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An angel (Greek: angelos, "messenger") is a celestial being believed to function as a messenger or agent of God in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism.天使(希腊文:安耶洛斯,“信使”)是一个天体被认为是充当信使或代理人神在基督教,伊斯兰教,犹太教和祆教。 In the Near Eastern antecedents to Judaism, angels were often understood to be gods or lesser divinities.在犹太教近东来路,天使常常被理解为神或小神灵。Their existence was taken for granted by the biblical authors.它们的存在是采取由圣经作者理所当然的。The use of the word angel may have been a way of describing what was believed to be an appearance of God himself in human form.天使这个词的使用可能是一个描述了被认为是神自己在人的形式出现的方式。

In the Old Testament, angels are called "messengers," "men," "powers," "princes," "sons of God," and the "heavenly host."在旧约,天使被称为“信使”,“男人”,“权力”,“诸侯”,“神的儿子”和“天上的主机。”They either have no body or one that is only apparent.他们要么没有一个机构或只是表面的。They come as God's messengers to aid or punish, are assigned to individual persons or nations, and often have a name (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel).他们来作为上帝的使者援助或惩罚,被分配到个人或国家,往往有一个名字(迈克尔,加布里埃尔,拉斐尔,乌利尔)。New Testament statements about angels reflect Jewish views of these beings.关于天使新约报表反映这些众生犹太人的看法。Angels, for example, announced Christ's birth (Luke 2) and resurrection (Matt. 28).天使,例如,宣布耶稣的诞生(路加福音2)和复活(马太福音28)。

Ancient and medieval peoples widely accepted the influence of good spirits, or angels, and evil spirits, or fallen angels (see Demon; Satan).古代和中世纪人民广泛接受了良好的精神状态,或天使,邪灵,或堕落天使(见恶魔,撒旦)的影响。During the Middle Ages, theologians developed a hierarchy of angels.在中世纪,神学家开发出了天使的层次结构。They were classified in the following nine ranks (beginning with the lowest): angels, archangels, principalities, powers, virtues, dominations, thrones, cherubim, and seraphim.他们被分为以下九级(最低开始):天使,天使长,执政的,权力,美德,称霸,王位,基路伯和塞拉芬。Angels are a popular subject in folklore, literature, and art.天使是一个民间传说,文学,艺术热门话题。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Davidson, Gustav, A Dictionary of Angels (1967); Field, MJ, Angels and Ministers of Grace (1972); Heidt, WG, Angelology of the Old Testament (1949); Regamey, Raymond, What Is an Angel?, trans.戴维森,A天使词典(1967)古斯塔夫;场,MJ,天使和格雷斯(1972)部长; Heidt,工作组,对旧约(1949)天使; Regamey,林峰,什么是天使,反?by Mark Pontifex (1960).由Mark教皇(1960年)。


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Angel is a word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes.天使是一个字象征,无论是在希伯来文和希腊文,是“信使”,因此雇用来表示任何代理上帝派提出来执行他的目的。 It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14: 1 Sam. 11:3; Luke 7:24; 9:52), of prophets (Isa. 42:19; Hag. 1:13), of priests (Mal. 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament (Rev. 1:20).它是采用普通的信使(作业1时14分:1山姆11点03分,路加福音7时24分,9时52分)(。以赛亚书42:19;女巫1:13),先知,祭司(玛。2:7),和新约圣经(启示录1:20)部长。 It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2 Sam. 24: 16, 17; 2 Kings 19:35), the wind (Ps. 104:4).它也适用于这种客观代理人的瘟疫:;,风(诗篇104:4)(2萨姆24 16 17 2国王19点35分)。But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world.但其独特的应用,是某些人,上帝在天上的智能,他对世界政府​​进行聘用。

The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers.这个名字并不代表其性质,但作为使者他们的办公室。The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Gen. 18:2, 22. Comp. 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Gen. 32:24, 30), to Joshua at Gilgal (Josh. 5:13, 15), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.亚伯拉罕在幔利到(创18点02,22。比赛。19:1),外观雅各布在便以利(创32:24,30),以在吉甲约书亚(约书亚记5时13分,15岁),对主的天使,是毫无疑问的神圣的存在表现“的化身foreshadowings,”启示前“的时间充满”神的儿子。

