Translating the Bible翻译 的圣经

General Information一般资料

Figuring Out a Bible Translation找出一个圣经翻译

People sometimes wonder why there are various "Versions" or "Translations" of the Bible. After all, all of the many English language Bible Versions are translated from the exact same source text , which was in Greek (NT) and Ancient Hebrew (OT).有时人们不知道为什么有不同的“版本”或“翻译” 圣经毕竟,许多英语语言的圣经版本,都是从相同的源文本,这是在希腊(NT)和古代希伯来 (OT翻译)。Shouldn't really smart people be able to figure out how to translate something exactly right?真正聪明的人不应该能够弄清楚如何翻译完全正确的东西?Especially something as important as the Bible, where many thousands of people have been involved?特别是像“圣经”的重要的东西,那里成千上万的人参与?

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Well, the problem turns out to be a little harder than that.那么,问题原来是一点点比这更难。First of all, many of the source artifacts that we have are incomplete.首先,源文物,我们有很多是不完整的。At some point in history, weather or vandalism or war or just plain age has caused some parts of documents to have disappeared.在某些历史时刻,天气或破坏或战争或只是简单的年龄已经引起了文件的某些部分已经消失了。Next, even though there are several thousand existing (partial) source documents, once in a while, in one of those source documents (which are actually scribe-copied copies of earlier documents), a single character sometimes somehow gets mis-copied by some scribe along the way.其次,即使有几千现有(部分)的源文件,过一段时间,在这些源文件之一(实际上是抄写员复制较早版本的文档的副本),一个单独的字符,有时莫名其妙地得到一些MIS复制隶沿方式。 After all, by the time that scribe made our source document around a thousand years ago (about as old as most existing documents actually are), that document is a scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy, etc. All of those scribes were as careful as humans are capable of, and most of them truly believed that they would be banished to Hell if they made even a single copying error!毕竟,时间,隶大约一千年前我们的源文件(大约像大多数现有的文件的旧实际上是),该文件是隶早期隶复制等的早期隶复制拷贝所有这些文士小心,因为人类是有能力,其中大多数是真正相信,他们会被放逐到地狱,如果他们甚至提出一个单一的复制错误! But the Bible contains around 800,000 words and around three million characters.但“圣经”中包含了约80万字,约3万字。 Extremely careful comparison between the thousands of different scribe copies that still exist have found some very minor copying errors in some of the existing copies of the earlier original Manuscripts.非常小心数千仍然存在不同隶副本之间的比较,发现一些非常轻微的复制错误,在一些早期的原始手稿孤本。None of them have changed any significant wording or belief.他们都没有改变任何显著的字眼或信念。

In addition to this, the actual way the Bible used to be written was quite different from the way we read it today.此外,“圣经”要写入实际的方式是完全不同的方式,我们今天读它。To give you the "flavor" of the problems, we are presenting Genesis 1 IN ENGLISH here in some historical formats, working our way backward in time as we go.为了让你的“味道”的问题,我们提出创世纪英语在一些历史的格式,工作时间在我们的方式落后,因为我们去。Of course, the original source documents were not in English.当然,原始的源文件不是英文。Many (over 5,000) are in Greek.很多(超过5000)是在希腊。Others (over 10,000) are Latin copies of the Vulgate Bible (of about 400 AD).其他(超过10,000)拉丁武加大圣经副本(公元400年左右)。A lesser number are in a variety of other languages.较小的数字,是在多种其他语言。

The Greek documents are particularly important, partly because that was the original language of the New Testament Manuscripts, so there was minimal chance of errors from language translation back then.希腊的文件尤为重要,部分原因是因为这是新约圣经手稿的原始语言,所以然后从语言翻译错误的机会极小。Our thoughts below are based on thinking about those Greek language source documents.我们的想法是基于以下考虑对那些希腊语言源文件。


Before about 1560 AD and the Genevan New Testament, Bible scripture was not divided into verses. Genesis 1 would then appear (in English) basically like the following:约1560 AD和Genevan新约之前,圣经经文不是划分成经文创世记第一章,然后基本上出现类似下面的(英文)。

