Five Pillars of Islam信仰的 支柱

Xìnyǎng de zhīzhù

General Information一般资料

During the ten years between his arrival in Medina and his death in AD 632, Muhammad laid the foundation for the ideal Islamic state.他在公元632年在麦地那和他的死亡的到来之间的十多年期间,穆罕默德理想的伊斯兰国家奠定基础。A core of committed Muslims was established, and a community life was ordered according to the requirements of the new religion.一个致力于穆斯林的核心是建立,社区生活,按照新的宗教要求。In addition to general moral injunctions, the requirements of the religion came to include a number of institutions that continue to characterize Islamic religious practice today.除了一般的道德禁令,宗教的要求来,包括一些机构今天继续描述伊斯兰宗教实践。Foremost among these were the five pillars of Islam, the essential religious duties required of every adult Muslim who is mentally able. The five pillars are each described in some part of the Qur'an and were already practiced during Muhammad's lifetime.其中最重要的是伊斯兰教的五大支柱,每个成年穆斯林精神能够所需的基本的宗教义务。五大支柱是在“古兰经”的某些部分中描述的每个已实行在穆罕默德的一生。 They are the profession of faith (shahada), prayer (salat), almsgiving (zakat), fasting (sawm), and pilgrimage (hajj). Although some of these practices had precedents in Jewish, Christian, and other Middle Eastern religious traditions, taken together they distinguish Islamic religious practices from those of other religions. The five pillars are thus the most central rituals of Islam and constitute the core practices of the Islamic faith.他们信仰的专业(shahada),祈祷(萨拉特),救济(天课),禁食(索姆),和朝圣(朝觐),虽然这些做法有些人在犹太教,基督教,和其他中东宗教传统的先例,两者合计,他们区别于其他宗教的伊斯兰宗教习俗的五大支柱,因此伊斯兰教的最核心的仪式,并构成对伊斯兰信仰的核心业务。

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The Profession of Faith信仰

The absolute focus of Islamic piety is Allah, the supreme, all knowing, all-powerful, and above all, all-merciful God.对伊斯兰教的虔诚绝对焦点是安拉,最高法院,所有知道,全能的,高于一切,所有的仁慈的上帝。The Arabic word Allah means "the God," and this God is understood to be the God who brought the world into being and sustains it to its end.真主的阿拉伯字的意思是“上帝”,这个上帝被理解为上帝,谁带进世界和维持它结束。 By obeying God's commands, human beings express their recognition of and gratitude for the wisdom of creation, and live in harmony with the universe.服从上帝的命令,人类创造的智慧表达他们的认同和感谢,并居住在与宇宙的和谐。

The profession of faith, or witness to faith (shahada), is therefore the prerequisite for membership in the Muslim community.信仰,或见证信仰(shahada),因此,在穆斯林社区成员的前提条件。On several occasions during a typical day, and in the saying of daily prayers, a Muslim repeats the profession, "I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is his prophet."在一个典型的一天几次,并在每天的祈祷,穆斯林的专业重复说,“我的见证,有没有上帝,只有真主和穆罕默德是他的先知。” There are no formal restrictions on the times and places these words can be repeated.有没有正式的限制,可重复这些话的时间和地方。To become a member of the Muslim community, a person has to profess and act upon this belief in the oneness of God and the prophethood of Muhammad.要成为一个穆斯林社区的成员,一个人信奉和后,这在神的独一性的信仰和先知穆罕默德的行为。To be a true profession of faith that represents a relationship between the speaker and God, the verbal utterance must express genuine knowledge of its meaning as well as sincere belief.要真正的信仰界代表扬声器和上帝之间的关系,口头话语必须表达其含义的真正的知识以及真诚的信念。A person's deeds can be subjected to scrutiny by other Muslims, but a person's utterance of the profession of faith is sufficient evidence of membership in the Muslim community and cannot be challenged by other members of this community.一个人的事迹,可以由其他穆斯林受到审查,但一个人的信仰的话语是在穆斯林社区的成员有足够的证据,并不能由这个社会的其他成员挑战。

