Umayyads倭马亚王朝

General Information一般资料

The Umayyads were an Islamic dynasty established by the caliph Muawiyah I (Mu'awiya) in 661.伍玛亚德一个伊斯兰王朝哈里发穆阿维耶我(Mu'awiya)成立于661。An earlier caliph, Uthman (r. 644-56), had been a member of the powerful Umayyad clan, but he was murdered and replaced by Ali.较早的哈里发欧斯曼(河644-56),已被强大的倭马亚家族的成员,但他是被人谋杀和阿里取代。When Muawiyah, previously governor of Syria, seized the caliphate, he made the succession hereditary and thus inaugurated dynastic rule.当穆阿维耶,以前的叙利亚总督,查获哈里发,他继承世袭,从而开创王朝的统治。 From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyad caliphs ruled a vast empire, extending from Europe to India, until 750.从在首都大马士革的倭马亚哈里发统治一个庞大帝国,从欧洲到印度,直到750。Thereafter the line continued in Spain until 1031.此后该行继续在西班牙,直到1031。

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In place of the theocratic government of the early caliphs, Muawiyah created a more autocratic and secular regime, which sought to maintain the privileges of the Arabs and the fruits of their conquests.在早期的哈里发政教合一政府,穆阿维耶创造一个更加专制和世俗政权,力求保持特权的阿拉伯人和他们征服的成果。 Islam was reserved as a privilege of the Arabs and was not forced upon the conquered peoples, whose society was preserved and strongly influenced the government, art, and economy of the dynasty.伊斯兰教是保留作为阿拉伯人的特权,是不以强迫被征服的人民,被保留,并强烈地影响了政府的社会,艺术,和王朝的经济。 In government, Muawiyah adopted the bureaucratic structure of the former Byzantine state as well as hereditary succession.在政府,穆阿维耶通过前的拜占庭式的国家的官僚结构以及世袭继承。In art and architecture a similar adaptation was made; the most important innovation was the mosque.在艺术和建筑类似的适应是最重要的创新是清真寺。

A policy of continuous expansion, reaching its maximum extent under al-Walid I (r. 705-15), brought northwest Africa, Spain, western India, and portions of Central Asia into the Islamic empire and added greatly to Umayyad wealth.一个不断扩张的政策,达到其最大程度的瓦利德我(R. 705-15)下,伊斯兰帝国带入非洲西北部,西班牙,印度西部和中亚的部分,大大增加倭马亚财富。This expansion was the result of an efficient Syrian army and a powerful navy.这种扩张是一个有效率的叙利亚军队和一支强大的海军的结果。The Umayyad period was characterized by Arabization--the spread and intermarriage of Arabs with native peoples and the adoption of Arabic as the common language within the empire.倭马亚时期的特点是阿拉伯化 - 阿拉伯人的传播和与当地民族通婚通过在帝国的共同语言和阿拉伯语。The dynasty collapsed because of internal tribal and geographical rivalries and a return to the principles of Islam as the foundation of the state.王朝的崩溃是因为部落和地域的内部竞争和恢复伊斯兰教作为国家的基础原则。It was overthrown by the Abbasids, who massacred most members of the family.它被推翻的阿巴斯王朝,屠杀了大部分家庭成员。The Umayyad dynasty survived only in Spain, where Abd Al-Rahman I founded (756) the Umayyad emirate (later caliphate) of Cordoba.倭马亚王朝存活仅在西班牙,阿卜杜勒 - 拉赫曼,我成立(756)倭马亚酋长国(后来哈里发)的科尔多瓦。

Michael W. Dols迈克尔W。DOLS

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Shaban, MA, The Abbasid Revolution (1970) and Islamic History AD 600-750 (1971).沙班,马,阿拔斯王朝的革命(1970年)和伊斯兰历史公元600-750(1971)。


