伊洛,UT斯达康等mitteret EOS praedicare等imposuit西蒙尼nomen佩特鲁斯“;路加福音6:13-14。 “等暨模具factus esset vocavit discipulos suos等elegit duodecim前ipsis(quos等阿波斯托洛nominavit):。。Simonem,quem cognominavit Petrum”On various occasions Peter speaks in the name of the other Apostles (Matthew 15:15; 19:27; Luke 12:41, etc.).彼得在各种场合谈到在其他使徒的名字(马太15时15分,19点27分;卢克12时41分,等)。When Christ's words are addressed to all the Apostles, Peter answers in their name (eg, Matthew 16:16).当基督的话是针对所有的使徒,在他们的名字(例如,马太福音16:16)彼得的答案。Frequently the Saviour turns specially to Peter (Matthew 26:40; Luke 22:31, etc.).常见救主轮流专门彼得(马太26:40;路加福音22时31分,等)。

Very characteristic is the expression of true fidelity to Jesus, which Peter addressed to Him in the name of the other Apostles.非常有特点的是耶稣,彼得解决在其他使徒的名字,他真正的高保真的表达。Christ, after He had spoken of the mystery of the reception of His Body and Blood (John 6:22 sqq.) and many of His disciples had left Him, asked the Twelve if they too should leave Him; Peter's answer comes immediately: "Lord to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life. And we have believed and have known, that thou art the Holy One of God" (Vulgate "thou art the Christ, the Son of God").基督,此前他曾接待他的身体和血(约翰6点22分SQQ)和他的许多弟子离开他的神秘面纱发言,要求十二,如果他们也应该离开他;立即彼得的回答是:“主我们应何去何从?祢永生的话,我们相信都知道,那你的艺术圣地之一的神“(武加大”你的艺术是基督,是神​​的儿子“)。 Christ Himself unmistakably accords Peter a special precedence and the first place among the Apostles, and designates him for such on various occasions.基督自己明白无误地符合一个特殊的优先级和第一名之间的使徒彼得,并指定他在各种场合。Peter was one of the three Apostles (with James and John) who were with Christ on certain special occasions the raising of the daughter of Jairus from the dead (Mark 5:37; Luke 8:51); the Transfiguration of Christ (Matthew 17:1; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:28), the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemani (Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33).彼得是谁提高睚鲁的女儿从死里复活(马克5时37分,在某些特殊场合,与基督的三个使徒(詹姆斯和约翰);路加福音8时51分);变形的基督(马太福音17 :1;马克9:1;路加福音9时28),Gethsemani(马太福音26:37花园的痛苦;马可福音14:33)。On several occasions also Christ favoured him above all the others; He enters Peter's boat on Lake Genesareth to preach to the multitude on the shore (Luke 5:3); when He was miraculously walking upon the waters, He called Peter to come to Him across the lake (Matthew 14:28 sqq.); He sent him to the lake to catch the fish in whose mouth Peter found the stater to pay as tribute (Matthew 17:24 sqq.).有几次,也基督赞成他上面所有的人,他进入彼得的船在湖Genesareth宣讲众人在岸上(路加福音5:3);时,他却奇迹般地呼吁水域行走,他叫彼得到他那儿跨湖(马太14时28分SQQ);他送他到湖边捕捉鱼的嘴彼得发现的stater支付致敬(马太17时24分SQQ)。

Peter becomes Head of the Apostles彼得成为使徒的头

In especially solemn fashion Christ accentuated Peter's precedence among the Apostles, when, after Peter had recognized Him as the Messias, He promised that he would be head of His flock.特别是庄严的时尚基督加剧之间的使徒彼得的优先级的时候,彼得后确认为他的messias,他承诺,他将他的羊群头。 Jesus was then dwelling with His Apostles in the vicinity of Caesarea Philippi, engaged on His work of salvation.耶稣当时在撒利亚腓附近居住与他的门徒,从事他的救赎工作。As Christ's coming agreed so little in power and glory with the expectations of the Messias, many different views concerning Him were current.正如基督的同意权力和荣耀的messias的期望这么少,关于他的很多不同的意见是最新的。While journeying along with His Apostles, Jesus asks them: "Whom do men say that the Son of man is?"虽然痴痴地沿着他的门徒,耶稣问他们:“谁做男人说,人子是吗?”The Apostles answered: "Some John the Baptist, and other some Elias, and others Jeremias, or one of the prophets".使徒回答说:“有些约翰浸信会,和其他一些埃利亚斯,和其他赫雷米亚斯,或先知之一”。Jesus said to them: "But whom do you say that I am?"耶稣对他们说:“但谁你说我吗?”Simon said: "Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God".西蒙说:“你是基督,永生神的儿子”。And Jesus answering said to him: "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona: because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my Father who is in heaven. And I say to thee: That thou art Peter [Kipha, a rock], and upon this rock [Kipha] I will build my church [ekklesian], and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven".耶稣回答他说:“你是有福的,西蒙酒吧JONA:因为血肉祂所没有透露给你,但我的父亲是谁在天堂,我对你说:”你是彼得[Kipha,岩],并在这磐石[Kipha]我将建立我的教会[ekklesian],地狱之门不得战胜,我会给你天国的钥匙和任何你要绑定后地球,它应约束也是在天上:地球上任何你要宽松,应在天上松动也“。 Then he commanded his disciples, that they should tell no one that he was Jesus the Christ (Matthew 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21).然后,他吩咐他的弟子,他们应该告诉任何人,他是耶稣基督(马太16:13-20,马可福音8:27-30,路加福音9:18-21)。

By the word "rock" the Saviour cannot have meant Himself, but only Peter, as is so much more apparent in Aramaic in which the same word (Kipha) is used for "Peter" and "rock".一词由“岩石”救世主不能意味着自己,但只有彼得,因为这么多明显的阿拉姆在这同一个词(Kipha)“彼得”和“石头”。 His statement then admits of but one explanation, namely, that He wishes to make Peter the head of the whole community of those who believed in Him as the true Messias; that through this foundation (Peter) the Kingdom of Christ would be unconquerable; that the spiritual guidance of the faithful was placed in the hands of Peter, as the special representative of Christ.他的发言,然后承认只有一个解释,即他希望让彼得那些他认为是真正的弭赛亚的整个社会​​的头部,通过这个基金会(彼得)基督的王国将是不可战胜的的;被放置在彼得手中的忠实的精神指导下,作为基督的特别代表。 This meaning becomes so much the clearer when we remember that the words "bind" and "loose" are not metaphorical, but Jewish juridical terms.这意思变得这么多,更清晰,当我们还记得,“绑定”和“松”字是不是隐喻,但犹太法律条款。It is also clear that the position of Peter among the other Apostles and in the Christian community was the basis for the Kingdom of God on earth, that is, the Church of Christ.同样清楚的是,在其他使徒彼得和在基督教社会中的地位是地球上的神的王国,也就是基督的教会的基础。Peter was personally installed as Head of the Apostles by Christ Himself.彼得使徒的头基督本人亲自安装。This foundation created for the Church by its Founder could not disappear with the person of Peter, but was intended to continue and did continue (as actual history shows) in the primacy of the Roman Church and its bishops.教会其创始人创建这个基础不能消失的彼得的人,但打算继续,并继续在罗马教会和主教的首要地位(如实际的历史表明)。

Entirely inconsistent and in itself untenable is the position of Protestants who (like Schnitzer in recent times) assert that the primacy of the Roman bishops cannot be deduced from the precedence which Peter held among the Apostles.完全不一致的,本身就是站不住脚的,是新教徒的位置(如近代Schnitzer的)断言,罗马主教的首要地位,不能推断优先彼得使徒举行。 Just as the essential activity of the Twelve Apostles in building up and extending the Church did not entirely disappear with their deaths, so surely did the Apostolic Primacy of Peter not completely vanish.正如在建立和扩展教会没有完全消失,他们的死亡,十二使徒的重要活动,所以一定没有使徒彼得的Primacy没有完全消失。 As intended by Christ, it must have continued its existence and development in a form appropriate to the ecclesiastical organism, just as the office of the Apostles continued in an appropriate form.由基督的目的,它必须有一个适当形式继续在教会的有机体它的存在和发展,正如使徒办公室以适当形式继续。

Objections have been raised against the genuineness of the wording of the passage, but the unanimous testimony of the manuscripts, the parallel passages in the other Gospels, and the fixed belief of pre-Constantine literature furnish the surest proofs of the genuineness and untampered state of the text of Matthew (cf. "Stimmen aus MariaLaach", I, 1896,129 sqq.; "Theologie und Glaube", II, 1910, 842 sqq.).反对通过的措辞的真实性提出了反对意见,但手稿一致的证词,在其他福音的平行通道,并固定预君士坦丁文学的信念,提供最可靠的证明的真实性和untampered状态马修。“神学和Glaube”,二,1910年,842 SQQ参见“Stimmen AUS MariaLaach”,我,1896,129 SQQ文本。

His difficulty with Christ's Passion他的困难与基督的受难

In spite of his firm faith in Jesus, Peter had so far no clear knowledge of the mission and work of the Saviour.尽管他坚定的信念在耶稣,彼得迄今没有明确的认识救主的使命和工作。The sufferings of Christ especially, as contradictory to his worldly conception of the Messias, were inconceivable to him, and his erroneous conception occasionally elicited a sharp reproof from Jesus (Matthew 16:21-23, Mark 8:31-33).基督的苦难,特别是,他世俗的messias概念是矛盾的,是不可想象的他,和他的错误概念,偶尔从耶稣(马太福音16:21-23,马可福音8:31-33)引起了尖锐的谴责。 Peter's irresolute character, which continued notwithstanding his enthusiastic fidelity to his Master, was clearly revealed in connection with the Passion of Christ.彼得的优柔寡断的性格,尽管他热情忠于他的主人继续,清楚地表明在与基督的受难的连接。The Saviour had already told him that Satan had desired him that he might sift him as wheat.救主已经告诉他,撒旦想要他,他可能他筛选小麦。But Christ had prayed for him that his faith fail not, and, being once converted, he confirms his brethren (Luke 22:31-32).但基督已经为他祈祷,他的信仰没有失败,而且,一旦被转换,他证实了他的弟兄们(路加福音22:31-32)。 Peter's assurance that he was ready to accompany his Master to prison and to death, elicited Christ's prediction that Peter should deny Him (Matthew 26:30-35; Mark 14:26-31; Luke 22:31-34; John 13:33-38).彼得的保证,他愿意陪他的主人,监狱和死亡,引起基督的预言彼得应该否认他(马太26:30-35,马可福音14:26-31,路加福音22:31-34;约翰13时33分-38)。

