Seljuk塞尔柱

General Information一般资料

The Seljuks were a group of nomadic Turkish warrior leaders from Central Asia who established themselves in the Middle East during the 11th century as guardians of the declining Abbasid caliphate, and after 1055 founded the Great Seljuk sultanate, an empire centered in Baghdad and including Iran, Iraq, and Syria.塞尔柱人的游牧来自中亚的土耳其战士的领导人在11世纪建立了自己在中东作为监护人的下降,阿拔斯王朝的哈里发,1055及以后成立的大塞尔柱苏丹国,在巴格达和包括伊朗为中心的帝国,伊拉克和叙利亚。 They helped to prevent the Fatimids of Egypt from making Shiite Islam dominant throughout the Middle East and, in the 12th century, blocked inland expansion by the Crusader states on the Syrian coast.他们帮助防止什叶派穆斯林整个中东地区的主导的埃及法蒂玛和封锁内陆,在12世纪,十字军国扩张叙利亚海岸。Their defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert (1071) opened the way for the Turkish occupation of Anatolia.他们打败拜占庭Manzikert战役(1071)开安纳托利亚土耳其占领的方式。

Seljuk power was at its zenith during the reigns of sultans Alp-Arslan (1063-72) and Malik Shah (1072-92), who with their vizier Nizam al-Mulk, revived Sunnite Islamic administrative and religious institutions.塞尔柱功率是在其顶峰时期,在苏丹ALP -阿尔斯兰(1063至1072年)和马立克沙赫(1072年至1092年),大臣尼扎姆AL -安纳德,恢复逊尼派伊斯兰的行政和宗教机构的统治。 They developed armies of slaves (Mamelukes) to replace the nomad warriors, as well as an elaborate bureaucratic hierarchy that provided the foundation for governmental administration in the Middle East until modern times.他们开发的奴隶军队(Mamelukes),以取代游牧战士,以及一个精心制作的的官僚的层次结构,提供直到近代的政府管理在中东的基础。 The Seljuks revived and reinvigorated the classical Islamic educational system, developing universities (madrasahs) to train bureaucrats and religious officials.塞尔柱恢复和振兴古典的伊斯兰教育体系,发展大学(伊斯兰学校)培养官僚和宗教官员。

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After Malik Shah's death, a decline in the quality of dynastic leadership and division of their rule among military commanders and provincial regents (atabegs) weakened the power of the Great Seljuks.马立克沙赫去世后,在王朝的领导和部门之间的军事指挥官和省高中会考自己的统治(atabegs)质量的下降削弱了大塞尔柱的权力。 The last of the line died in battle against the Khwarizm-Shahs in 1194.在1194行的最后死在争斗反对Khwarizm - Shahs。

A branch of the Seljuks established their own state in Anatolia (the sultanate of Konya or Rum, survived until it was conquered by the Mongols in 1243.安纳托利亚的塞尔柱分行成立于自己的国家(科尼亚或鲁姆苏丹国,幸存下来,直到它被蒙古人征服1243。

Stanford J. Shaw斯坦福大学的研究肖

Bibliography: Boyle, JA, ed., Cambridge History of Iran, vol.参考书目:博伊尔,JA,ED,剑桥伊朗史,第一卷。5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods (1968); Cahen, Claude, Pre-Ottoman Turkey, trans.5 Saljuq和蒙古期间(1968年); Cahen,克劳德,前奥斯曼土耳其,反。by J. Jones-Williams (1968); Grousset, Rene, Empire of the Steppes, trans.由J.琼斯威廉姆斯(1968年);格鲁塞,刘若英,草原帝国,反。by Naomi Walford (1970); Klausner, Carla L., The Seljuk Vezirate: A Study of Civil Administration, 1055-1194 (1973); Leiser, Gary, ed.拿俄米Walford(1970年);克劳斯纳,卡拉属,塞尔柱Vezirate:民政局研究,1055年至1194年(1973年); Leiser,加里,主编。and tr., A History of the Seljuks (1988); Setton, Kenneth, ed., History of the Crusades, vol.和TR,塞尔柱(1988年)的历史。Setton,午,ED,十字军东征的历史,第一卷。1, 2d ed.1,第2版。(1969).(1969年)。


Seljuks塞尔柱

General Information一般资料

Seljuks, Turkish dynasty prominent in the Middle East during the 11th and 12th centuries.塞尔柱土耳其王朝在11和12世纪在中东突出。Originally a clan belonging to the Oghuz, a Turkmen tribe of Central Asia, they were converted to Islam in the 10th century and established themselves in the Iranian province of Khorâsân in the early 11th century.本来属于一个家族的乌古斯,中亚的土库曼族人,他们皈依伊斯兰教,在10世纪,并建立自己在11世纪初的伊朗呼罗珊省。 In the period between 1040 and 1055, their chief, Togrul Beg, conquered most of Iran and Iraq and made himself protector of the caliph of Baghdâd, spiritual leader of the Sunni (orthodox) Muslims.在1040和1055年之间,他们的行政,Togrul乞求,征服伊朗和伊拉克的大部分地区,并提出自己的哈里发在巴格达的逊尼派(正统)穆斯林精神领袖的保护者。 Togrul was given the title sultan by the caliph and made war on the Shia Muslims, who rejected the caliph's authority.Togrul是什叶派穆斯林,拒绝哈里发的权威哈里发和战争标题苏丹。

Under Togrul's successors, Alp Arslan and Malik Shah, the empire of the Seljuks was further extended into Syria, Palestine, and Anatolia.根据Togrul的继任者,ALP阿尔斯兰和马立克沙赫的塞尔柱帝国进一步扩展到叙利亚,巴勒斯坦和安纳托利亚。 Alp Arslan's victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert (1071) alarmed the Christian world, and Seljuk aggressiveness was a major reason for launching the First Crusade (1095).阿尔卑斯阿尔斯兰Manzikert战役(1071)在拜占庭的胜利震惊了基督教世界,塞尔柱侵略性发动第一次十字军东征(1095年)的一个主要原因。 The main enemy of the Seljuks, however, was the Shia Fatimid dynasty of Egypt.塞尔柱的主要敌人,但是,埃及什叶派的法蒂玛王朝。

Ruling from their capital at Eºfahân (Isfahan) in Iran, the Seljuk sultans used the Persian language in their administration and were patrons of Persian literature.他们在E:fahân(伊斯法罕)在伊朗首都裁决,塞尔柱苏丹使用其管理的波斯语和波斯文学的顾客。They founded madrasahs (colleges) to train future administrators in accordance with Sunni doctrine.他们创办的伊斯兰学校(学院),培养未来的管理员按照与逊尼派教义。After the death of Malik Shah and his vizier, Nizam-al-Mulk, the empire was divided among Malik Shah's sons, and Seljuk power gradually declined.马利克Shah和他的大臣,尼扎姆- AL -安纳德逝世后,帝国被瓜分马利克国王的儿子,和塞尔柱功率逐步下降。

A branch of the dynasty, the sultanate of Rûm with a capital at Konya, survived in Anatolia until subjugated by the Mongols in 1243.一个王朝的分支,糖酒会资本在科尼亚苏丹国,在安纳托利亚生存,直到1243蒙古人征服。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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