From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Gen. 18; 19; 24:7, 40; 28:12; 32:1).从那个时候起有地球上经常提到他们的事工(创18,19,24:7,40; 28:12,32:1)。They appear to rebuke idolatry (Judg. 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 12), and to consecrate Samson (13:3).他们似乎谴责偶像崇拜(Judg. 2:1-4),调用基甸(Judg. 6:11,12),并奉献参孙(13:3)。In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1 Kings 19: 5; 2 Kings 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Dan. 4:13, 23; 10:10, 13, 20, 21).在从撒母耳先知,向下的日子,天使只会出现在他们的代表(1国王19:5;王下6时17分;撒加利亚1-6;丹4时13分,23岁; 10时10分,13。 ,20,21)。The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels.在介绍的化身天使的ministrations一个新时代。They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here.他们拿出他们的主地球做他的服务,同时在这里。They predict his advent (Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26-38), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Matt. 4:11; Luke 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Matt. 28:2-8; John 20:12, 13; Acts 1:10, 11).他们预测他的来临(太1时二十;路加福音1:26-38),部长给他后,他的诱惑和痛苦(太4点11分,路加福音22时43分),并宣布他的复活和升天(太28 :2 - 8;约翰20时12,13;徒1:10,11)。They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Heb. 1:14; Ps. 34:7; 91:11; Matt. 18:10; Acts 5:19; 8:26; 10:3; 12:7; 27:23).他们现在服事神的神(希伯来书一点14分的人;诗34:7; 91:11;马特18时10;徒5:19; 8时26分,十点03;十二点07分; 27:23)。They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Luke 15:10).他们欣喜过忏悔的罪人(路加福音15:10)。They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Luke 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day (Matt. 13:39, 41, 49; 16:27; 24:31).他们承担的赎回天堂(路加福音16点22分)的灵魂,而他们将是判断上的伟大的一天以下(太13点39分,41,49,16点27分,24:31)部长。

The passages (Ps. 34:7, Matt. 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples. 该通道(诗篇34:7,太18:10)通常所指的想法每个人都有一个特定的守护天使有没有这样的意思的支持,只是表明,采用了上帝的天使部提供他的人从痛苦和危险,而天使不认为低于其尊严,部长甚至儿童和之间的基督的门徒至少它。 The "angel of his presence" (Isa. 63:9. Comp. Ex. 23:20, 21; 32:34; 33:2; Nu,m. 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people.而“他的存在天使”(以赛亚书63:9比赛前23:20,21;。32:34,33:2;怒江,M. 20:16)可能是正确地解释了弥赛亚为指导他的人。Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Luke 1:19).其他人的表现应该是指加布里埃尔(路加福音1:19)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


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Angelos, from which "angel" derives, is in itself a colorless word like its main Hebrew equivalent.安耶洛斯,从中“天使”派生的,是像它的主要希伯来相当于无色字本身。It may denote either a human or a heavenly "messenger."这可能意味着无论是一个人或一个天堂般的“使者”。Yet in the NT, except in Luke 7:24; 9:52; and perhaps Rev. 1:20, it is used only for heavenly beings.然而,在NT中,除了在路加福音7时24分,10点差8分,或许牧师1:20,它仅用于天上的众生。Rightly, therefore, the Vulgate introduced a distinction between angelus and nuntius which modern renderings and usage have maintained.正确,因此,武加大引进了三钟经和nuntius之间的区分,现代效果图和使用一直保持。

The term chosen by Scripture to denote angels gives us the clue to the function by which they are primarily to be known and understood.由经文选择表示天使这个词给我们的功能,其中主要是他们认识和了解的线索。They are God's messengers or ambassadors.他们是上帝的使者或大使。They belong to his heavenly court and serice.他们属于他的天堂法院和serice。Their mission in heaven is to praise him (Rev. 4:5).他们在天堂的使命是赞美他(启示录4:5)。They devote themselves to doing his will (Ps. 103:20) and in this activity they behold his face (Matt. 18:10).他们潜心做他的意志(诗篇103:20),并在这一活动,他们注视他的脸(太18:10)。Since heaven comes down to earth, they also have a mission on earth.自天上来脚踏实地,他们也有地球上的使命。They accompany God in his work of creation (Job 38:7), though they themselves are also creatures (Ps. 148:2, 5).他们陪在他的创作(工作38:7)神的工作,虽然他们自己也动物(诗篇148:2,5)。They also assist in God's providential ordering of affairs (Dan. 12:1).他们还协助在上帝的天赐订购事务(但12:1)。Above all they are active in the divine work of reconciliation (from Gen. 19:1-2 onward).最重要的是他们在和解神圣的工作(从将军19:1-2起)活动。In fulfillment of their mission they declare God's word (eg, Luke 1:26-27) and do his work (eg, Matt. 28:2).在履行自己的使命,他们宣告神的话(例如,路加福音1:26-27),并做他的工作(例如,太28:2)。There seems to be some ordering in their ranks; some are referred to as archangels, as over against those who are referred to as simply angels (1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 9).似乎有一些在他们的行列顺序,有些被称为天使长的比对那些谁是简称为天使(帖前四点16分;犹9)。

