Saint Stephen圣斯蒂芬

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Originally one of the seven deacons or "servers" chosen to assist the Apostles, Stephen, d.原来的七名执事或选择“服务器”,以协助使徒之一,斯蒂芬D.AD c.36, became an important preacher and the first Christian martyr.公元c.36,成为一个重要的布道者和第一个基督教殉道者。According to Acts 6-7, Stephen's charge before the Sanhedrin that the Jews had persistently disobeyed God so enraged his Jewish audience that they stoned him to death.根据使徒行传6-7,反犹太人坚持违抗神前公会负责,激怒了他的犹太观众,他们投掷石块将他打死。Parallels drawn with the crucifixion of Jesus make the story of Stephen's death important in Christian tradition.耶稣受难绘制的Parallels斯蒂芬的死亡故事在基督教传统的重要。Feast day: Dec. 27 (East); Dec. 26 (West).节日:12月27日(东)12月26日(西)。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Simon, Marcel, St. Stephen and the Hellenists in the Primitive Church (1958).西蒙,马塞尔,圣士提反,并在原始教会(1958年)Hellenists。


Stephen斯蒂芬

Advanced Information先进的信息

Stephen was one of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of the gospel.斯蒂芬的七个执事,成为福音传道之一。He was the first Christian martyr.他是第一个基督教殉道者。His personal character and history are recorded in Acts 6.他的个人性格和历史都记录在使徒行传6。"He fell asleep" with a prayer for his persecutors on his lips (7:60).“他睡着了”,他的嘴唇(7:60)他的迫害者的祈祷。Devout men carried him to his grave (8:2).虔诚的男子进行他到他的坟墓(8:2)。It was at the feet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, that those who stoned him laid their clothes (comp. Deut. 17:5-7) before they began their cruel work.这是年轻的法利赛人,大数的扫罗的脚,那些砸死他奠定自己的衣服(comp.申17:5-7)前,他们开始了他们的的残酷的工作。 The scene which Saul then witnessed and the words he heard appear to have made a deep and lasting impression on his mind (Acts 22: 19, 20).现场扫罗然后亲眼目睹,他听到的话似乎有一个深刻而持久的的印象(徒22:19,20)在他的脑海。 The speech of Stephen before the Jewish ruler is the first apology for the universalism of the gospel as a message to the Gentiles as well as the Jews.斯蒂芬的前犹太统治者的讲话,是作为一个外邦人以及犹太人的消息的福音的普世先道歉。It is the longest speech contained in the Acts, a place of prominence being given to it as a defence.它是最长的讲话的行为中,一个突出的地方给它作为抗辩。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


St. Stephen圣士提反

Catholic Information天主教信息

One of the first deacons and the first Christian martyr; feast on 26 December.一首执事和第一个基督教殉道者; 12月26日的盛宴。

In the Acts of the Apostles the name of St. Stephen occurs for the first time on the occasion of the appointment of the first deacons (Acts 6:5).圣士提反湾的名字出现在使徒行传第一执事(徒6:5)的任命之际的第一次。Dissatisfaction concerning the distribution of alms from the community's fund having arisen in the Church, seven men were selected and specially ordained by the Apostles to take care of the temporal relief of the poorer members.不满有关施舍从分布在教会中出现的社会基金,七名男子被选中,并特别规定由使徒颞救济贫苦。Of these seven, Stephen, is the first mentioned and the best known.这七个泉,是第一次提到,最有名的。

