Saladin萨拉丁

General Information一般资料

Salah ad-din, Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Saladin in the West, bc1138, d.萨拉赫AD - DIN,优素福本Ayyub萨拉丁在西方称为,bc1138,D.Mar. 4, 1193, a Muslim warrior and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, was a staunch opponent of the Crusades. 03月4,1193,一个穆斯林战士的艾优卜王朝王朝的创始人,是一个坚强的十字军东征的对手。Of Kurdish descent, Saladin was raised in northern Syria, where members of his family were prominent government and military leaders under the rule of the Zangid dynasty.萨拉丁是库尔德人的后裔,在叙利亚北部,他的家人Zangid王朝的统治下突出的政府和军​​队领导人提出。

In 1152 he joined the staff of his uncle Shirkuh and later accompanied (1169) Shirkuh, who headed a Zangid army, to Egypt, where he helped the Fatimid rulers resist the Crusaders. 1152他加入了他的伯父Shirkuh的工作人员,后来伴随着(1169)Shirkuh,为首的Zangid军队,埃及,在那里他帮助的法蒂玛王朝统治者抵御十字军。 Shirkuh was appointed (1169) Fatimid vizier but died two months later; Saladin, officially installed as Shirkuh's successor, effectively repulsed the Crusaders. Shirkuh(1169)法蒂玛大臣被任命,但两个月后死亡;萨拉丁,Shirkuh的继任者正式安装,有效地击退了十字军。He solidified his power base in 1171 when he overthrew the Fatimid dynasty, returning Egypt to Islamic orthodoxy and becoming sole ruler there.他凝固在1171他的权力基础时,他推翻了法蒂玛王朝,返回埃及伊斯兰正统,并成为唯一的统治者。

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At the death (1174) of Nur Al-Din, the Zangid ruler, Saladin set out to conquer the Zangid kingdom in Syria as a preliminary to the holy war (jihad) against the Crusaders.在罗布泊al - Din的,Zangid统治者萨拉丁设置在叙利亚Zangid王国征服作为对十字军的圣战(圣战)的初步死亡(1174)。Launching the jihad in 1187, Saladin was victorious at Hattin, recaptured Jerusalem, and drove the Crusaders back to the coast.在1187年启动圣战中,萨拉丁获得了胜利Hattin,夺回耶路撒冷,并开着十字军回海岸。These events prompted the Christians to mount the Third Crusade (1189-92), pitting Saladin against Richard I of England.这些事件促使基督徒安装的第三次十字军东征(1189至1192年),对抗英格兰的理查德我萨拉丁。The Crusaders succeeded only in capturing Acre, and the Peace of Ramleh (1192) left the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem with only a small strip of land along the Mediterranean coast.十字军成功了,只有在捕获阿克里,Ramleh和平(1192)只​​有在地中海沿岸的小片土地,离开耶路撒冷拉丁王国。

Saladin not only vanquished the Crusaders but also restored Egypt as the major power in the Middle East.萨拉丁不仅征服了十字军,但也恢复了埃及在中东的主要力量。Within Egypt he established a stable dynasty, encouraged education, and reformed the financial structure to support the armed Kurdish and Turkish cavalry.他在埃及建立了稳定的王朝,鼓励教育,改革金融结构,以支持库尔德武装与土耳其骑兵。Saladin also initiated a prolonged period of economic prosperity, population growth, and cultural revival.萨拉丁还发起了一个长期经济繁荣,人口的增长和文化复兴。After he died, however, the Turks -- especially the Mamelukes -- began to predominate.他去世后,不过,特克斯 - 尤其是Mamelukes - 开始占主导地位。

Michael W. Dols迈克尔W。DOLS

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Ehrenkreutz, Andrew S., Saladin (1972); Gibb, HAR, The Life of Saladin: From the Works of 'Imad ad-Din and Baha 'ad-Din (1973) and Saladin: Studies in Islamic History (1974); Newby, PH, Saladin in His Time (1984).Ehrenkreutz,安德鲁S,萨拉丁(1972年);吉布,萨拉丁的生命(HAR):从“伊马德AD - DIN和巴哈”AD - DIN(1973)和萨拉丁工程:在伊斯兰的历史研究“(1974年);纽比,PH值,萨拉丁在他的时间(1984年)。


Saladin萨拉丁

General Information一般资料

Saladin (1138-1193) was a Muslim leader, who recaptured Jerusalem from the Crusaders.萨拉丁(1138年至1193年)是一个穆斯林领袖,谁夺回耶路撒冷的十字军。