The function of angels may be seen clearly from their part in the saving mission of Jesus Christ.天使的功能可以清楚地看到从他们在耶稣基督的拯救使命的一部分。They are naturally present when this both begins with the nativity (Matt. 1; Luke 1-3) and ends with the resurrection (Matt. 28:2 and pars.) and ascension (Acts 1:10ff.).它们是自然存在时这既与耶稣诞生开始(太1;卢克1-3)和复活(太28:2和标准杆)和阿森松(使徒1时10分几段)结束。 They also assist the church in its early ministry (eg, Acts 5:19; 10:3).他们还协助教育部在其早期的教会(如徒5:19; 10:3)。They will play an important part in the events of the end time (Rev. 7:1ff., etc.).他们将起到结束时间的事件的一个重要组成部分(修订版7时01分几段,等等)。Finally they will come with Christ when he returns in glory (Matt. 24:31) and separate the righteous and the wicked (Matt. 13:41, 49).最后,他们会与基督的荣耀时,他在返回(太24:31)和独立的正义和邪恶的(太13点41分,49)。They do not do the real work of reconciliation, which is Christ's prerogative.他们不这样做的真正的和解工作,这是基督的特权。But they accompany and declare this work, praising the God of grace and glory and summoning men and women to participate in their worship (Luke 1:46).但是,他们陪伴,并宣布此项工作,赞扬的恩典和荣耀神和召唤男子和妇女参与他们的崇拜(路加福音1时46分)。Interestingly, there seem to be only two angelic appearances between Christ's birth and resurrection: at the beginning of his way to the cross in the temptation (Mark 1:12) and then before the crucifixion itself in Gethsemane (Luke 22:43).有趣的是,有似乎只有两点基督的诞生和复活天使般的外表:在他的方式开始在诱惑十字架(马可福音1:12),然后才在客西马尼受难本身(路加福音22时43分)。 This is perhaps because Jesus had to tread his way of atoning self-giving alone, and in his humiliation he is made a little lower than the angels (Heb. 2:9), though exalted far above them by nature (Heb. 1).这也许是因为耶稣不得不胎面他的赎​​罪自我给予单的方式,并在他的屈辱,他是做了一点比天使(希伯来书2:9)较低,但远高于他们崇高的性质(希伯来书1) 。Yet angels did not withdraw from the scene, for they rejoice at sinners repenting (Luke 15:10) and will hear the Son of man confess those who confess him (Luke 12:8-9).然而天使没有撤离现场,为他们感到高兴的罪人悔改(路加福音15:10),并听取了人子承认那些谁承认他(路加福音12:8-9)。

The Bible offers only a few hints about the nature of angels.圣经只提供一个关于天使的性质一些提示。 Belonging to the heavenly sphere, they cannot be properly conceived of in earthly terms.属于天上的领域,他们不能正确地设想在地上的条款。They are mostly described in relation to God, as his angels (eg, Ps. 104:4).他们大多是描述有关神,因为他的天使(例如,诗篇104:4)。The two angelic names, Michael and Gabriel, emphasize this relationship with the el ending.这两个天使般的名字,迈克尔和加布里埃尔,强调与厄尔尼诺结束这种关系。It is as God's angels, perhaps, that they are called "elect" in 1 Tim.这是上帝的天使,也许,他们被称为1添“选举”。5:21.5时21分。Heb.希伯来书。1:14 describes them as "ministering spirits" in a conflation of the two parts of Ps. 1:14描述为“服事精神”在一个两部分的PS混为一谈的。104:4.104:4。Elsewhere, in Job and Psalms, they figure as the "heavenly ones" (Ps. 29:1) or the "holy ones" (Job 5:1) who are set apart for God's service; both these terms occur in Ps.在其他地方,在工作和诗篇,他们的身影为“天上的”(诗篇29:1)或“神圣的”(约伯记5:1)谁是为上帝的服务外,这两个术语在PS时有发生。 89:6-7, though "sons of God" is here another rendering of "heavenly ones" in vs. 6 (cf. Ps. 29:1). 89:6-7,虽然“神的儿子”在这里又是“天上的”在主场迎战6渲染(参诗篇29:1)。The "gods" of Ps.而“神”的诗。 82:1, in whose midst God holds judgment, are often thought to be angels too. 82:1,在其持有中间神的判决,往往被认为是天使了。Since Christians can also be called God's children, we need not infer from this usage, as did some of the apologists, that the angels are lesser deities.由于基督徒也可以称为神的儿女,我们不必推断这种用法,一样的辩护士一些较小的天使是神。Indeed, the Bible clearly warns us not to worship them (Col. 2:18; Rev. 19:10).事实上,圣经清楚地警告我们不要崇拜他们(西2:18;启示录19:10)。

Among the heavenly beings mention is made of the seraphim (Isa. 6:2) and, more frequently, the cherubim.其中提到天上的生命是由六翼天使(以赛亚书6:2),更频繁,基路伯。Cherubim guarded Eden after the expulsion of Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:24).基路伯把守后,亚当与夏娃(创3:24)驱逐伊甸园。 They form God's chariot at his descent (Ps. 18:10).它们构成上帝的战车在他的后裔(诗篇18:10)。Figures of cherubim adorned the ark (Exod. 25:17ff.) and Solomon's temple (I Kings 6:23ff.), so that Yahweh is said to be enthroned above the cherubim (I Sam. 4:4; Ps. 80:1).装饰的基路伯数字方舟(出25:17 FF)和所罗门圣殿(王6时23分几段),使耶和华据说是上面的基路伯(我心4点04登基;诗篇80:1。 )。Ezekiel offers an elaborate visionary description (Ezek. 1:10; 9:3; 10:15-22) in which their form is human (1:5) but symbolical traits stress their glory and spiritual excellence.以西结提供了一个精心制作的富有远见的说明(以西结书1:10; 9:3; 10:15-22),其中它们的形式是人类(1:5),但象征性状强调他们的荣耀和精神追求卓越。Common paradise traditions may underlie Assyro-Babylonian parallels.共同的天堂传统可依据亚述 - 巴比伦的相似之处。

