Saint Thomas圣托马斯

General Information一般资料

One of the original 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ, Thomas, called Didymus, refused to believe in the testimony of the other Apostles concerning the resurrection of Jesus until he saw the wounds of the resurrected Christ himself (John 20:24, 25, 26-29).原来的12使徒耶稣基督,托马斯,一个名为Didymus,拒绝相信,直到他看到了复活的基督自己(约翰20时24分,25,26的伤口中关于耶稣复活的其他使徒的见证 - 29)。From this comes the expression "doubting Thomas."“怀疑托马斯表达来源于此。”Thomas earlier had expressed great devotion (John 11:16) and a questioning mind (John 14:5).托马斯早前表示了极大的奉献(约翰福音11:16)和质疑头脑(约翰福音14:5)。

Eusebius of Caesarea records that Thomas became a missionary to Parthia.尤西比乌斯撒利亚记录,托马斯成为一个传教士,以安息。The Acts of Thomas (3d century), however, states that he was martyred in India.托马斯的行为(3D世纪),然而,他是烈属,在印度的国家。The Malabar Christians claim that their church was founded by him.马拉巴尔基督徒声称,他们的教会是由他创立的的。This tradition can neither be substantiated nor denied on the basis of current evidence.这个传统可以既不证实也不否认,目前的证据的基础上,。Saint Thomas' Mount in Madras is the traditional site of his martyrdom.圣托马斯在马德拉斯山是他的殉难传统网站。Feast day: July 3 (Western and Syrian); Oct. 6 (Eastern).节日:7月3日(西方和叙利亚),10月6日(东区)。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Griffith, Leonard, Gospel Characters (1976); Perumalil, Hormice C., and Hambye, ER, eds., Christianity in India (1973).格里菲斯,伦纳德,福音字符(1976);。Perumalil,Hormice C.,Hambye,ER,EDS,基督教在印度(1973年)。

Saint Thomas圣托马斯

Advanced Information先进的信息

Thomas, twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.).托马斯,双十二(太10:3;马克3时18分,等等)。He was also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name.他也被称为Didymus(约11点16; 20:24),这是希腊相当于希伯来文的名字。All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24, 25, 26-29).我们所知道的关于他的记录在第四福音(约翰福音11:15,16; 14:4,5; 20时24分,25日,26日至29日)。From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.从使徒的名单中,他总是提到沿与马太,亚勒腓的儿子(马可福音3:18),并的情况下,这两个始终遵循由詹姆斯,谁也亚勒腓的儿子,一直假定这三个,马太,托马斯和詹姆斯,是兄弟。

St. Thomas the Apostle圣托马斯使徒

Catholic Information天主教信息

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his personality is clearer to us than that of some others of the Twelve.记录圣托马斯使徒小,但由于他的个性是比十二有些人对我们更清晰的第四福音。His name occurs in all the lists of the Synoptists (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6, cf. Acts 1:13), but in St. John he plays a distinctive part.他的名字出现在所有的Synoptists名单(马太福音10:3;马克3:18;路加福音6,比照徒1:13),但他在圣约翰扮演一个独特的部分。 First, when Jesus announced His intention of returning to Judea to visit Lazarus, "Thomas" who is called Didymus [the twin], said to his fellow disciples: "Let us also go, that we may die with him" (John 11:16).首先,当耶稣宣布他打算返回朱迪亚访问拉撒路,“托马斯”谁是所谓Didymus的[双]时,他的同胞弟子说:“让我们也去,我们可能会死于与他”(约翰福音11: 16)。Again it was St. Thomas who during the discourse before the Last Supper raised an objection: "Thomas saith to him: Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way?"再次,它是前“最后的晚餐”话语期间提出了异议:“托马斯说:他的圣托马斯:主,我们知道不是你往那里去;我们如何能知道的方式?” (John 14:5).(约翰福音14:5)。 But more especially St. Thomas is remembered for his incredulity when the other Apostles announced Christ's Resurrection to him: "Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe" (John 20:25); but eight days later he made his act of faith, drawing down the rebuke of Jesus: "Because thou hast seen me, Thomas, thou hast believed; blessed are they that have not seen, and have believed" (John 20:29).但更特别是圣托马斯是记住他的怀疑,当其他使徒宣布基督的复活他:“除在他的手里,我会看到打印的指甲,并放入我的手指指甲的地方,并把我的手到他身边,我不会相信“(约翰福音20:25),但八天以后,他做了他的信仰行为,耶稣斥责:”因为祢看到我,托马斯,祢相信,祝福他们没有见过的,并相信“(约翰福音20:29)。

