Agnosticism不可知论

General Information一般资料

Agnosticism is the philosophical position that it is impossible to know about the nature or existence of God. The term was coined in 1869 by Thomas H Huxley from the Greek agnostos ("unknowable") to refer to his own conviction that knowledge is impossible on many matters covered by religious doctrines. 不可知论是哲学立场,这是不可能了解的性质或上帝存在。词是由托马斯H从希腊agnostos赫胥黎(“不可知”)于1869年提及他自己的信念,知识是许多不可能事项涉及宗教的教义。 Agnosticism is therefore concerned with questions of Epistemology, the examination of human knowledge; it considers valid only knowledge that comes from ordinary and immediate experience. Agnosticism is distinct from Atheism on the one hand and Skepticism on the other. Atheists reject belief in the existence of God.不可知论因此,与认识论,人类知识的试题而言,它认为只有有效的知识,从普通的和直接的经验来不可知论从一方面,另一方面怀疑主义无神论不同无神论者拒绝了存在的信念神。 Skeptics hold the strong suspicion or probabilistic estimate that God does not exist.怀疑论者持强烈怀疑或概率估计,神不存在。Agnostics refuse to make such judgments.不可知论者拒绝作出这样的判断。

The agnostic position is as old as philosophy and can be traced to the pre Socratics and to the skeptics of ancient Greece.在不可知的位置是旧哲学一样,可以追溯到前苏格拉底哲学家和古希腊的怀疑论者。In modern times, agnosticism became prevalent during the 18th and 19th centuries, mainly because of the growing mass of scientific data that seemed to contradict the biblical position and because of the disagreement of theologians and church authorities over the use of textual and historical criticism in the interpretation of the Bible.到了近代,不可知论成为在18世纪和19世纪流行,主要是因为其对似乎矛盾的圣经立场的科学数据增长的质量和由于神学家和教会当局在考证和历史的批评不同意使用解释圣经。 Many of the best known philosophers have been agnostics.最著名的哲学家很多都是不可知论者。Among them are Auguste Comte, William James, Immanuel Kant, George Santayana, and Herbert Spencer.其中有奥古斯特孔德,威廉詹姆斯,康德,乔治•桑塔亚那,和赫伯特斯宾塞。

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Bibliography 参考书目
RA Armstrong, Agnosticism and Theism in the Nineteenth Century (1977); S Budd, Varieties of Unbelief: Atheists and Agnostics in English Society,1850 - 1960 (1977); EA Burtt, Types of Religious Philosophy (1951); J Collins, God in Modern Philosophy (1959); TH Huxley, "Agnosticism" and "Agnosticism and Christianity," in Collected Essays (1902); B Lightman, The Origins of Agnosticism (1987); G Mavrodes, Belief in God (1970); D Mills, Overcoming Religion (1980); B Russell, Why I Am Not a Christian (1957). RA,不可知论和有神论在19世纪(1977)阿姆斯特朗,S巴德,不信的品种:无神论者和不可知论者在英文学会,一八五○年至1960年(1977年); EA Burtt,宗教哲学(1951年)的类型〔J柯林斯,上帝在现代哲学(1959年); TH赫胥黎,“不可知论”和“不可知论和基督教,”在收集的杂文(1902),B莱特曼,对不可知论的起源(1987),G Mavrodes,在上帝的信仰(1970年),D米尔斯,克服宗教(1980年),B罗素,为什么我不是基督徒(1957年)。


Agnosticism不可知论

Advanced Information先进的信息

Agnosticism is a term generally used for the view that we do not know either in practice or in principle whether there is a God or not.不可知论是一般认为,我们做的,而不能在实践中或原则上知道是否有上帝或不使用的术语。Although etymologically the term is applicable to any kind of skepticism, TH Huxley coined the term to signify religious skepticism.虽然词源一词适用于任何一种怀疑,TH赫胥黎创造了宗教术语来表示怀疑。Huxley first used the word in 1869 at a meeting of what later became the Metaphysical Society.赫胥黎在1869年首次使用在后来成为一个什么样的形而上学学会会议字。There are conflicting accounts of how Huxley came to use the term.有赫胥黎如何来使用这个词冲突的帐户。He said that he used the word as antithetical to the Gnostics of early church history.他说,他用这个词作为对立的早期教会历史诺斯替教派。Agnosticism is to be contrasted with atheism and pantheism, as well as theism and Christianity. The theist asserts God's existence, the atheist denies it, while the agnostic professes ignorance about it, the existence of God being an insoluble problem for him.不可知论是要与无神论和泛神论,以及对比有神论和基督教的有神论者断言上帝的存在,否认它的无神论者,而不可知自称无知吧,上帝的存在是为他一个无法解决的问题。 RH Hutton remembers the origin of the term as related to the reference which Paul made to the inscription on the altar to the unknown God (Acts 17:23). RH赫顿记住这个词的起源作为相关的参考,保罗就向未知的神(徒17:23)坛的题词。

Agnosticism is now used in a number of senses: (1) as the suspension of judgment on all ultimate issues, including God, free will, immortality; (2) to describe a secular attitude toward life, such as the belief that God is irrelevant to the life of modern man; (3) to express an emotionally charged anti Christian and anticlerical attitude; (4) as a term roughly synonymous with atheism.不可知论是现在使用的感官:(1)作为最终的判断上所有问题,包括上帝,自由意志,不朽悬挂;(2)来描述一个世俗的人生态度,如认为上帝是无关紧要的,以现代人的生活;(3)表达一种情绪化的反基督教和反圣职者的态度;(4)作为一个术语大致与无神论的代名词。

While Huxley has been credited with giving the term its present popularity, there were many historical antecedents.尽管赫胥黎一直与给予长期的目前流行记,有许多历史来路。Socrates in Plato's Republic is praised by the oracle of Delphi as the wisest man in the world because he was aware of what he did know and what he did not know.在柏拉图的共和国苏格拉底被誉为世界上最聪明的人,因为他是什么他知道,他不知道什么知道的预言家。By far the most important and immediate precursors of modern agnosticism were David Hume and Immanuel Kant.到目前为止现代不可知论最重要和最直接的前体是大卫休谟和康德。In Hume's Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding he examines the notion of a "cause".在休谟的查询关于人的理解,他考察了一个“事业”的概念。He argues that one cannot know the cause of anything a priori.他认为,人们可以不知道什么先天的原因。The idea of a cause arises primarily from the constant conjunction of two objects or things.一个想法产生的原因主要来自两个对象或事物不断结合。Moreover, Hume rejects the possibility of belief in miracles.此外,休谟拒绝了奇迹的信仰的可能性。

Such a belief is based upon testimony.这种信念是根据证词。The testimony for a miracle is always counter balanced by the universal testimony to the regularity of the natural law.对于一个奇迹的见证永远是对付普遍证明了自然法则的规律性平衡。In Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Hume thoroughly criticizes the argument from design.在关于自然宗教的对话休谟彻底批判从设计参数。Two of his most important points are that the order observable in the universe may be the result of a principle inherent in matter itself rather than external to it and imposed upon it, and that the argument can never establish the moral attributes of God because of the widespread presence of evil in the world.他最重要的两点是,在宇宙中观察到的顺序可能是一个原则问题本身固有的而不是外部强加给它的结果,它,该参数不能确定,因为神的道德属性广泛存在于世界的邪恶。

Kant was concerned with the limits of human knowledge.康德是涉及人类知识的局限性。He argues that we cannot have any knowledge of things that are not possible objects of experience.他认为,我们不能有任何东西都是可能的对象不是经验知识。Since God is not a possible object of our experience, we have no knowledge of him based upon pure reason.因为上帝不是我们的经验可能的对象,我们没有他在纯粹理性的知识基础。There may be practical reasons for believing in God, but classical theistic proofs were in principle doomed to failure.有可能是上帝相信现实的原因,但在古典有神论的证据原则是注定要失败的。