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.在起初,神创造天地。And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.地球是没有形式,无效;和黑暗后,面对的深。And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.和神的精神所感动后,面对的水域。And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.神说,要有光,就有了光。And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.神看到了曙光,这是很好的:与神的划分从黑暗中的光。And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.神称光为昼,称暗为夜。And the evening and the morning were the first day.晚上,有早晨的第一天。And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.上帝说,让我们有一个在水域中的苍穹,让它鸿沟从水域的水域。And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.上帝造苍穹,分为下苍穹苍穹以上的水域,水域:它是如此。 And God called the firmament Heaven.神称穹苍的天堂。And the evening and the morning were the second day.晚上,有早晨,是第二日。And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.神说,天上下的水域所不欲,一个地方聚集在一起,并让干燥的土地出现:它是如此。And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.神称旱地为地;和聚集的水域叫他海:神看着是好的。And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.神说,让我们的地球带来草,药草高产制种,果树高产水果后,他的一种,其种子本身在地上,它是如此。And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.地球带来了草,药草高产种子后,他的同类,和树高产水果,种子本身的客气后,与神的看到,这是很好的。And the evening and the morning were the third day.晚上,有早晨,第三天。And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.神说,我在天上穹苍中的灯光,以分昼夜的一天,并让他们为标志,季节,日,年:让他们在苍穹的灯光天堂在地上的光:它是如此。 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.神造了两个伟大的灯;大光统治一天,小的管夜:他的明星。And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good.神在天上穹苍他们给在地上的光,来统治的一天,在晚上,并划分从黑暗中的光:神看见[]好。And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.晚上,有早晨,是第四日。And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.上帝说,让水域带来大量移动的生物说,祂所生活,家禽,可能在地球上空飞在天上开放苍穹。And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.上帝创造了巨大的鲸鱼,每一个活着的生物,moveth,其中水域带来了雄厚,各从其类,并每翅后,他的那种鸡:和上帝看到,这是很好的。 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.上帝保佑他们,他说,富有成果,并大量繁殖,并填写在公海水域,并让鸡在地球繁殖。And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.晚上,有早晨,是第五日。And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.神说,让地球带来后,他的那种生活的动物,牛,爬的,和地球后,他的那种兽:它是如此。And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.神后,他至于地上的走兽,和牛后,他们的种类,和每一件事情,creepeth经地球后,他的一种:与神看到,这是很好的。 And God said, Let us make man in our image, afterour likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.神说,让我们把我们的形象,afterour相像的人,让他们在海里的鱼,和在空中的飞鸟,地上的牲畜,和超过地球,并在每一个蠕动昆虫在地球的事情。 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.于是,上帝创造了男人在自己的形象,在上帝的形象创造他他;男性和女性创造了他,他们。And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.上帝保佑他们,上帝赐给他们,富有成效,并大量繁殖,遍满地面,并制服它说:和已在海里的鱼统治,并在空中的飞鸟,并在每一个有生命的东西, moveth后的地球。And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.神说,看哪,我已经给你每药草轴承种子,这是面对所有地球后,和各样的树,这是一个树高产制种的水果给你,它应为肉类。 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.和每至于地上的走兽,和每一个空中的飞鸟,和每一个地球creepeth后,其中有生命,我给每一个绿色药草,肉类的东西:它是如此。 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,[it was] very good.神看每次他的东西,和,不料,[它]非常好。And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.晚上和早上的第六天。


That is pretty easy to read and understand, although not quite as much so as our modern Bibles with verses separated and numbered.这是很容易阅读和理解的,虽然不太一样多,让我们现代的“圣经”与诗句分离和编号。


Earlier than that, the Greek texts were written without spaces or breaks between words, and no punctuation. As an example, the same Genesis 1 would look very different from the above: 较早些时候,希腊文写词与词之间没有空格或休息,并没有标点符号作为一个例子,相同的成因1从上面看起来很不同

InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed
afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe
earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday


OK.确定。That's still somewhat easy to figure out.这还是有点不容易弄清楚。But, earlier yet, the Greek manuscripts were written without differences of upper and lower cases, so our example text would appear as the following:但是,早期的希腊文手抄本没有上下的情况下的差异编写的,所以我们的例子中的文本将显示如下:

inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth
grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven
andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover
everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday


When we get back to about the Ninth Century AD, this Greek text was written in a scriptio continua called MINUSCULE WRITING or Cursives.当我们回来约公元九世纪,这个希腊文写在scriptio连续称为微不足道的写作或Cursives 。 This had the text not only unspaced but written in a handwritten script where all the letters were connected.这不仅unspaced但写在一张手写的脚本,所有的字母连接的文本。The appearance of our example text would now look more like:现在我们的例子中的文本的外观看起来更像是:

inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas
initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant
lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish
oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday


This text might have been presented in either Greek or Latin in that era.这个文本可能已经在那个时代,无论是希腊或拉丁美洲。We might as well look at what this sort of situation would have looked like in Greek, except we don't have available a computer font that can represent connected Greek script:我们不妨看看,会像在希腊看着这种情况,除了我们没有提供能代表希腊脚本连接的计算机字体:

inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe
heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter
theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday


Prior to around 900 AD, essentially all texts in most languages were apparently written with only the consonants presented, without ever recording any of the vowels!在公元900年左右之前,基本上是在大多数语言中的所有文本显然书面提出只有辅音,没有记录任何元音!So consider this same text, first in English and then in Greek!:因此,认为这是相同的文字,中英文,然后在希腊第一!

Please note that this first one is actually in English! Could you have studied it or even read it back then?请注意,这第一个实际上是英文!你有研究,甚至读回然后呢?Since you know much of the wording, you can pick out some familiar words.既然你知道得多的字眼,你可以挑选出一些熟悉的字眼。But could you fully understand everything presented here?但是你能充分理解一切呈现在这里呢?Pick some random spot in the middle of this text and see if you can figure out the wording.在这个文本中挑选一些随机抽查,看看是否能找出的措辞。Find the part where God Created mankind!寻找上帝创造人类的一部分!(It is about ten lines up from the end).(这是大约十行结束)。THAT is the only form of Bible texts that was available to anyone prior to around 900 AD, and it was generally only available to Churches and virtually never to individuals, unless they were permitted to copy it themselves.这是人公元900年左右前的经文的唯一形式,它一般只提供给教会和几乎从未给个人,除非他们被允许自己复制。

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt
whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


The same in Greek:在希腊相同的:

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn
gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


This is only Genesis 1, a tiny portion of the Bible.这仅仅是1,创世纪的“圣经”的一小部分。Imagine that you were a Monk responsible for precisely copying about 300 times this much text (the whole Bible), in that connected (English) script format above, by hand, one character at a time, are you SURE that your entire copy would be absolutely free of even a single copyist error?想象一下,你是一个和尚正是复制了约300倍的文本(整本圣经),相连的(英文)上述脚本的格式由专人负责,一次一个字符,你肯定将您的整个副本甚至一个单一的抄写错误绝对是免费的吗?

It truly is a remarkable achievement by the many hundreds of Scribes who had to copy the entire Bible that they made astoundingly few copying errors!它是一个真正的复制整本圣经,他们取得了令人叹为观止的数复制错误的文士数以百计的了不起的成就!(We know that there were a few, and we now know where they were, because thousands of existing copies of those Scribe written Manuscripts have been carefully compared to see if and when they had any tiny differences. (我们知道有几个,我们现在知道他们在那里,因为数以千计的那些抄写写的手稿孤本已仔细比较看看,当他们有任何微小的差异的。