This exhausts all our certain knowledge regarding the Apostle but his name is the starting point of a considerable apocryphal literature, and there are also certain historical data which suggest that some of this apocryphal material may contains germs of truth.这耗尽我们所有的使徒一定的知识,但他的名字是一个相当大的猜测文学的起点,也有一定的历史数据表明,这一未经证实的材料可能包含真理的细菌。 The principal document concerning him is the "Acta Thomae", preserved to us with some variations both in Greek and in Syriac, and bearing unmistakeable signs of its Gnostic origin.有关他的主要文件是“文献Thomae”,无论是在希腊和在叙利亚的一些变化,我们保留了,和其诺斯底出身的轴承无疑的迹象。 It may indeed be the work of Bardesanes himself.它可能确实是Bardesanes自己的工作。The story in many of its particulars is utterly extravagant, but it is the early date, being assigned by Harnack (Chronologie, ii, 172) to the beginning of the third century, before AD 220.在它的许多详情故事是完全的奢侈,但它是早日哈纳克(Chronologie,II,172)被分配到的第三个世纪开始,在公元220年之前,。 If the place of its origin is really Edessa, as Harnack and others for sound reasons supposed (ibid., p. 176), this would lend considerable probability to the statement, explicitly made in "Acta" (Bonnet, cap. 170, p.286), that the relics of Apostle Thomas, which we know to have been venerated at Edessa, had really come from the East.哈尔纳克和其他人的声音应该的原因(同上,第176页),如果它的起源地是真的埃德萨,这将给予相当大的概率的声明,明确提出在“文献”(帽子,第170,P 0.286),使徒托马斯,这是我们知道已经在埃德萨崇敬,文物真正从东方来。The extravagance of the legend may be judged from the fact that in more than one place (cap. 31, p. 148) it represents Thomas (Judas Thomas, as he is called here and elsewhere in Syriac tradition) as the twin brother of Jesus.传说中的铺张浪费,可以判断从事实上,在多个地方(第31章,第148页),它代表托马斯(犹大托马斯,因为他在叙利亚的传统在这里和其他地方被称为耶稣的孪生兄弟) 。The Thomas in Syriac is equivalant to didymos in Greek, and means twin.托马斯在叙利亚希腊didymos等效,意味着双。Rendel Harris who exaggerates very much the cult of the Dioscuri, wishes to regards this as a transformation of a pagan worship of Edessa but the point is at best problematical. rendel哈里斯夸大非常邪教的Dioscuri,希望作为异教崇拜的埃德萨改造,但问题是最好的有问题的。The story itself runs briefly as follows: At the division of the Apostles, India fell to the lot of Thomas, but he declared his inability to go, whereupon his Master Jesus appeared in a supernatural way to Abban, the envoy of Gundafor, an Indian king, and sold Thomas to him to be his slave and serve Gundafor as a carpender.故事本身运行简述如下:在使徒分工,印度下降到很多的托马斯,但他宣称,他不能去,于是他的主耶稣Abban,Gundafor特使,印度出现一种超自然的方式王,出售托马斯,他是他的奴隶,作为一个carpender Gundafor。Then Abban and Thomas sailed away until they came to Andrapolis, where they landed and attended the marriage feast of the ruler's daughter.然后Abban和托马斯航行距离,直到他们来到Andrapolis,他们登陆的地方,并出席了统治者的女儿的婚宴。 Strange occurences followed and Christ under the appearence of Thomas exhorted the bride to remain a Virgin.奇怪的出现和托马斯的外观下,基督告诫新娘仍然是一个处​​女。Coming to India Thomas undertook to build a palace for Gundafor, but spend the money entrusted to him on the poor.来到印度托马斯承诺建立一个Gundafor宫殿,但对穷人的钱托付给他的花。Gundafor imprisoned him; but the Apostle escaped miraculously and Gundafor was converted. Gundafor囚禁他,但使徒逃脱奇迹般地Gundafor被转换。Going about the country to preach, Thomas met with strange adventures from dragons and wild asses.托马斯宣讲有关国家,会见了来自龙和野驴奇怪的冒险。Then he came to the city of King Misdai (Syriac Mazdai), where he converted Tertia the wife of Misdai and Vazan his son.然后,他来到国王Misdai(叙利亚文Mazdai),在那里他皈依Tertia Misdai和Vazan他的儿子的妻子的城市。After this he was condemed to death, led out of city to a hill, and pierced through with spears by four soldiers.在此之后,他condemed死亡,导致城市一座小山,并通过由四名士兵用长矛刺穿。He was buried in the tomb of the ancient kings but his remains were afterwards removed to the West.他被安葬在古代帝王的陵墓,但事后他的遗体被删除,以西方。