When Christ proceeded to wash the feet of His disciples before the Last Supper, and came first to Peter, the latter at first protested, but, on Christ's declaring that otherwise he should have no part with Him, immediately said: "Lord, not only my feet, but also my hands and my head" (John 13:1-10).当基督接着以洗“最后的晚餐”之前他的门徒的脚,并来到第一彼得,后者首先提出抗议,基督的声明,否则他应该已经与他没有参与,立即说:“主,不仅我的脚,而且我的手,我的头“(约13:1-10)。 In the Garden of Gethsemani Peter had to submit to the Saviour's reproach that he had slept like the others, while his Master suffered deadly anguish (Mark 14:37).在花园Gethsemani彼得提交救主的非议,他喜欢别人睡觉,而他的主人遭受致命的痛苦“(马可福音14:37)。 At the seizing of Jesus, Peter in an outburst of anger wished to defend his Master by force, but was forbidden to do so.希望在耶稣,彼得抓住愤怒爆发武力保卫他的主人,但被禁止这样做。He at first took to flight with the other Apostles (John 18:10-11; Matthew 26:56); then turning he followed his captured Lord to the courtyard of the High Priest, and there denied Christ, asserting explicitly and swearing that he knew Him not (Matthew 26:58-75; Mark 14:54-72; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-27).他首先参加了飞行与(约翰福音18:10-11;马太福音26:56);然后转向其他使徒,他跟随了他捕获的主大祭司的院子,有否认基督,明确主张并宣誓就职,他知道他(马太26:58-75,马可福音14:54-72,路加福音22:54-62,约翰18:15-27)。 This denial was of course due, not to a lapse of interior faith in Christ, but to exterior fear and cowardice.这当然拒绝,而不是由于事隔内部在基督信仰,但外部的恐惧和怯懦。His sorrow was thus so much the greater, when, after his Master had turned His gaze towards him, he clearly recognized what he had done.因此,他的悲哀是这么多越大的时候,他的主人已经把他的目光朝他后,他清楚地认识到他所做的一切。

The Risen Lord confirms Peter's precedence复活的主证实了彼得的优先级

In spite of this weakness, his position as head of the Apostles was later confirmed by Jesus, and his precedence was not less conspicuous after the Resurrection than before.尽管这一弱点,他头部的使徒的地位后来被证实了耶稣,和他的优先级比以前复活后不那么显眼。The women, who were the first to find Christ's tomb empty, received from the angel a special message for Peter (Mark 16:7).妇女,谁是第一个找到基督的空墓,彼得(马可福音16:7)从一个特殊的消息天使收到。To him alone of the Apostles did Christ appear on the first day after the Resurrection (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5).他单独的使徒没有基督出现在后的第一天复活(路加福音24:34;哥林多前书15:5)。But, most important of all, when He appeared at the Lake of Genesareth, Christ renewed to Peter His special commission to feed and defend His flock, after Peter had thrice affirmed his special love for his Master (John 21:15-17).但是,最重要的的是,当他Genesareth湖出现,基督再度彼得,他特别委员会,饲料和捍卫他的羊群后,彼得曾三次肯定他特别爱他的主(约翰福音21:15-17)。 In conclusion Christ foretold the violent death Peter would have to suffer, and thus invited him to follow Him in a special manner (John 21:20-23).总之,基督预言彼得会遭受暴力死亡,并因此请他按照他一种特殊的方式(约翰福音21:20-23)。Thus was Peter called and trained for the Apostleship and clothed with the primacy of the Apostles, which he exercised in a most unequivocal manner after Christ's Ascension into Heaven.于是彼得所谓的使徒训练和穿着的使徒的首要地位,这是他在基督升天进入天堂后的一个最明确地行使。

II.二。ST.ST。PETER IN JERUSALEM AND PALESTINE AFTER THE ASCENSION彼得在耶路撒冷和巴勒斯坦的阿森松岛后

Our information concerning the earliest Apostolic activity of St. Peter in Jerusalem, Judaea, and the districts stretching northwards as far as Syria is derived mainly from the first portion of the Acts of the Apostles, and is confirmed by parallel statements incidentally in the Epistles of St. Paul.使徒行传第一部分主要来自我们的信息,在耶路撒冷,犹太,和拉伸向北据叙利亚地区最早的圣彼得使徒活动,并顺带的书信证实是由并行语句圣保罗。 Among the crowd of Apostles and disciples who, after Christ's Ascension into Heaven from Mount Olivet, returned to Jerusalem to await the fulfilment of His promise to send the Holy Ghost, Peter is immediately conspicuous as the leader of all, and is henceforth constantly recognized as the head of the original Christian community in Jerusalem.使徒和门徒谁,基督进入天堂的阿森松岛山科特后,返回到耶路撒冷等候履行诺言发送圣灵的人群当中,彼得是立即为所有的领导者突出,是今后不断地认识到作为在耶路撒冷的头原来的基督教社区。 He takes the initiative in the appointment to the Apostolic College of another witness of the life, death and resurrection of Christ to replace Judas (Acts 1:15-26).他在主动任命另一证人的生命,死亡和复活的基督的使徒学院,以取代犹大(徒1​​:15-26)。After the descent of the Holy Ghost on the feast of Pentecost, Peter standing at the head of the Apostles delivers the first public sermon to proclaim the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, and wins a large number of Jews as converts to the Christian community (Acts 2:14-41).提供节日五旬节,彼得在使徒的头站在圣灵降临后的第一次公开讲道宣布的生命,死亡,和耶稣的复活,并作为基督教的转换,赢得了大批的犹太人数量社区(徒2:14-41)。 First of the Apostles, he worked a public miracle, when with John he went up into the temple and cured the lame man at the Beautiful Gate.首先使徒,他曾一个公共的奇迹,当他与约翰上升到寺庙和治愈瘸腿的人在美丽的门。To the people crowding in amazement about the two Apostles, he preaches a long sermon in the Porch of Solomon, and brings new increase to the flock of believers (Acts 3:1-4:4).的人拥挤在约两个使徒惊奇,他鼓吹在门廊所罗门一个长期的说教,并带来了新增加的一群信徒(徒3:1-4:4)。

In the subsequent examinations of the two Apostles before the Jewish High Council, Peter defends in undismayed and impressive fashion the cause of Jesus and the obligation and liberty of the Apostles to preach the Gospel (Acts 4:5-21).在犹太人高级理事会的前两个使徒随后的考试中,彼得辩护undismayed和令人印象深刻的时尚耶稣的事业,义务和自由的使徒传福音(徒4:5-21)。 When Ananias and Sapphira attempt to deceive the Apostles and the people Peter appears as judge of their action, and God executes the sentence of punishment passed by the Apostle by causing the sudden death of the two guilty parties (Acts 5:1-11).当亚拿尼亚和撒非喇企图欺骗使徒和人民彼得作为判断他们的行动,和神执行刑罚的判决而造成猝死的两个犯罪各方(徒5:1-11)使徒通过。 By numerous miracles God confirms the Apostolic activity of Christ's confessors, and here also there is special mention of Peter, since it is recorded that the inhabitants of Jerusalem and neighbouring towns carried their sick in their beds into the streets so that the shadow of Peter might fall on them and they might be thereby healed (Acts 5:12-16).通过无数奇迹上帝证实了基督的忏悔使徒活动,和这里也有是特别提到彼得,因为它是记录,耶路撒冷和邻近城镇居民进行到街上自己生病在床上,以便彼得的影子可能落在他们身上,他们可能会因此痊愈(徒5:12-16)。 The ever-increasing number of the faithful caused the Jewish supreme council to adopt new measures against the Apostles, but "Peter and the Apostles" answer that they "ought to obey God rather than men" (Acts 5:29 sqq.).日益增多的忠实引起犹太最高理事会采取新措施,对使徒,但“彼得与使徒”的答案,他们“应该服从上帝,而不是男人”(徒5:29 SQQ。)。Not only in Jerusalem itself did Peter labour in fulfilling the mission entrusted to him by his Master.不仅在耶路撒冷本身没有履行他的主人的使命托付给他的彼得劳动。He also retained connection with the other Christian communities in Palestine, and preached the Gospel both there and in the lands situated farther north.他还保留与其他巴勒斯坦的基督教社区,并在位于更远的北部土地传福音。When Philip the Deacon had won a large number of believers in Samaria, Peter and John were deputed to proceed thither from Jerusalem to organize the community and to invoke the Holy Ghost to descend upon the faithful.当菲利普执事赢得了大量的信徒在撒马利亚,彼得和约翰写给要从耶路撒冷上去,社会组织和调用圣灵降临的忠实。Peter appears a second time as judge, in the case of the magician Simon, who had wished to purchase from the Apostles the power that he also could invoke the Holy Ghost (Acts 8:14-25).彼得出现了第二次担任法官,在魔术师西蒙的情况下,曾希望购买的权力,他也可以援引圣灵(使徒行传8:14-25)从使徒。 On their way back to Jerusalem, the two Apostles preached the joyous tidings of the Kingdom of God.在回耶路撒冷的路上,两个门徒宣扬上帝的王国的欢乐音信。Subsequently, after Paul's departure from Jerusalem and conversion before Damascus, the Christian communities in Palestine were left at peace by the Jewish council.随后,保罗从耶路撒冷和大马士革转换之前离境后,在巴勒斯坦的基督教社区被留在和平的犹太议会。