Of the angels named, Michael is called "the great prince" (Dan. 12:1) and the other angels seem to be led by him (Rev. 12:7), though God himself, of course, is the Lord of hosts and Prince of the host (Dan. 8:11).已命名的天使,迈克尔被称为“伟大的王子”​​(但12:1)和其他天使似乎是由他(启12:7)带领下,虽然神自己,当然,是万军之耶和华和东道国(但8:11)王子。 The man who appeared to Joshua in Josh.该名男子谁出现在乔希约书亚。5:13ff., usually taken to be an angel, says that he has come as commander of the army of the Lord, Gabriel, the other angel named in canonical Scripture, is the angel of the annunciation (Luke 1:26). 5时13分几段,通常采取的是一个天使说,他作为主的,加布里埃尔,其他天使在典型的经文命名军长来了,是报喜天使(路加福音1:26)。Distinctions seem to be indicated in Rev. 4-5 with the references to the beasts and the elders, but the exact significance of these terms is disputed.区别似乎是在与牧师4-5表示对长辈的野兽和引用,但这些条款的确切意义是有争议的。The apocryphal writings provide three more angelic names, Raphael, Uriel, and Jermiel.在未经著作提供三个天使般的名字,拉斐尔,乌利尔,以及Jermiel。Tob.TOB。12:15 calls Raphael one of the holy angels who present the prayers of the saints (cf. the seven who stand before God in Rev. 8:2 and the possible link between these seven and the "chief princes" of Dan. 10:13). 12时15分电话拉斐尔的圣天使谁目前圣徒的祈祷之一(参见七谁站在上帝面前牧师8时02和它们之间的七“行政诸侯”丹10个可能的链接: 13)。

From the various statements about the nature of angels, and Paul's use of the terms "principalities," "powers," "thrones," "dominions," and "forces," early and medieval theology evolved a complex speculative account of the angelic world.大约从天使性质的各种报表,和保罗的使用条款“公国”,“权力”,“王位”,“领地”和“势力,”早期和中世纪的神学演变出的天使般的世界复杂的投机帐户。 Pseudo-Dionysius found separate entities in these, and he grouped them with the seraphim, cherubim, archangels, and angels in a threefold hierarchy of nine choirs.伪狄奥尼修斯发现在这些独立的实体,和他同组的塞拉芬,基路伯,天使长,并在九个层次天使合唱团三倍它们。Aquinas, the Angelic Doctor, adopted a similar scheme in his full and acute discussion but was more interested in the nature of angels as individual, spatial, spiritual substances engaged primarily in the work of enlightenment and capable of rational demonstration (Summa contra Gentiles 91; Summa Theologica 50-64).阿奎那,天使的医生,通过他的充分和急性讨论了类似的计划,但更多的是作为单独的天使,空间主要是在启蒙理性的工作和示范(91大全能从事禁忌外邦人,精神物质的性质有兴趣;神学大全50-64)。

As Calvin saw, the error in so much angelology was to deal with angels apart from the biblical witness.正如卡尔文看到,在这么多的天使错误处理与天使除了圣经的见证。Even regarding their function there was a tendency to rationalize or to focus interest on the idea of the guardian angel (cf. Matt. 18:10 and perhaps Acts 12:15).即使就其功能有一种倾向,或把重点放在合理化的守护天使(参太18点10分,也许徒12:15)的想法感兴趣。An inevitable reaction came in the age of the Enlightenment and liberal Protestantism when angels were either dismissed as fantastic, submitted to reinterpretation, or explained away as the relics of an original polytheism.一个必然的反应排在启蒙运动和自由主义基督教的时代,无论是作为梦幻般的天使被驳回,提交重新解释,或解释为原始多神教的遗迹了。

Some legitimate deductions may certainly be made from the biblical data.一些合法的抵扣肯定会被制成圣经的数据。Though they come in human form, the angels are essentially noncorporeal.虽然他们在人的形式出现,天使基本上noncorporeal。 Present at creation, they are still creatures (Ps. 148:2, 5).在创建目前,他们仍然动物(诗篇148:2,5)。They form an ordered unity, yet their plurality entails the existence of individuals within the totality, with a possible gradation in function.他们形成一个有序的团结,但他们多数须要与可能,在功能层次内的全部个体的存在。As compared with humans they have the advantage of being in God's immediate presence and serving as his direct messengers.与人类相比,他们有被神的存在,并立即为他的直接使者服务优势。They also guard the proprieties, if that is the meaning of I Cor.他们还守卫礼节,如果那是我肺心病的意义。11:10, and seem to play some role in or over the nations (Dan. 10).11:10,而且似乎发挥其在该国(但10)一些作用。But when men and women respond to God's saving work in Christ they are raised above them, enjoy their ministry (Heb. I:14), and will finally judge them (I Cor. 6:3), for even angels are not faultless in God's eyes (Job 4:18; 15:15).但是,当男人和女人作出回应上帝的拯救工作,他们在基督高于他们提出,享受他们的部(希伯来书一:14),并最终判断他们(我林前6:3),即使是不完美的天使神的眼睛(作业4:18; 15:15)。