Now it is certainly a remarkable fact that about the year AD 46 a king was reigning over that part of Asia south of Himalayas now represented by Afghanistan, Baluchistan, the Punjab, and Sind, who bore the name Gondophernes or Guduphara.现在,它无疑是一个显着的事实,约公元46国王,亚洲现在,阿富汗,俾路支省,旁遮普省和信德省,谁承担的名称Gondophernes或Guduphara代表的喜马拉雅山南部的部分卫冕。 This we know both from the discovery of coins, some of the Parthian type with Greek legends, others of the Indian types with the legends in an Indian dialect in Kharoshthi characters.我们知道,从发现的硬币,一些帕提亚与希腊传说中,与在印度Kharoshthi字符方言的传说,印度类型的其他类型的两个。 Despite sundry minor variations the identity of the name with the Gundafor of the "Acta Thomae" is unmistakable and is hardly disputed.尽管各式各样的微小变化的“文献Thomae”Gundafor的名称的身份是明白无误的,是几乎没有争议。Further we have the evidence of the Takht-i-Bahi inscription, which is dated and which the best specialists accept as establishing the King Gunduphara probably began to reign about AD 20 and was still reigning in 46.此外,我们已经塔赫特 - I - Bahi题词,这是过时和最好的专家,建立国王Gunduphara可能开始在位约公元20和46卫冕接受的证据。Again there are excellent reasons for believing that Misdai or Mazdai may well be transformation of a Hindu name made on the Iranian soil.同样也有充分的理由相信Misdai或Mazdai可能是印度教的名称作出了对伊朗的土壤改造。 In this case it will probably represent a certain King Vasudeva of Mathura, a successor of Kanishka.在这种情况下,它可能会代表一定的马图拉国王瓦苏戴瓦,伽腻色迦继任。No doubt it can be urged that the Gnostic romancer who wrote the "Acta Thomae" may have adopted a few historical Indian names to lend verisimilitude to his fabrication, but as Mr. Fleet urges in his severely critical paper "the names put forward here in connection with St.Thomas are distinctly not such as have lived in Indian story and tradition" (Joul. of R. Asiatic Soc.,1905, p.235).毫无疑问,它可以敦促诺斯底romancer是谁写的“文献Thomae”,可能已经采取了一些历史的印度名字借给他制作的逼真,但作为舰队先生在他的极为关键的文件敦促“的名字在这里提出与St.Thomas明显不是一直住在印度的故事和传统“(R.亚洲SOC Joul.,1905年,p.235)。