Peter now undertook an extensive missionary tour, which brought him to the maritime cities, Lydda, Joppe, and Caesarea.彼得现在进行了广泛的传教之旅,这给他带来的海上城市,利达,若佩,和该撒利亚。In Lydda he cured the palsied Eneas, in Joppe he raised Tabitha (Dorcas) from the dead; and at Caesarea, instructed by a vision which he had in Joppe, he baptized and received into the Church the first non-Jewish Christians, the centurion Cornelius and his kinsmen (Acts 9:31-10:48).在利达他治愈的麻痹Eneas,若佩他从死里复活大比(多加),并在该撒利亚,指示由一个愿景,这是他在若佩,他到教会受洗,收到的第一个非犹太基督徒,百夫长哥尼流和他的亲属(9:31-10:48)。 On Peter's return to Jerusalem a little later, the strict Jewish Christians, who regarded the complete observance of the Jewish law as binding on all, asked him why he had entered and eaten in the house of the uncircumcised.彼得回到耶路撒冷稍晚,严格的犹太基督徒,他们被视为对所有具有约束力的完整的犹太法律的遵守,问他为什么,他已进入和未受割礼的房子吃。 Peter tells of his vision and defends his action, which was ratified by the Apostles and the faithful in Jerusalem (Acts 11:1-18).彼得告诉他的远见和辩护,他的行动,这是由使徒和信徒在耶路撒冷(徒11:1-18)批准。A confirmation of the position accorded to Peter by Luke, in the Acts, is afforded by the testimony of St. Paul (Galatians 1:18-20).彼得由卢克的地位的确认,在行为,所提供的证词圣保禄(加拉太书1:18-20)。After his conversion and three years' residence in Arabia, Paul came to Jerusalem "to see Peter".经过3年居住在阿拉伯和他的转换,保罗来到耶路撒冷“看到彼得”。Here the Apostle of the Gentiles clearly designates Peter as the authorized head of the Apostles and of the early Christian Church.这里的外邦人的使徒明确指定彼得的使徒授权的头部和早期基督教教会。Peter's long residence in Jerusalem and Palestine soon came to an end.彼得在耶路撒冷和巴勒斯坦的长期居住,很快就走到了尽头。Herod Agrippa I began (AD 42-44) a new persecution of the Church in Jerusalem; after the execution of James, the son of Zebedee, this ruler had Peter cast into prison, intending to have him also executed after the Jewish Pasch was over.希律亚基帕我开始(公元42-44年)一个新的教会在耶路撒冷的迫害;后执行的詹姆斯,西庇太的儿子,这个统治者关进监狱彼得投,打算他还执行后,犹太Pasch结束。 Peter, however, was freed in a miraculous manner, and, proceeding to the house of the mother of John Mark, where many of the faithful were assembled for prayer, informed them of his liberation from the hands of Herod, commissioned them to communicate the fact to James and the brethren, and then left Jerusalem to go to "another place" (Acts 12:1-18).然而,彼得,一个神奇的方式被释放,并出发,约翰马克,其中许多忠实的祈祷组装的母亲的房子,他们通报了他的解放的希律王的手中,委托他们进行沟通事实上詹姆斯和弟兄们,然后离开耶路撒冷前往“另一个地方”(徒12:1-18)。 Concerning St. Peter's subsequent activity we receive no further connected information from the extant sources, although we possess short notices of certain individual episodes of his later life.关于圣彼得的后续活动,我们从现存的来源没有收到进一步的连接信息,虽然我们拥有他以后的生活中的个别情节的短期通知。

III.三。MISSIONARY JOURNEYS IN THE EAST; COUNCIL OF THE APOSTLES在东方传教行程;的使徒会

St. Luke does not tell us whither Peter went after his liberation from the prison in Jerusalem.圣路加没有告诉我们向何处去彼得在耶路撒冷后,他从监狱解放了。From incidental statements we know that he subsequently made extensive missionary tours in the East, although we are given no clue to the chronology of his journeys.从附带的声明中,我们知道,他随后提出了广泛的传教之旅,在东,虽然我们没有他的行程年表的线索。It is certain that he remained for a time at Antioch; he may even have returned thither several times.可以肯定的是,他仍然在安提阿的时候;他甚至有可能返回到那里几次。The Christian community of Antioch was founded by Christianized Jews who had been driven from Jerusalem by the persecution (Acts 11:19 sqq.).由基督教犹太人迫害(使徒11时19 SQQ。)曾从耶路撒冷驱动的基督教社区的安提阿成立。Peter's residence among them is proved by the episode concerning the observance of the Jewish ceremonial law even by Christianized pagans, related by St. Paul (Galatians 2:11-21).彼得其中居住是证明了的关于遵守犹太礼仪法律甚至相关圣保罗(加拉太书2:11-21),由基督教异教徒的情节。 The chief Apostles in Jerusalem - the "pillars", Peter, James, and John - had unreservedly approved St. Paul's Apostolate to the Gentiles, while they themselves intended to labour principally among the Jews.毫无保留地批准在耶路撒冷的首席使徒的“支柱”,彼得,詹姆斯,和约翰 - - 圣保罗外邦人的使徒,而他们自己打算之间的犹太人主要劳动力。While Paul was dwelling in Antioch (the date cannot be accurately determined), St. Peter came thither and mingled freely with the non-Jewish Christians of the community, frequenting their houses and sharing their meals.虽然保罗住在安提阿(无法准确确定日期),圣彼得来到上去,并夹杂着社会的非犹太基督徒自由,出入自己的房子,并分享他们的膳食。 But when the Christianized Jews arrived in Jerusalem, Peter, fearing lest these rigid observers of the Jewish ceremonial law should be scandalized thereat, and his influence with the Jewish Christians be imperiled, avoided thenceforth eating with the uncircumcised.但基督教的犹太人在耶路撒冷,彼得抵达时,他们担心,以免这些刚性观察员的犹太礼仪法律应反感会场,和他的犹太基督徒的影响力受到威胁,此后避免与未受割礼的饮食。

His conduct made a great impression on the other Jewish Christians at Antioch, so that even Barnabas, St. Paul's companion, now avoided eating with the Christianized pagans.他的行为就在安提阿的其他犹太基督徒留下了深刻的印象,因此,甚至连巴拿巴,圣保罗的同伴,现在避免进食与基督教的异教徒。 As this action was entirely opposed to the principles and practice of Paul, and might lead to confusion among the converted pagans, this Apostle addressed a public reproach to St. Peter, because his conduct seemed to indicate a wish to compel the pagan converts to become Jews and accept circumcision and the Jewish law.因为这种行动是完全反对保罗的原则和实践,并可能导致混乱之间的转换的异教徒,使徒处理了公众的非议,圣彼得,因为他的行为似乎表明想迫使异教徒皈依成为犹太人和接受割礼和犹太法律。 The whole incident is another proof of the authoritative position of St. Peter in the early Church, since his example and conduct was regarded as decisive.整个事件是在早期教会的圣彼得的权威地位的另一个证明,因为他的榜样和行为被视为决定性的。But Paul, who rightly saw the inconsistency in the conduct of Peter and the Jewish Christians, did not hesitate to defend the immunity of converted pagans from the Jewish Law.但保罗,正确地看到彼得和犹太基督徒的行为不一致,毫不犹豫地捍卫​​转换异教徒从犹太法律的豁免权。Concerning Peter's subsequent attitude on this question St. Paul gives us no explicit information.关于彼得随后在这个问题上态度圣保罗没有给我们明确的信息。But it is highly probable that Peter ratified the contention of the Apostle of the Gentiles, and thenceforth conducted himself towards the Christianized pagans as at first.但它极有可能彼得批准外邦人的使徒的争夺,并从那时起自己对起初的基督教异教徒进行。As the principal opponents of his views in this connexion, Paul names and combats in all his writings only the extreme Jewish Christians coming "from James" (ie, from Jerusalem).由于他的观点在此联接的主要对手,保罗在他的著作的名称和打击极端未来“詹姆斯”(即从耶路撒冷)的犹太基督徒。 While the date of this occurrence, whether before or after the Council of the Apostles, cannot be determined, it probably took place after the council (see below).虽然不能确定的,这种情况发生之日起,是否会之前或之后的使徒,,它可能发生后,安理会的地方(见下文)。The later tradition, which existed as early as the end of the second century (Origen, "Hom. vi in Lucam"; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", III, xxxvi), that Peter founded the Church of Antioch, indicates the fact that he laboured a long period there, and also perhaps that he dwelt there towards the end of his life and then appointed Evodrius, the first of the line of Antiochian bishops, head of the community.后来的传统,它存在,如早期的第二个世纪结束(奥利,“坎Lucam VI。”;尤西比乌斯“。组织胺传道书”,三,三十六),彼得创办的安提阿教会,表示事实上,他吃力长期存在,也许还有他住在那里对他生命的终结,然后任命Evodrius,Antiochian主教,社会的第一个。 This latter view would best explain the tradition referring the foundation of the Church of Antioch to St. Peter.这后一种观点,将最好的解释传统指圣彼得的安提阿教会的基础。

It is also probable that Peter pursued his Apostolic labours in various districts of Asia Minor for it can scarcely be supposed that the entire period between his liberation from prison and the Council of the Apostles was spent uninterruptedly in one city, whether Antioch, Rome, or elsewhere.彼得在小亚细亚各区追求他的使徒的劳作,为它几乎可以被他从监狱里解放和安理会的使徒之间的整个时期,花不间断安提阿,罗马在一个城市是否应该,或者,它也可能其他地方。 And, since he subsequently addressed the first of his Epistles to the faithful in the Provinces of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, one may reasonably assume that he had laboured personally at least in certain cities of these provinces, devoting himself chiefly to the Diaspora.而且,因为他随后谈到他的书信第一次在本都,加拉太,卡帕多西亚和亚洲的省忠实,人们可以合理地假设,他吃力亲自至少在这些省份的一些城市,主要致力于散居。 The Epistle, however, is of a general character, and gives little indication of personal relations with the persons to whom it is addressed.然而,书信,是一般性质,并给出了与个人关系的人,这是人的迹象显示。The tradition related by Bishop Dionysius of Corinth (in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", II, xxviii) in his letter to the Roman Church under Pope Soter (165-74), that Peter had (like Paul) dwelt in Corinth and planted the Church there, cannot be entirely rejected.住在科林斯和主教狄奥尼修斯的科林斯(优西比乌,“组织胺。传道书”,二,二十八)在他的信的罗马教会教皇SOTER(165-74),彼得(如保罗)相关的传统种植教会在那里,不能完全拒绝。 Even though the tradition should receive no support from the existence of the "party of Cephas", which Paul mentions among the other divisions of the Church of Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:12; 3:22), still Peter's sojourn in Corinth (even in connection with the planting and government of the Church by Paul) is not impossible.的传统,即使收到的“党的矶法”,保罗提到哥林多教会(哥林多后书1:12; 3:22)的其他部门之间存在的不支持,仍是彼得的寄居在科林斯(甚至在种植和保罗教堂)政府是不可能的。That St. Peter undertook various Apostolic journeys (doubtless about this time, especially when he was no longer permanently residing in Jerusalem) is clearly established by the general remark of St. Paul in 1 Corinthians 9:5, concerning the "rest of the apostles, and the brethren [cousins] of the Lord, and Cephas", who were travelling around in the exercise of their Apostleship.圣彼得开展了各种使徒旅程(毫无疑问,这个时候,尤其是当他不再是永久居住在耶路撒冷)显然是建立在1哥林多前书9:5圣保罗的一般性评论,有关“其余的使徒和弟兄们[堂兄弟]耶和华,矶法“,谁是行驶在行使自己的使徒周围。

