Alexandrian Theology亚历山大神学

Clement of Alexandria克莱门特的亚历山德里亚

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Clement of Alexandria, whose full name was Titus Flavius Clemens (150?-215?), was a Greek theologian and an early Father of the Church.亚历山大,他的全名是提图斯弗拉菲乌斯克莱门斯(150℃-215?),克莱门特是一个希腊神学家和教会的早期父亲。 He was probably born in Athens, Greece, and was educated at the catechetical school in Alexandria, where he studied under the Christian philosopher Pantaenus.他可能是出生在雅典,希腊,并在亚历山大,在那里他受到了基督教哲学家Pantaenus研究教理学校接受教育。 Some time after Clement's conversion from paganism, he was ordained a presbyter.一段时间后克莱门特从异教的转换时间,他被祝圣长老。In about 190 he succeeded Pantaenus as head of the catechetical school, which became famous under his leadership.在约190他成功作为学校的教理,这成为他领导的著名的头Pantaenus。Origen, who later achieved distinction as a writer, teacher, and theologian, may have been one of Clement's pupils.奥利,谁以后达到作为一个作家,教师和神学家的区别,可能被克莱门特的学生之一。During the persecution of the Christians in the reign of Septimius Severus, emperor of Rome, Clement moved from Alexandria to Caesarea (Mazaca) in Cappadocia.期间,在Septimius西弗勒斯,罗马的皇帝,在位的基督徒迫害克莱门特已从亚历山大撒利亚(Mazaca)在卡帕多西亚。 Little is known of his subsequent activities.鲜为人知的是,他的后续活动。At times, he was considered a saint; his name appeared in early Christian martyrologies.有时,他被认为是一个圣人,他的名字出现在早期基督教martyrologies。

Many scholars regard Clement as the founder of the Alexandrian school of theology, which emphasized the divine nature of Christ. It was Alexandrian theologians such as Saint Cyril and Saint Athanasius who took the lead in opposing Adoptionism and Nestorianism, both of which emphasized Christ's humanity at the expense of his divinity.许多学者认为的神学,它强调了基督的神性亚历山大学派的创始人克莱门特这是亚历山大神学家,如圣西里尔和圣亚他那修谁参加了反对Adoptionism和景教领先,这两个强调基督的人性在他的神性为代价。 According to Clement's system of logic, the thought and will of God exhorts, educates, and perfects the true Christian.根据克莱门特的逻辑,思维系统,并且将神的劝告,教导,和完善真正的基督徒。This process is described in A Hortatory Address to the Greeks, The Tutor, and Miscellanies, Clement's major works.这个过程中介绍了一个劝告地址的希腊人,在导师和杂记,克莱门特的主要著作。The first work is addressed to the educated public with an interest in Christianity; it is modeled on the Hortatory Address of Aristotle, a lost work in which Aristotle addressed the general reader with an interest in philosophy. The Tutor is designed to broaden and deepen the foundation of Christian faith imparted in baptismal instruction. Miscellanies is a discussion of various points of doctrinal theology, designed to guide the mature Christian to perfect knowledge.第一个工作是给有兴趣在基督教教育公众,它是建立在亚里士多德,一个失去工作,其中涉及与亚里士多德哲学感兴趣的一般读者劝告地址为蓝本的导师 ,旨在扩大和深化。基督教信仰的根基在传授洗礼指令。 杂记是对神学教义旨在引导成熟的基督徒完善的知识,各个要点进行讨论。Clement was also the author of a number of tracts and treatises, including Slander, Fasting, Patience, and Who Is the Rich Man That Is Saved?克莱门特也是一大片和论文,包括诽谤,禁食,耐心,谁是富人所保存数量的作者?

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Clement of Alexandria克莱门特的亚历山德里亚

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(ca. 150-ca. 215)(约150 - 约215)

Titus Flavius Clemens, Greek theologian and writer, was the first significant representative of the Alexandrian theological tradition.提图斯弗拉菲乌斯克莱门斯,希腊神学家和作家,是第一个重要的亚历山大神学传统的代表。Born of pagan parents in Athens, Clement went to Alexandria, where he succeeded his teacher Pantaenus as head of the Catechetical School.在雅典异教父母所生,克莱门特去亚历山大,在那里他接替了他的老师教理School头Pantaenus。In 202 persecution forced him to leave Alexandria, apparently never to return.在202迫害迫使他离开亚历山大,显然再也没有回来。