On the other hand, though the tradition that St. Thomas preached in "India" was widely spread in both East and West and is to be found in such writers as Ephraem Syrus, Ambrose, Paulinus, Jerome, and, later Gregory of Tours and others, still it is difficult to discover any adequate support for the long-accepted belief that St. Thomas pushed his missionary journeys as far south as Mylapore, not far from Madras, and there suffered martyrdom.另一方面,虽然圣托马斯鼓吹“印度”在东方和西方的广泛的传播和传统Ephraem Syrus,刘汉铨,Paulinus,杰罗姆,后来旅游格雷戈里和等作家其他人,仍然很难发现任何长期接受的信念足够的支持圣托马斯推他的传教旅程,作为远南部作为Mylapore,不远处的马德拉斯,并有殉道。 In that region is still to be found a granite bas-relief cross with a Pahlavi (ancient Persian) inscription dating from the seventh century, and the tradition that it was here that St. Thomas laid down his life is locally very strong.在该地区仍然可以找到一个巴列维(古代波斯)从第七世纪的碑文,以及传统,正是在这里,圣托马斯舍命是当地非常强的花岗岩浮雕交叉。 Certain it is also that on the Malabar or west coast of southern India a body of Christians still exists using a form of Syriac for its liturgical language.它也是在印度南部马拉巴尔或西海岸的基督徒的身体仍然存在,其礼仪语言使用的叙利亚文的形式。Whether this Church dates from the time of St. Thomas the Apostle (there was a Syro-Chaldean bishop John "from India and Persia" who assisted at the Council of Nicea in 325) or whether the Gospel was first preached there in 345 owing to the Persian persecution under Shapur (or Sapor), or whether the Syrian missionaries who accompanied a certain Thomas Cana penetrated to the Malabar coast about the year 745 seems difficult to determine.这是否教会圣托马斯使徒时的日期(有一个Syro底主教约翰“从印度和波斯的”谁在325年的尼西亚会协助),或是否福音首次鼓吹3​​45,由于有波斯迫害下Shapur(或Sapor),还是叙利亚传教士的陪同一定托马斯塔卡纳侵入到马拉巴尔海岸大约一年745似乎难以确定。 We know only that in the sixth century Cosmas Indicopleustes speaks of the existence of Christians at Male (? Malabar) under a bishop who had been consecrated in Persia.我们只知道,在第六世纪科斯马斯Indicopleustes在马累(马拉巴尔)根据一名曾在波斯奉献主教谈到基督徒的存在。 King Alfred the Great is stated in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" to have sent an expedition to establish relations with these Christians of the Far East.国王阿尔弗雷德大帝说的“盎格鲁 - 撒克逊编年史”,派出远征建立与远东的这些基督徒关系。On the other hand the reputed relics of St. Thomas were certainly at Edessa in the fourth century, and there they remained until they were translated to Chios in 1258 and towards to Ortona.另一方面,知名的文物的圣托马斯肯定在埃德萨在第四世纪,在那里,他们保持,直到他们被翻译到1258年的希俄斯对以Ortona。 The improbable suggestion that St. Thomas preached in America (American Eccles. Rev., 1899, pp.1-18) is based upon a misunderstanding of the text of the Acts of Apostles (i, 8; cf. Berchet "Fonte italiane per la storia della scoperta del Nuovo Mondo", II, 236, and I, 44).圣托马斯鼓吹在美洲(美国埃克尔斯牧师,1899年,,1 - 18)不大可能的建议是基于一个使徒(我,8的行为文本的误解;比照Berchet“Fonte酒店italiane每LA走势图历史德拉scoperta DEL的Nuovo盟“,第二,236,和我,44)。

Besides the "Acta Thomae" of which a different and notably shorter redaction exists in Ethiopic and Latin, we have an abbreviated form of a so-called "Gospel of Thomas" originally Gnostic, as we know it now merely a fantastical history of the childhood of Jesus, without any notably heretical colouring.除了“文献Thomae”在衣索比亚和拉丁美洲,我们有一个所谓的最初诺斯底“托马斯福音”的缩写形式,因为我们知道它现在只是一个童年的幻想历史存在的不同,特别是较短的节录耶稣,没有任何特别是邪教的着色。 There is also a "Revelatio Thomae", condemned as apocryphal in the Degree of Pope Gelasius, which has recently been recovered from various sources in a fragmentary condition (see the full text in the Revue benedictine, 1911, pp. 359-374).也有一个“Revelatio Thomae”,在教皇格拉西,最近已经从各种来源零碎条件(见全文评论本笃,1911年,第359-374)收回的程度为杜撰的谴责。