Peter returned occasionally to the original Christian Church of Jerusalem, the guidance of which was entrusted to St. James, the relative of Jesus, after the departure of the Prince of the Apostles (AD 42-44).彼得偶尔回到原来的基督教教会在耶路撒冷,其中被委托圣雅各福群会的指导,相对耶稣,王子的使徒(公元42-44年)离开后。 The last mention of St. Peter in the Acts (15:1-29; cf. Galatians 2:1-10) occurs in the report of the Council of the Apostles on the occasion of such a passing visit.最后要提到的发生在圣彼得在行为(15:1-29; CF加拉太书2:1-10)使徒这种传递的访问之际会的报告。In consequence of the trouble caused by extreme Jewish Christians to Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, the Church of this city sent these two Apostles with other envoys to Jerusalem to secure a definitive decision concerning the obligations of the converted pagans (see JUDAIZERS).在保罗和巴拿巴在安提阿的极端犹太基督徒所带来的麻烦的后果,这个城市的教会发出这两个使徒与其他使节到耶路撒冷,以确保一个明确的决定,关于转换异教徒的义务(见JUDAIZERS)。 In addition to James, Peter and John were then (about AD 50-51) in Jerusalem.除了詹姆斯,彼得和约翰(约公元50-51年)在耶路撒冷。In the discussion and decision of this important question, Peter naturally exercised a decisive influence.在这一重要问题的讨论和决定,彼得自然行使决定性的影响。When a great divergence of views had manifested itself in the assembly, Peter spoke the deciding word.当意见分歧表现在大会本身,彼得谈到决定字。Long before, in accordance with God's testimony, he had announced the Gospels to the heathen (conversion of Cornelius and his household); why, therefore, attempt to place the Jewish yoke on the necks of converted pagans?很久以前,在按照上帝的证词,他宣布了福音的异教徒(Cornelius和他的家庭的转换);为什么,因此,试图将犹太的枷锁转换异教徒的脖子上? After Paul and Barnabas had related how God had wrought among the Gentiles by them, James, the chief representative of the Jewish Christians, adopted Peter's view and in agreement therewith made proposals which were expressed in an encyclical to the converted pagans.在保罗和巴拿巴有关神如何侵袭他们在外邦人中,詹姆斯,犹太基督徒的首席代表,通过彼得的看法和有关协议作出的转换异教徒谕表示的建议。

The occurrences in Caesarea and Antioch and the debate at the Council of Jerusalem show clearly Peter's attitude towards the converts from paganism.撒利亚和安提阿发生在耶路撒冷的议会辩论清楚地表明对彼得的态度从异教的转换。Like the other eleven original Apostles, he regarded himself as called to preach the Faith in Jesus first among the Jews (Acts 10:42), so that the chosen people of God might share in the salvation in Christ, promised to them primarily and issuing from their midst.像其他的11个原来的使徒,他认为自己的要求宣讲之间的犹太人在耶稣(徒10:42)第一的信念,使神所选择的人可能分享在基督里的救恩,答应他们的主要发行从他们中间。 The vision at Joppe and the effusion of the Holy Ghost over the converted pagan Cornelius and his kinsmen determined Peter to admit these forthwith into the community of the faithful, without imposing on them the Jewish Law.若佩和积液的圣灵在转换异教哥尼流和他的亲属的愿景确定彼得没有对他们施加的犹太人“,承认这些社区的忠实立即。During his Apostolic journeys outside Palestine, he recognized in practice the equality of Gentile and Jewish converts, as his original conduct at Antioch proves.在他的使徒巴勒斯坦之外的旅程,他在实践中认识到外邦人和犹太人皈依的平等,因为他在安提阿的原始行为证明。His aloofness from the Gentile converts, out of consideration for the Jewish Christians from Jerusalem, was by no means an official recognition of the views of the extreme Judaizers, who were so opposed to St. Paul.他从外邦的超脱性转换,从耶路撒冷的犹太基督徒的考虑,绝不是一个正式承认的极端Judaizers的意见,谁反对圣保罗。 This is established clearly and incontestably by his attitude at the Council of Jerusalem.这是他在耶路撒冷理事会的态度建立明确和无可争议。Between Peter and Paul there was no dogmatic difference in their conception of salvation for Jewish and Gentile Christians.彼得和保罗之间,有没有在他们的救恩的概念犹太和外邦基督徒的教条式的区别。The recognition of Paul as the Apostle of the Gentiles (Galatians 2:1-9) was entirely sincere, and excludes all question of a fundamental divergence of views. (加拉太书2:1-9)作为外邦人的使徒保罗承认完全是真诚的,并排除所有的意见的根本分歧的问题。St. Peter and the other Apostles recognized the converts from paganism as Christian brothers on an equal footing; Jewish and Gentile Christians formed a single Kingdom of Christ.圣彼得和其他使徒承认在平等基础上作为基督教兄弟异教的转换;犹太和外邦基督徒形成了单一的基督的王国。If therefore Peter devoted the preponderating portion of his Apostolic activity to the Jews, this arose chiefly from practical considerations, and from the position of Israel as the Chosen People.因此,如果彼得用他的使徒活动占优势的部分犹太人,这出现,主要是从实际考虑,所选择的人从以色列的立场。Baur's hypothesis of opposing currents of "Petrinism" and "Paulinism" in the early Church is absolutely untenable, and is today entirely rejected by Protestants.鲍尔的“Petrinism”和“Paulinism”反对在早期教会电流的假说是完全站不住脚的,是今日完全拒绝新教徒。

IV.四。ACTIVITY AND DEATH IN ROME; BURIAL PLACE罗马;埋葬地点的活动和死亡

It is an indisputably established historical fact that St. Peter laboured in Rome during the last portion of his life, and there ended his earthly course by martyrdom.这是一个无可争议的历史事实,在罗马的圣彼得吃力,在他生命的最后部分,并有地上的课程结束了由殉难。As to the duration of his Apostolic activity in the Roman capital, the continuity or otherwise of his residence there, the details and success of his labours, and the chronology of his arrival and death, all these questions are uncertain, and can be solved only on hypotheses more or less well-founded.至于他在罗马首都的使徒活动的时间,连续性,否则他的住所里,细节和他的劳动的成功,他的到来和死亡年表,所有这些问题是不确定的,并可以解决上或多或少的假设有根有据。 The essential fact is that Peter died at Rome: this constitutes the historical foundation of the claim of the Bishops of Rome to the Apostolic Primacy of Peter.基本事实是,彼得在罗马去世,这构成了罗马的主教声称使徒彼得的Primacy的历史基础。

St. Peter's residence and death in Rome are established beyond contention as historical facts by a series of distinct testimonies extending from the end of the first to the end of the second centuries, and issuing from several lands.在罗马的圣彼得的住所和死亡的历史事实成立了一系列独特的证词,从第一年底到第二世纪结束,延长和签发从几个土地超出争。

That the manner, and therefore the place of his death, must have been known in widely extended Christian circles at the end of the first century is clear from the remark introduced into the Gospel of St. John concerning Christ's prophecy that Peter was bound to Him and would be led whither he would not - "And this he said, signifying by what death he should glorify God" (John 21:18-19, see above).在基督教界广泛扩展的方式,因此在他去世的地方,必须有已知的第一个世纪的结束,是从引入关于基督的预言圣约翰福音的话显然,彼得注定要他将LED往那他不会 - “他说,他的死亡应该荣耀神的象征”(约翰福音21:18-19,见上文)。Such a remark presupposes in the readers of the Fourth Gospel a knowledge of the death of Peter.在第四福音彼得死亡知识的读者的这些言论的前提。

St. Peter's First Epistle was written almost undoubtedly from Rome, since the salutation at the end reads: "The church that is in Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you: and so doth my son Mark" (5:13).圣彼得的第一书信写几乎无疑是从罗马,因为在年底的称呼曰:“教会是在巴比伦,选出与你一起,saluteth你:等doth我的儿子马克”(5:13)。 Babylon must here be identified with the Roman capital; since Babylon on the Euphrates, which lay in ruins, or New Babylon (Seleucia) on the Tigris, or the Egyptian Babylon near Memphis, or Jerusalem cannot be meant, the reference must be to Rome, the only city which is called Babylon elsewhere in ancient Christian literature (Revelation 17:5; 18:10; "Oracula Sibyl.", V, verses 143 and 159, ed. Geffcken, Leipzig, 1902, 111).巴比伦必须这里确定的罗马首都,自幼发拉底河,这在废墟打下或新巴比伦(塞琉西亚)在底格里斯河上,或在附近孟菲斯埃及巴比伦,或耶路撒冷巴比伦可以不被意味着,引用必须被罗马唯一的城市,这就是所谓的巴比伦在古代基督教文学(启示录17时05分; 18:10; Oracula女巫“,V,143节和159节,爱德Geffcken,莱比锡,1902年,111。)。

From Bishop Papias of Hierapolis and Clement of Alexandria, who both appeal to the testimony of the old presbyters (ie, the disciples of the Apostles), we learn that Mark wrote his Gospel in Rome at the request of the Roman Christians, who desired a written memorial of the doctrine preached to them by St. Peter and his disciples (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", II, xv; III, xl; VI, xiv); this is confirmed by Irenaeus (Adv. haer., III, i).主教帕皮亚希拉波利斯和克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,他们都老长老(即,使徒的门徒)的证词提出上诉,我们得知,马克写在罗马在罗马基督徒,谁想要一个要求他的福音书面宣扬的圣彼得和他的弟子(三,XL;六,第十四条尤西比乌斯“。组织胺传道书”,第二,XV);向他们学说纪念证实了这一点爱任纽(Adv. haer,第三。 ,I)。In connection with this information concerning the Gospel of St. Mark, Eusebius, relying perhaps on an earlier source, says that Peter described Rome figuratively as Babylon in his First Epistle.在连接与此有关的圣马克,尤西比乌斯的福音,也许依靠较早的源,他说,彼得形容巴比伦罗马比喻在他的第一书信。