Has there been a fall of angels?以前有一个天使下跌呢?Jude 6 suggests this, and Irenaeus (Against Heresies iv. 37.1) and many fathers took this view.裘德6表明这一点,爱任纽(反异端四,37.1)和许多父亲了这一观点。Certainly the Bible speaks of the dragon and his angels (Rev. 12:7) and also of powers of evil (Eph. 6:12), so that while we cannot be too dogmatic on the subject, we have to assume that there is a real kingdom of evil in grotesque caricature of the angelic kingdom.当然,圣经讲的假设是,对龙和他的使者(启12:7)和邪恶的权力(弗6:12)也,所以,虽然我们不能太教条关于这个问题,我们有在邪恶的怪诞现实王国漫画的天使王国。 These angels and their leader were defeated at the cross (Col. 2:15) and will finally be condemned (Matt. 25:41).这些天使和他们的领导人在十字架上被打败(西2:15),并最终受到谴责(太25:41)。

A last question concerns the so-called angel of the Lord.最后一个问题是关于主的所谓的天使。In Judg.在Judg。13:2-3 this seems to be identical with God.13:2-3这似乎是与神相同。Many have thought, then, that in the OT at least the reference is to the preincarnate Logos.许多人以为,那么,在OT至少引用到preinc​​arnate标志。Liberals have explained it as a softening of theophany to angelophany but without showing why this does not always apply.自由党已解释作为一种theophany到angelophany软化,但没有说明为什么这并不总是适用的。 Another possible interpretation is that God speaks so fully through the angel that he himself is virtually speaking.另一种可能的解释是,上帝说话,以便通过充分的天使,他本人几乎发言。Certainly the "angel of the Lord" of Luke 2:9 is not Christ, but this does not in itself rule out such an equation in the OT.当然,路加福音2:9“主天使”是不是基督,但本身并不排除这样的等式在OT。

GW Bromiley毛重罗米立

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
K. Barth, Church Dogmatics III/3, 51; H. Cremer et al., SHERK, I, 174-78; HDB, I, 93; W. Grundmann et al., TDNT, I, 74-87; JM Wilson, ISBE (rev.), I, 124-27. K.巴特,教会教义学III / 3,51; H. Cremer等,SHERK,我,174-78;组屋,我93; W.格伦德曼等,TDNT,我,74-87; JM威尔逊,ISBE(修订版),我,124-27。

Angel of the Lord天使的主

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In the OT and NT the angel of the Lord (mal'ak yhwh) is represented as acting on behalf of the nation of Israel as well as of individuals.在催产素和NT的主(mal'ak耶和华)的使者表示为对以色列国代表以及个人。The lack of precise data in the OT with regard to the identification of this figure and his relationship to Yahweh has given rise to a number of conclusions.在旧约精确的数据与关于这个数字的识别和他的关系,以耶和华缺乏已经引起了一些结论。Eichrodt understands the presence of this figure in the literature of the OT as an attempt to express the concept of theophany in a less direct manner because of the early realization that it is impossible to see God.艾希罗特明白这个数字在OT是企图不那么直接的表达方式的概念,因为theophany的早日实现,这是不可能看到上帝文学的存在。 Von Rad suggests that the figure may have been inserted into some of the older traditions in place of an original Canaanite numen.冯拉德认为,这个数字可能已进入一个原在迦南纽曼的地方插入一些旧的传统。However, this presupposes an already concrete idea of the concept and does not explain its origin or the nature of the concept in early Israelite religion.然而,这预示着这一概念已经具体的设想并没有在早期以色列人的宗教解释其来源或性质的概念。

Many understand the angel of the Lord as a true theophany.许多了解作为一个真正的theophany主的天使。From the time of Justin on, the figure has been regarded as the preincarnate Logos.从贾斯汀时间,这个数字已被视为preinc​​arnate标志。It is beyond question that the angel of the Lord must be identified in some way with God (Gen. 16:13; Judg. 6:14; 13:21-22), yet he is distinguished from God in that God refers to the angel (Exod. 23:23; 32:34), speaks to him (II Sam. 24:16; I Chr. 21:27), and the angel speaks to Yahweh (Zech. 1:12).这是毫无疑问的是,主的使者,必须在某些与神(创16时13分; Judg 6:14; 13:21-22)的方式确定,但他是从神杰出神指天使(出23点23分,32:34),说他(二山姆24:16;我CHR 21:27),和天使说话耶和华(撒迦利亚1:12)。The evidence for the view that the angel of the Lord is a preincarnate appearance of Christ is basically analogical and falls short of being conclusive.对于认为耶和华的天使是基督preinc​​arnate外观证据基本上是属于类比和被推翻的短。The NT does not clearly make that identification.新台币没有明确作出这样的鉴定。It is best to see the angel as a self-manifestation of Yahweh in a form that would communicate his immanence and direct concern to those to whom he ministered.最好是把它看作是耶和华的自我表现的形式,将他的内在沟通和直接关心的那些人,他事奉的天使。