Stephen's life previous to this appointment remains for us almost entirely in the dark.斯蒂芬的生活这一任命之前仍然为我们几乎完全在黑暗中。His name is Greek and suggests he was a Hellenist, ie, one of those Jews who had been born in some foreign land and whose native tongue was Greek; however, according to a fifth century tradition, the name Stephanos was only a Greek equivalent for the Aramaic Kelil (Syr. kelila, crown), which may be the protomartyr's original name and was inscribed on a slab found in his tomb.他的名字是希腊和建议,他是一个Hellenist,即那些犹太人曾出生在国外的一些土地和其母语是希腊,然而,根据第五个世纪的传统,名称Stephanos只有希腊相当于阿拉姆Kelil(Syr. kelila,冠),这可能是protomartyr的原始名称是刻在他的墓中发现了一个板。It seems that Stephen was not a proselyte, for the fact that Nicolas is the only one of the seven designated as such makes it almost certain that the others were Jews by birth.看来,斯蒂芬不是一个proselyte,Nicolas是只有一个指定的七个这样的事实使得它几乎可以肯定,其他人出生的犹太人。 That Stephen was a pupil of Gamaliel is sometimes inferred from his able defence before the Sanhedrin; but this has not been proved.斯蒂芬加马利亚的学生有时从他的前公会能够防御的推断;但尚未得到证实。Neither do we know when and in what circumstances he became a Christian; it is doubtful whether the statement of St. Epiphanius (Haer., xx, 4) numbering Stephen among the seventy disciples is deserving of any credence.我们也不知道什么时候和在什么情况下,他成为基督徒,这是令人怀疑圣埃皮法尼乌斯声明“(Haer.,XX,4)编号斯蒂芬之间的七十弟子是否值得相信。 His ministry as deacon appears to have been mostly among the Hellenist converts with whom the Apostles were at first less familiar; and the fact that the opposition he met with sprang up in the synagogues of the "Libertines" (probably the children of Jews taken captive to Rome by Pompey in 63 BC and freed hence the name Libertini), and "of the Cyrenians, and of the Alexandrians, and of them that were of Cilicia and Asia" shows that he usually preached among the Hellenist Jews.他作为执事部似乎大多已跻身Hellenist起初不太熟悉的人的使徒转换;的事实,他会见了反对派“浪子”(犹太教堂窜出,可能是犹太人的子女被俘罗马由庞培在公元前63年中解脱出来,因​​此名称Libertini),和“的Cyrenians,和的Alexandrians,和他们西里西亚和亚洲”,表明他通常鼓吹Hellenist犹太人之间。 That he was pre eminently fitted for that work, his abilities and character, which the author of the Acts dwells upon so fervently, are the best indication.突出,他是前装这项工作,他的能力和性格,作者的行为停留时那么热切,是最好的迹象。The Church had, by selecting him for a deacon, publicly acknowledged him as a man "of good reputation, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom" (Acts 6:3).教会,由他选择一个执事,公开承认他作为一个“良好的信誉,圣灵和智慧”的人(徒6:3)。He was "a man full of faith, and of the Holy Ghost" (vi, 5), "full of grace and fortitude" (vi, 8); his uncommon oratorical powers and unimpeachable logic no one was able to resist, so much so that to his arguments replete with the Divine energy of the Scriptural authorities God added the weight of "great wonders and signs" (vi, 8).他是“一个人的信仰,和圣灵”(六,5),“充满恩典和毅力”(六,八);他罕见的演说的权力和无懈可击的逻辑,没有人能抵挡,这么多使他的论点充满圣经机关的神圣能量,上帝补充说:“伟大的奇迹和标志”的重量(六,八)。 Great as was the efficacy of "the wisdom and the spirit that spoke" (vi, 10), still it could not bend the minds of the unwilling; to these the forceful preacher was fatally soon to become an enemy.大作为“的智慧和精神的讲话”(六,10)的疗效,它仍然不能弯曲不愿头脑;这些致命有力的布道者,不久将成为一个敌人。

The conflict broke out when the cavillers of the synagogues "of the Libertines, and of the Cyreneans, and of the Alexandrians, and of them that were of Cilicia and Asia", who had challenged Stephen to a dispute, came out completely discomfited (vi, 9 10); wounded pride so inflamed their hatred that they suborned false witnesses to testify that "they had heard him speak words of blasphemy against Moses and against God" (vi, 11).冲突爆发时,犹太教堂“的浪子的Cyreneans的Alexandrians,西里西亚和亚洲”,曾质疑斯蒂芬争端,cavillers出来完全discomfited(VI 9 10);受伤的自豪感,使发炎他们的仇恨,他们suborned虚假的证人作证说,“他们听说过他发言反对摩西和对上帝的亵渎的话”(六,11)。

No charge could be more apt to rouse the mob; the anger of the ancients and the scribes had been already kindled from the first reports of the preaching of the Apostles.不收费,可以更容易发动暴民;古人的愤怒和文士从使徒的宣讲第一报告已经燃起。Stephen was arrested, not without some violence it seems (the Greek word synerpasan implies so much), and dragged before the Sanhedrin, where he was accused of saying that "Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place [the temple], and shall change the traditions which Moses delivered unto us" (vi, 12 14).斯蒂芬逮捕,不无一些暴力似乎(希腊字synerpasan意味着这么多),并拖之前的公会,在那里他指责说,“拿撒勒的耶稣应销毁这个地方[寺庙],并应改变摩西交付赐给我们“,12月14日(六)的传统。 No doubt Stephen had by his language given some grounds for the accusation; his accusers apparently twisted into the offensive utterance attributed to him a declaration that "the most High dwelleth not in houses made by hands" (vii, 48), some mention of Jesus foretelling the destruction of the Temple and some inveighing against the burthensome traditions fencing about the Law, or rather the asseveration so often repeated by the Apostles that "there is no salvation in any other" (cf. iv, 12) the Law not excluded but Jesus.毫无疑问,斯蒂芬的指责一些理由,他的语言,显然是扭曲成进攻话语他的控告归因于他的声明说:“不用手做的房子最高级的永远的”(七,48),提到一些耶稣预言圣殿被毁和一些打击burthensome传统击剑有关法律,或者更确切地说,经常反复说:“没有在任何其他的救赎”(见四,12)“不排除由使徒的断言inveighing,但耶稣。 However this may be, the accusation left him unperturbed and "all that sat in the council saw his face as if it had been the face of an angel" (vi, 15).然而,这可能是,这一指控离开他泰然自若,“理事会坐在的所有 看到他的脸,犹如天使面孔”(六,15)。