Another testimony concerning the martyrdom of Peter and Paul is supplied by Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the Corinthians (written about AD 95-97), wherein he says (v): "Through zeal and cunning the greatest and most righteous supports [of the Church] have suffered persecution and been warred to death. Let us place before our eyes the good Apostles - St. Peter, who in consequence of unjust zeal, suffered not one or two, but numerous miseries, and, having thus given testimony (martyresas), has entered the merited place of glory".另一个彼得和保罗殉难的证词是由克莱门特的罗马,在他的书信提供科林蒂安(约公元95-97书面),(V)其中,他说:“通过热情和狡猾的最大和最正义的支持[教会]遭受迫害和被打仗死亡,让我们在我们眼前良好的使徒 - 圣彼得大教堂,结果不公正的热情,遭受一个或两个,但无数的苦难,而且,这样的证词( martyresas),已进入值得荣耀的地方“。He then mentions Paul and a number of elect, who were assembled with the others and suffered martyrdom "among us" (en hemin, ie, among the Romans, the meaning that the expression also bears in chap. iv).然后,他提到保罗当选,组装与其他遭受“我们之间”殉难(EN高铁血红素,即罗马人之间的含义,也表达在第四章熊)。He is speaking undoubtedly, as the whole passage proves, of the Neronian persecution, and thus refers the martyrdom of Peter and Paul to that epoch.他来说无疑是整个通道证明,Neronian迫害,从而指的是那个时代的彼得和保罗殉难。

In his letter written at the beginning of the second century (before 117), while being brought to Rome for martyrdom, the venerable Bishop Ignatius of Antioch endeavours by every means to restrain the Roman Christians from striving for his pardon, remarking: "I issue you no commands, like Peter and Paul: they were Apostles, while I am but a captive" (Ad. Romans 4).他在信中写的第二个世纪(前117)开始,古老的安提阿主教伊格内修而被带到罗马殉教,努力通过各种手段来约束罗马基督徒争取他原谅,陈述:“我的问题你没有命令,像彼得和保罗:他们是使徒,而我只是一个俘虏“(Ad.罗马书4)。 The meaning of this remark must be that the two Apostles laboured personally in Rome, and with Apostolic authority preached the Gospel there.这句话的含义必须是这两个使徒辛劳亲自在罗马,与使徒权威那里传福音。Bishop Dionysius of Corinth, in his letter to the Roman Church in the time of Pope Soter (165-74), says: "You have therefore by your urgent exhortation bound close together the sowing of Peter and Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both planted the seed of the Gospel also in Corinth, and together instructed us, just as they likewise taught in the same place in Italy and at the same time suffered martyrdom" (in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", II, xxviii).主教狄奥尼修斯的科林斯,他在罗马教会的教皇SOTER(165-74)的信,说:“你有紧急约束密切一起播种的彼得和保罗在罗马和科林斯的劝勉因此对于这两种福音的种子种植在科林斯,共同指示我们,就像他们同样教在同一个地方在意大利,并在同一时间殉道“(优西比乌,”组织胺。传道书“,二,二十八)。

Irenaeus of Lyons, a native of Asia Minor and a disciple of Polycarp of Smyrna (a disciple of St. John), passed a considerable time in Rome shortly after the middle of the second century, and then proceeded to Lyons, where he became bishop in 177; he described the Roman Church as the most prominent and chief preserver of the Apostolic tradition, as "the greatest and most ancient church, known by all, founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious Apostles, Peter and Paul" (Adv. haer., III, iii; cf. III, i).的第二个世纪中叶后不久,爱任纽的里昂,一个土生土长的小亚细亚和波利卡普士麦那(圣约翰弟子)的弟子,在罗马通过一段相当长的时间,然后前往里昂,在那里他成为主教177;他形容罗马教会使徒传统的最突出的和行政的维系,“所有已知的最大和最古老的的教堂,创办并在罗马举办的两个最光荣的使徒彼得和保罗”(高级haer,三,三,比照三,I)。 He thus makes use of the universally known and recognized fact of the Apostolic activity of Peter and Paul in Rome, to find therein a proof from tradition against the heretics.因此,他让举世皆知的,公认的事实,使徒彼得和保罗在罗马活动,发现其中一个从对传统的异端证明。

In his "Hypotyposes" (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xiv), Clement of Alexandria, teacher in the catechetical school of that city from about 190, says on the strength of the tradition of the presbyters: "After Peter had announced the Word of God in Rome and preached the Gospel in the spirit of God, the multitude of hearers requested Mark, who had long accompanied Peter on all his journeys, to write down what the Apostles had preached to them" (see above).在他的“Hypotyposes”(优西比乌,“组织胺传道书”,四,十四),克莱门特的亚历山德里亚,在那个城市的教理学校约190老师说,传统的长老的实力:“在彼得已宣布在罗马的神的话语和鼓吹精神神的福音,众多的听众要求马克,所有他的行程早已伴随着彼得,写下使徒曾鼓吹他们“(见上文) 。

Like Irenaeus, Tertullian appeals, in his writings against heretics, to the proof afforded by the Apostolic labours of Peter and Paul in Rome of the truth of ecclesiastical tradition.像爱任纽,德尔图良的上诉,在他的著作对异端中,真理的教会传统的使徒彼得和保罗在罗马的劳动力提供的证明。 In "De Praescriptione", xxxv, he says: "If thou art near Italy, thou hast Rome where authority is ever within reach. How fortunate is this Church for which the Apostles have poured out their whole teaching with their blood, where Peter has emulated the Passion of the Lord, where Paul was crowned with the death of John" (scil. the Baptist).在“德Praescriptione”,三十五,他说:“如果你附近的意大利艺术,祢罗马管理局是有史以来触手可及多么幸运这是教会的使徒倒出他们用自己的鲜血,彼得已的整个教学。模拟的主,保罗与约翰“(scil.浸信会)的死亡加冕的激情。 In "Scorpiace", xv, he also speaks of Peter's crucifixion.在“Scorpiace”,第十五,他还谈到了彼得的钉在十字架上。"The budding faith Nero first made bloody in Rome. There Peter was girded by another, since he was bound to the cross".“萌芽信仰NERO第一,在罗马的血腥。有彼得是束腰,因为他注定要跨”。As an illustration that it was immaterial with what water baptism is administered, he states in his book ("On Baptism", ch. v) that there is "no difference between that with which John baptized in the Jordan and that with which Peter baptized in the Tiber"; and against Marcion he appeals to the testimony of the Roman Christians, "to whom Peter and Paul have bequeathed the Gospel sealed with their blood" (Adv. Marc., IV, v).作为一个例证,它与水的洗礼管理无关紧要,他指出,有“与约翰在约旦河受洗,并且之间没有区别,在他的书中(”洗礼“,CH,V)与彼得受洗在台伯河“,以及对马吉安他呼吁罗马基督徒的见证,”彼得和保罗用自己的鲜血“(Adv.马克,四,五)。密封有遗赠的福音。 The Roman, Caius, who lived in Rome in the time of Pope Zephyrinus (198-217), wrote in his "Dialogue with Proclus" (in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", II, xxviii) directed against the Montanists: "But I can show the trophies of the Apostles. If you care to go to the Vatican or to the road to Ostia, thou shalt find the trophies of those who have founded this Church".罗马,凯斯,谁住在罗马教皇Zephyrinus(198-217)时,在他的“对话与普罗克洛”针对的Montanists(优西比乌,“组织胺传道书。”二,二十八):中写道:“但我可以告诉使徒的奖杯,如果照顾到梵蒂冈或奥斯蒂亚路,你要找到那些有创办这个教会“的奖杯。 By the trophies (tropaia) Eusebius understands the graves of the Apostles, but his view is opposed by modern investigators who believe that the place of execution is meant. (tropaia)奖杯尤西比乌斯了解坟墓的使徒,但他的观点是反对现代研究者认为是刑场。For our purpose it is immaterial which opinion is correct, as the testimony retains its full value in either case.为了我们的目的是无关紧要的意见是正确的,作为证词保留其在两种情况下的全部价值。At any rate the place of execution and burial of both were close together; St. Peter, who was executed on the Vatican, received also his burial there.无论如何,双方执行和埋葬地点并拢;圣彼得大教堂,梵蒂冈执行,也收到他的埋葬。Eusebius also refers to "the inscription of the names of Peter and Paul, which have been preserved to the present day on the burial-places there" (ie at Rome).尤西比乌斯也指“字样的彼得和保罗的名字,已埋葬的地方至今保留有”(即在罗马)。

There thus existed in Rome an ancient epigraphic memorial commemorating the death of the Apostles.因此,存在于罗马一个古老的碑铭纪念纪念使徒死亡。The obscure notice in the Muratorian Fragment ("Lucas optime theofile conprindit quia sub praesentia eius singula gerebantur sicuti et semote passionem petri evidenter declarat", ed. Preuschen, Tübingen, 1910, p. 29) also presupposes an ancient definite tradition concerning Peter's death in Rome.穆拉多利片段(“卢卡斯optime theofile conprindit quia分praesentia eius singula gerebantur sicuti等semote passionem培养皿evidenter declarat”。普罗伊申,蒂宾根大学,1910年,第29页)的晦涩通知还明确的一个古老的传统有关彼得的死亡为前提罗马。

The apocryphal Acts of St. Peter and the Acts of Sts.猜测行为的圣彼得大教堂和STS的行为。Peter and Paul likewise belong to the series of testimonies of the death of the two Apostles in Rome.彼得和保罗同样属于在罗马的两个使徒死亡的证词。