The Five Daily Prayers每日五次礼拜

The second pillar of Islam is the religious duty to perform five prescribed daily prayers or salat. All adult Muslims are supposed to perform five prayers, preceded by ritual cleansing or purification of the body at different intervals of the day.第二个支柱是伊斯兰教的宗教义务,执行五项规定的每日祈祷礼拜,所有的成年穆斯林都应该执行五个祈祷仪式清洗或净化身体在一天的不同时间间隔之前。 The Qur'anic references also mention the acts of standing, bowing, and prostrating during prayers and facing a set direction, known as qibla. The Muslims were first required to face Jerusalem during prayer, but already during Muhammad's lifetime they were commanded to face the Kaaba, an ancient shrine in the city of Mecca.引用“古兰经”还提及站立,鞠躬,匍匐在祈祷和面临的设置方向, 朝拜方向的行为穆斯林首先需要面对耶路撒冷在祷告,但已经在穆罕默德的一生,他们被吩咐要面对天房,在麦加城的古老神社。 The Qur'an also refers to the recitation of parts of the Qur'an as a form of prayer.古兰经也提到背诵古兰经祈祷的一种形式的部分。However, even with its numerous references, the Qur'an alone does not give exact instructions for this central ritual of prayer.但是,即使有多次提到,“古兰经”单独不给中央的祈祷仪式的确切说明。

The most detailed descriptions of the rituals for prayer derive from the example set by the prophet Muhammad and are preserved in later Islamic traditions.祈祷仪式的最详细的描述来自先知穆罕默德为榜样,在以后的伊斯兰传统的保留。Some details of these rituals vary, however all Muslims agree that there are five required daily prayers to be performed at certain times of day: dawn (fajr or subh), noon (zuhr), midafternoon (asr), sunset (maghrib), and evening (isha). The dawn, noon, and sunset prayers do not start exactly at dawn, noon, and sunset; instead, they begin just after, to distinguish the Islamic ritual from earlier pagan practices of worshiping the sun when it rises or sets.这些仪式的一些细节有所不同,但所有的穆斯林都同意,有5个每日所需的祈祷 ,在一天的特定时间执行: 黎明(黎明或subh),中午(晌礼),午后(ASR), 日落(昏礼),和今晚(宵)黎明,中午,日落祷告不要在黎明时分开始正是中午,和日落;相反,他们开始之后,以区别于早期异教徒的做法,崇拜太阳的伊斯兰仪式,当它上升或设置。

A prayer is made up of a sequence of units called bowings (rak'as). During each of these units, the worshiper stands, bows, kneels, and prostrates while reciting verses from the Qur'an as well as other prayer formulas. With some variations among different Muslim sects, at noon, afternoon, and evening prayers, these units are repeated four times, while during the sunset prayer they are repeated three times, and at dawn only twice. The opening chapter of the Qur'an, al-Fatiha, is repeated in each unit in a prayer sequence.祈祷是由一个名为bowings(rak'as)的单位序列,在这些单位,每个礼拜看台,鞠躬,下跪,并prostrates,而背诵“古兰经”以及其他祈祷公式的诗句。 一些不同教派之间的差异,在中午,下午和傍晚的祈祷,这些单位都反复四次,而在日落祷告,他们反复做三次,并在黎明时分 ,只有两次。开篇的古兰经“,人- Fatiha,各单位在祈祷序列重复。Each prayer concludes with the recitation of the profession of faith followed by the greeting "may the peace, mercy, and blessings of God be upon you."每个祈祷总结说:“可能的和平,怜悯,神的祝福后,你问候与信仰背诵

Wherever Muslims live in substantial numbers throughout the world, the call to prayer, or adhan, is repeated five times a day by a muezzin (crier) from a mosque, the Muslim place of worship.无论大批穆斯林生活在世界各地,祈祷,或adhan,重复5次,每天从一个清真寺的宣礼员(喊叫),穆斯林的礼拜场所。 Muslims are encouraged to pray together in mosques, but group prayer is only a religious obligation for the noon prayer on Friday.鼓励穆斯林是在清真寺祈祷,但集团的祈祷是上周五中午祈祷只为宗教义务。Women, travelers, sick Muslims, and those attending to the sick are granted license not to attend the Friday congregational prayer, although they may attend if they wish.妇女,旅客,生病穆斯林,照顾患病的人批出牌照,不参加周五的集体礼拜,虽然他们可能参加,如果他们愿意,。