Of Clement's writings four are preserved complete: Protreptikos (an exhortation addressed to the Greeks urging their conversion); Paedagogos (a portrayal of Christ as tutor instructing the faithful in their conduct); Stromata (miscellaneous thoughts primarily concerning the relation of faith to philosophy); "Who Is the Rich Man That Is Saved?"在克莱门特的著作4顷保存完整:Protreptikos(一种告诫给希腊人敦促其转换); Paedagogos(基督的作为导师指导,在其行为的忠实写照); Stromata(杂项的想法主要是关于信仰与哲学) ,“谁是富人所保存?” (an exposition of Mark 10:17-31, arguing that wealth, if rightfully used, is not un-Christian). (马克10:17-31的论述,认为财富,如果正确地使用,是不是非基督徒)。Of other writings only fragments remain, especially of the Hypotyposes, a commentary on the Scriptures.其他著作只有碎片依然存在,特别是Hypotyposes,对圣经的评论。

Clement is important for his positive approach to philosophy which laid the foundations for Christian humanism and for the idea of philosophy as "handmaid" to theology.克莱门特是非常重要的积极的态度,他的哲学奠定了基督教人文主义的基础,为哲学的“婢女”的神学思想。The idea of the Logos dominates his thinking.该徽标的想法支配着他的思想。The divine Logos, creator of all things, guides all good men and causes all right thought.神圣的标志,万物的创造者,引导所有优秀的男人,并导致所有权利的思想。Greek philosophy was, therefore, a partial revelation and prepared the Greeks for Christ just as the law prepared the Hebrews.希腊哲学,因此,部分启示,并准备为基督希腊人就像希伯来人的法律准备。Christ is the Logos incarnate through whom man attains to perfection and true gnosis.基督是逻各斯的化身经手人达到完美和真正的灵知。Against the Gnostics who disparaged faith, Clement considers faith the necessary first principle and foundation for knowledge, which itself is the perfection of faith.反对诺斯替教派的信仰贬低谁,克莱门特认为信仰第一的原则和必要的基础知识,这本身就是信仰的完美。Man becomes a "true Gnostic" by love and contemplation.人成为“真正的诺斯底”的爱和沉思。Through self-control and love man rids himself of passions, reaching finally the state of impassibility wherein he attains to the likeness of God.通过自我控制和爱的人摆脱掉自己的激情,最终达到国家的impassibility其中他达到神的肖像。With this idea Clement profoundly influenced Greek Christian spirituality.有了这个想法克莱门特深刻地影响希腊基督教灵性。

WC WeinrichWC Weinrich
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
EF Osborn, The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria; SRC Lilla, Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Platonism and Gnosticism; RB Tollington, Clement of Alexandria: A Study in Christian Liberalism, 2 vols.; E. Molland, The Conception of the Gospel in the Alexandrian Theology; J. Quasten, Patrology, II: The Ante-Nicene Literature after Irenaeus; WH Wagner, "The Paideia Motif in the Theology of Clement of Alexandria" (Diss., Drew University, 1968); WEG Floyd, Clement of Alexandria's Treatment of the Problem of Evil; DJM Bradley, "The Transfiguration of the Stoic Ethic in Clement of Alexandria," Aug 14:41-66; J. Ferguson, "The Achievement of Clement of Alexandria," RelS 12:59-80. EF奥斯本,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚哲学; SRC里拉,克莱门特亚历山大:在基督教的柏拉图主义和诺斯替主义研究; RB Tollington,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚:一个在基督教自由主义研究,2卷; E. Molland,该构想在亚历山大的福音神学的J. Quasten,Patrology,二:后爱任纽前厅尼西亚文学; WH瓦格纳说:“在对克莱门特亚历山大神学Paideia的Motif”(Diss.,德鲁大学,1968年); WEG弗洛伊德,亚历山大的治疗对恶的问题克莱门特;粉喷桩布拉德利,他说:“亚历山大的克莱门特在斯多葛伦理变身,”八月14:41-66; J.弗格森,他说:“亚历山大的克莱门特成就,”RelS 12点59 -80。



Alexandrian Theology亚历山大神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

It is probable that Christianity came to Alexandria in apostolic times, though the tradition that it was first brought by John Mark cannot be verified.它是可能的基督教来到亚历山大在使徒时代,尽管它最早是由约翰马克带来了传统不能得到验证。The indications are that Christianity was well established in middle Egypt by AD 150 and that Alexandria was its port of entry and supporting base.该迹象表明基督教行之有效的中间由公元150埃及和亚历山大是其入境和配套基地港口。