Stephen's answer (Acts 7) was a long recital of the mercies of God towards Israel during its long history and of the ungratefulness by which, throughout, Israel repaid these mercies.斯蒂芬的回答(7)长期演奏了神的慈悲,对以色列在其悠久的历史,整个ungratefulness以色列偿还这些怜悯。 This discourse contained many things unpleasant to Jewish ears; but the concluding indictment for having betrayed and murdered the Just One whose coming the Prophets had foretold, provoked the rage of an audience made up not of judges, but of foes.这话语中包含了许多犹太人的耳朵不愉快的事情;但结论起诉书因背叛和谋杀只是一个其未来的先知曾预言,激起了观众的愤怒不是法官,但对敌人。 When Stephen "looking up steadfastly to heaven, saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God", and said: "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God" (vii, 55), they ran violently upon him (vii, 56) and cast him out of the city to stone him to death.当斯蒂芬说:“展望坚定不移地天堂,看到了神的荣耀,和耶稣站在神的右边”,并说:“看哪,我看见天开了,人子站在神的右边“(七,55),他们跑了猛烈地向他(七,56),并投了他的城市,石头他死刑。 Stephen's stoning does not appear in the narrative of the Acts as a deed of mob violence; it must have been looked upon by those who took part in it as the carrying out of the law.斯蒂芬的用石头砸死不会出现在叙事的暴乱契据行为,它必须被后看着那些谁参加了开展法律的一部分。According to law (Leviticus 24:14), or at least its usual interpretation, Stephen had been taken out of the city; custom required that the person to be stoned be placed on an elevation from whence with his hands bound he was to be thrown down.根据法律(利未记24:14),或至少其一贯的解释,斯蒂芬已被取出来的城市;定制要求,要砸死人的双手置于海拔从何处约束他抛出下来。 It was most likely while these preparations were going on that, "falling on his knees, he cried with a loud voice, saying: "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge" (vii, 59). Meanwhile the witnesses, whose hands must be first on the person condemned by their testimony (Deuteronomy 17:7), were laying down their garments at the feet of Saul, that they might be more ready for the task devolved upon them (vii, 57). The praying martyr was thrown down; and while the witnesses were thrusting upon him "a stone as much as two men could carry", he was heard to utter this supreme prayer: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit" (vii, 58). Little did all the people present, casting stones upon him, realize that the blood they shed was the first seed of a harvest that was to cover the world.而这些准备工作将在这“,放在膝盖上的,它是最有可能,他哭了一个响亮的声音,说:”主,不在于他们负责这个罪“(七,59)与此同时,证人,谁的手中。谴责他们的证词(申命记17:7)的人必须在第一,奠定了他们的服装在扫罗的脚,他们可能更适合准备下放后,他们的任务(七,57)。祈祷烈士投掷下来;而证人是他助推“一石多达两名男子可能携带”,他听说要说出​​这种至高无上的祈祷:“主耶稣,接受我的精神”(七,58)小所做的一切在场的人,他铸造的石头,意识到,他们流下的血是一个收获的,是覆盖全球的第一的种子。

The bodies of men stoned to death were to be buried in a place appointed by the Sanhedrin.石头砸死的男子的尸体埋在一个地方公会委任。Whether in this instance the Sanhedrin insisted on its right cannot be affirmed; at any rate, "devout men" -- whether Christians or Jews, we are not told -- "took order for Stephen's funeral, and made great mourning over him" (vii, 2).无论是在这种情况下,公会坚持其权利无法得到肯定;无论如何,“虔诚的男人” - 无论是基督徒或犹太人,我们并没有被告知 - “为了斯蒂芬的葬礼,并在他取得了很大的哀悼”(七,2)。For centuries the location of St. Stephen's tomb was lost sight of, until (415) a certain priest named Lucian learned by revelation that the sacred body was in Caphar Gamala, some distance to the north of Jerusalem.几个世纪以来,圣士提反墓的位置被忽略,直到(415)有一个祭司命名卢西恩的启示了解到,神圣的身体Caphar Gamala,有些距离耶路撒冷以北。The relics were then exhumed and carried first to the church of Mount Sion, then, in 460, to the basilica erected by Eudocia outside the Damascus Gate, on the spot where, according to tradition, the stoning had taken place (the opinion that the scene of St. Stephen's martyrdom was east of Jerusalem, near the Gate called since St. Stephen's Gate, is unheard of until the twelfth century).然后挖出的文物,并进行第一次锡安山教会,那么,在460以外的大马士革门Eudocia,大殿竖立的地方,按照传统,用石头砸死的地方(的意见,圣士提反殉道现场以东耶路撒冷附近的圣士提反门,因为所谓的门,直到12世纪)闻所未闻。 The site of the Eudocian basilica was identified some twenty years ago, and a new edifice has been erected on the old foundations by the Dominican Fathers. Eudocian教堂的网站被认定大约20年前,一个新的大厦已竖立多米尼加父亲老基础。

The only first hand source of information on the life and death of St. Stephen is the Acts of the Apostles (6:1-8:2).圣士提反生命和死亡信息的唯一的第一手来源是使徒行传(6:1-8:2)。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.由查尔斯L Souvay书面的公开信息。 Transcribed by Bonnie A. Brooks.转录由邦尼阿龙 - 布鲁克斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全书,第十四卷。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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