The Friday noon prayer is led by an imam, who is simply a prayer leader; this prayer differs from the usual noon prayers of the other days of the week. As a required part of the ritual at this congregational meeting, two sermons precede the prayer. On other days, Muslims can pray anywhere they wish, either individually or in groups.星期五中午祈祷是导致由伊玛目,是一个简单的祷告领导人的,这从通常的一周中的其他几天中午祈祷祈祷不同作为一个在这个公理会议礼仪的需要,两个布道之前祈祷。其他日子,穆斯林祈祷他们希望的任何地方,无论是个人或团体。 They must observe the rituals of praying at certain times of day, facing in the direction of Mecca, observing the proper order of prayers, and preparing through symbolic purification.他们必须遵守,面向麦加方向祈祷在一天的特定时间,正确的顺序观察祈祷,并准备通过象征性的净化的仪式。

Depending on the situation, this last ritual of ablution requires either total washing of the body or a less elaborate ritual washing of the hands, mouth, face, and feet.根据情况,这个最后的洗礼仪式,要求任总洗身体或手,口,脸和脚精心仪式洗涤。

In addition to the five required daily prayers, Muslims can perform non-obligatory prayers, some of which have fixed ritual formats and are performed before or after each of the five daily prayers.除了每日所需的五个祈祷,穆斯林可以执行,其中有一些固定的仪式之前或之后,每日五次礼拜,每年执行的格式和非强制性的祈祷。 Others are performed at night, either individually or with other Muslims.其他在夜间进行,单独或与其他穆斯林。These additional formal and informal prayers give expression to the primary function of prayer in Islam, which is personal communication with God for the purpose of maintaining the abiding presence of the divine in the personal lives of Muslims.这些额外的正规和非正规的祈祷体现伊斯兰教祈祷,这是个人通信与神保持在遵守穆斯林的个人生活存在的神圣的目的主要功能。 The more formal aspects of prayer also serve to provide a disciplined rhythm that structures the day and fosters a sense of community and shared identity among Muslims.祈祷更多的形式方面,也有助于提供一个有纪律的节奏,结构和促进社会和穆斯林之间的共同特征的感觉。

Almsgiving施舍

The third pillar of Islam is zakat, or almsgiving.伊斯兰教的第三大支柱是天课 ,或施舍。A religious obligation, zakat is considered an expression of devotion to God.天课一个宗教义务,被认为是奉献给上帝的表达。 It represents the attempt to provide for the poorer sectors of society, and it offers a means for a Muslim to purify his or her wealth and attain salvation.它代表了试图为社会贫困阶层,它提供了一个穆斯林净化他或她的财富和实现救赎的一种手段。The Qur'an, together with other Islamic traditions, strongly encourages charity and constantly reminds Muslims of their moral obligation to the poor, orphans, and widows; however, it distinguishes between general, voluntary charity (sadaqa) and zakat, the latter being an obligatory charge on the money or produce of Muslims. “古兰经”,连同其他伊斯兰传统,大力鼓励慈善机构,并不断提醒自己的道德义务的穆斯林穷人,孤儿和寡妇,但是它一般情况下,自愿的慈善机构(sadaqa)和天课,后者作为一个之间的区别强制性收​​取的钱或穆斯林产生。 While the meaning of terms has been open to different interpretations, the Qur'an regularly refers to zakat, identifying specific ways in which this tax can be spent. These specific uses include spending zakat on the poor and the needy, on those who collect and distribute zakat, on those whom Muslims hope to win over and convert to Islam, on travelers, on the ransom of captives, to relieve those who are burdened with debts, and on the cause of God.虽然用语的含义已经有不同的解释,“ 古兰经定期指天课,确定这可以用税收的具体办法,这些特定用途包括那些收集,消费对穷人和有需要的天课和分发天课,其中穆斯林希望拉拢,并皈依伊斯兰教,对旅客,对俘虏的赎金,以减轻那些债务负担,以及对上帝的事业。