Clement of Alexandria became head of the Catechetical School about 190.克莱门特亚历山大成为了约190教理学院院长。A philosopher throughout his life, Clement saw Greek philosophy as a preparation for Christ, even as a witness to divine truth.一个哲学家在他的生活,克莱门特认为这是一个为基督准备希腊哲学,甚至作为一个神圣的真理的见证。Plato was a cherished guide. Sin is grounded in man's free will.柏拉图是一个怀有指南。 仙是人的自由意志为基础。 Enlightement by the Logos brings man to knowledge.由标识Enlightement人带来知识。Knowledge results in right decisions.在正确的决策知识的结果。These draw a man toward God until he is assimilated to God (Stromata iv. 23).这些画对神的人,直到他被同化到神 (Stromata四23)。The Christian lives by love, free from passion.由爱基督徒的生活,从自由的激情。His life is a constant prayer.他的一生是一个不断祈祷。Clement set forth its pattern in minute detail in the Paedagogos.克莱门特提出其在Paedagogos细致的格局。He took an optimistic view of the future of all men, but knowledge would be rewarded in the world to come.他采取了一个对所有男人的未来乐观的看法,但知识将成为世界奖励的到来。An allegorical exegesis of Scripture supported these views.一个圣经寓言注释支持这些意见。

Around 202 Clement was succeeded in the Catechetical School by the much abler Origen. A biblical student and exegete of great ability, Origen produced the Hexapla text of the OT.大约202克莱门特是成功的教理学校由奥利多能者多劳,一个圣经的学生和能力很强的注释家,奥利生产的OT Hexapla文本。He wrote commentaries, scholia, or homilies on all the biblical books; but they were based on three senses of Scripture, the literal, moral, and allegorical.他写了评论,scholia,或所有的圣经书籍颂歌,但他们在三种含义的经文,文字,道德和寓言的基础。 The Bible was inspired, useful, true in every letter, but the literal interpretation was not necessarily the correct one.圣经的启发,有用的,真正在每一个字母,但字面解释并不一定是正确的。Indebted, like Clement, to the Greeks, Origen was not as admiringly dependent upon them.债,如克莱门特的希腊人,奥利是不是对他们钦佩依赖。

His conception was of a great spiritual universe, presided over by a beneficent, wise, and personal being.他的构想是一个伟大的精神宇宙,主持一个慈善,智慧,和个人被过度。Alexandrian Christology makes its beginnings with Origen.亚历山大与基督使奥利它的起点。Through an eternal generation of the Son, the Logos, God communicates himself from all eternity. There is a moral, volitional unity between the Father and the Son, but an essential unity is questionable .通过对圣子永恒的产生,标志,从所有永恒上帝传达自己有一个道德之间,父亲和儿子意志的统一,但一个基本的统一,是值得商榷的The world of sense provides the theater of redemption for fallen creatures who range from angels through men to demons. By the incarnation the Logos is the mediator of redemption.世界的意义上提供了谁的堕落,从通过对男人的天使恶魔系列赎回影院, 通过化身的标志是赎回的调解人。He took to himself a human soul in a union that was a henosis.他把他自己在工会这是一个henosis一个人的灵魂。

It was, therefore, proper to say that the Son of God was born an infant, that he died (De princ. II. vi. 2-3). By teaching, by example, by offering himself a propitiatory victim to God, by paying the devil a ransom, Christ saves men .据,因此,可以说,上帝的儿子出生一个婴儿,他死了(德princ二,六2-3), 通过教学,以身作则,通过提供自己一个和解的受害者上帝,支付赎金的魔鬼,基督保存人Men gradually free themselves from the earthy by meditation, by abstinence, by the vision of God.男子逐渐摆脱自己朴实的冥想,通过禁欲,由上帝的视野。A purging fire may be needed in the process.阿泻火,可能需要在过程中。Although this world is neither the first nor the last of a series, there will ultimately come the restoration of all things.虽然这个世界既不是第一,也不是一个系列的最后,将有最终得出万物的恢复。Flesh, matter, will disappear, spirit only will remain, and God will be all in all.肉体,物质,就会消失,精神,不仅将依然存在,神将所有的一切。How long human freedom will retain the power of producing another catastrophe is not clear, but ultimately all will be confirmed in goodness by the power of God's love.人的自由多久将保留生产另一灾难权力不明确,但最终都将在善良证实了神的爱的力量。