TE McComiskeyTE McComiskey

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
H. Bietenhard et al., NIDNTT, I, 101-5; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT; P. Heinisch, Theology of the OT; G. von Rad, OT Theology.H. Bietenhard等,NIDNTT,我101-5; W.艾希罗特,在旧约神学; P.海宁许,在旧约神学; G.冯拉德,旧约神学。


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Angel, "a messenger" (from angello, "to deliver a message"), sent whether by God or by man or by Satan, "is also used of a guardian or representative in Rev. 1:20, cf. Matt. 18:10; Acts 12:15 (where it is better understood as 'ghost'), superior to man, Heb. 2:7; Ps. 8:5, belonging to Heaven, Matt. 24:36; Mark 12:25, and to God, Luke 12:8, and engaged in His service, Ps. 103:20. "Angels" are spirits, Heb. 1:14, ie, they have not material bodies as men have; they are either human in form, or can assume the human form when necessary, cf. Luke 24:4, with v. 23, Acts 10:3 with v. 30. "They are called 'holy' in Mark 8:38, and 'elect,' 1 Tim.天使“使者”(从angello,“传递邮件”),无论是男人还是上帝或撒旦派“,也用监护人或牧师1:20,比照马特代表18。 :10;徒12点15分(其中,最好是为“鬼”理解),优于男子,希伯来书2:7;诗篇8:5,属于天堂,马特24:36;马克12时25分, 。。和上帝,卢克12时零八,在他服务工作,诗103:20“天使”的精神,希伯来书1:14,也就是说,他们没有料机构为男性,他们要么在形式上人,或者可以假设人形必要时,比照路加福音24:4与诉23,行为与诉30 10时03分,“他们被称为”神圣“的马克8时38分,与”选举“,1蒂姆。5:21, in contrast with some of their original number, Matt.5:21,在与他们原来的号码,马特一些对比。25:41, who 'sinned,' 2 Pet. 25:41,谁犯了罪,“2宠物。2:4, 'left their proper habitation,' Jude 6, oiketerion, a word which occurs again, in the NT, only in 2 Cor. 2:4,“左其应有的居住,”裘德6,oiketerion,一个字的再次发生,在NT仅在2肺心病。5:2.5:2。Angels are always spoken of in the masculine gender, the feminine form of the word does not occur."天使总是谈到在男性性别,这个词的女性形式不会发生。“

From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, p.从上帖注意到霍格和藤蔓,P.,229.229。

Note: Isangelos, "equal to the angels," occurs in Luke 20:36.注:Isangelos,“平等的天使”,在路加福音20时36分发生。

Jewish Angelology and Demonology犹太天使和恶魔
The Fall of the Angels秋季的天使

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(from Appendix XIII From Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (从附录XIII从生活和耶稣的弥赛亚时代
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年)

(See vol. i. Book III. ch. ip 306.)(见第一卷第三册。CH。IP 306。)

WITHOUT here entering on a discussion of the doctrine of Angels of devils as present in Holy Scriptures, the Apocrypha, and the Pseudepigrapha, it will be admitted that considerable progression may be marked as we advance from even the latest Canonical to Apocryphal, and again from these to the Pseudepigraphic Writings.这里无一对在圣经中,伪经和Pseudepigrapha目前讨论进入魔鬼天使学说,这将是相当大的进展承认,可能是因为我们提前标志着从最新的规范,甚至以杜​​撰的,并再次从这些著作的Pseudepigraphic。 The same remark applies even more strongly to a comparison of the later with Rabbinic literature.同样的说法也适用于更强烈的比较,与后来的拉比文学。There we have comparatively little of the Biblical in its purity.在那里,我们有比较其纯度,圣经很少。But, added to it, we now find much that is the outcome of Eastern or of prurient imagination, of national conceit, of ignorant superstition, and of foreign, especially Persian, elements.但是,添加到它,我们现在发现很多的是东方或津津乐道想象的结果,国家唯我独尊,愚昧迷信和外国,特别是波斯,元素。

In this latter respect it is true, not, indeed, as regards the doctrine of good and evil Angels, but much of its Rabbinic elaboration, that 'the names of the Angels (and of the months) were brought form Babylon ' (Jer. Rosh. haSh. 56 d; Ber. r. 48), and with the 'names,' not a few of the notions regarding them.在后者方面,它是真实的,不,的确,对于善恶天使学说,但它的拉比制定,那么多的“天使的名字(和月)的形式被带到巴比伦”(耶犹太哈希56天;。误码率河48条),并与“名”,不是几个关于它们的概念。 At the same time, it would be unjust to deny that mush of the symbolism which it is evidently intended to convey is singularly beautiful.与此同时,这将是不公正的否认了它显然是为了传达的是唯美的象征玉米粥。