The Qur'an provides less-detailed information about the kinds of things that are subject to the zakat tax or the precise share of income or property that should be paid as zakat.“古兰经”提供详细信息有关的东西,受天课税的所得或财产的确切份额,应支付天课种。These determinations are provided in the traditions of the prophet Muhammad and have been the subject of elaborate discussions among Muslim legal experts, or jurists.这些决定是在先知穆罕默德的传统,并已在穆斯林的法律专家,​​或法学家的精心讨论的主题。For example, one-fortieth (2.5 percent) of the assets accumulated during the year (including gold, silver, and money) is payable at the end of the year, while one-tenth of the harvest of the land or date trees is payable at harvest time.例如,在今年的四十分之一(2.5%)的资产累计(包括黄金,白银和金钱)是在今年年底支付,而收获的土地或日期的树木十分之一支付收获的时候。 Cattle, camels, and other domestic animals are subject to a more complex taxation system that depends on the animals in question, their age, the numbers involved, and whether they are freely grazing.牛,骆驼和其它家畜,是一个更复杂的税制,对有问题的动物,他们的年龄,涉及的人数取决于的,以及他们是否是自由放牧。 Traditional zakat laws do not cover trade, but commercial taxes have been imposed by various Muslim governments throughout history.传统的天课法律不涵盖贸易,但商业税收已通过各种穆斯林政府对整个历史。

Fasting禁食

The fourth pillar of Islam is sawm, or fasting.伊斯兰教的第四大支柱是索姆 ,或禁食。Clear Qur'anic references to fasting account for the early introduction of this ritual practice.清除古兰经引用空腹帐户为这个仪式实践的早日出台。The Qur'an prescribes fasting during the month of Ramadan, the 9th month of the 12-month Islamic lunar year. The month of Ramadan is sacred because the first revelation of the Qur'an is said to have occurred during this month. By tradition the month starts with the sighting of the new moon by at least two Muslims. “古兰经”规定,在斋月,12个月的伊斯兰农历9月一个月的斋戒。斋月是神圣的,因为“古兰经”的第一个启示是说已经在本月初发生。传统月开始,至少有两个穆斯林发现新的月球。 For the entire month, Muslims must fast from daybreak to sunset by refraining from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse.整整一个月,穆斯林必须快速从拂晓到日落,不得进食,饮水,和性交。Menstruating women, travelers, and sick people are exempted from fasting but have to make up the days they miss at a later date.空腹月经的妇女,旅客和生病的人,可获豁免,但以弥补他们在日后的日子里错过。

According to various traditional interpretations, the fast introduces physical and spiritual discipline, serves to remind the rich of the misfortunes of the poor, and fosters, through this rigorous act of worship, a sense of solidarity and mutual care among Muslims of all social backgrounds. Thus Muslims usually engage in further acts of worship beyond the ordinary during Ramadan, such as voluntary night prayer, reading sections from the Qur'an, and paying voluntary charity to the poor.根据不同的传统解释,快速引入了身体和精神上的纪律,旨在提醒富人穷人的不幸,和培养,通过这种严格的崇拜行为,所有社会背景的穆斯林之间的团结和互相关怀的意识,。 因此,穆斯林通常从事进一步的行为超越了普通的崇拜,在斋月期间,如自愿晚上祈祷,阅读“古兰经”的部分,并自愿施舍给穷人。Muslims may even choose to wake before daybreak to eat a meal that will sustain them until sunset.穆斯林甚至可以选择唤醒天亮前吃了一顿​​,他们将持续直到日落。After the fasting ends, the holiday of breaking the fast, 'id al-fitr, begins, lasting for three days.禁食结束后,开斋的节日,“开斋节开始,为期三天。At any time of year fasting is also required as a compensation for various offenses and violations of the law.在任何一年空腹的时候,也需要各种犯罪和违法行为的一种补偿。Many Muslims also perform voluntary fasts at various times of the year as acts of devotion and spiritual discipline.许多穆斯林也执行自愿斋戒,在一年中不同时期的奉献和精神的纪律的行为。However, such additional fasting is not required by Islamic law.然而,这些额外的禁食不是必需的伊斯兰法律。

