Theravada Buddhism小乘佛教

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Theravada Buddhism, along with Mahayana Buddhism, are the two principal branches of Buddhist belief.随着大乘佛教,小乘佛教,是佛教信仰的两个主要分支。It is most widespread in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. (前身为缅甸)斯里兰卡,缅甸,老挝,柬埔寨和泰国是最普遍的。Like Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada (Pali for "School of the Elders") claims to perpetuate the true teachings and practices of the Buddha.像大乘佛教,上座部佛教(巴利文为“长老”)声称延续佛的真正教义和做法。

The Theravada school traces its descent from the original sangha, or monastic community, that first followed the Buddha.小乘学派的痕迹,从原有的僧伽,或修道界,首先遵循的佛其后裔。Its canon of scripture consists of the Tipitaka (Three Baskets), the first great compendium of Buddhist writings, composed in the Pali language. “大藏经”(三个篮子),巴利文的第一个伟大的佛教著作汇编组成,它的经文佳能由。Theravada tends toward doctrinal conservatism, exemplified in a cautious interpretation of its canon.小乘往往体现在它的佳能谨慎的解释,走向保守教条主义。Because of this, it has been given the pejorative name Hinayana (Sanskrit for "Lesser Vehicle") by its rivals, who call their own tradition Mahayana ("Greater Vehicle").正因为如此,它已经给它的竞争对手,自己的传统大乘(“大汽车”)贬义的名称小乘(梵语为“小车辆”)。The goal of the Theravadin, or devotee of Theravada, is to become an arhat, a sage who has achieved nirvana (enlightenment) and will never be reborn. ,的南传,或上座部佛教的奉献,目标是要成为一个罗汉,已取得必杀技(启蒙),绝不会得到重生的圣人。Mahayana traditionally prefers the figure of the bodhisattva - who, out of compassion, helps others toward salvation - to the arhat, who is concerned chiefly with his own salvation.大乘佛教传统上喜欢菩萨图 - 谁,出于同情,帮助别人走向救赎 - 向罗汉,谁是主要关心自己的救赎。

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Origins and Development起源与发展

Theravada was the only tradition among the so-called Eighteen Schools of early Buddhism to survive the first centuries after the Buddha's death in the 5th century BC.小乘是所谓的早期佛教18个学校中唯一生存佛陀的死亡在公元前5世纪后的第一个世纪的传统。Some authorities trace its origins to the events following the second great council of Buddhism at Vaishali, India, in 383 BC, in which novel interpretations of doctrine were condemned by conservatives - the Theras (Elders) - who thereby became the originators of Theravada orthodoxy.一些主管部门追溯其起源的事件在费沙里,印度佛教的第二大议会,公元前383年,在这种新颖的学说解释了保守派的谴责 - Theras(长者) - 从而成为上座部佛教的正统的始作俑者。The reformers, in turn, accused the conservatives of being too self-absorbed and dogmatic.改革者,反过来指责过于自我吸收和教条式的的保守派。The ideological split was confirmed at the third council, convened by King Ashoka at Pâtaliputra (now Patna, India) in about 250 BC.思想的分裂被证实在第三届理事会,召开Pâtaliputra(现在的巴特那,印度)阿育王在公元前250年左右。After that, according to tradition, the orthodox school is said to have been spread to Sri Lanka by Ashoka's son, the monk Mahinda.之后,根据传统,正统的学校是说,阿育王的儿子,和尚马欣达拉贾已传播到斯里兰卡。There it became a national creed, centered at the great monastery of Mahavihara and closely associated with the Sri Lankan monarchy.在那里,它成为一个国家的信条,在大寺的伟大寺院为中心,并密切与斯里兰卡君主制相关。 Ashoka's missionaries also spread Theravada Buddhism to Myanmar and Thailand.阿育王的传教士也传播上座部佛教的缅甸和泰国。 For much of the 1st millennium AD, Theravada existed alongside Mahayana and esoteric Buddhism in all these areas.第一千年广告,小乘大乘和密宗在所有这些领域存在一起。

While other early sects died out or were absorbed into Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada retained its identity.其他早期的教派死亡或者被吸收到大乘佛教,小乘保留其身份。Similarly, when Buddhism died out in India after the 12th century AD, Theravada kept its hold in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.同样,佛教在印度死于公元12世纪后,上座部保持其在斯里兰卡和东南亚举行。In about the 10th century, a Theravada reform movement began in Sri Lanka that consolidated the kingdom as a Theravada monarchy.大约在10世纪,一个上座部佛教的改革运动开始在斯里兰卡,合并为一个小乘君主制王国。The reform movement spread to Burma and Thailand, where it revitalized the Theravada tradition and ensured its supremacy over other Buddhist sects.改革运动蔓延到缅甸和泰国,它振兴上座部佛教的传统,并确保其优势比其他佛教宗派。 Reformers also carried the creed into Cambodia and Laos, where the geographical limits of Theravada predominance were reached.改革者也进行到柬埔寨和老挝,达成了上座部为主的地域限制的信条。Despite some Theravada followers in Vietnam and elsewhere, Mahayana Buddhism became the dominant tradition in the rest of the Buddhist world.尽管上座部佛教在越南和其他地方的一些追随者,大乘佛教成为占主导地位的传统,在佛教世界各地。