Publication information Written by Herbert Thurston.赫伯特瑟斯顿编写的出版物信息。Transcribed by Mary and Joseph Thomas.转录由玛利亚和约瑟夫托马斯。In Memory of Ella Barkyoumb The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.云裳Barkyoumb天主教百科全书,卷第十四记忆。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

The Apostle Thomas使徒托马斯

Orthodox Information东正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息的信奉的其他文章的学术质量。由于少数东正教学术文章已被译成英文翻译,我们都不得不依靠作为源东正教的Wiki。以来的维基百科集合做不注明作者的姓名的文章,而且基本上任何人自由编辑或改变任何自己的文章(再没有什么改变,或改变它的任何指示),我们有顾虑。然而,为了在我们的一些主题,包括东正教的角度介绍,我们发现有必要做到这一点。,至少要等到实际学术东正教文本翻译从希腊原件!)

The holy, glorious and all-laudable Apostle Thomas is included in the number of the holy Twelve Apostles of the Savior.使徒托马斯神圣,光荣和所有的值得称道的是救主神圣的十二使徒。He is commemorated on October 6 and on June 30 with the Synaxis of the Glorious and All-Praiseworthy Twelve Apostles of Christ.他是为了纪念10月6日和6月30日与基督的光荣,所有的值得称道的的十二使徒Synaxis。


The Apostle Thomas was born in the Galileian city of Pansada and was a fisherman.使徒托马斯出生在Pansada Galileian城市,是一个渔民。Hearing the good tidings of Jesus Christ, he left all and followed after him.听到耶稣基督的好消息,他离开后,他跟随。

According to Holy Scripture, the holy Apostle Thomas did not believe the reports of the other disciples about the Resurrection of Jesus Christ: "Unless I see in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will not believe" (John 20:25).根据圣经,神圣的使徒托马斯不相信耶稣基督复活的其他弟子的报告:“除非我在看到他的双手指甲打印,并放入我的手指指甲打印,并他一边塞进我的手,我不会相信“(约翰福音20:25)。

On the eighth day after the Resurrection, the Lord appeared to the Apostle Thomas and showed him His wounds.在复活后的第八天,上帝似乎使徒托马斯拿给他看他的伤口。"My Lord and my God," the Apostle cried out (John 20:28).“我的主,我的上帝,”使徒哭了出来(约翰福音20:28)。"Thomas, being once weaker in faith than the other apostles," says St John Chrysostom, "toiled through the grace of God more bravely, more zealously and tirelessly than them all, so that he went preaching over nearly all the earth, not fearing to proclaim the Word of God to savage nations." “托马斯,在信仰一旦被弱于其他使徒,说:”圣约翰金口,“劳苦功高通过上帝的恩典更勇敢,更热忱和不懈努力,比他们所有,让他去说教过几乎所有的地球,不怕宣讲神的话语,以野蛮的国家。“ Some icons depicting this event are inscribed "The Doubting Thomas."描绘这一事件的一些图标题写的“托马斯的怀疑。”This is incorrect.这是不正确的的。In Greek, the inscription reads, "The Touching of Thomas."在希腊,碑文曰,“触摸托马斯。”In Slavonic, it says, "The Belief of Thomas."在斯拉夫语,它说,“托马斯的信念。”When St Thomas touched the Life-giving side of the Lord, he no longer had any doubts.圣托马斯触及的上帝赋予生命的一面,当他不再有任何疑虑。

According to Church Tradition, the holy Apostle Thomas founded Christian churches in Palestine, Mesopotamia, Parthia, Ethiopia and India.根据教会的传统中,神圣的使徒托马斯成立基督教教堂,在巴勒斯坦,美索不达米亚,安息,埃塞俄比亚和印度。Church Traditon also indicates that Apostle Thomas baptized the Magicitation needed.教会Traditon也表示,使徒托马斯受洗Magicitation需要。Preaching the Gospel earned him a martyr's death.传福音,为他赢得了一个烈士的死亡。For having converted the wife and son of the prefect of the Indian city of Meliapur (Melipur), the holy apostle was locked up in prison, suffered torture, and finally, pierced with five spears, he departed to the Lord.对于有转换的妻子和儿子的知府Meliapur(Melipur)印度城市,神圣的使徒被锁定在监狱里,遭受酷刑,最后,与五个长矛刺穿,他离开了主。 Part of the relics of the holy Apostle Thomas are in India, in Hungary and on Mt.在印度,匈牙利和阿里山的圣使徒托马斯的部分文物。 Athos.阿托斯。The name of the Apostle Thomas is associated with the Arabian (or Arapet) Icon of the Mother of God (September 6).使徒托马斯的名字是与天主之母的阿拉伯(或Arapet)图标(9月6日)。