Pilgrimage to Mecca到麦加朝圣

The fifth pillar requires that Muslims who have the physical and financial ability should perform the pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca at least once in a lifetime.第五大支柱要求,物质和财政能力的穆斯林应履行在一生中至少一次到麦加朝圣, 朝觐。The ritual of pilgrimage was practiced by Arabs before the rise of Islam and continues from the early days of Islam. The hajj is distinct from other pilgrimages. It must take place during the 12th lunar month of the year, known as Dhu al-Hijja, and it involves a set and detailed sequence of rituals that are practiced over the span of several days.朝圣仪式由阿拉伯人实行伊斯兰兴起前,继续从伊斯兰教初期。 朝觐是有别于其他朝圣,它必须在今年农历正月12日举行,作为东华大学AL - Hijja它涉及到一个在短短几天实行的仪式和详细的序列。 All of the pilgrimage rituals take place in the city of Mecca and its surroundings, and the primary focus of these rituals is a cubical structure called the Kaaba.所有的朝圣仪式在麦加和其周边地区的城市采取的地方,这些仪式的主要焦点是一个立方体的结构,称为天房。

According to Islamic tradition, the Kaaba, also referred to as the House of God, was built at God's command by the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham of the Hebrew and Christian Bibles) and his son Ismail (Ishmael).根据伊斯兰传统,天房,也被称为神府,是建立在上帝的命令由先知易卜拉欣(亚伯拉罕希伯来和基督教“圣经”)和他的儿子伊斯梅尔(以实玛利)。

The Qur'an provides detailed descriptions of various parts of the ritual, and it portrays many of these rituals as reenactments of the activities undertaken by Ibrahim and Ismail in the course of building the Kaaba. “古兰经”提供仪式的各部分的详细描述,它描绘的许多仪式,易卜拉欣和伊斯梅尔在天房建设的过程中进行的活动的重演。Set into one corner of the Kaaba is the sacred Black Stone, which according to one Islamic tradition was given to Ibrahim by the angel Gabriel.套入天房的一角, 是神圣的黑石头,根据一个伊斯兰传统是由天使加布里埃尔易卜拉欣。According to another Islamic tradition this stone was first set in place by Adam.据另一个伊斯兰传统,这块石头是在第一套由亚当。

Once pilgrims arrive in Mecca, ritual purification is performed.一旦朝圣者在麦加到达,净化仪式。 Many men shave their heads, and most men and women put on seamless white sheets.许多男人剃光头,大多数男女无缝的白色床单上。 This simple and common dress symbolizes the equality of all Muslims before God, a status further reinforced by the prohibition of jewelry, perfumes, sexual intercourse, and hunting.这种简单和常见的装扮,象征上帝面前的平等,所有穆斯林进一步加强禁止珠宝,香水,性交,和狩猎的地位。After this ritual purification, Muslims circle the Kaaba seven times, run between al-Safa and al-Marwa, two hills overlooking the Kaaba, seven times, and perform several prayers and invocations.这个仪式净化后,穆斯林圆天房七次,AL -萨和AL - Marwa之间运行,两山俯瞰天房,七次,并执行一些祈祷和调用。This ritual is a reenactment of the search by Hagar for water to give her son Ismail.这个仪式是给她的儿子伊斯梅尔夏甲为寻找水源重演。