Thus, by the end of the nineteenth century there were a number of factors which contributed to the intellectual respectability of agnosticism.因此,由十九世纪末,有一个因素促成了不可知论的智力可敬的数量。The limits of human knowledge had been widely set at the limits of sense experience.人类知识的局限性已广泛设置于感觉经验的限制。Further, it was generally accepted that natural theology had failed, leading to a critical attitude toward standards of evidence and argument in religious matters.此外,人们普遍接受的,自然神学失败了,导致对证据和宗教事务参数标准的批判态度。Religious beliefs could not meet the rigorous standards applied to scientific beliefs.宗教信仰不能满足应用的科学信念的严格标准。Moreover, the physical sciences seemed to be at odds with biblical history and cosmology.此外,物理科学似乎是在与圣经的历史和宇宙学的赔率。Finally, questions were being raised about the divine government of the world.最后,问题正在引起人们对世界的神圣政府。 John Stuart Mill, for instance, argued that the world was poorly made and arbitrarily managed.穆勒,例如,认为世界是劣质的和随意的管理。The goodness of God was questioned since he was the creator of hell.神的善良被质疑,因为他是地狱的创造者。

In the present intellectual climate agnosticism has taken a somewhat different form in the English speaking world.在目前的智力气候不可知论一直走在英语世界有点不同的形式。Many logical positivists and analytic philosophers have argued that the problem with theism is not one of evidence or argument, but of meaning and logical coherence.许多逻辑实证主义和分析哲学家们认为,与有神论的问题是没有证据或论据之一,但意义和逻辑的一致性。If religious discourse is understood as quasi scientific statements about the nature of reality and a transcendent being, insoluble problems arise.如果宗教的话语是对现实的超越性和准科学的陈述被理解,无法解决的问题出现。"God exists" and "God loves me" should be understood as meaningless about reality. “上帝存在”和“神爱我”应理解为对现实意义的理解。That is, there is nothing in sense experience that will count for or against their truth.也就是说,在任何意义上的经验,将数或反对他们的道理。

Many who reject theism and Christianity prefer to characterize themselves as agnostics rather than atheists. The perceived advantages are twofold. 许多谁反对有神论和基督教喜欢定性为不可知论者,而不是无神论者自己的感知优点是双重的。First, agnosticism avoids the social stigma associated with atheism.首先,不可知论避免社会耻辱与无神论有关。Socially, atheism is not as respectable as agnosticism.在社会方面,无神论并不像不可知论可敬。Second, agnosticism at least appears to avoid the burden of proof.二,不可知论至少出现,避免了举证责任。To assert or deny anything requires a reason.要断言或拒绝任何要求的理由。The profession of ignorance, however, needs no reasons.而无知的职业,然而,不需要理由。

While there may be a certain intellectual respectability to embracing agnosticism, William James points out there is great practical danger.虽然可能有一定的智力可敬的迎来不可知论,威廉詹姆斯指出,有重大的现实危险。James notes that there are some questions that are live, momentous, and forced.詹姆斯指出,有一些问题,是生活,重大和强制。One must believe or disbelieve, even if the evidence is ambiguous, or risk great loss.我们必须相信或不相信,即使证据是含糊不清,或风险巨大的损失。The question of God's existence is such a question for James.神的存在的问题是这样的一个詹姆斯的问题。For Christians, however, the evidence for God's existence and the truth of Christianity is decisively decided in God's self revelation in the Bible and the incarnation of Jesus Christ.对于基督徒,但是,​​对上帝的存在和基督教的真理的证据是果断决定在上帝的自我启示的圣经和耶稣基督的化身。

PD FeinbergPD范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RA Armstrong, Agnosticism and Theism in the Nine - teenth Century; J Collins, God in Modern Philosophy; TH Huxley, "Agnosticism" and "Agnosticism and Christianity," in Collected Essays, V; J Pieper, Belief and Faith; R Flint, Agnosticism. RA,不可知论和有神论在九阿姆斯特朗 - teenth世纪〔J柯林斯,上帝在现代哲学; TH赫胥黎,“不可知论”和“不可知论和基督教,”在收集的杂文,V,J皮佩尔,信仰和信念,R火石,不可知论。


Agnosticism不可知论

Catholic Information天主教信息

A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some or all of the powers of knowing possessed by the human mind.一个对知识的局限性的哲学理论,自称在部分或知道的人的心灵所拥有的一切权力怀疑或不相信。

I. EXPOSITION一,博览会

(1) The word Agnostic (Greek a, privative + gnostikós "knowing") was coined by Professor Huxley in 1869 to describe the mental attitude of one who regarded as futile all attempts to know the reality corresponding to our ultimate scientific, philosophic, and religious ideas.(1)字不可知论者(希腊a,剥夺+ gnostikós“知道”)于1869年创造的赫胥黎教授来描述一个心理态度谁视为徒劳的企图了解现实对应我们的最终科学,哲学,和宗教思想。 As first employed by Huxley, the new term suggested the contrast between his own unpretentious ignorance and the vain knowledge which the Gnostics of the second and third century claimed to possess.正如赫胥黎首次采用,新一届的建议与他自己的谦逊的无知和徒劳的知识,第二个和第三个世纪的诺斯替教派声称拥有的对比。 This antithesis served to discredit the conclusions of natural theology, or theistic reasoning, by classing them with the idle vapourings of Gnosticism.这对立的分级服务抹黑与诺斯替主义的闲置vapourings他们自然神学,或有神论的推理,得出的结论。 The classification was unfair, the attempted antithesis overdrawn.该分类是不公平的,企图对立面透支。It is rather the Gnostic and the Agnostic who are the real extremists; the former extending the bounds of knowledge, and the latter narrowing them, unduly.这是相当的诺斯底和不可知论者谁是真正的极端分子,前者延长知识的范围,而后者缩小它们,过分。Natural theology, or theism, occupies the middle ground between these extremes, and should have been disassociated both from the Gnostic position, that the mind can know everything, and from the Agnostic position, that it can know nothing concerning the truths of religion.自然神学,或有神论,占据了这两个极端之间的中间地带,应该都已经从诺斯底位置,即可以知道一切的思想,并从不可知论的立场,即它可以知道什么关于宗教的真理关联。 (See GNOSTICISM.) (见诺斯替主义)。

(2) Agnosticism, as a general term in philosophy, is frequently employed to express any conscious attitude of doubt, denial, or disbelief, towards some, or even all, of man's powers of knowing or objects of knowledge. (2)不可知论,作为哲学的总称,通常用来表示任何怀疑,否定或怀疑有意识的态度,对一些,甚至所有的人的权力,知道或认识对象。The meaning of the term may accordingly vary, like that of the other word "Scepticism", which it has largely replaced, from partial to complete Agnosticism; it may be our knowledge of the world, of the self, or of God, that is questioned; or it may be the knowableness of all three, and the validity of any knowledge, whether of sense or intellect, science or philosophy, history, ethics, religion.一词的含义可能会相应地有所不同,像其他的单词“怀疑主义”,它在很大程度上取代从部分完成不可知论,即,它可能是我们知识的世界,自我,或上帝,这是质疑;或者它可能是所有三个knowableness,以及任何知识的有效性是否有意义或智力,科学或哲学,历史,道德,宗教,。 The variable element in the term is the group of objects, or propositions, to which it refers; the invariable element, the attitude of learned ignorance it always implies towards the possibility of acquiring knowledge.在长期的变量因素是组对象,或命题,对此它是指;不变的元素,学会无知的态度,总是意味着对获取知识的可能性。

(3) Agnosticism, as a term of modern philosophy, is used to describe those theories of the limitations of human knowledge which deny the constitutional ability of the mind to know reality and conclude with the recognition of an intrinsically Unknowable. (3)不可知论,作为现代哲学术语,是用来描述人类知识的局限性而否定宪法的精神和能力,知道现实结束了一个内在的不可知认可的理论。The existence of "absolute reality" is usually affirmed while, at the same time, its knowableness is denied. “绝对现实”的存在通常是肯定,而在同一时间,其knowableness被拒绝。Kant, Hamilton, Mansel, and Spencer make this affirmation an integral part of their philosophic systems.康德,汉密尔顿,曼塞尔和斯宾塞使这肯定是他们的哲学体系的组成部分。The Phenomenalists, however, deny the assertion outright, while the Positivists, Comte and Mill, suspend judgment concerning the existence of "something beyond phenomena".该Phenomenalists,但是,主张彻底否定,而实证主义,孔德和穆勒,暂停审判有关的“超越现象的东西”的存在。 (See POSITIVISM.)(见实证。)