Despite the European colonialism that began in the early 19th century, Theravada continued in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, in some areas becoming identified with nascent nationalist movements.尽管欧洲殖民主义在19世纪初开始,上座部继续在斯里兰卡和东南亚,成为新生的民族主义运动所确定的一些领域。 In Sri Lanka, during the 18th and 19th centuries, Theravada split into factions, mostly over questions regarding the caste of worshippers.在斯里兰卡,在18世纪和19世纪,上座部分裂成派系,大多超过种姓信徒有关的问题。 Thailand began reform of its Theravada tradition in the 19th century as part of the general national reform initiated in response to European colonialism, and the country has remained a fertile source of Theravada reform movements.泰国上座部佛教的传统,其在19世纪的改革开始,一般在回应欧洲殖民主义的国家发起改革的一部分,该国一直是上座部佛教改革运动的肥沃源。 In the 1980s and 1990s, Theravada became an important factor in civil strife between the Buddhist Sinhalese majority and the Tamil minority of Sri Lanka, with some militant Buddhists promoting a vigorous Sinhalese nationalism.上座部佛教在20世纪80年代和90年代,成为推动一场轰轰烈烈的僧伽罗民族主义的一些激进的佛教徒,在佛教僧伽罗人占多数的斯里兰卡泰米尔少数民族之间的内乱的重要因素。 In Myanmar, Theravada has become one element of the rigidly conservative political and social policies of the country's military rulers.上座部佛教在缅甸,已经成为该国的军事统治者的保守,僵化的政治和社会政策的一个组成部分。Theravada in Laos and Cambodia suffered a setback during the Vietnam War (1959-1975) and the subsequent Communist domination but appeared to be reviving in the 1990s. Theravada has been reestablished in India in the modern era by the mass conversion to Theravada Buddhism of Harijans (the so-called Untouchables, who fall outside the traditional class divisions of Hindu society), who are attracted by Buddhism's indifference to Hindu concepts of caste.在老挝和柬埔寨在越南战争期间(1959至1975年)和随后的共产主义统治的上座部遭受了挫折,但似乎是在20世纪90年代的复苏。上座部已被重新确立了在印度的大规模转换,在现代时代小乘佛教的Harijans (所谓的贱民以外的印度社会传统的阶级划分),谁是佛教的冷漠吸引印度教种姓概念。

Organization组织

Theravada organization is in principle based on the original instructions of the Buddha as laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka, the compendium of 227 rules for monastic discipline that forms part of the Tipitaka.上座部的组织原则,是基于对佛陀的原始指令,规定在律Pitaka,227寺院纪律,形成了“大藏经”的一部分规则汇编。 Since the sangha is the core institution of Buddhism, its structure is the basis of Theravada organization.由于僧伽是佛教的核心机构,其结构是上座部组织的基础。Theravada monks were traditionally criticized by Mahayana believers for being too concerned with their own salvation and for indifference to the lay community.上座部佛教僧侣传统大乘佛教信徒的批评为过于关注自己的救赎和奠定社会漠不关心。Theravada doctrine holds that only a monk can attain nirvana and that the laity can only aspire to be reborn as a monk after many reincarnations spent discharging the burden of karma (intentional action that determines one's future destiny).上座部佛教的教义认为,只有一个和尚可以达到必杀技和俗人,只能期望为僧后履行负担因果报应(故意的行动,决定一个人的前途和命运)所花费的许多转世重生。 However, in some countries, especially Myanmar and Thailand, young men are placed in monasteries temporarily as part of their education, thus fostering lay involvement in the sangha.然而,在一些国家,特别是缅甸和泰国,男青年放置在寺院暂时作为其教育的一部分,从而促进打下参与僧伽。

Most countries with large numbers of Theravada adherents exhibit strong historical ties between the Buddhist hierarchy and the government.大量的上座部佛教信徒的大多数国家都表现出浓厚的历史佛教的层次和政府之间的关系。In such countries, Ashoka's beneficent propagation of Buddhism has been accepted as the exemplar of wise and legitimate government and as a precedent for state involvement in religious affairs.在这些国家,阿育王佛教慈善的传播已被接受为明智和合法政府的典范,并作为国家宗教事务的参与的先例。The state and the sangha are often seen as complementary and mutually supportive, ministering respectively to the secular and religious needs of the people.国家和僧伽经常被看作是相辅相成,相互支持,分别服事人民的世俗和宗教的需要。The temples themselves are loosely coordinated in most Southeast Asian countries, with little in the way of formal hierarchy between them.寺庙本身是松散的协调,在大部分东南亚国家,在它们之间的正式等级少。In early Sri Lankan Buddhism, a short-lived and limited practice of clerical marriage developed, and charge of particular temples was passed from father to son.在早期的斯里兰卡佛教的文书婚姻是短暂的,有限的实践中发展,特别是寺庙的负责是通过从父亲到儿子。