Born in Tikrît, Iraq, Saladin, as he is known in the West, was a Kurd; his Arabic name is Salah ad-Din Yusuf. At the age of 14 he joined other members of his family (the Ayyubids) in the service of the Syrian ruler Nur ad-Din.出生在提克里特,伊拉克,萨拉丁,因为他是在西方名气,是库尔德人,他 ​​的阿拉伯语名称是AD - Din的优素福萨利赫在14岁,他加入了他的家庭其他成员(Ayyubids)中服务。叙利亚的统治者罗布泊广告锭。Between 1164 and 1169 he distinguished himself in three expeditions sent by Nur ad-Din to aid the decadent Fatimid rulers of Egypt against attacks by the Christian Crusaders based in Palestine.在1164和1169之间,他区分自己在三个探险罗布泊广告 - Din的发送,以帮助埃及法蒂玛王朝的统治者的腐朽,反对在巴勒斯坦的基督教十字军的攻击。In 1169 he was made commander in chief of the Syrian army and vizier of Egypt.在1169,他是在埃及,叙利亚军队和大臣总司令。 Although nominally subject to the authority of the Fatimid caliph in Cairo, Saladin treated Egypt as an Ayyubid power base, relying mainly on his Kurdish family and supporters.虽然名义上在开罗的法蒂玛哈里发的权威,萨拉丁被视为埃及艾优卜王朝的权力基础,主要依靠,对他的库尔德家人和支持者。 Having revitalized Egypt's economy and reorganized its land and naval forces, Saladin repelled the Crusaders and took the offensive against them. ,萨拉丁在埃及的经济振兴和重组其土地和海军部队击退了十字军,并参加了对他们的进攻。In September 1171 he suppressed the dissident Fatimid regime, reuniting Egypt with the orthodox Abbasid caliphate, but his reluctance to cooperate with Nur ad-Din against the Crusaders brought himto the brink of war with his former master.在第1171年9月,他镇压持不同政见者的法蒂玛王朝政权,埃及与正统的阿拔斯王朝的哈里发团聚,但他不愿配合罗布泊广告 - Din的对十字军与他的前主人带来himto战争的边缘。

After Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Saladin expanded his power in Syria and northern Mesopotamia, mainly at the expense of his Muslim rivals.罗布泊广告锭的死亡在1174后,萨拉丁在美索不达米亚和叙利亚北部扩大自己的权力,主要是在牺牲他的穆斯林的对手。 Following the submission of Damascus (1174), Halab (Aleppo) (1183), and Mosul (1186), numerous Muslim armies, allied under Saladin's command, were ready to move against the Crusaders.提交大马士革(1174),Halab(阿勒颇)(1183),摩苏尔(1186),众多的穆斯林军队,萨拉丁的指挥下结盟,准备继续前进,对十字军。 In 1187 he invaded the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, defeated the Christians at Hittin in Galilee (July 4), and captured Jerusalem the following October.在1187年,他侵入耶路撒冷拉丁王国,击败Hittin(七月四日)在加利利的基督徒,并且夺取了耶路撒冷10以下。 In 1189 the nations of western Europe launched the Third Crusade to win back the holy city. 1189西欧国家发动的第三次十字军东征,夺回圣城。

Despite Saladin's relentless military and diplomatic efforts a Christian land and naval blockade forced the surrender of the Palestinian stronghold of Acre (now 'Akko) in 1191, but the Crusaders failed to follow up this victory in their quest for Jerusalem.尽管萨拉丁的无情的军事和外交努力的一个基督教的陆地和海上封锁,迫使巴勒斯坦据点阿卡(现称“阿卡)在1191投降,但十字军没有跟进这在寻求对耶路撒冷的胜利。 In 1192 Saladin concluded an armistice agreement with King Richard I of England that allowed the Crusaders to reconstitute their kingdom along the Palestinian-Syrian coast but left Jerusalem in Muslim hands.萨拉丁在1192结束了与英格兰国王理查德我,使十字军重建他们的王国,巴勒斯坦叙利亚海岸沿线,但离开耶路撒冷在穆斯林手中的停战协定。 On March 4, 1193, Saladin died in Damascus after a brief illness.3月4日,1193,萨拉丁在大马士革去世,经过短暂的疾病。

Muslim historiography has immortalized Saladin as a paragon of princely virtue.穆斯林史学永生萨拉丁王侯美德的典范。He has held enduring fascination for Western writers, including modern novelists.西方作家,包括现代小说家,他曾担任过持久的迷恋。

Andrew Stefan Ehrenkreutz安德鲁斯特凡Ehrenkreutz



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