An Experiment一个实验

If you're part of a Bible Study Group or some other Christian Small Group, why not try hand copying just this Genesis 1 (not the Greek text, but the script style continuous English text without the vowels) as carefully as you can.如果你对圣经的研究小组或其他一些基督教小组的一部分,为什么不尝试一下手仔细,你可以复制这种创世记第一章(希腊文,但脚本风格连续无元音的英文文本)。 Then give YOUR copy to a different member of the group to copy.然后给你复制到一个不同的成员组复制。Then THAT copy would be given to a third person, and so on through the Group.那么这个副本将给予第三人等,通过集团。 Once everyone has copied their given source text as precisely as possible, you would finally get back a final copy.一旦每个人都有复制给定的源文本,尽可能准确,你最终会得到最后的副本。As long as all of you had done a perfect job of being able to read each others handwriting and of copying, that final copy should read EXACTLY like the original.只要大家做了一个完美的工作能读懂彼此的笔迹和复制,最终的副本应酷似原读取。But it will probably have at least a few minor variations.但它可能会至少有一些小的变化。Even though each of you copyists are familiar with the Genesis story, and even though each of you was extremely careful, small errors are bound to appear.即使你抄写员每个人都熟悉的创世纪的故事,即使你非常小心,小错误是必然要出现。Such an experiment definitely increases one's respect for the multitude of anonymous Scribes that copied the Bible over the many centuries.这样一个实验,肯定会增加一个人的大量复制了许多个世纪的“圣经”的匿名文士。

The situation with the Bible and its extensive size seems like it would have caused massive copyist errors over the centuries because of the scale of the task and the format that is being copied.与“圣经”和其广泛的大小的情况,好​​像它会造成大量的抄写错误,数百年来,因为规模正在复制的任务和格式。It is truly a sign of how incredibly careful the copyists all were that there were as few (minor) errors as are found in a few of the manuscripts.它确实是一个多么令人难以置信的仔细抄写所有有少(未成年人)的错误是发现在一些手稿的迹象。Fortunately for us, there are so many source manuscripts that exist that the few variations that have been found have been checked in all the source documents and scholars are now extremely certain of the accuracy of modern translations.我们很幸运,有这么多的源存在,已发现的一些变化已经检查了所有的源文件和学者现在都非常现代译本的准确性一定的手稿。

As an additional element to think about, many early Old Testament source manuscripts are written in Hebrew.作为一个额外的元素,去思考,许多早期的旧约源手稿是希伯来文写的。Before about 900 AD, Hebrew was also written without any vowels.约公元900年之前,希伯来文也写没有任何元音。Can you imagine the possibilities of what might happen if copyists were even slightly careless?你能想象会发生什么事情的可能性,如果抄写员,甚至稍有不慎吗?By the way, this is closely related to YHWH, the Name of God, becoming Yahowah or Jehovah (or Yahweh), when the vowels from Adonai (another ancient Name for God) were inserted into YHWH many centuries later.顺便说一下,这是密切相关的耶和华,神的名字,成为Yahowah或耶和华(耶和华),阿多奈(另一个古神名)的元音为耶和华的许多世纪中后。

This discussion has been presented so you might better appreciate the amazing efforts put forth by the many copyists of the Bible Manuscripts over the centuries, and also in the task that Bible translators face in making sure they have the absolutely most accurate translation that can be made.本次讨论已提交所以你可能会更好地欣赏惊人的努力,由过去几个世纪的圣经手稿的许多抄写员提出,并在圣经翻译人员,确保他们的绝对最准确的翻译,可面临的任务。 It's not quite as easy as translating Buenos Dias into Hello !这不是很容易转化成您好布宜诺斯艾利斯迪亚斯(even though that phrase could equally mean goodbye!)(尽管这句话也同样意味着再见!)

Finally, we have here really only been considering here the difficulties of perfect copying (for the Scribes) and in confirming the perfect accuracy (for the Bible scholars).最后,我们在这里真的只考虑完美的复制(文士),证实了完美的精确性(圣经学者)的困难。There is yet another level of complication in the translators' job.还有另一种并发症的翻译“工作水平。Many ancient words had several different meanings, often very different from each other.许多古字有几种不同的含义,往往很各有不同。We created a separate little presentation to give you a taste of that aspect of the problem, at Literal Translation .我们创建了一个单独的小演示,让您领略到这方面的问题 ,直译。



Also, see:此外,见:
Romanized Bible Text罗马拼音圣经文本
Transliteration of Hebrew音译希伯来语
Literal Translation直译
Septuagint and early Manuscriptsseptuagint和早期手稿
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text which shows the Hebrew characters.详细介绍了犹太人成因一文 ,表明了希伯来语字符。

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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