Troparion (Tone 2)Troparion(音2)

You were a disciple of Christ你是一个基督的门徒
And a member of the divine college of Apostles.使徒的神圣学院的成员。
Having been weak in faith you doubted the Resurrection of Christ.在信仰薄弱,你怀疑基督的复活。
But by feeling the wounds you believed in His all-pure passion:但通过的感觉,相信在他的一切纯粹的激情的伤口:
Pray now to Him, O all-praised Thomas to grant us peace and great mercy.他祈祷现在,O的所有称赞托马斯给予我们的和平与大悲。

Kontakion (Tone 4)集祷颂(音4)

Thomas, the faithful servant and disciple of Christ,托马斯,忠实的仆人和基督的门徒,
Filled with divine grace, cried out from the depth of his love:充满神的恩典,从他的爱的深度哭了出来:
You are my Lord and my God!你是我的主,我的上帝!


Holy, Glorious Apostle Thomas (OCA)神圣,光荣的使徒托马斯(亚奥理事会)

External links外部链接

Thomas the Apostle of the 12 (GOARCH)托马斯12使徒(GOARCH)
The Holy Apostle Thomas (Prologue of Ohrid)圣使徒托马斯(奥赫里德的序言)
Icon and Story of St. Thomas, Holy & Glorious Apostle图标和圣托马斯,神圣和光荣的使徒的故事

St. Thomas圣托马斯

Coptic Orthodox Information科普特东正教信息

Thomas was also known as Didymus.托马斯也被称为Didymus。From Hebrew and Greek words, both names meaning a twin.从希伯来文和希腊的话,这两个名字的意义了双胞胎。Some have gone to great lengths to determine who his twin was.有些竭尽全力,以确定他的双胞胎是谁。Because his name is paired with that of Matthew, there are those who suggest that they may have been twins.因为他的名字是与马修配对,有那些建议,他们可能已经双胞胎。It is best to say that we don't know who Thomas' twin was.最好是说,我们不知道托马斯的双胞胎是谁。

Although he is not as well known as some of the other disciples, most people are familiar with the expression "Doubting Thomas," an expression which has described this man since the first Easter.虽然他不是,以及一些其他的门徒,大多数人都熟悉的表达“怀疑托马斯,”描述以来的首次复活节这名男子表达。We don't have information about Thomas' call to discipleship.我们没有对托马斯的调用门徒的信息。He simply appears in the listings of the Twelve.他只是出现在十二目录。We do learn something of the man from the three times he appears in the gospel records.我们学习东西的男子从他出现在福音中记录的三倍。

Characteristics of This Disciple这个徒弟的特点

Thomas was not a coward.托马斯是不是一个懦夫。He demonstrates his courageous nature when the other disciples were trying to keep Jesus from going to Bethany to raise Lazarus from the dead.他证明了他勇敢的本性,当其他弟子们试图让耶稣从伯大尼提高拉撒路从死。 People in that area had tried to stone Jesus the last time he was there (John 11:8).在这方面的人曾试图石耶稣最后一次,他在那里(约翰福音11:8)。Now when Jesus insisted on returning, it is Thomas who boldly exhorts his companions, "Let us also go, that we die with him" (John 11:16).现在,当耶稣返回坚持,这是托马斯大胆地劝告他的同伴,“让我们也去,我们与他死”(约翰福音11:16)。

At a time when there are many who allow Jesus only a limited role in their lives - Sunday morning Christians, Christmas and Easter Christians - Thomas expresses his willingness to die with Christ.在的时候,有许多人让耶稣在他们的生活只是一个有限的角色 - 周日上午基督徒,圣诞节,复活节基督徒 - 托马斯表示他愿意与基督同死。Years later he apparently did just that.年后,他显然没有这一点。