(4) Modern Agnosticism differs from its ancient prototype. (4)现代不可知论不同于其古老的原型。Its genesis is not due to a reactionary spirit of protest, and a collection of sceptical arguments, against "dogmatic systems" of philosophy in vogue, so much as to an adverse criticism of man's knowing-powers in answer to the fundamental question: What can we know?它的成因是不是由于抗议反动的精神,一种怀疑的论据收集,反对“教条主义系统”的理念,时尚,这么多的一个人的认识,权力在回答的基本问题不利的批评:什么可以我们知道吗? Kant, who was the first to raise this question, in his memorable reply to Hume, answered it by a distinction between "knowable phenomena" and "unknowable things-in-themselves".康德,谁是第一个提出这个问题在他令人难忘的答复休谟,回答了在“可知现象”和“不可知的,事情本身”的区别了。 Hamilton soon followed with his doctrine that "we know only the relations of things".汉密尔顿很快紧随其后,他的学说,“我们只知道事物的关系”。Modern Agnosticism is thus closely associated with Kant's distinction and Hamilton's principle of relativity.现代不可知论因此,密切与康德的区别和汉密尔顿的相对性原则。It asserts our inability to know the reality corresponding to our ultimate scientific, philosophic, or religious ideas.它声称我们无法知道的现实对应我们的最终科学,哲学,或宗教思想。

(5) Agnosticism, with special reference to theology, is a name for any theory which denies that it is possible for man to acquire knowledge of God. (5)不可知论,特别提及神学,是任何理论,否认它有可能为人类获取知识的上帝的名字。It may assume either a religious or an anti-religious form, according as it is confined to a criticism of rational knowledge or extended to a criticism of belief.它可能承担任何宗教或反宗教的形式,根据它仅限于一个理性的认识批评或扩展到​​信仰的批评。De Bonald (1754-1840), in his theory that language is of divine origin, containing, preserving, and transmitting the primitive revelation of Good to man; De Lammenais (1782-1854), in his theory that individual reason is powerless, and social reason alone competent; Bonetty (1798-1879), in his advocacy of faith in God, the Scriptures, and the Church, afford instances of Catholic theologians attempting to combine belief in moral and religious truths with the denial that valid knowledge of the same is attainable by reason apart from revelation and tradition.德Bonald(1754年至1840年),在他的理论,语言是神圣的起源,包含,保存和传播良好的原始人类的启示;德Lammenais(1782年至1854年),在他的理论,个人的原因是无能为力的,社会原因单独​​胜任; Bonetty(1798年至1879年),在他倡导的信仰上帝,圣经,教会,天主教神学家负担结合实例试图否定道德和宗教的真理认为有效的知识同原因是除了传统的启示和实现。 To these systems of Fideism and Traditionalism should be added the theory of Mansel (1820-71), which Spencer regarded as a confession of Agnosticism, that the very inability of reason to know the being and attributes of God proves that revelation is necessary to supplement the mind's shortcomings.致Fideism和传统主义这些系统应该增加了曼塞尔理论(1820至1871年),它作为一个不可知论斯宾塞认为供认,认为有理由知道上帝的福祉和属性非常无力证明的启示是必要的补充心灵的缺点。 This attitude of criticising knowledge, but not faith, was also a feature of Sir William Hamilton's philosophy.这种批评态度的知识,但不信,亦是威廉汉密尔顿的哲学特征。(See FIDEISM and TRADITIONALISM.)(见FIDEISM和传统主义。)

(6) The extreme view that knowledge of God is impossible, even with the aid of revelation, is the latest form of religious Agnosticism. (6)极端认为,上帝的知识是不可能的,即使有启示的援助,是对宗教不可知论的最新形式。The new theory regards religion and science as two distinct and separate accounts of experience, and seeks to combine an agnostic intellect with a believing heart.新理论认为这两个不同的帐户和独立的宗教和科学经验,并力求结合起来相信的心一个不可知论者的智慧。It has been aptly called "mental book-keeping by double entry".它已被形象地称为“精神的复式簿记”。Ritschl, reviving Kant's separatist distinction of theoretical from practical reason, proclaims that the idea of God contains not so much as a grain of reasoned knowledge; it is merely "an attractive ideal", having moral and religious, but no objective, scientific, value for the believer who accepts it.里奇尔,振兴康德从实践理性的理论分裂的区别,宣告神的想法包含与其说作为一个理性的认识粮食,它仅仅是“一个有吸引力的理想”,有道德和宗教,但没有客观,科学,价值为信徒谁接受它。 Harnack locates the essence of Christianity in a filial relation felt towards an unknowable God the Father.哈纳克位于基督教在一个孝顺的关系本质觉得对一个不可知的父神。Sabatier considers the words God, Father, as symbols which register the feelings of the human heart towards the Great Unknowable of the intellect.萨巴蒂尔认为,作为符号的寄存器的朝向智力大不可知人的心脏的感受上帝的话,父亲。

(7) Recent Agnosticism is also to a great extent anti-religious, criticizing adversely not only the knowledge we have of God, but the grounds of belief in Him as well.(7)最近不可知论也是在很大程度上反宗教,批评不良不仅是知识,我们的上帝也有,但对他的信仰的理由也是如此。A combination of Agnosticism with Atheism, rather than with sentimental irrational belief, is the course adopted by many.一个不可知论与无神论,而不是感性的非理性信念,组合是由许多通过的课程。The idea of God is eliminated both from the systematic and personal view which is taken of the world and of life.神的想法是消除无论从系统和个人认为这是世界上采取和生活。The attitude of "solemnly suspended judgment" shades off first into indifference towards religion, as an inscrutable affair at best, and next into disbelief.的“郑重暂停判断”阴影关闭到第一对宗教漠不关心,充其量作为一个高深莫测的事,并怀疑未来的态度。The Agnostic does not always merely abstain from either affirming or denying the existence of God, but crosses over to the old position of theoretic Atheism and, on the plea of insufficient evidence, ceases even to believe that God exists.该不可知论者并不总是仅仅放弃任何肯定或否定神的存在,但横渡到老的理论无神论的立场和对证据不足的请求,甚至不再相信上帝的存在。 While, therefore, not to be identified with Atheism, Agnosticism is often found in combination with it.因此,尽管不能与无神论确定,不可知论是经常发现与它相结合。(See ATHEISM.)(见无神论。)

II. II。TOTAL AGNOSTICISM SELF-REFUTING总不可知论自我反驳

Total or complete Agnosticism--see (2)--is self-refuting.共完成或不可知论 - 见(2) - 是自我反驳。 The fact of its ever having existed, even in the formula of Arcesilaos, "I know nothing, not even that I know nothing", is questioned.而实际上它永远有存在,甚至在Arcesilaos公式,“我什么都不知道,甚至没有,我什么都不知道”,是质疑。 It is impossible to construct theoretically a self-consistent scheme of total nescience, doubt, unbelief.这是不可能建设理论上的总nescience自我一致的计划,怀疑,不信。The mind which undertook to prove its own utter incompetence would have to assume, while so doing, that it was competent to perform the allotted task.头脑的承诺,以证明自己完全无能将要承担,而这样做,这是能力胜任所分配的任务。Besides, it would be Impossible to apply such a theory practically; and a theory wholly subversive of reason, contradictory to conscience, and inapplicable to conduct is a philosophy of unreason out of place in a world of law.此外,就不可能运用这种理论几乎和理论完全理性的颠覆,违背良知,不适用于行为是一种理性哲学的地方在一个法治的世界。It is the systems of partial Agnosticism, therefore, which merit examination.它是局部的不可知论系统,因此,这值得研究。These do not aim at constructing a complete philosophy of the Unknowable, but at excluding special kinds of truth, notably religious, from the domain of knowledge They are buildings designedly left unfinished.这些的目的不是构建一个完整的哲学的不可知,但不包括从知识领域的特殊类型的真理,特别是宗教,他们是特意留下未完成的建筑物。