1. 1。Creation, Number, Duration and Location of the Angels.创作,数量,期限和天使的位置。

We are now considering, not the Angel-Princes but that vast unnumbered 'Host' generally designated as 'the ministering Angels'.我们现在考虑的,不是天使,王子,但庞大的未编号的“主机”一般为“服事天使”指定。Opinions differ (Ber. R. 3) whether they were created on the second day as being 'spirit,' winds' (Ps. civ. 4), or on the fifth day (Is. vi. 2) in accordance with the words of Creation on those days.见仁见智(Ber.河3)他们是否在第二天创造的是'精神,'风'(诗篇CIV 4),或在第五天(赛六2)按照规定的话在那些日子里创作的。Viewed in reference to God's Service and Praise, they are 'a flaming fire': in regard to their office, winged messengers (Pirge de R. El. 4).在提到上帝的服务和赞美看,他们是“燃烧的火”:对于他们的办公室,(Pirge德河萨尔瓦多4)翼使者。But not only so: every day ministering Angels are created, whose apparent destiny is only to raise the praise of God, after which they pass away into the fiery stream (Nahar deNur) whence they originally issued [1 This stream issued from under the throne of God, and is really the sweat of the 'living creatures' in their awe at the glory of God (Ber. R. 78).] (Chag. 14a; Ber. R. 78).但不仅如此:每一天服事天使创建,其明显的命运只有提高赞美上帝,之后他们传递到火热的流(今日报deNur)何处他们最初发布[1距离下发出的宝座从此流神,是真正的“生物”在他们的敬畏在神的荣耀汗(Ber.河78)](Chag. 14A;误码率R. 78)。

More than this, a new Angel is created to execute to every behest of God, and then passeth away (Chag. us).不止此,创建一个新的天使执行的每一个上帝授意下,然后passeth远(Chag.我们)。This continual new creation of Angels, which God, and then passeth allegory, partly savours of the doctrine of 'emanation,' is Biblical supported by an appeal to Lament.这个不断创造新的天使,上帝,然后passeth寓言,这部分的品味主义“的化身,”圣经是由感叹呼吁支持。iii.三。23.23。Thus it may be said that daily a Kath, or company of Angels is created for daily service of God, and that every word which proceedeth from His mouth becomes an 'Angel' [Messenger, mark here the ideal unity of Word and Deed], (Chang. 14 a).因此,可以说,每天按凯丝,或天使公司是上帝创造了日常服务,而且每一个字从他口中proceedeth成为“天使”[使者,标志着这里的言行理想统一] (Chang. 14)。

The vast number of that Angelic Host, and the consequent safety of Israel as against its enemies, was described in the most hyperbolic language.该天使主机,并作为对以色列安全的敌人因之广大,被描述在最夸张的语言。There were 12 Mazzaloth (signs of the Zodiac), each having 30 chiefs of armies, each chief with 30 legions, each legion with 30 leaders, each leader with 30 captains, each captain with 30 under him, and each of these things with 365,000 stars, and all were created for the sake of Israel!有12 Mazzaloth(所属星座的迹象),每个有30万军酋长,每30军团长,每30军团领袖,每个30船长的领导者,每30下他的队长,而这些东西每365000明星,都是创造了以色列的缘故! (Ber. 32. b.)(Ber. 32。B)

Similarly, when Nebuchadnezzar proposed to ascend into heaven, and to exalt his throne above the stars, and be like the Most High, the Bath Qol replied to this grandson of Nimrod that man's age was 70, or at most 80 years, while the way from earth to the firmament occupied 500 years, [a In Jer.同样,当尼布甲尼撒提出要升到天上,并高举以上的星星他的宝座,像至高,洗澡QOL回答这个尼姆罗德孙子说,人的年龄为70,或最多80年,而途径从地球到苍穹占领500年,[在哲。 Ber 2 c it is 50 years.] a thickness of the firmament was 500 years, the feet of the living creatures were equal to all that had preceded, and the joints of their feet to as many as had preceded them, and so on increasingly through all their members up to their horns, after which came the Throne of Glory, the feet of which again equaled all that had preceded, and so on (Chag. 13 a [b See also Pes. 94 b.]).误码率2 C它是50年。]一个苍穹厚度为500年中,生物的脚等于之前所有已经和他们的脚关节多达之前他们已等越来越多通过其所有成员到它们的角,之后,传来了荣耀的宝座,其中的脚再次追平了之前的所有,等等(Chag. 13日[b见也PES 94 B.])。