It was Thomas who, in response to Jesus' announcement that they knew where he was going, said, "Lord, we don't know where you are going; so how can we know the way?"这是托马斯回应耶稣的公告说,他们知道他要去哪里,说:“主,我们不知道你要去哪里,所以我们又怎能知道的方式吗?”Jesus used that question to point to himself as the Way, the Truth and the Life (John 14:5-6).耶稣用这个问题指向自己的道路,真理和生命(约翰福音14:5-6)。Note that Thomas is honest.请注意,托马斯是诚实的。He doesn't understand what Jesus was talking about and he says so.他不明白耶稣说的是,他是这么说的。In so doing, he also gets to hear Jesus' explanation.在这样做时,他也得到听到耶稣的解释。The most famous incident involving Thomas comes on the first Easter Sunday when Jesus appeared to his disciples behind locked doors.最有名的事件,涉及托马斯的第一个复活​​节的主日,当耶稣出现上锁的门后面他的弟子。 Thomas was absent.托马斯是缺席。 His reaction to the news that Jesus had risen from the tomb earned him his nickname for all times, "Doubting Thomas."耶稣从坟墓中复活的消息,他的反应为他赢得了他所有时间的昵称,“怀疑的托马斯。”(John 20:24-29) Jesus gives Thomas a second chance a week later and Thomas responds, "My Lord and my God!" (约翰福音20:24-29)耶稣给托马斯的第二次机会一个星期后,托马斯回答说:“我的主,我的上帝!”

Thomas may have been a bit slow, but he was no fool.托马斯可能已经有点慢,但他没有傻瓜。Like so many today, he wanted indisputable proof and he got it.像今天这么多,他想不争的证明,他得到了它。Like Judas, Thomas' reaction has earned him contempt as others review what happened.犹大一样,托马斯的反应为他赢得了为他人审核发生了什么事的蔑视。It is interesting that there is no condemnation of Thomas in the Bible, only Jesus' urgent plea to stop doubting and believe.有趣的是,有没有在“圣经”托马斯的谴责,只有耶稣的“紧急呼吁停止怀疑和相信。Thomas is proof that the questioning, probing, even doubting mind can find the answers it is looking for only in one place - the living Savior Jesus Christ.托马斯是证据的质疑,探索,甚至怀疑心态,它是只在一个地方可以找到答案 - 生活救主耶稣基督。

Outside of Scripture: Tradition records that Thomas traveled to the east and spread the gospel through Parthia, Persia and India.以外的经文:传统的记录,托马斯前往东部和通过安息,波斯和印度的传播福音。One tradition has the Savior appearing to Thomas and sending him to India.一个传统的救世主出现托马斯和派遣他到印度。To get there he hired himself as a slave to an Indian merchant and sailed to India.要到那里,他雇用了作为一个奴隶自己的印度商人,航行到印度。There he entered the service of King Gondophares.在那里,他进入国王Gondophares服务。

In India he met his death near Bombay, where he was martyred.他在印度孟买附近,他以身殉国的地方会见了他的死亡。Death came via a spear or lance which was stabbed through his body while he was kneeling in prayer.这是通过他的身体,而他跪在祈祷刺伤通过矛或枪死亡了。

Thomas legends are numerous in India.托马斯的传说是在印度众多。There are Thomas Churches and Thomas Christians.有托马斯教堂和托马斯基督徒。Thomas' symbol shows a spear and a carpenter's square.托马斯“的象征,显示了一个矛和一个曲尺。The spear or lance suggests the instrument which led to his death.矛或枪表明仪器而导致他的死亡。Some say the carpenter's square in the symbol refers to Thomas building a church at Malipar in India with his own hands.有人说,木匠的符号平方米,是指托马斯用他自己的双手建设一个Malipar在印度的教会。Others contend the square is a reference to an ancient story that Thomas built a palace for King Gondophares in India.其他人则在广场,是一个古老的故事,托马斯建立了一个为国王在印度Gondophares王宫。

James F. Korthals詹姆斯F Korthals

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

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