In opposition to this distinct and unanimous testimony of early Christendom, some few Protestant historians have attempted in recent times to set aside the residence and death of Peter at Rome as legendary.反对这种早期基督教的独特和一致的证词,一些少数的新教史学家们试图在近代预留传奇彼得在罗马的住所和死亡。 These attempts have resulted in complete failure.这些尝试都导致彻底的失败。It was asserted that the tradition concerning Peter's residence in Rome first originated in Ebionite circles, and formed part of the Legend of Simon the Magician, in which Paul is opposed by Peter as a false Apostle under Simon; just as this fight was transplanted to Rome, so also sprang up at an early date the legend of Peter's activity in that capital (thus in Baur, "Paulus", 2nd ed., 245 sqq., followed by Hase and especially Lipsius, "Die quellen der römischen Petrussage", Kiel, 1872).有人断言说的传统有关彼得在罗马的第一个居住Ebionite界起源,形成了西蒙的魔术师,其中保罗是由彼得反对一个下西门假使徒的传奇的一部分,就像这场斗争中被移植到罗马,所以也窜出最多在一个早期的日期彼得的资本活动的传说(从而在鲍尔,“保卢斯”第二版。,245 SQQ。,长谷和特别是Lipsius,“模具quellen DER römischen Petrussage”,基尔,1872年)。But this hypothesis is proved fundamentally untenable by the whole character and purely local importance of Ebionitism, and is directly refuted by the above genuine and entirely independent testimonies, which are at least as ancient.但证明这一假说是根本站不住脚的,整个的性格和纯粹的本地Ebionitism重要性,而且是直接由上面的真正的和完全独立的证词,其中至少作为古代驳斥。 It has moreover been now entirely abandoned by serious Protestant historians (cf., eg, Harnack's remarks in "Gesch. der altchristl. Literatur", II, i, 244, n. 2).此外,它已被完全放弃严重新教史学家(参见,例如,在“Gesch。DER altchristl。Literatur”,第二,我,244 N. 2哈纳克的言论)。A more recent attempt was made by Erbes (Zeitschr. fur Kirchengesch., 1901, pp. 1 sqq., 161 sqq.) to demonstrate that St. Peter was martyred at Jerusalem. Erbes(Zeitschr.毛皮Kirchengesch,1901年,第1 SQQ,161 SQQ。)是由一个更近的尝试表明,圣彼得在耶路撒冷殉道。He appeals to the apocryphal Acts of St. Peter, in which two Romans, Albinus and Agrippa, are mentioned as persecutors of the Apostles.他呼吁杜撰行为的圣彼得大教堂,这两个罗马,阿尔比努斯和阿格里帕,提到使徒迫害。These he identifies with the Albinus, Procurator of Judaea, and successor of Festus and Agrippa II, Prince of Galilee, and thence conciudes that Peter was condemned to death and sacrificed by this procurator at Jerusalem.这些标识阿尔比努斯,检察长,犹太和费斯图斯和加利利王子,阿格里帕二世,继任,并从那里conciudes,彼得被判处死刑,并在耶路撒冷检察牺牲。 The untenableness of this hypothesis becomes immediately apparent from the mere fact that our earliest definite testimony concerning Peter's death in Rome far antedates the apocryphal Acts; besides, never throughout the whole range of Christian antiquity has any city other than Rome been designated the place of martyrdom of Sts.的这一假说untenableness成为立即的仅仅是事实,我们最早明确的证词在罗马彼得的死远antedates的杜撰行为明显;此外,从未在整个整个基督教的古风范围有任何城市比罗马被指定的殉难地STS。 Peter and Paul.彼得和保罗。

Although the fact of St. Peter's activity and death in Rome is so clearly established, we possess no precise information regarding the details of his Roman sojourn.虽然在罗马的圣彼得活动和死亡的事实是如此清晰,权责明确,我们所拥有的关于他的罗马逗留的细节没有确切的信息。 The narratives contained in the apocryphal literature of the second century concerning the supposed strife between Peter and Simon Magus belong to the domain of legend.在杜撰的第二个世纪的彼得和西蒙magus之间应该纷争的文献中叙述属于域的传说。From the already mentioned statements regarding the origin of the Gospel of St. Mark we may conclude that Peter laboured for a long period in Rome.从已经提到圣马克福音的起源报表,我们可以得出结论,彼得在罗马的长期辛劳。This conclusion is confirmed by the unanimous voice of tradition which, as early as the second half of the second century, designates the Prince of the Apostles the founder of the Roman Church.证实了这个结论是一致的传统语音,下半年的第二个世纪初,指定王子的使徒的罗马教会的创始人。It is widely held that Peter paid a first visit to Rome after he had been miraculously liberated from the prison in Jerusalem; that, by "another place", Luke meant Rome, but omitted the name for special reasons.人们普遍认为,彼得付出了首次访问罗马后,他已奇迹般地从在耶路撒冷的监狱中解放出来,以“另一个地方”,卢克意味着罗马,但省略了因特殊原因的名称。 It is not impossible that Peter made a missionary journey to Rome about this time (after 42 AD), but such a journey cannot be established with certainty.这不是不可能的,彼得作出了传教之旅,大约在这个时候(公元后42年)罗马,但这样的旅程肯定不能成立。At any rate, we cannot appeal in support of this theory to the chronological notices in Eusebius and Jerome, since, although these notices extend back to the chronicles of the third century, they are not old traditions, but the result of calculations on the basis of episcopal lists.无论如何,我们不能提出上诉,支持这个以尤西比乌斯和杰罗姆的时间顺序通知,自理论虽然这些告示延长回,以记载的第三个世纪,他们是不是老传统,但计算的基础上的结果主教名单。 Into the Roman list of bishops dating from the second century, there was introduced in the third century (as we learn from Eusebius and the "Chronograph of 354") the notice of a twenty-five years' pontificate for St. Peter, but we are unable to trace its origin.进入从第二世纪的罗马主教名单,介绍了在第三个世纪(因为我们学习尤西比乌斯和“354计时”)一个二十五年“教宗圣彼得的通知,但我们无法追溯其来源。 This entry consequently affords no ground for the hypothesis of a first visit by St. Peter to Rome after his liberation from prison (about 42).因此这个项目给予没有理由为一个由圣彼得的第一次访问后,他从监狱中(约42)解放罗马的假说。We can therefore admit only the possibility of such an early visit to the capital.因此,我们可以只承认早日访问首都的可能性。

The task of determining the year of St. Peter's death is attended with similar difficulties.确定今年的圣彼得死亡的任务是参加类似的困难。In the fourth century, and even in the chronicles of the third, we find two different entries.在第四个世纪,甚至在第三编年史,我们找到两个不同的条目。In the "Chronicle" of Eusebius the thirteenth or fourteenth year of Nero is given as that of the death of Peter and Paul (67-68); this date, accepted by Jerome, is that generally held.在“纪事报”的尤西比乌斯第十三或十四年的Nero的彼得和保罗(67-68)的死亡日期,接受由Jerome,是普遍认为。 The year 67 is also supported by the statement, also accepted by Eusebius and Jerome, that Peter came to Rome under the Emperor Claudius (according to Jerome, in 42), and by the above-mentioned tradition of the twenty-five years' episcopate of Peter (cf. Bartolini, "Sopra l'anno 67 se fosse quello del martirio dei gloriosi Apostoli", Rome, 1868) .今年67还支持尤西比乌斯和杰罗姆还接受了声明,彼得进前来,根据皇帝克劳迪亚斯罗马(42),以及由上述传统二十五年“主教团根据杰罗姆彼得(见Bartolini,“SOPRA L' ANNO 67 SE沟渠克约DEL martirio DEI gloriosi Apostoli”,罗马,1868年)。A different statement is furnished by the "Chronograph of 354" (ed. Duchesne, "Liber Pontificalis", I, 1 sqq.).一个不同的说法是提供的“354计时”(主编Duchesne,“LIBER Pontificalis”,我,1 SQQ)。 This refers St. Peter's arrival in Rome to the year 30, and his death and that of St. Paul to 55.这是指圣彼得在抵达罗马后30年,和他的死亡和圣保罗到55。

Duchesne has shown that the dates in the "Chronograph" were inserted in a list of the popes which contains only their names and the duration of their pontificates, and then, on the chronological supposition that the year of Christ's death was 29, the year 30 was inserted as the beginning of Peter's pontificate, and his death referred to 55, on the basis of the twenty-five years' pontificate (op. cit., introd., vi sqq.). Duchesne已表明,在“计时”的日期是在一个教皇列表包含只有他们的名字和他们pontificates时间插入,然后,对的时间顺序假设,当年基督的死是29,后30年插入彼得教皇开始,和他去世的二十五年“教皇的基础上,提到到55(前引书,introd,VI SQQ。)。This date has however been recently defended by Kellner ("Jesus von Nazareth u. seine Apostel im Rahmen der Zeitgeschichte", Ratisbon, 1908; "Tradition geschichtl. Bearbeitung u. Legende in der Chronologie des apostol. Zeitalters", Bonn, 1909).不过,这个日期被最近的辩护凯尔纳(“拿撒勒的耶稣冯U.塞纳河Apostel IM Rahmen DER Zeitgeschichte”,拉蒂斯邦,1908年;“。传统geschichtl Bearbeitung U. Legende DER Chronologie DES apostol Zeitalters”,波恩,1909年)。Other historians have accepted the year 65 (eg, Bianchini, in his edition of the "Liber Pontificalis" in PL CXXVII. 435 sqq.) or 66 (eg Foggini, "De romani b. Petri itinere et episcopatu", Florence, 1741; also Tillemont).其他历史学家已经接受了65年(例如,Bianchini,在他“LIBER Pontificalis”在PL CXXVII 435 SQQ版。)或66(如Foggini,“德罗姆B.基于Petri itinere等episcopatu”,佛罗伦萨,1741;也Tillemont)。Harnack endeavoured to establish the year 64 (ie the beginning of the Neronian persecution) as that of Peter's death ("Gesch. der altchristl. Lit. bis Eusebius", pt. II, "Die Chronologie", I, 240 sqq.).哈纳克努力建立的每年64彼得的死亡(“Gesch。DER altchristl。烈。之二尤西比乌斯”,PT。二,“模具Chronologie”,我,240 SQQ。)(即开始的Neronian迫害)。 This date, which had been already supported by Cave, du Pin, and Wieseler, has been accepted by Duchesne (Hist. ancienne de l'eglise, I, 64).这个日期,这已经洞,杜品,和Wieseler支持,已被接受Duchesne(Hist.安西安娜DE L' eglise,我64)。Erbes refers St. Peter's death to 22 Feb., 63, St. Paul's to 64 ("Texte u. Untersuchungen", new series, IV, i, Leipzig, 1900, "Die Todestage der Apostel Petrus u. Paulus u. ihre rom. Denkmaeler").Erbes指圣彼得死亡,63 2月22日,圣保罗的64个(“Texte U. Untersuchungen”,新系列,四,我,莱比锡,1900年,“模具Todestage之Apostel佩特鲁斯U.保卢斯U. ihre ROM Denkmaeler“)。The date of Peter's death is thus not yet decided; the period between July, 64 (outbreak of the Neronian persecution), and the beginning of 68 (on 9 July Nero fled from Rome and committed suicide) must be left open for the date of his death.因此没有尚未决定彼得的死亡日期是七月,64(爆发的Neronian迫害)日期间,并在68年初(9年7月尼禄从罗马和自杀逃离)必须是离开的日期开放他的死亡。 The day of his martyrdom is also unknown; 29 June, the accepted day of his feast since the fourth century, cannot be proved to be the day of his death (see below).他殉难的日子,也是未知之数; 6月29日,接受他的盛宴,因为当天的第四个世纪,不能被证明是他死亡的那一天(见下文)。