After Origen's departure from Alexandria his disciples diverged.经过奥利从亚历山大出发弟子分歧。 One group tended to deny the eternal generation of the Logos.其中一组倾向于否定​​逻各斯永恒的一代。Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria (247-65), sympathized with this party and declared the Logos to be a creation of the Father, but the future in Alexandria belonged to the opposite wing, which emphasized the divine attributes of the Logos.狄奥尼修斯,亚历山大(247-65)主教,同情,并宣布本党的标识是一个创造的父亲,但在亚历山大未来属于相反翼,强调了标志的神圣属性。 The Sabellian party was strong in Cyrenaica and Libya, and this influence affected Alexandria. When the presbyter Arius began, perhaps about 317, to proclaim that the Logos was a creation in time, differing from the Father in being, he attracted disciples, but Bishop Alexander opposed Arius.党的Sabellian在昔兰尼加和利比亚强,这种影响亚历山大的影响, 当长老阿里乌斯开始,也许约317宣布,该标识是在创作时,从父亲不同的是,他吸引了弟子,但主教亚历山大反对阿里乌斯。As Emperor Constantine found it impossible to restore harmony by exhortation and influence, he called for a general meeting of bishops. 作为皇帝康斯坦丁发现无法恢复规劝和影响力的和谐,他呼吁主教大会。The resulting Council of Nicaea in 325 was attended by an Alexandrian delegation which included the deacon Athanasius.的尼西亚造成325会是由亚历山大的代表团出席,其中包括执事亚他那修。For the remaining years of his life Athanasius was to champion the Nicene conclusion that the Son was homoousios with the Father. The adoption of this term in spite of its checkered Gnostic and Sabellian background was a work of providential genius.对于他的生活剩下的几年亚他那修是冠军尼西亚结论,认为儿子是同父homoousios,这个词在其格仔尽管诺斯底和Sabellian背景的通过是一个天赐的天才工作。

In 328 Athanasius succeeded Alexander as the Alexandrian bishop.在328亚他那修接任亚历山大主教亚历山大。In spite of some dictatorial tendencies he possessed a superb combination of the talents of a successful administrator with great depths of theological insight.在一些独裁的倾向,尽管他拥有了一个伟大的神学见解的深度成功的管理者高超的人才组合。From this time on, Alexandria emphasized vigorously the identity in being of the Father and the Son. Athanasius presented, in his On the Incarnation of the Logos, the indispensability of the union of true God with true man for the Christian doctrine of salvation through the life and death of Christ. Wholly God and wholly man the Saviour must be. Through many false charges and five periods of exile Athanasius maintained his insistence upon one God, Father and Son of the same substance, the church the institute of salvation, not subject to the interference of the civil state. Athanasius also set forth the view that the Spirit is homoousios likewise with the Father and the Son, thus preparing the way for the formula miaousia, treis hypostaseis.从这时起, 亚历山大强调大力在父亲和儿子被身份。亚他那修在他的介绍,在对标识的化身,对与真男人的真神的救恩联盟通过基督教教义不可或缺生命和死亡的基督。 全全男神和救主,必须透过许多诬告和五个亚他那修的流亡期间保持在一个上帝,父亲和同一物质,教会拯救机构,不受儿子他的坚持到文明状态的干扰。 亚他那修也提出了意见的精神是homoousios与父亲和儿子同样,从而准备为公式miaousia,特赖斯hypostaseis方式。

That Christ need not be wholly divine and wholly human was a view which Apollinaris of Laodicea did not succeed in fastening upon Alexandria in spite of his efforts in that direction.基督不需要完全神和人是完全的看法,对老底嘉Apollinaris没有成功紧固后,亚历山大在朝着这个方向努力,尽管他的。 His view that the pneuma of the Logos replaced the human spirit was rejected.他认为,该标志取代了人的精神元气被拒绝。His emphasis upon the unity of the personality of Christ, however, became increasingly an Alexandrian emphasis and was strongly stressed by Cyril, who became bishop in 412. The Logos took a full human nature upon himself, but the result was henosis physike, and Cyril loved the formula miaphysis, one even though originally ek duo.他呼吁基督强调个性的统一,但是,成为越来越成为亚历山大的重视和强烈的西里尔,谁成为在412主教强调, 发生在自己身上的标识完整的人性,但结果却是henosis physike,和西里尔爱配方miaphysis,一个即使原先绽出二人。 The incarnation was to the end of salvation. God became man that we might become God.的化身,是最终的救赎, 神成为人,我们可能成为上帝。