III. III。KANT'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN APPEARANCE AND REALITY EXAMINED康德的表象与现实的区别审议的

Kant's idea of "a world of things apart from the world we know" furnished the starting-point of the modern movement towards constructing a philosophy of the Unknowable.康德的思想,“世界上的事情,除了我们知道的世界”提供了对建设现代哲学的不可知运动的起点。With the laudable intention of silencing the sceptic Hume, he showed that the latter's analysis of human experience into particular sense-impressions was faulty and incomplete, inasmuch as it failed to recognize the universal and necessary elements present in human thought.随着沉默的怀疑论者休谟值得称赞的意图,他表明,后者的人类经验的分析,并特别感,印象是错误的和不完整的,因为它没有认识到普遍​​和必要的元素在人类思想的存在。 Kant accordingly proceeded to construct a theory of knowledge which should emphasize the features of human thought neglected by Hume.康德因此着手构建一个知识理论,应强调人的思想由休谟忽视的特点。He assumed that universality, necessity, causality, space, and time were merely the mind's constitutional way of looking at things, and in no sense derived from experience.他认为普遍性,必然性,因果关系,空间和时间也仅仅是心灵的看待事物的宪法的方式,在任何意义上的经验而得。 The result was that he had to admit the mind's incapacity for knowing the reality of the world, the soul, or God, and was forced to take refuge against Hume's scepticism in the categorical imperative "Thou shalt" of the "moral reason".其结果是,他不得不承认为知道世界的现实,灵魂,或上帝心灵的丧失工作能力,而被迫采取休谟的怀疑主义的绝对命令“你不可”的“道德理性”避难。 He had made "pure reason" powerless by his transfer of causality and necessity from the objects of thought to the thinking subject.他提出“纯粹理性”的他的因果关系和必要性的思想转移对象的思维主体无能为力。

To discredit this idea of a "reality" inaccessibly hidden behind "appearances", it is sufficient to point out the gratuitous assumptions on which it is based.抹黑这种“现实”难得的背后“露面”隐藏的想法,就足以点出它的基础上无端的假设。Kant's radical mistake was, to prejudge, instead of investigating, the conditions under which the acquisition of knowledge becomes possible.康德的根本错误在于,预先判断,而不是调查,在何种条件下对知识的获取成为可能。No proof was offered of the arbitrary assumption that the categories are wholly subjective; proof is not even possible.没有证据证明被提供的任意假设是完全主观的类别;证明甚至没有可能的。"The fact that a category lives subjectively in the act of knowing is no proof that the category does not at the same time truly express the nature of the reality known", [Seth, "Two Lectures on Theism" (New York, 1897) p. “事实上,一类生活中的主观明知行为没有证据,该类别不会在同一时间不能真正表达已知的现实性”,[塞思,“两个讲座有神论”(纽约,1897年)第 19.] The harmony of the mind's function with the objects it perceives and the relations it discovers shows that the ability of the mind to reach reality is involved in our very acts of perception.19]心灵的感知与它的对象和功能的和谐关系,它发现表明,心灵的能力达到现实是我们的看法非常行为有关。 Yet Kant, substituting theory for fact, would disqualify the mind for its task of knowing the actual world we live in, and invent a hinterland of things-in-themselves never known as they are, but only as they appear to be.然而,康德,代替事实的理论,将取消对其的认识现实世界,我们生活在心灵的任务,并发明一种腹地的东西,在自己从来不知道,因为他们,但只是因为他们似乎是。 This use of a purely speculative principle to criticize the actual contents of human experience, is unjustifiable.这种纯粹的投机性的原则来批判人类经验的实际内容,是不合理的。Knowledge is a living process to be concretely investigated, not a mechanical affair for abstract reason to play with by introducing artificial severances of thought from object, and of reality from appearance.知识是一种生活过程中要具体调查,而不是一个抽象的理由发挥引进对象的思想与人工severances机械内政,从外观的现实。 Once knowledge is regarded as a synthetic act of a self-active subject, the gap artificially created between subject and object, reality and appearance, closes of itself.一旦知识是作为一个自认为积极的主体合成法,人为主体与客体之间,现实和外观创造了国内空白,结束了自己。(See KANT, PHILOSOPHY OF.) (参见康德哲学)。

IV. IV。HAMILTON'S DOCTRINE OF RELATIVITY EXAMINED汉密尔顿的相对论教义审议的

Sir William Hamilton contributed the philosophical principle on which modern Agnosticism rests, in his doctrine that "all knowledge is relative".威廉汉密尔顿贡献的哲学原则上现代不可知论掌握在他的学说,认为“所有的知识是相对的”。To know is to condition; to know the Unconditioned (Absolute, or Infinite) is therefore, impossible, our best efforts resulting in "mere negations of thought".要知道,是条件;知道无条件的(绝对或无限),因此,不可能的,我们尽最大努力在“纯粹的思想否定”导致。This doctrine of relativity contains two serious equivocations which, when pointed out, reveal the basic difference between the philosophies of Agnosticism and of Theism.这种相对主义包含两个严重equivocations其中,当指出,揭示之间的不可知论和有神论的哲学的根本区别。 The first is in the word "relativity".首先是在单词“相对论”。The statement that knowledge is "relative" may mean simply that to know anything, whether the world or God, we must know it as manifesting itself to us under the laws and relations of our own consciousness; apart from which relations of self-manifestation it would be for us an isolated, unknowable blank.声明认为知识是“相对”可能意味着简单,要知道任何事情,无论是世界或上帝,我们必须知道作为体现在法律和我们自己的意识关系到我们本身它,除了它关系的自我表现它将是我们一个孤立的,不可知的空白。 Thus understood, the doctrine of relativity states the actual human method of knowing the world, the soul, the self, God, grace and the supernatural.因此理解,相对论学说的国家认识世界,灵魂,自我,上帝,恩典和超自然的实际人类的方法。Who would hold that we know God, naturally, in any other way than through the manifestations He makes of Himself in mind and nature?谁知道会认为我们的上帝,自然以任何其他方式,不是通过自己的表现使得他的思想和性质?

But Hamilton understood the principle of relativity to mean that "we know only the relations of things"; only the Relative, never the Absolute.但汉密尔顿明白了相对性原理的意思,“我们只知道事物的关系”,只有相对,没有绝对。A negative conclusion, fixing a limit to what we can know, was thus drawn from a principle which of itself merely affirms the method, but settles nothing as to the limits, of our knowledge.一个否定的结论,确定一个限制,我们可以知道,因此得出的原则本身这只是确认的方法,但没有落户的限制,以我们的知识。 This arbitrary interpretation of a method as a limitation is the centre of the Agnostic position against Theism.这种方法作为一种限制任意解释是反对有神论不可知论中心位置。An ideally perfect possible knowledge is contrasted with the unperfect yet none the less true, knowledge which we actually possess.一个理想完美的知识是可能的对比与unperfect还没有真正的少,知识,我们实际上拥有。 By thus assuming "ideal comprehension" as a standard by which to criticize "real apprehension", the Agnostic invalidates, apparently, the little that we do know, as at present constituted, by the more we might know if our mental constitution were other than it is.通过从而担负起作为一个标准的批评“真正的恐惧”,“理想的理解”时,不可知论者无效,显然,小,我们知道,截至目前构成的多,我们可能知道,如果我们的精神宪法以外的其他人它是。 The Theist, however, recognizing that the limits of human knowledge are to be determined by fact, not by speculation, refuses to prejudge the issue, and proceeds to investigate what we can legitimately know of God through His effects or manifestations.有神论者,但是,认识到人类知识的局限性是由事实决定的,而不是投机,拒绝预先判断的问题,并着手调查,我们可以通过合法的上帝知道他的效果或表现形式。