Concerning the manner of Peter's death, we possess a tradition - attested to by Tertullian at the end of the second century (see above) and by Origen (in Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", II, i) - that he suffered crucifixion.关于彼得的死亡方式,我们拥有一个传统 - 证明由戴尔都良在由奥利的第二个世纪结束(见上文)(在尤西比乌斯,第二,我“嘘传道书。。”) - ,他遭受钉在十字架上。Origen says: "Peter was crucified at Rome with his head downwards, as he himself had desired to suffer".奥利说:“彼得在罗马被钉在十字架上与他的头部向下,正如他自己希望遭受”。As the place of execution may be accepted with great probability the Neronian Gardens on the Vatican, since there, according to Tacitus, were enacted in general the gruesome scenes of the Neronian persecution; and in this district, in the vicinity of the Via Cornelia and at the foot of the Vatican Hills, the Prince of the Apostles found his burial place.由于执行的地方可能是很大的概率Neronian花园梵蒂冈接受,因为,根据塔西,制定一般Neronian迫害的可怕场面,并在本区,在附近的Via科妮莉亚王子的使徒在梵蒂冈山脚下,发现他的埋葬地点。 Of this grave (since the word tropaion was, as already remarked, rightly understood of the tomb) Caius already speaks in the third century.这一严重(因为这个词tropaion是,作为已经表示,正确地理解墓)凯斯已经谈到的第三个世纪。For a time the remains of Peter lay with those of Paul in a vault on the Appian Way at the place ad Catacumbas, where the Church of St. Sebastian (which on its erection in the fourth century was dedicated to the two Apostles) now stands.一时间,彼得的遗体躺在与保罗的地方广告Catacumbas Appian的方式,其中圣塞巴斯蒂安教堂(其竖立在第四世纪是献给两个使徒)目前在跳马。The remains had probably been brought thither at the beginning of the Valerian persecution in 258, to protect them from the threatened desecration when the Christian burial-places were confiscated.仍然有可能被带来了上去缬草迫害开始在258,以保护受到威胁的亵渎基督教墓地的地方时被没收。They were later restored to their former resting-place, and Constantine the Great had a magnificent basilica erected over the grave of St. Peter at the foot of the Vatican Hill.他们后来被恢复到前休息的地方,和君士坦丁大帝有一个宏伟的大殿,在圣彼得的坟墓建在梵蒂冈山脚下。This basilica was replaced by the present St. Peter's in the sixteenth century.这个教堂是取代目前在16世纪的圣彼得。 The vault with the altar built above it (confessio) has been since the fourth century the most highly venerated martyr's shrine in the West.与它上面建造的祭坛的跳马(confessio)以来的第四个世纪在西方最高度的崇敬烈士的靖国神社。In the substructure of the altar, over the vault which contained the sarcophagus with the remains of St. Peter, a cavity was made.在祭坛的子结构,在跳马,其中载有圣彼得的遗体的石棺,一腔。This was closed by a small door in front of the altar.在前面的祭坛,这是一个小门关闭。By opening this door the pilgrim could enjoy the great privilege of kneeling directly over the sarcophagus of the Apostle.通过开设这门朝圣者可以享受直接跪在使徒的石棺莫大的荣幸。Keys of this door were given as previous souvenirs (cf. Gregory of Tours, "De gloria martyrum", I, xxviii).以前的纪念品(参见格雷戈里的旅行团的“德凯莱martyrum”,我,二十八)这门的钥匙。

The memory of St. Peter is also closely associated with the Catacomb of St. Priscilla on the Via Salaria.圣彼得的记忆也是密切相关的Via Salaria的地下墓穴圣梁美芬。According to a tradition, current in later Christian antiquity, St. Peter here instructed the faithful and administered baptism.根据传统,目前在以后的基督教古代,圣彼得在这里指示,忠实和管理的洗礼。This tradition seems to have been based on still earlier monumental testimonies.这种传统似乎已经被基于仍然较早不朽的证词。 The catacomb is situated under the garden of a villa of the ancient Christian and senatorial family, the Acilii Glabriones, and its foundation extends back to the end of the first century; and since Acilius Glabrio, consul in 91, was condemned to death under Domitian as a Christian, it is quite possible that the Christian faith of the family extended back to Apostolic times, and that the Prince of the Apostles had been given hospitable reception in their house during his residence at Rome.的地下墓穴位于下花园别墅古老的基督教和参议院家庭,Acilii Glabriones,它的基础,向后延伸到的第一个世纪的结束;以来,在91个领事,Acilius Glabrio谴责下多米提安死亡作为一个基督徒,这是完全可能的,基督教信仰的家庭扩展回到使徒时代,王子的使徒已经在他们的房子在他在罗马的住所热情好客的接待。 The relations between Peter and Pudens whose house stood on the site of the present titular church of Pudens (now Santa Pudentiana) seem to rest rather on a legend.彼得和Pudens的房子站在本Pudens挂名教会的网站(现在的圣诞老人Pudentiana)之间的关系似乎上的一个传奇,而休息。

Concerning the Epistles of St. Peter, see EPISTLES OF SAINT PETER; concerning the various apocrypha bearing the name of Peter, especially the Apocalypse and the Gospel of St. Peter, see APOCRYPHA.关于圣彼得的书信,看到圣彼得的书信;轴承彼得的名字,尤其是启示和圣彼得的福音有关的各种伪经,伪经。The apocryphal sermon of Peter (kerygma), dating from the second half of the second century, was probably a collection of supposed sermons by the Apostle; several fragments are preserved by Clement of Alexandria (cf. Dobschuts, "Das Kerygma Petri kritisch untersucht" in "Texte u. Untersuchungen", XI, i, Leipzig, 1893).彼得(kerygma)杜撰的说教,从下半年的第二个世纪以来,这可能是一个应该由使徒讲道的集合;克莱门特亚历山大(参见Dobschuts“DAS Kerygma的Petri kritisch untersucht”保存的几个片段在“Texte U. Untersuchungen”,十一,我,莱比锡,1893年)。

V. FEASTS OF ST.五圣宴。PETER王泽

As early as the fourth century a feast was celebrated in memory of Sts.早在第四世纪的一个节日庆祝活动在内存中的STS。Peter and Paul on the same day, although the day was not the same in the East as in Rome.彼得和保罗在同一天,虽然当天没有在东在罗马一样。The Syrian Martyrology of the end of the fourth century, which is an excerpt from a Greek catalogue of saints from Asia Minor, gives the following feasts in connexion with Christmas (25 Dec.): 26 Dec., St. Stephen; 27 Dec., Sts.叙利亚Martyrology第四世纪结束,这是从希腊小亚细亚圣徒目录摘录,在Connexion给下面的节日圣诞节(12月25):12月26日,圣士提反; 12月27日,STS。James and John; 28 Dec., Sts.詹姆斯和约翰12月28日,STS。Peter and Paul.彼得和保罗。 In St. Gregory of Nyssa's panegyric on St. Basil we are also informed that these feasts of the Apostles and St. Stephen follow immediately after Christmas.在圣格雷戈里果树的圣巴索颂词中,我们还获悉,这些节日的使徒和圣士提反立即跟进圣诞节后。The Armenians celebrated the feast also on 27 Dec.; the Nestorians on the second Friday after the Epiphany.亚美尼亚人庆祝的盛宴也于27日12月后顿悟的第二个星期五的景教。It is evident that 28 (27) Dec. was (like 26 Dec. for St. Stephen) arbitrarily selected, no tradition concerning the date of the saints' death being forthcoming.很明显,28(27)12(如圣士提反12月26日)任意选择,没有传统的圣人“即将到来的死亡日期。The chief feast of Sts. STS行政盛宴。Peter and Paul was kept in Rome on 29 June as early as the third or fourth century.彼得和保罗被关在罗马6月29日为第三或第四世纪初。The list of feasts of the martyrs in the Chronograph of Philocalus appends this notice to the date - "III. Kal. Jul. Petri in Catacumbas et Pauli Ostiense Tusco et Basso Cose."节日在本通知之日起Philocalus附加计时烈士的名单 - “。第三KAL七月Catacumbas等圣保利Ostiense Tusco等巴索COSE的Petri”(=the year 258) . (=一年258)。The "Martyrologium Hieronyminanum" has, in the Berne manuscript, the following notice for 29 June: "Romae via Aurelia natale sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, Petri in Vaticano, Pauli in via Ostiensi, utrumque in catacumbas, passi sub Nerone, Basso et Tusco consulibus" (ed. de Rossi-Duchesne, 84). “Martyrologium Hieronyminanum”有,在伯尔尼的手稿,通​​知如下:6月29日通过奥里利亚natale sanctorum Apostolorum的Petri等圣保利,在Vaticano的Petri,泡利在通过Ostiensi catacumbas utrumque,帕西分Nerone,Romae巴索等Tusco consulibus“(主编德罗西Duchesne,84)。