Umayyads倭马亚王朝

General Information一般资料

Umayyad, also Omayyad, first great Arab Muslim dynasty of caliphs (religious and secular leaders) founded by Muawiyah I in 661 and lasting until 750.倭马亚,也Omayyad,第一个伟大的阿拉伯穆斯林王朝的哈里发(宗教和世俗领袖)创办穆阿维耶我在661和750,直到持久。 Uthman ibn Affan, a member of the prominent Umayyad family of Mecca, had been elected to the caliphate in 644 to succeed Umar I, but his weakness and nepotism resulted in rebellion and he was murdered in 656.奥斯曼本阿凡,一个突出的麦加倭马亚家族的成员,曾当选为哈里发在644成功欧麦尔我,但他的弱点和裙带关系,导致叛乱,他在656谋杀。 Uthman was succeeded by Ali, son-in-law of the prophet Muhammad and chief of the legitimist party, which believed that only a member of Muhammad's family could rightfully hold the caliphate.奥斯曼成功阿里,女婿的先知穆罕默德和正统党,认为只有穆罕默德的家庭成员可以理所当然地举行哈里发首席。However, Muawiyah I, governor of Syria and first Umayyad caliph, revolted against Ali and, supported by Amr, the conqueror of Egypt, gained the advantage.然而,对阿里,叙利亚和第一倭马亚哈里发州长,穆阿维耶我起兵,支持AMR,征服者埃及,获得了优势。Hailed as caliph at Jerusalem in 660, Muawiyah I was in complete control soon after the assassination of Ali the following year.被誉为哈里发在耶路撒冷为660,穆阿维耶我是在完全控制后不久,阿里被暗杀次年。Under Muawiyah I the capital was changed from Medina to Damascus.根据穆阿维耶我的资金是从麦地那大马士革。Muawiyah I developed an administrative system modeled after the Byzantine Empire and before his death in 680 had secured the throne for his son, thus putting the state on a dynastic basis.穆阿维耶我开发的行政管理体制为蓝本后,拜占庭帝国和他的死亡在680之前已获得儿子的宝座,从而把一个朝代的基础上的国家。 Conquest was begun again with an offensive on all fronts.征服开始再次在各条战线上的进攻。Under Muawiyah I and his Umayyad successors, Muslim control of the Mediterranean region was completed.根据穆阿维耶我和他的倭马亚接班人,地中海地区的穆斯林控制完成。The Arabs, led by a fierce North African Berber army commanded by Tariq, crossed from North Africa and eventually conquered Spain; in the east they met no effective opposition until they had passed the borders of India.阿拉伯人,一场激烈的北非柏柏尔军队领导指挥塔里克,越过来自北非和最终征服了西班牙,在东部他们没有遇到任何有效的反对,直到他们已通过印度的边界。 They were stopped in the west by the Franks under Charles Martel and by the Byzantine Empire, which repulsed an attack on Constantinople early in the 8th century.他们停止了在西部,根据查理马特法兰克人和拜占庭帝国,早在公元8世纪击退了对君士坦丁堡的攻击。

Under the Umayyad dynasty, political and social ascendancy remained in the hands of a few Arab families from Mecca and Medina.在倭马亚王朝,政治和社会的优势仍然在从麦加和麦地那的一些阿拉伯家庭的手中。This caused the Muslim population, which had grown enormously as the empire expanded, to become increasingly discontented, especially since the Umayyads had found it necessary to increase their income from taxation.这造成的穆斯林人口,大大增加了帝国的扩张,变得越来越不满,特别是因为,伍玛亚德人认为有必要增加税收收入。 Lands were now taxed without regard to religion, and Muslims were exempt only from personal taxes.征税的土地,现在没有关于宗教和穆斯林只能从个人所得税免征。Opposition centered in Persia where there was continued opposition to Syrian domination and where the legitimists allied themselves with the Abbasids, who claimed descent from Abbas, the uncle of the prophet Muhammad.反对派集中在波斯那里继续反对对叙利亚的统治legitimists专职自己与阿巴斯王朝,曾声称阿巴斯的后裔,先知穆罕默德的叔叔。 The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750, killed the caliph, Marwan II, and gained the caliphate for themselves.在750年,阿巴斯王朝推翻倭马亚王朝,杀死哈里发,马尔万二,并获得了自己的哈里发。Members of the Umayyad family were located and slain, except for Abd-ar-Rahman I, who escaped to Córdoba, Spain, in 756 to rule as an independent emir.位于倭马亚家族成员,除了阿卜杜拉AR拉赫曼我逃脱756科尔多瓦,西班牙,作为一个独立的埃米尔统治和被杀害的。The Abbasids moved the capital of the empire eastward to a new city, Baghdâd, which they founded on the Tigris River.阿巴斯王朝移动帝国的首都,东到一个新的城市,巴格达,他们在底格里斯河上创立。


Umayyad Dynasty倭马亚王朝

General Information一般资料

The Umayyad Dynasty ( ummawiyy ) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Makkah clan.倭马亚王朝(ummawiyy)谁不穆罕默德本人密切相关的先知穆罕默德哈里发的第一个王朝,但他们相同的麦加氏族。 The first dynasty reigned from 661 to 750.第一个王朝的统治从661到750。

Muawiyah had been the governor of Syria under the 3rd and 4th caliphs, Uthman ibn Affan and Ali Ben Abu Talib.穆阿维耶已在第三和第四的哈里发,奥斯曼本阿凡和阿里本阿布利布叙利亚总督。He fought and killed Ali in Egypt in 661 and declared himself caliph of Islam.他在埃及的战斗,打死阿里在661,并宣​​布自己的伊斯兰哈里发。He founded the dynasty and set the capitol to Damascus.他创立的王朝和国会山到大马士革。

The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid Dynasty.在东部地区的阿巴斯王朝,倭马亚王朝被推翻。An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.一个倭马亚王子,阿卜杜勒 - AR -拉赫曼我,接管了在西班牙的穆斯林领土和建立一个新的倭马亚王朝。

Umayyad Caliphs (661-750)倭马亚哈里发 (661-750)

Umayyad Emirs of Cordoba (Spanish Umayyad Caliphs 929-1031)倭马亚科尔多瓦埃米尔 (西班牙倭马亚哈里发929-1031)

Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba倭马亚哈里发科尔多瓦



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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