The second serious equivocation is in the terms "Absolute", "Infinite", "Unconditioned".第二个严重的含糊的条款是“绝对”,“无限”,“无条件的”。The Agnostic has in mind, when he uses these terms, that vague general idea of being which our mind reaches by emptying concrete reality of all its particular contents.该不可知论者心目中,当他使用这些名词,那模糊的,我们的心被掏空了所有的特定内容具体的现实达到的总体思路。 The result of this emptying process is the Indefinite of abstract, as compared with the Definite of concrete, thought.这种排空过程的结果是抽象不定,较具体的明确,思想。It is this Indefinite which the Agnostic exhibits as the utterly Unrelated, Unconditioned.正是这种不定其中不可知论作为完全无关的,无条件的展品。But this is not the Absolute in question.但这不是绝对的问题。Our inability to know such an Absolute, being simply our inability to define the indefinite, to condition the unconditioned, is an irrelevant truism.我们无法知道这样一个绝对的,我们不能简单地被定义无限期,无条件为条件,是一个无关紧要的真理。The absolute in question with Theists is the real, not the logical; the Infinite in question is the actual Infinite of realized perfection, not the Indefinite of thought.在与有神论者的问题绝对是真实的,没有逻辑,有问题的无限是无限的实现完善的实际,而不是思想不定。The All-perfect is the idea of God, not the All-imperfect, two polar opposites frequently mistaken for each other by Pantheists and Materialists from the days of the Ionians to our own.全完美是上帝的观念,而不是全不完善,经常为对方误认为泛神论和来自爱奥尼亚人的日子唯物主义者我们自己的两个对立的两极。 The Agnostic, therefore, displaces the whole Theistic problem when he substitutes a logical Absolute, defined as "that which excludes all relations outer and inner", for the real.该不可知论者,因此,取代了整个有神论的问题时,他绝对替代逻辑,因为“这不包括所有外部和内部关系”的真实,明确。Examination of our experience shows that the only relation which the Absolute essentially excludes is the relation of real dependence upon anything else.我们的经验表明,只有考试的关系基本上排除了这绝对是在其他任何真正的依赖关系。We have no right in reason to define it as the non-related.我们没有理由在权利界定为不相关的。In fact, it manifests itself as the causal, sustaining ground of all relations.事实上,它表现为因果,保持地面的一切关系本身。 Whether our knowledge of this real Absolute, or God, deserves to be characterized as wholly negative, is consequently a distinct problem (see VI).无论我们对这个真正的绝对知识,或神,不愧为全负的特点,因而是一个独特的问题(见六)。

V. SPENCER'S DOCTRINE OF THE UNKNOWABLE EXAMINED五,斯宾塞的学说的不可知审议的

According to Herbert Spencer, the doctrine that all knowledge is relative cannot be intelligibly stated Without postulating the existence of the Absolute.根据斯宾塞的理论,所有的知识是相对的不可理解地说没有绝对的假设的存在。The momentum of thought inevitably carries us beyond conditioned existence (definite consciousness) to unconditioned existence (indefinite consciousness).思想的势头不可避免地进行超越空调的存在(明确的意识),以无条件的存在(无限期意识)我们。The existence of Absolute Reality must therefore be affirmed.绝对真实的存在,因此必须予以肯定。Spencer thus made a distinct advance upon the philosophy of Comte and Mill, which maintained a non-committal attitude on the question of any absolute existence.斯宾塞这样做后,孔德和穆勒的哲学,它保持了对任何绝对存在的问题不表态的态度明显进步。Hamilton and Mansel admitted the existence of the Infinite on faith, denying only man's ability to form a positive conception of it.汉密尔顿和曼塞尔承认了对信仰无限的存在,否认只有人类的能力,形成它的一个积极的概念。Mansel's test for a valid conception of anything is an exhaustive grasp of its positive contents--a test so ideal as to invalidate knowledge of the finite and infinite alike.曼塞尔对任何一个有效的概念测试是其积极的内容详尽的把握 - 一个理想的测试,以便为无效的有限和无限的一致好评知识。 Spencer's test is "inability to conceive the opposite".斯宾塞的试验是“不能设想的相反。”But since he understood "to conceive" as meaning "to construct a mental image", the consequence was that the highest conceptions of science and religion--matter, space, time, the Infinite--failed to correspond to his assumed standard, and were declared to be "mere symbols of the real, not actual cognitions of it at all".但因为他明白“设想”的意思是“建设一个精神形象”,后果是,科学和宗教的最高概念 - 物质,空间,时间,无限 - 未能符合他的假设标准,被宣布为“之实,而不是实际认知在所有它只是符号”。He was thus led to seek the basis and reconciliation of science, philosophy, and religion in the common recognition of Unknowable Reality as the object of man's constant pursuit and worship.因此,他率领寻求基础和科学,哲学和宗教和解的不可知现实的人的不断追求和崇拜的对象的共同认可。The non-existence of the Absolute is unthinkable; all efforts to know positively what the Absolute is result in contradictions.绝对的非存在是不可想象的,所有的积极努力,知道什么是绝对矛盾的结果。

Spencer's adverse criticism of all knowledge and belief, as affording no insight into the ultimate nature of reality, rests on glaring assumptions.斯宾塞的一切知识和信仰不利的批评,因为affording成现实没有终极性的洞察力,依赖于明显的假设。 The assumption that every idea is "symbolic" which cannot be vividly realized in thought is arbitrary as to be decisive against his entire system; it is a pre-judgment, not a valid canon of inductive criticism, which he constantly employs.假设每一个想法是“象征性”,不能生动地在思想认识是任意的,以对付他的整个系统的决定性,它是一个预先判断,而不是一个感性的批评,他不断地采用有效的佳能。 From the fact that we can form no conception of infinity, as we picture an object or recall a scene, it does not follow that we have no apprehension of the Infinite.从事实,我们可以形成无无穷的概念,因为我们的图片对象或记得一个场景,它并不表示我们没有无限忧虑。We constantly apprehend things of which we can distinctly frame no mental image.我们不断逮捕的事情,我们可以明显的帧没有精神的形象。 Spencer merely contrasts our picturesque with our unpicturable forms of thought, using the former to criticize the latter adversely.斯潘塞只是对比与形式我们认为我们的unpicturable风景如画,使用前者批评后者不利。The contradictions which he discovers are all reducible to this contrast of definite with indefinite thoughts and disappear when we have in mind a real Infinite of perfection, not a logical Absolute.他发现的矛盾都具有无限的思想归结为这个明确的对比度和消失,当我们心目中真正的完美无限,绝对不是一个合乎逻辑的。 Spencer's attempt to stop finally at the mere affirmation that the Absolute exists he himself proved to be impossible.斯宾塞的企图停留在单纯的肯定,绝对的存在,他本人最后被证明是不可能的。He frequently describes the Unknowable as the "Power manifesting itself in phenomena".他经常描述为“权力体现在现象本身”的不可知。