After these opening rituals, the hajj proper commences on the seventh day and continues for the next three days.这些开幕仪式后,朝觐正确的第七天开始,并持续,未来三天。Again, it starts with the performance of ritual purification followed by a prayer at the Kaaba mosque.再次,它开始由天房清真寺祈祷仪式净化性能。The pilgrims then assemble at Mina, a hill outside Mecca, where they spend the night.朝圣者聚集在米娜,麦加城外的山上,他们过夜的地方。The next morning they go to the nearby plain of Arafat, where they stand from noon to sunset and perform a series of prayers and rituals.第二天早晨,他们去附近的阿拉法特平原,拔地而起,从中午到日落和执行了一系列的祈祷和礼仪。 The pilgrims then head to Muzdalifa, a location halfway between Arafat and Mina, to spend the night.朝圣者Muzdalifa,一个中间阿拉法特和米娜的位置,然后将头过夜。The next morning, the pilgrims head back to Mina, on the way stopping at stone pillars symbolizing Satan, at which they throw seven pebbles.第二天早上,朝圣者的后脑勺米娜,停止在象征撒旦,他们扔七个卵石的石支柱。

The final ritual is the slaughter of an animal (sheep, goat, cow, or camel).最后的仪式是对屠宰的动物(绵羊,山羊,牛,或骆驼)。This is a symbolic reenactment of God's command to Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismail, which Ibrahim and Ismail duly accepted and were about to execute when God allowed Ibrahim to slaughter a ram in place of his son. (In the Hebrew and Christian Bibles, Abraham is called to sacrifice his son Isaac rather than Ishmael.) Most of the meat of the slaughtered animals is to be distributed to poor Muslims.这是一个上帝的命令,以易卜拉欣的象征性再现,以牺牲他的儿子伊斯梅尔,其中易卜拉欣和伊斯梅尔正式接受和被约来执行时,上帝允许易卜拉欣到屠宰一个代替他的儿子RAM。(在希伯来文和基督教的“圣经”,亚伯拉罕被称为牺牲自己,而不是实玛利的儿子以撒。)屠宰的动物的肉大多是被分配给贫穷的穆斯林。 The ritual sacrifice ends the hajj and starts the festival of the sacrifice, 'id al-adha. The festivals of breaking fast ( 'id al-fitr ) at the end of Ramadan and 'id al-adha are the two major Islamic festivals celebrated by Muslims all over the world.祭品的仪式结束朝圣,并开始牺牲的节日,“古尔邦节。快速突破的节日,在斋月结束”古尔邦节('ID开斋捐)是两个主要的伊斯兰节日庆祝世界各地的穆斯林。

During the pilgrimage most Muslims visit Medina, where the tomb of the Prophet is located, before returning to their homes. If the pilgrimage rituals are performed at any time of the year other than the designated time for hajj, the ritual is called umra. Although umra is considered a virtuous act, it does not absolve the person from the obligation of hajj.在大多数穆斯林朝圣访问的先知墓位于麦地那,在那里,然后返回自己的家园,如果今年朝觐指定的时间比其他任何时候进行朝圣仪式,仪式被称为 umra虽然umra被认为是一种良性的行为,它并不能免除朝觐的义务的人。Most pilgrims perform one or more umras before or after the hajj proper.大多数的朝圣者之前或之后的朝觐正确umras执行一个或多个。

Many Muslims pilgrims also travel to Jerusalem, which is the third sacred city for Islam. Muslims believe Muhammad was carried to Jerusalem in a vision. 许多穆斯林朝圣者前往耶路撒冷,这是伊斯兰教第三神圣的城市。穆斯林相信穆罕默德是在视觉到耶路撒冷。The Dome of the Rock houses the stone from which Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven and Allah in a night journey.岩石的圆顶房子的石头,从穆罕默德被认为是在一夜间之旅,登上天堂和阿拉。Some Muslims perform pilgrimages to the Dome of the Rock and to other shrines where revered religious figures are buried.有些穆斯林执行岩石的圆顶和尊敬的宗教人物被埋葬的其他圣地朝圣。Some of these shrines are important primarily to the local populations, whereas others draw Muslims from distant regions.这些神社的一些重要的主要是当地居民,而其他人画从遥远的地区的穆斯林。There are no standard prescribed rituals for these pilgrimages nor are they treated as obligatory acts of worship.有没有标准规定的这些朝圣仪式,也不是他们崇拜的强制性行为治疗。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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