The date 258 in the notices shows that from this year the memory of the two Apostles was celebrated on 29 June in the Via Appia ad Catacumbas (near San Sebastiano fuori le mura), because on this date the remains of the Apostles were translated thither (see above).在通知之日起258显示,从今年6月29日庆祝两个使徒的记忆在Via APPIA广告Catacumbas(圣塞巴斯蒂亚fuori乐村附近),因为在这个日期的使徒的遗体被翻译上去(见上文)。Later, perhaps on the building of the church over the graves on the Vatican and in the Via Ostiensis, the remains were restored to their former resting-place: Peter's to the Vatican Basilica and Paul's to the church on the Via Ostiensis.后来,也许就梵蒂冈和通过Ostiensis坟墓的教堂建设,仍然是恢复他们以前的安身之处:彼得梵蒂冈大教堂和保罗的教会通过Ostiensis。 In the place Ad Catacumbas a church was also built as early as the fourth century in honour of the two Apostles.在一所教堂的地方广告Catacumbas还内置了早在荣誉的两个门徒第四个世纪。From 258 their principal feast was kept on 29 June, on which date solemn Divine Service was held in the above-mentioned three churches from ancient times (Duchesne, "Origines du culte chretien", 5th ed., Paris, 1909, 271 sqq., 283 sqq.; Urbain, "Ein Martyrologium der christl. Gemeinde zu Rom an Anfang des 5. Jahrh.", Leipzig, 1901, 169 sqq.; Kellner, "Heortologie", 3rd ed., Freiburg, 1911, 210 sqq.).从258其主要盛宴被关6月29日,从该日起庄严的神圣的服务,在上述三个从远古时代的教堂(Duchesne,“Origines杜culte克雷蒂安”,第5版,巴黎,1909年,271 SQQ举行。 ,283 SQQ;“。艾因Martyrologium DER christl Gemeinde祖ROM Anfang DES 5 Jahrh”于尔班,莱比锡,1901年,169 SQQ;凯尔纳,“Heortologie”,第3版,弗赖堡,1911年,210 SQQ。。 )。 Legend sought to explain the temporary occupation by the Apostles of the grave Ad Catacumbas by supposing that, shortly after their death, the Oriental Christians wished to steal their bodies and bring them to the East.联想试图解释假设,其死亡后不久,东方的基督徒想窃取他们的身体,并给他们带来的东临时占用严重的广告Catacumbas使徒。 This whole story is evidently a product of popular legend.这整个故事,显然是民间传说的产物。(Concerning the Feast of the Chair of Peter, see CHAIR OF PETER.)(关于节日的主席彼得,彼得的椅子上​​。)

A third Roman feast of the Apostles takes place on 1 August: the feast of St. Peter's Chains.第三使徒的罗马盛宴8月1日地点:圣彼得的锁链的盛宴。This feast was originally the dedication feast of the church of the Apostle, erected on the Esquiline Hill in the fourth century.这个节日原本是使徒教会的奉献盛宴,Esquiline山竖立在第四世纪。A titular priest of the church, Philippus, was papal legate at the Council of Ephesus in 431.一个挂名牧师的教会,Philippus,在安理会的以弗所罗马教皇的legate在431。The church was rebuilt by Sixtus III (432-40) at the expense of the Byzantine imperial family.这座教堂重建Sixtus III(432-40)在拜占庭皇室的费用。Either the solemn consecration took place on 1 August, or this was the day of dedication of the earlier church.无论是庄严的奉献1日,这是早期教会奉献的日子。Perhaps this day was selected to replace the heathen festivities which took place on 1 August.或许这一天被选定取代了8月1异教徒的庆祝活动。In this church, which is still standing (S. Pietro in Vincoli), were probably preserved from the fourth century St. Peter's chains, which were greatly venerated, small filings from the chains being regarded as precious relics.在这个教堂,仍然站立(S. Vincoli彼得罗),很可能是从第四世纪的圣彼得的锁链,这是极大的崇敬,被作为珍贵文物的链的小申请保留。The church thus early received the name in Vinculis, and the feast of 1 August became the feast of St. Peter's Chains (Duchesne, op. cit., 286 sqq.; Kellner, loc. cit., 216 sqq.).因此,教会早在Vinculis收到的名称,和8月1日的盛宴,成为盛宴的圣彼得的锁链(Duchesne,同上,286 SQQ;。。凯尔纳,同上同上,216 SQQ)。The memory of both Peter and Paul was later associated also with two places of ancient Rome: the Via Sacra, outside the Forum, where the magician Simon was said to have been hurled down at the prayer of Peter and the prison Tullianum, or Carcer Mamertinus, where the Apostles were supposed to have been kept until their execution.彼得和保罗的记忆后来相关,也与古代罗马的两个地方:通过萨克拉,论坛外,魔术师西蒙说已经投掷彼得和监狱Tullianum中的祈祷,或Carcer Mamertinus使徒应该有被保留,直到其执行。At both these places, also, shrines of the Apostles were erected, and that of the Mamertine Prison still remains in almost its original form from the early Roman time.此外,在这两个地方,使徒神社被竖立起来,和Mamertine监狱仍保持在几乎其原来的形式从早期的罗马时间。These local commemorations of the Apostles are based on legends, and no special celebrations are held in the two churches.这些地方的使徒纪念活动是根据传说,并没有特别的庆祝活动是在两座教堂举行。It is, however, not impossible that Peter and Paul were actually confined in the chief prison in Rome at the fort of the Capitol, of which the present Carcer Mamertinus is a remnant. ,然而,并非不可能,彼得和保罗实际上是在国会山堡局限于在罗马的首席监狱,其中目前Carcer Mamertinus的残余。

VI.六。REPRESENTATIONS OF ST.申述圣。PETER王泽

The oldest extant is the bronze medallion with the heads of the Apostles; this dates from the end of the second or the beginning of the third century, and is preserved in the Christian Museum of the Vatican Library.现存最古老的铜章的使徒元首,这从第二或第三个世纪开始的日期,并保存在梵蒂冈图书馆的基督教博物馆。Peter has a strong, roundish head, prominent jaw-bones, a receding forehead, thick, curly hair and beard.彼得有一个强大的,圆形的头部,突出的下颚骨,前额,浓密,卷曲的头发和胡须。(See illustration in CATACOMBS.) The features are so individual that it partakes of the nature of a portrait. (见插图在墓穴)的功能是使个人肖像的性质参与大。This type is also found in two representations of St. Peter in a chamber of the Catacomb of Peter and Marcellinus, dating from the second half of the third century (Wilpert, "Die Malerein der Katakomben Rom", plates 94 and 96).还发现,在两种表述的圣彼得在彼得和Marcellinus地下墓穴室约会从下半年的第三个世纪(Wilpert,“模具Malerein之Katakomben ROM”,94和96板),这种类型的。In the paintings of the catacombs Sts.在墓穴STS的画。Peter and Paul frequently appear as interceders and advocates for the dead in the representations of the Last Judgment (Wilpert, 390 sqq.), and as introducing an Orante (a praying figure representing the dead) into Paradise.彼得和保罗频频出现在最后的审判表示死(Wilpert,390 SQQ。)interceders和主张,并引入Orante(代表死者祷告图)进入天堂。In the numerous representations of Christ in the midst of His Apostles, which occur in the paintings of the catacombs and carved on sarcophagi, Peter and Paul always occupy the places of honour on the right and left of the Saviour.在众多交涉基督在他的门徒,其中发生在地下墓穴的绘画,雕刻石棺中,彼得和保罗始终占据着救主的权利和左荣誉的地方。 In the mosaics of the Roman basilicas, dating from the fourth to the ninth centuries, Christ appears as the central figure, with Sts.在罗马大教堂的马赛克,从第四到第九世纪以来,基督出现中心人物,与STS。Peter and Paul on His right and left, and besides these the saints especially venerated in the particular church.彼得和保罗在他的左,右,除了这些,尤其是在特定的教会崇敬的圣人。On sarcophagi and other memorials appear scenes from the life of St. Peter: his walking on Lake Genesareth, when Christ summoned him from the boat; the prophecy of his denial; the washing of his feet; the raising of Tabitha from the dead; the capture of Peter and the conducting of him to the place of execution.在石棺和其他纪念物出现从圣彼得的生活场景:他的湖上Genesareth,当基督召见了他从船上走;他拒绝的预言,他的脚洗;大比从死者的提高;捕获的彼得和他进行刑场。 On two gilt glasses he is represented as Moses drawing water from the rock with his staff; the name Peter under the scene shows that he is regarded as the guide of the people of God in the New Testament.两个镀金眼镜,他表示为摩西从岩石水与他的工作人员,根据现场的彼得的名字,说明他是作为上帝的子民在新约中的指导。

Particularly frequent in the period between the fourth and sixth centuries is the scene of the delivery of the Law to Peter, which occurs on various kinds of monuments.特别是在第四和第六世纪之间的时期频繁的是现场提供法律彼得,发生各种古迹。Christ hands St. Peter a folded or open scroll, on which is often the inscription Lex Domini (Law of the Lord) or Dominus legem dat (The Lord gives the law).基督手中的圣彼得一个折叠或打开的卷轴,这是经常的题词莱克斯多米尼(主法)或Dominus legem DAT(主提供法律)。In the mausoleum of Constantina at Rome (S. Costanza, in the Via Nomentana) this scene is given as a pendant to the delivery of the Law to Moses.这一幕是在罗马(S. Costanza,在Via NOMENTANA)的陵墓,Constantina作为交付摩西律法的吊坠。In representations on fifth-century sarcophagi the Lord presents to Peter (instead of the scroll) the keys.在第五世纪石棺上的陈述主向彼得(而不是滚动)键。In carvings of the fourth century Peter often bears a staff in his hand (after the fifth century, a cross with a long shaft, carried by the Apostle on his shoulder), as a kind of sceptre indicative of Peter's office.彼得在第四世纪的雕刻在他的手往往蕴藏着一名工作人员(第五世纪后,一个很长的轴交叉,他的肩膀上进行了使徒),作为一个权杖指示彼得的办公室。 From the end of the sixth century this is replaced by the keys (usually two, but sometimes three), which henceforth became the attribute of Peter.从六世纪结束时,这是替换键(通常有两种,但有时三),从此成为彼得的属性。 Even the renowned and greatly venerated bronze statue in St. Peter's possesses them; this, the best-known representation of the Apostle, dates from the last period of Christian antiquity (Grisar, "Analecta romana", I, Rome, 1899, 627 sqq.).即使是著名的,极大地崇敬的圣彼得铜像拥有他们,这一点,使徒最知名的代表性,从古代基督教的最后期限(Grisar,“Analecta协会”,我,罗马,1899年,627 SQQ日期。)

Publication information Written by JP Kirsch.JP基尔希编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Gerard Haffner.转录由Gerard哈夫纳。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,卷席。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

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