Theravada has a notable tradition of forest-dwelling hermits who exist outside the monastic organizations.小乘有显着居住在森林隐士存在的寺院组织以外的传统。In contrast to Mahayana Buddhism, since about AD 500, Theravada has had no orders of Buddhist nuns.约公元500年以来,在大乘佛教,小乘有尼姑没有订单。There is limited participation in the sangha by women and lay people, who generally wear white robes and take up asceticism (self-denial) without entering a monastic order.有僧伽是有限度的参与,妇女和奠定的人,他们一般穿白色长袍,并没有进入寺院秩序的禁欲主义(自我否定)。

Doctrine学说

Theravada claims to abide by the original teachings of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama.小乘声称遵守由历史上的佛陀,悉达多乔达摩原始教义。Theravada doctrine reveres the Buddha as a single supremely gifted, yet mortal, teacher, in contrast to the succession of transcendent beings postulated by Mahayana.上座部佛教的教义佛尊作为一个单一的超级天才,但凡人,教师,在继承超然众生的大乘假设相反。Some Theravada scriptures list other Buddhas, but in general the emphasis is on the one historical Buddha, on the grounds that no universe can bear more than one Buddha without shattering.上座部佛教经文的一些列表其他佛,但在一般强调的是一个历史上的佛陀,理由是没有宇宙可以承担一个以上的佛,没有惊天动地。

The dharma, or teachings, of the historical Buddha are usually regarded as being contained in the Tipitaka.通常被视为在“大藏经”中所载的佛法,或教义,历史上的佛陀。Unlike Mahayana, which has generated a vast number of additional sutras (scriptural texts), Theravada confines itself to this core dharma.与大乘佛教,这已经产生了大量额外的经文(经文),上座部仅仅以这个核心佛法。The Theravada canon is recorded in Pali, a dialect popular during the Buddha's lifetime.上座部佛教经典被记录在八里,在佛陀的一生中流行的方言。Other works highly esteemed in Theravada - particularly the dialogues in the Milindapanha (2nd century AD; translated as Questions of King Milinda, 1963), and the Visuddhimagga (5th century AD; Path of Purification, 1964) by the great Buddhist commentator Buddhaghosa - are regarded by most scholars as authoritative collections rather than as the fruit of further revelations of dharma (although the Milindapanha is considered canonical by the Myanmar).高度评价在上座部的其他作品 - 尤其是在Milindapanha(公元2世纪的对话;国王弥兰陀,1963年的问题),并Visuddhimagga(公元5世纪广告;路径的分离纯化,1964年)由伟大的佛教评论员觉音 - 多数学者认为,作为权威的收藏品,而不是佛法进一步揭露水果(虽然Milindapanha被认为是由缅甸的规范)。

The dharma of Theravada regards human existence as a complex of various transient aspects, also called dharmas.小乘佛法视为一个复杂的各种瞬态方面的人的存在,也被称为诸法。These dharmas are grouped in overlapping categories of 5 components (skandhas), 12 bases (ayatana), and 18 perceptual elements (dhatu).这些诸法是重叠的5组件(skandhas),12个基地(ayatana),18(dhatu)感性元素的类别分组。 The 5 components are the physical body (rupa), feelings (vedana), cognitive perception (sanna), mental predispositions (sankhara), and consciousness (vijñana). 5组件的身体(rupa),感受(感受),认知知觉(sanna),(sankhara)的心理倾向,和意识(vijñana)。The 12 bases are the 5 sensory organs with their 5 sensory fields, plus the mind and the object of mental perception.的12个基地5感觉器官5感官领域,加上头脑和心理感知的对象。The 18 elements are the 5 sensory organs plus the mind, their 6 associated objects, and the 6 so-called consciousnesses of ear, eye, nose, mouth, body, and mind.这18个元素是5感觉器官,加上头脑,他们的6个相关联的对象,而所谓的6耳,眼,鼻,嘴,身体和心灵的意识。These dharmas create a composite being not united by any enduring soul (atman) or identity: There is no self in the strict sense.这些诸法创建任何不朽的灵魂(阿特曼)或身份不团结的复合:没有严格意义上的自我。The Theravadin endeavors to manipulate the dharmas so as to suspend the action of karma and thereby to achieve nirvana.向南的努力来操纵的诸法,以暂停因果报应的行动,从而实现必杀技。Theravada is therefore less a philosophical doctrine than an almost scientific discipline, although it depends on a complex cosmology of cyclical, multiple worlds and an involved scheme of reincarnation.小乘因此少一个比一个几乎是科学学科的哲学学说,尽管它取决于一个周期性的,多的世界复杂的宇宙和一个轮回计划。



Also, see:此外,见:
Buddhism 佛教

Mahayana Buddhism大乘佛教

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism

Tantra tantra


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