This physical description is a surrender of his own position and a virtual acceptance of the principle of Theism, that the Absolute is known through, not apart from, its manifestations.这说明身体是他自己的立场和对投降的有神论原则的虚拟接受,那绝对是通的,不除,其表现形式闻名。 If the Absolute can be known as physical power, surely it can be known as Intelligent Personal Power, by taking not the lowest, but the highest, manifestations of power known to us as the basis for a less inadequate conception.如果绝对可以作为体力闻名,当然也可以称为智能个人力量,采取不是最低,但最高,权力的表现被称为一个概念的基础上少给我们的不足。 Blank existence is no final stopping-place for human thought.空白的存在是对人类的思想没有最终停止位。The only rational course is to conceive God under the highest manifestations of Himself and to remember while so doing that we are describing, not defining, His abysmal nature.唯一合理的做法是根据自己的设想最高表现神和记忆,而这样做,我们所描述的,不界定,他的糟糕的性质。It is not a question of degrading God to our level, but of not conceiving Him below that level as unconscious energy.这不是有辱人格的上帝我们的水平问题,但不低于该构想为他无意识的能量水平。Spencer's further attempt to empty religion and science of their respective rational contents, so as to leave only a blank abstraction or symbol for the final object of both, is a gross confusion, again, of the indefinite of thought with the infinite of reality.斯潘塞的进一步尝试空的宗教和各自的内容科学合理,以只留下一个空白的抽象或为双方的最终目标的象征,是一种严重的混乱,再次,思想与现实的无限无限。 A religion wholly cut off from belief, worship, and conduct never existed.宗教完全切断了信仰,崇拜,并进行根本不存在。Religion must know its object to some extent or be mere irrational emotion.宗教必须知道它的对象在一定程度上或仅仅是不合理的情绪。 All religion recognizes mystery; truth and reality imperfectly known, not wholly unknowable.承认所有宗教的神秘,真理与现实不完全知道,并非完全不可知的。The distinction of "knowable phenomena from unknowable reality behind phenomena" breaks down at every turn; and Spencer well illustrates how easy it is to mistake simplified thoughts for the original simplicities of things.对“从现象背后的现实可知不可知的现象”的区别分解动不动;和Spencer正好说明它是多么容易误以为是事物的原始simplicities简化的想法。 His category of the Unknowable is a convenient receptacle for anything one may choose to put into it, because no rational statement concerning its contents is possible.他对不可知类是对任何一个可能选择投入方便的插座,因为没有理性的声明有关其内容是可能的。In fact, Spencer calmly affirms the identity of the two "unknowables" of Religion and Science, without appearing to realize that neither in reason nor according to his own principles is there any foundation for this most dogmatic of statements.事实上,斯宾塞冷静地肯定了两个“unknowables”宗教和科学的身份,没有出现认识到,没有理由也没有在根据自己的原则是有没有这个最基础的教条式的陈述。

VI. VI。THE POWER TO KNOW有权知道

The primary fact disclosed in our sense-knowledge is that an external object exists, not that a sensation has been experienced.其实在我们的主要意义知识透露的是,一个外部对象存在,不就是轰动了经验。 What we directly perceive is the presence of the object, not the mental process.我们直接感知的对象,而不是心理过程的存在。This vital union of subject and object in the very act of knowledge implies that things and minds are harmoniously related to each other in a system of reality.本学科在知识和行为的对象非常重要的联盟意味着事物和思想的和谐关系在现实系统给对方。The real is involved in our acts of perception, and any theory which neglects to take this basic fact into account disregards the data of direct experience.真正的参与我们的行为的看法,任何理论,忽略考虑到漠视直接经验的数据这一基本事实。Throughout the whole process of our knowing, the mind has reality, fundamentally at least, for its object.纵观我们知道整个过程中,心中有现实,从根本上至少为它的对象。The second fact of our knowledge is that things are known according to the nature of the knower.我们的知识,第二个事实是,根据已知事物的认识者的性质。We can know the real object, but the extent of this knowledge will depend on the number and degree of manifestations, as on the actual conditions of our mental and bodily powers.我们可以知道真正的对象,但这种知识的程度将取决于数量和表现的程度,对我们的心理和身体的权力的实际情况。Whatever be the results reached by psychologists or by physicists in their study of the genesis of knowledge or the nature of reality, there can be no doubt of the testimony of consciousness to the existence of a reality "not ourselves".无论是由心理学家或在他们的知识或现实的本质成因的研究物理学家达成的结果,不可能有意识地证明了一个现实:“不是我们自己的”存在疑问。 Knowledge is, therefore, proportioned to the manifestations of the object and to the nature and conditions of the knowing subject.知识,因此,比例为对象的表现和对大自然的认识主体和条件。Our power to know God is no exception to this general law, the non-observance of which is the weakness of Agnosticism, as the observance of it is the strength of Theism.我们的权力,知道上帝是没有这个一般规律的例外,其不遵守是对不可知论的弱点,因为它的纪念就是有神论的实力。The pivotal assumption in agnostic systems generally is that we can know the existence of a thing and still remain in complete ignorance of its nature.在不可知的系统的关键假设是,我们通常可以知道某一事物的存在,仍然留在其性质完全无知。The process of our knowing is contrasted with the object supposedly known.我们的认识过程是已知的对比与假想对象。 The result of this contrast is to make knowledge appear not as reporting, but as transforming, reality; and to make the object appear as qualitatively different from the knowledge we have of it, not, therefore, intrinsically unknowable.这种对比的结果是使知识出现的报告,而是作为转化,现实,并且使对象出现质的不同,我们的知识有它,而不是,因此,本质上是不可知的。 This assumption begs the whole question.这一假设引出了整个问题。No valid reason exists for regarding the physical stimulus of sensation as "reality pure and simple", or as the ultimate object of knowledge.没有正当理由存在视为“现实纯洁和简单”,或作为最终的知识对象的物理刺激的感觉。To conceive of knowledge as altering its object is to make it meaningless, and to contradict the testimony of consciousness.为了知识的设想为改变其目的是使意义,并违背了意识的见证。We cannot, therefore, know the existence of a thing and remain in complete ignorance of its nature.我们不能,因此,了解一个事物的存在,并保持在其本质完全无知。

The problem of God's knowableness raises four more or less distinct questions: existence, nature, possibility of knowledge, possibility of definition.神的knowableness问题提出了以下四个鲜明的问题:存在,性质,知识,定义可能性的可能性。In treating these, the Agnostic separates the first two, which he should combine, and combines the last two, which he should separate.在治疗这些,不可知论者分离的前两个,这是他应该有机结合起来,并结合近两年,他应该分开。The first two questions, while distinct, are inseparable in treatment, because we have no direct insight into the nature of anything and must be content to study the nature of God through the indirect manifestations He makes of Himself its creatures.前两个问题,而不同的,在治疗分不开的,因为我们没有进入任何性质的直接的洞察力和学习内容必须通过他对自己的生物使间接表现的神的本性。 The Agnostic, by treating the question of God's nature apart from the question of God's existence, cuts himself off from the only possible natural means of knowing, and then turns about to convert his fault of method into a philosophy of the Unknowable.该不可知论者,通过治疗从神的存在的问题,上帝的本质问题外,削减自己开来的只知道可能的自然方式,然后打开要转换成哲学的不可知他的方法错。 It is only by studying the Absolute and the manifestations together that we can round out and fill in the concept of the former by means of the latter.只有通过学习和表现绝对,我们可以一起轮出和前概念填补后者的手段。 The idea of God cannot be analyzed wholly apart from the evidences, or "proofs".神的想法,不能完全分析,除了证据,或“证据”。Deduction needs the companion process of induction to succeed in this instance.扣除需要的感应同伴在这个过程中成功的实例。 Spencer overlooked this fact, which St. Thomas admirably observed in his classic treatment of the problem.斯潘塞忽略了这个事实,这在圣托马斯令人钦佩他的问题的经典治疗观察。