Cyril supported this by allegorical exposition of the Scripture of both testaments, especially the Pentateuch.西里尔支持由两个见证,特别是摩西五圣经寓言阐述这一点。The phenomenal allegory of the facts is designed to yield the noumenal meaning.事实的现象寓言旨在产生本体的意义。His most famous writing is his series of twelve anathemas against Nestorius, attacking what appeared to him to be denials of the unity and full deity of Christ and of the crucifixion and resurrection of the Word.他最有名的是他写作的十二对涅斯anathemas系列,攻击什么似乎他是基督​​的统一和完整的神性和受难和复活的Word否认。 In 433 Cyril accepted, with the Antioch leaders, a profession of faith which declared that a unity of the two natures of Christ had come into existence (henosis gegone) and used the term for which Cyril had so vigorously contended against Nestorius, Theotokos, as a description of the Virgin Mary.在433 西里尔接受,与安提阿领袖,专业的信仰宣告,一个基督的两个性质的统一已经生效的存在(henosis gegone),并用了哪些钱卓有这么大力反对聂斯脱里,东正争论来看,随着对圣母玛利亚的描述。

Dioscurus continued the Cyrillian emphasis on unity in the person of Christ but pushed it to an extreme. At the Council of Chalcedon (451) the Alexandrian radicals suffered defeat with the adoption in the Chalcedonian Definition of the phrase en dyo physesin. Dioscurus继续团结Cyrillian强调在基督的人,但其推到了极致。在Chalcedon委员会(451)亚历山大自由基遭受了在EN DYO physesin短语Chalcedonian定义采用的失败。The final Alexandrian tendencies produced schism after Chalcedon. The great bulk of Egyptian Christendom rejected Chalcedon and became monophysite.最后亚历山大迦克墩后产生分裂倾向的埃及基督教大批量拒绝迦克墩,成为基督一性。 Monothelitism proved to be only a temporary enthusiasm in Alexandria. The arrival of Islamic rule ended it.Monothelitism被证明是暂时只在亚历山大的积极性。伊斯兰统治的到来结束了。

The Alexandrian school with its Platonic emphasis was the popular school of its time. In its more moderate form it set the Christological pattern for many centuries. The love of allegorical interpretation was characteristic.其重点与柏拉图亚历山大学校是其当时流行的学校, 在其较温和的形式确定了许多世纪的基督模式,寓意爱为特征的解释。The intervention of the divine in the temporal was stressed, and the union of the natures of Christ with over-riding emphasis on the divine component was dangerously accented.而在颞神助强调,以及对基督工会的性质与压倒一切的神圣组成部分的重点是危险的重音。

P Woolley P伍利
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
ER Hardy, Jr., Christian Egypt; E. Molland, The Conception of the Gospel in the Alexandrian Theology; EF Osborn, The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria; RB Tollinton, Clement of Alexandria; J. Danielou, Origen; A. Robertson, Select Writings and Letters of Athanasius, NPNF 2nd series, IV; JEL Oulton and H. Chadwick, eds., Alexandrian Christianity; ER Hardy, ed., Christology of the Later Fathers, LCC, III; RV Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies; C. Bigg, The Christian Platonists of Alexandria; RB Tollinton, Alexandrian Teaching on the Universe. ER强壮,小,基督教埃及E. Molland,而在亚历山大神学福音观念; EF奥斯本,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚哲学; RB Tollinton,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚的J. Danielou,奥利; A.罗伯逊,选择著作和亚他那修,NPNF第二系列,四书; JEL奥尔顿和H.查德威克,EDS,亚历山大基督教; ER强壮,ED,基督的后来父亲,LCC,III; RV卖家,两个古老Christologies,C 。Bigg,亚历山大基督教柏拉图主义者; RB Tollinton,亚历山大对宇宙教学。



Also, see:此外,见:
Origen 奥利
Sabellianism 撒伯流主义
Arianism arianism
Council of Nicaea安理会尼西亚
Athanasius 亚他那修
Nicene 尼西亚
Apollinarianism 亚波里
Nestorianism 景教
Adoptionism adoptionism
Council of Chalcedon理事会迦克墩
Monophysitism monophysitism
Monothelitism monothelitism


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html