Amish阿米什

General Information一般资料

The Amish church, a branch of the Mennonites, is a Protestant religious group descended from the 16th-century Anabaptists.阿米绪教堂,门诺教派的分支,是一个新教团体从16世纪再洗礼派教徒的后裔。 The Amish take their name from Jacob Ammann, a Swiss Mennonite bishop who in 1693 broke away from the main body of Mennonites, feeling that they had strayed from the strict austerity of their forebears.阿米什从雅各阿曼,瑞士门诺主教谁在1693年脱离的门诺教派的主体,觉得他们已经从他们的祖先严格的紧缩政策偏离他们的名​​字。 Ammann's followers began emigrating to Pennsylvania from Switzerland and Germany about 1710, and by 1787 had established 70 congregations there.阿曼的追随者就开始移居瑞士及德国,美国宾夕法尼亚州约1710和1787年建立了70众那里。The Amish later spread to Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario in Canada.阿米什后来蔓延到俄亥俄州,印第安纳州,以及加拿大安大略省。Today they still exist in all these areas (and others), numbering about 40,000.今天,他们仍然存在于所有这些领域(和其他),约40000编号。

The Old Order Amish, who form the majority, reject infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, and military service, and live apart from the rest of society in agricultural communities.旧秩序阿米什人,谁形成多数,拒绝婴儿的洗礼,宣誓就职,军事服务,并从社会生活中的农业社区的其余部分分开。 They worship in private houses, and each congregation is served by a bishop, two ministers, and a deacon (all male).他们崇拜的私人房屋,每一堂是由一位主教,两位部长和执事(全部为男性)担任。Avoiding modern technology and worldly amusements, they practice simple farming and handicrafts--Amish quilts are notable examples of American Folk Art--and speak a German-English dialect (Pennsylvania Dutch).避免现代技术和世俗的娱乐,他们的做法简单的农业和手工业 - 阿米什棉被都是美国民间艺术著名的例子 - 和讲德语,英语方言(宾夕法尼亚荷兰语)。The horse and buggy is their normal mode of transportation.马和马车是他们正常的运输模式。The Conservative Amish, a smaller sect, differ from the Old Order Amish mainly in their adoption of English and Sunday schools.保守的阿米什人,更小的教派,不同于旧秩序阿米什人在他们的英语和周日学校采用为主。The Amish are known for their practice of meidung (shunning of those who have violated church law) and for their use of hooks and eyes instead of buttons.阿米绪是众所周知的的meidung(那些谁违反教会法回避)的做法和他们挂钩和眼睛而不是按钮的使用。Recognizable by their sober yet picturesque appearance--the men with full beards and broad-brimmed hats, the women in bonnets and long skirts--the Amish occupy a distinctive place among traditional religious groups in the United States and Canada.具有完全胡须和宽边帽,在帽子和长裙的女人的男人 - - 他们还没有清醒的阿米什风景如画的外观辨认中占据了在美国和加拿大的传统宗教团体独特的地方。

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Amish阿米什

General Information一般资料

The Amish are a North American Protestant group of Mennonite origin.阿米绪是北美门诺派新教的起源组。The Amish have maintained a distinctive and conservative agricultural way of life despite the influences of modern industrial society.阿米什保持尽管现代工业社会的影响的生活特色,保守的农业方式。

The name Amish is derived from Jakob Amman, a Swiss Mennonite bishop.阿米什人的名字是来自雅各布安曼,瑞士门诺派的主教。He insisted that discipline within the church be maintained by excommunication.他坚持认为,在教会的纪律被逐出教会维护。This entailed the avoidance, or shunning, by the faithful of those excommunicated.这需要回避,或回避,由逐出教会的忠诚。Conventional social relationships with the excommunicated, such as eating at the same table, buying and selling, and, in the case of a married person, marital relations, were forbidden.与驱逐,如吃同桌,购买和销售,并在一个已婚者,婚姻关系,常规情况下被禁止的社会关系。The Amish, subject to persecution in Europe, migrated in the 18th century to Pennsylvania, where their descendants are called Pennsylvania Dutch (the German deutsch, "German," was misunderstood as "Dutch").阿米绪,受到迫害,在欧洲,在18世纪移民到美国宾夕法尼亚州,在那里他们的后代被称为宾夕法尼亚荷兰语(德国道依茨,“德国”,被称为“荷兰”误解)。 They then spread into Ohio, other midwestern states, and Canada.然后,他们传播到俄亥俄州,其他中西部各州和加拿大。A rural people, their skill in farming is exemplary.一,农村人,他们在养殖技术堪称典范。

The most conservative are known as Old Order Amish. They dress in a severely plain style, using hooks and eyes instead of buttons to fasten their clothes.最保守的被称为旧秩序阿米什人,他 ​​们穿着普通的一个严重的风格,采用钩和眼睛而不是按钮扣上衣服。 They ride in horse-drawn buggies instead of automobiles, and the adult males wear beards.他们乘坐马拉越野车,而不是汽车,戴胡子的成年男性。Religious services are held in homes; foot washing is practiced in connection with the Communion service; discipline is enforced by shunning; and marriage with outsiders is condemned.宗教服务,在家里举行,洗脚是与共融服务连接练,纪律是执行了回避,以及与外界的婚姻是谴责。Other Amish groups, such as the Conservative Mennonite Conference and the Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches, are milder in discipline and less set apart from the world.其他阿米什群体,如保守党门诺会议像海滨阿米什门诺派教会,是温和的纪律,少设置除了世界。 All share the practice of believer's, or adult, baptism and often refuse to take part in civil affairs - to vote, serve in the military, and so forth.所有股票的信徒,或成人的洗礼,往往拒绝接受民事事务的做法 - 投票,服务于军事,等等。The Old Order Amish numbered about 80,800 in the early 1990s; the Beachy Amish about 7000.旧秩序阿米什人数约80,800在1990年代初期,大约7000像海滨阿米什。

The Amish have sometimes come into conflict with the larger society.阿米什有时接触到更大的社会冲突。In particular, they have resisted compulsory education requirements as a threat to their separate way of life.特别是,它们拒绝为他们的生活独立的方式威胁义务教育的要求。In the case of Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972), the state sought to require the children of an Amish family to attend school until the age of 16.在威斯康星诉约德(1972)的情况下,国家需要寻求一个阿米什家庭子女就读,直到16岁的学校。The parents were willing to allow them to attend through the eighth grade but argued that high school education would make them unfit to carry on the Amish tradition.家长愿意让他们通过参加八年级,但辩称,高中教育会令他们不适宜进行阿米什传统。The Supreme Court of the United States agreed that their right to the free exercise of their religion is protected and that the state's concern for compulsory public education must yield to that consideration.而美国最高法院一致认为,他们有权在他们的宗教活动受到保护和自由,国家对强制性公共教育的关注必须让位给政府考虑。



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