The question of knowing God is not the same as the question of defining Him.在得知上帝的问题是不一样的定义他的问题相同。The two do not stand or fail together.这两个不站立或一起失败。By identifying the two, the Agnostic confounds "inability to define" with "total inability to know", which are distinct problems to be treated separately, since knowledge may fall short of definition and be knowledge still.通过确定的两个,不可知论者混淆“不能界定”与“总不能知道”,这要分别对待,因为知识的定义可能属于短期和知识仍然是不同的问题。 Spencer furnishes the typical instance.斯宾塞furnishes的典型实例。He admits that inquiry into the nature of things leads inevitably to the concept of Absolute Existence, and here his confusion of knowing with defining compels him to stop.他承认,到事物的本质调查不可避免地导致了绝对存在的概念,在这里他与界定认识混乱迫使他停下来。He cannot discover in the isolated concept of the Absolute the three conditions of relation, likeness, and difference, necessary for defining it.他不能发现在绝对的三个条件的关系,肖像,和差异,有必要确定孤立的概念。He rightly claims that no direct resemblance, no agreement in the possession of the same identical qualities, is possible between the Absolute and the world of created things.他正确地说,没有直接的相似性,没有在同一个相同的特质占有协议,可能之间的绝对和创造的事物的世界。The Absolute cannot be defined or classified, in the sense of being brought into relations of specific or generic agreement with any objects we know or any concepts we frame.绝对不能定义或分类,在被纳入特定的或通用的任何物体或概念,我们知道我们关系的框架协议带来的意义。This was no discovery of Spencer's.这是没有斯宾塞的发现。The Eastern Fathers of the Church, in their so-called "negative theology", refuted the pretentious knowledge of the Gnostics on this very principle, that the Absolute transcends all our schemes of classification.教会的东部父亲,在他们所谓的“负面神学”,驳斥了关于这个原则的诺斯替教派自命不凡的知识,那绝对超越我们所有的分类方案。 But Spencer was wrong in neglecting to take into account the considerable amount of positive, though not strictly definable, knowledge contained in the affirmations which he makes in common with the Theist, that God exists.但斯宾塞错在忽略考虑到了积极的,虽然没有严格定义,知识相当的肯定,他在与有神论者共同使得中,神的存在。The Absolute, studied in the light of its manifestations, not in the darkness of isolations, discloses itself to our experience as Originating Source.绝对的,在其表现形式轻研究,而不是在黑暗的隔离,披露自己的经验,原源。Between the Manifestations and the Source there exists, therefore, some relationship.之间的表现和源存在,因此,一些关系。It is not a direct resemblance, in the very nature of the case.它不是一个直接的相似性,在案件的性质。But there is another kind of resemblance which is wholly indirect, the resemblance of two proportions, or Analogy.但还有另一种相似是一种完全间接的,两个比例相似,或比喻。The relation of God to His absolute nature must be, proportionally at least, the same as that of creatures to theirs.神与他的绝对性,必须,比例最少,作为对他们的动物相同。However infinite the distance and difference between the two, this relation of proportional similarity exists between them, and is sufficient to make some knowledge of the former possible through the latter, because both are proportionally alike, while infinitely diverse in being and attributes.但无限的距离和两者之间的区别,这个比例在它们之间存在着相似的关系,并足以使一些通过后者了解前者的可能,因为两者都是按比例相似,而在无限幸福和属性不同。 The Originating Source must precontain, in an infinitely surpassing way, the perfections dimly reflected in the mirror of Nature.原始来源必须precontain在一个无限超越的方式,在昏暗的完善体现在对自然的一面镜子。Of this, the principle of causality, objectively understood, is ample warrant.其中,因果关系的原则,客观地了解,充分的保证。 Spencer's three conditions for knowledge--namely: relation, likeness, and difference--are thus verified in another way, with proportional truth for their basis.斯宾塞的三个条件的知识 - 即:关系,肖像,并区别 - 因此验证了另一种方式,为他们的基础比例的真理。The conclusions of natural theology cannot, therefore, be excluded from the domain of the knowable, but only from that of the definable.自然神学的结论不能,因此,被排除在了可知的领域,而只是从定义的。(See ANALOGY.)(见类推。)

The process of knowing God thus becomes a process of correcting our human concepts.认识神的过程因此变成了纠正我们人类的观念的过程。The correction consists in raising to infinite, unlimited significance the objective perfections discernible in men and things.这次调整包括提高到无限,无限的意义的客观事物的完善和男性明显。This is accomplished in turn by denying the limiting modes and imperfect features distinctive of created reality, in order to replace these by the thought of the All-perfect, in the plenitude of whose Being one undivided reality corresponds to our numerous, distinct, partial concepts.这可以反过来通过否认限制方式和不完善的特点,以创造独特的现实,以取代由这些思想的全部完美,在其便是一个不可分割的现实对应我们的众多,层次分明,局部概念充实。 In the light of this applied corrective we are enabled to attribute to God the perfections manifested in intelligence, will, power, personality, without making the objective content of our idea of God merely the human magnified, or a bundle of negations.在这个应用纠正光我们启用属性神情报体现了天生丽质,意志,力量,个性,而不会令我们对神的想法只是人类的客观内容放大,或否定包。 The extreme of Anthropomorphism, or of defining God in terms of man magnified, is thus avoided, and the opposite extreme of Agnosticism discounted.而拟人,或定义在人神极端放大的条件,因此避免,相反的极端的不可知论折扣。Necessity compels us to think God under the relative, dependent features of our experience.必要性迫使我们去思考下相对的,我们的经验相关的功能神。But no necessity of thought compels us to make the accidental features of our knowledge the very essence of His being.但是,没有思想的必然迫使我们利用我们的知识,他是很偶然的本质特征。The function of denial, which the Agnostic overlooks, is a corrective, not purely negative, function; and our idea of God, inadequate and solely proportional as it is, is nevertheless positive, true, and valid according to the laws which govern all our knowing.对拒绝功能,其中不可知论俯瞰,是纠正,而不是纯粹消极的,功能和我们的想法上帝的不足,一味的比例,因为它是,但仍然积极,正确的,有效的根据法律,管理我们所有的知道。

VII.七。THE WILL TO BELIEVE意志要相信

The Catholic conception of faith is a firm assent, on account of the authority of God to revealed truths.信仰天主教的概念是一个坚定的同意,对上帝的权威帐户揭示的真理。It presupposes the philosophical truth that a personal God exists who can neither deceive nor be deceived, and the historical truth of the fact of revelation.它的前提是个人的哲学真理,上帝的存在既不能欺骗谁也不能欺骗,而事实的启示历史真相。The two sources of knowledge--reason and revelation--complete each other.知识的两个来源 - 理性与启示 - 完整的对方。Faith begins where science ends.在科学的信仰开始结束。Revelation adds a new world of truth to the sum of human knowledge.启示录增加了一个新的真理世界的人类知识的总和。This new world of truth is a world of mystery, but not of contradiction.这个新的世界的真理是一个神秘的世界,但并不矛盾。The fact that none of the truths which we believe on God's authority contradicts the laws of human thought or the certainties of natural knowledge shows that the world of faith is a world of higher reason.事实上,我们对真理的上帝的权威认为没有违背人类思想或自然知识的确定性的规律表明,信仰的世界是一个更高的理性世界。 Faith is consequently an intellectual assent; a kind of superadded knowledge distinct from, yet continuous with, the knowledge derived from experience.因此信仰是一个知识分子同意;的superadded知识有别于那种,但连续的,从经验中得出的知识。

In contrast with this conception of faith and reason as distinct is the widespread view which urges their absolute separation.与此不同的信仰和观念的原因是普遍的看法相反,要求他们绝对分离。 The word knowledge is restricted to the results of the exact sciences; the word belief is extended to all that cannot be thus exactly ascertained.这个词的认识仅限于科学的准确的结果;字的信念是扩大到所有不能因此完全确定。 The passive attitude of the man of science, who suspends judgment until the evidence forces his assent, is assumed towards religious truth.而科学的,谁挂起判断证据的力量,直到他的同意,人是被动的态度,假设对宗教的真理。 The result is that the "will to believe" takes on enormous significance in contrast with the "power to know", and faith sinks to the level of blind belief cut off from all continuity with knowledge.其结果是,“会相信”发生在对比度很大的意义与“权力知道”,和信仰汇到迷信切断所有的知识连续性小康水平。

It is true that the will, the conscience, the heart, and divine grace co-operate in the production of the act of faith, but it is no less true that reason plays an essential part.诚然,意志,良心,心,和神的恩典合作,在信仰行为的生产,但它同样是真正的原因中起着不可或缺的一部分。 Faith is an act of intellect and will; when duly analyzed, it discloses intellectual, moral, and sentimental elements.信仰是一种智力和行事;正式分析时,它披露的智力,道德和情感的元素。We are living beings, not pure reasoning machines, and our whole nature cooperates vitally in the acceptance of the divine word.我们是活生生的人,不是纯粹的推理机,和我们整个自然界中的合作非常神圣的字所接受。"Man is a being who thinks all his experience and perforce must think his religious experience."--Sterrett, "The Freedom of Authority" (New York, 1905) p. “人是一个被所有谁认为他的经验和Perforce必须认为他的宗教体验。” - 斯特雷特,他说:“管理局的自由”(纽约,1905年)第56.--Where reason does not enter at all, we have but caprice or enthusiasm.56 .--凡原因不进入,我们有,但任性或热情。 Faith is not a persuasion to be duly explained by reference to subconscious will-attitudes alone, nor is distrust of reason one of its marks.信仰是不是妥参考潜意识会,态度单独解释劝说,也不是理性的,其标志之一的不信任。

It is also true that the attitude of the believer, as compared with that of the scientific observer, is strongly personal, and interested in the object of belief.这也是事实的是,信徒的态度,与科学观察员相比,强烈的个人,而在信仰的对象感兴趣。But this contrast of personal with impersonal attitudes affords no justification for regarding belief as wholly blind.但这种客观的态度与个人对比affords没有视为完全盲目的信仰的理由。It is unfair to generalize these two attitudes into mutually exclusive philosophies.这是不公平的哲学概括为两个相互排斥的态度。The moral ideal of conscience is different from the cold, impartial ideal of physical science.良心的道德理想是从冷,物理科学公正的理想不同。Truths which nourish the moral life of the soul, and shape conduct, cannot wait for acceptance, like purely scientific truths, until theoretical reason studies the problem thoroughly.真理是滋养心灵的道德生活,和形状进行,不能等待验收,如单纯的科学真理,直到理论理性研究的问题彻底。They present distinct motives for the conscience to appreciate actively, not for the speculative reason to contemplate passively.他们目前的良心欣赏积极,对于投机的理由不能被动地考虑不同的动机。Conscience appreciates the moral value of testimonies, commands their acceptance, and bids the intellect to "ponder them with assent".良心赞赏证词道德价值,命令他们的接受和出价的智力,以“思考与同意他们”。

It is wrong, therefore, to liken the function of conscience to that of speculative reason, to apply to the solution of moral and religious questions the methods of the exact sciences, to give to the latter the monopoly of all certitude, and to declare the region beyond scientific knowledge a region of nescience and blind belief.这是错误的,因此,比喻的良心功能,投机性原因,适用于道德和宗教问题的精确科学的方法,解决方案,给后者的所有确定性的垄断,并申报区域以外的科学知识的nescience和盲目的信仰地区。 On the assumption that the knowledge and the definable are synonymous terms, the "first principles of thought" are transferred from the category of knowledge to that of belief, but the transfer is arbitrary.在假定的知识和定义是同义词,是“思想的第一原则”转移,从知识类的信念,但转移是任意的。It is too much to suppose that we know only what we can explain.这是太多的假设,我们只知道我们可以解释。The mistake is in making a general philosophy out of a particular method of scientific explanation.这个错误是在开出一个科学的解释方法,特别是一般的哲学。This criticism applies to all systematic attempts to divide the mind into opposite hemispheres of intellect and will, to divorce faith completely from knowledge.这种批评适用于所有系统的企图分为智力相反半球的头脑和意志,完全脱离信仰的知识。Consciousness is one and continuous.意识是一个连续的。Our distinctions should never amount to separations, nor should the "pragmatic" method now in vogue be raised to the dignity of a universal philosophy.我们的区别不应该等于离职,也不应“务实”的方法现在流行提高到一个普遍的哲学的尊严。"The soul with its powers does not form an integral whole divided, or divisible, into non-communicating compartments of intellect and will; it is a potential inter-penetrative whole". “与权力的灵魂没有形成一个不可分割的整体分割,或分割成非智力车厢和交流会,它​​是一个潜在的相互渗透的整体”。(Baillie, "Revue de Philos.", April, 1904, p. 468.) In the solidary interaction of all man's powers the contributions furnished by will and conscience increase and vivify the meagre knowledge of God We are able to acquire by reasoning. (贝利,“歌剧团去PHILOS”,四月,1904年,第468页)在所有男人的权力休戚相关的相互作用的贡献提供了意志和良心的增加和发可旺神微薄的知识,我们能够获得以理服人。

VIII.第八。AGNOSTICISM AND THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH不可知论和教会的教义

The Agnostic denial of the ability of human reason to know God is directly opposed to Catholic Faith.对人类理性的认识神的能力不可知论否认是直接反对天主教的信仰。The Council of the Vatican solemnly declares that "God, the beginning and end of all, can, by the natural light of human reason, be known with certainty from the works of creation" (Const. De Fide, II, De Rev.) The intention of the Council was to reassert the historic claim of Christianity to be reasonable, and to condemn Traditionalism together with all views which denied to reason the power to know God with certainty.而梵蒂冈会郑重声明,“上帝,一切的开始和结束时,可以通过人类理性的自然光,与来自创作的作品确知”(Const.德FIDE,二,德牧师)理事会的目的是重申基督教的历史算得上是合理的,并谴责所有意见,拒绝理由的权力,肯定地知道上帝传统主义在一起。 Religion would be deprived of all foundation in reason, the motives of credibility would become worthless, conduct would be severed from creed, and faith be blind, if the power of knowing God with rational certainty were called in question.宗教将是所有原因的基础丧失,信誉的动机将变得一文不值,行为将被切断从信仰,信念是盲目的,如果知道肯定上帝的力量与理性的人质疑。 The declaration of the Council was based primarily on scripture, not on any of the historic systems of philosophy.安理会声明的主要依据是圣经,而不是对哲学的历史系统的任何。The Council simply defined the possibility of man's knowing God with certainty by reason apart from revelation.安理会通过的原因简单地定义除了启示人的认识与把握神的可能性。The possibility of knowing God was not affirmed of any historical individual in particular; the statement was limited to the power of human reason, not extended to the exercise of that power in any given instance of time or person.认识神的可能性肯定是没有任何个人在特定的历史;声明仅限于人类理性的力量,而不是扩展到权力在任何时间或人给定的实例演习。 The definition thus took on the feature of the objective statement: Man can certainly know God by the "physical" power of reason when the latter is rightly developed, even though revelation be "morally" necessary for mankind in the bulk, when the difficulties of reaching a prompt, certain, and correct knowledge of God are taken into account.这样的定义上发生的客观陈述特点:人一定能知道的“物理”的原因时,后者是正确的发展动力神,即使启示是“道德”在人类的大量需要,当困难的达到神的提示,确定的,正确的知识都考虑到。 What conditions were necessary for this right development of reason, how much positive education was required to equip the mind for this task of knowing God and some of His attributes with certainty, the Council did not profess to determine.什么条件都为这种理由正确的发展需要,有多少正面教育是必须装备这种认识神和肯定他的一些属性任务的头脑,安理会没有自称来确定。 Neither did it undertake to decide whether the function of reason in this case is to derive the idea of God wholly from reflection on the data furnished by sense, or merely to bring out into explicit form, by means of such data, an idea already instinctive and innate.它也没有决定是否进行理性在这种情况下,功能是来自上帝的观念的反映完全意义上的提供的数据,或者仅仅是为了使明确的形式进行,由这些数据意味着,一个想法已经本能和天生的。 The former view, that of Aristotle had the preference; but the latter view, that of Plato, was not condemned.前一种观点,即亚里士多德有偏爱,但后者认为,柏拉图认为,没有谴责。God's indirect manifestations of Himself in the mirror of nature, in the created world of things and persons, were simply declared to be true sources of knowledge distinct from revelation.上帝的间接表现自己在自然的镜子,在事物和人创造的世界,是简单地宣布成为真正的知识,从不同来源的启示。

Publication information Written by Edmund T. Shanahan.出版信息书面埃德蒙T.沙纳汉。Transcribed by Rick McCarty.转录由里克麦卡蒂。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


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