[1 Some add the Cherubim as another and separate class.] In connection with this we read in Chag.[1一些添加另一个基路伯​​和单独的类。]在这方面,我们在Chag阅读。12 b that there are seven heavens: the Vdon, in which there is the sun; Riqia, in which the sun shines, and the moon, stars, and planets are fixed; Shechaqim, in which are the millstones to make the manna for the pious; Aebhul, in which the Upper Jerusalem, and the Temple and the Altar, and in which Michael, the chief Angel-Prince, offers sacrifices; Maon, in which the Angels of the Ministry are, who sing by night and are silent by day for the sake of the honour of Israel (who now have their services); Machon, in which are the treasuries of snow, hail, the chambers of noxious dews, and of the receptacles of water, the chamber of wind, and the cave of mist, and their doors are of fire; lastly, Araboth, wherein Justice, Judgment and Righteousness are, the treasures of Life, of Peace and of Blessing, the soul of the righteous, and the spirits and souls of those who are to be born in the future, and the dew by which the dead are to be raised.12 B有7天:在Vdon,其中有太阳; Riqia,在这阳光普照,月亮,星星,行星是固定的; Shechaqim,其中是磨盘,以便为甘露虔诚; Aebhul,其中上耶路撒冷,以及庙和祭坛,并在其中迈克尔,行政天使王子,提供了牺牲;玛云,其中部的天使,谁唱的夜晚,是无声的天为以色列(谁现在有自己的服务)的荣誉着想; Machon,都在其中国债雪,冰雹,有害露水的商会,以及对水,风室的插座,和洞穴薄雾,和他们的门是火;最后,Araboth,其中司法,审判和正义是生命的宝藏,和平和祝福,对正义的灵魂,精神和灵魂的那些谁是被出生于未来,露水,其中死者中有可能了。

There also are the Ophanim, and the Seraphim, and the living creatures and the ministering Angels, and the Throne of Glory and over them is enthroned the Great King.也有一些的Ophanim和塞拉芬,以及生物和服事天使,和荣耀的宝座,并且他们是伟大的国王登基了。[For a description of this Throne and of the Appearance of its King, see Pirqe de R. Eliez. [有关此王座和其景外观的描述,见Pirqe德河Eliez。4.] On the other hand, sometimes every power and phenomenon in Nature is hypostatised into an Angel, such as hail, rain, wind, sea &c.; similarly, every occurrence, such as life, death, nourishment, poverty, nay, as it is expressed: there is not stalk of grass upon earth but it has its Angels in heaven 'Ber R. 10). 4]另一方面,有时每一个权力和自然现象hypostatised成如冰雹,雨,风,海&C.天使;同样,每一个如生命,死亡,营养不良,贫困的发生,不仅如此,因为它是表示:不存在的草秆在地上,但它在天上“误码率10条规则的天使)。 This seems to approximate the views of Alexandrian Mysticism.这似乎近似亚历山大神秘主义的看法。So also, perhaps, the idea that certain Biblical heroes became after death Angels.故也,也许,那种认为某些圣经英雄死后成为天使。 But as this may be regarded as implying their service as messengers of God, we leave it for the present.但是,因为这可能是因为这意味着,作为他们的服务视为上帝的使者,我们离开目前它。

2. 2。The Angel-Princes, their location, names, and offices.天使,王子,他们的位置,名称和办事处。

Any limitation, as to duration or otherwise, of the Ministering Angels does not apply either to the Ophanim (or wheel-angels), the Seraphim, the Cayoth (or living creatures), nor to the Angel-Princes (Ber. R. 78).任何限制,以时间或以其他方式,在服事天使并不适用于无论对Ophanim(或轮天使),六翼天使,在Cayoth(或生物),也没有天使,王子(Ber.河78 )。[2 According to Jer Ber.[2根据哲误码率。ix.九。1, the abode of the living creatures was to an extent of 515 years' journey, which is proved from the numerical value of the word 'straight' (Ezek. i. 7).] In Chag. 1,对生物居留权是一个515年程度的路程,这是从字的数值证明“直”(结一7)。]在Chag。13 a, b the name Chashamal is given to the 'living creatures.'13 A,B的名称Chashamal是考虑到“生物”。The word is explained as composed of two other which mean silence and speech, it being beautifully explained, that they deep silence when the Word proceeds out of the mouth of God, and speak when He has ceased.这个词解释为另外两个这意味着沉默和讲话组成,它是美丽的解释,他们深深沉默的Word时,所得出来的神嘴,说话时,他已经停止。

It would be difficult exactly to state the number of the Angel-Princes.这将是很难准确说出的天使,王子的数量。The 70 nations, of which the world is composed, had each their Angel-Prince (Targ. Jer.on Gen xi.7, 8; comp. Ber. R. 56; Shem. R. 21; Vayyi. R. 29; Ruth R. ed. Warsh. p. 36 b), who plead their cause with God.在70个国家,其中世界组成,相依为命的天使王子(Targ. Jer.on创十一.7,8;。排版误码率R. 56;闪R. 21; Vayyi R. 29;露丝R.版沃什,第36页B),谁恳求上帝自己的事业。Hence these Angels are really hostile to Israel, and may be regarded as not quite good Angels, and are cast down when the nationality which they represent is destroyed.因此,这些天使真的敌视以色列,并可能被视为不太好天使,并垂下的国籍时,他们代表的是毁灭。It may have been as a reflection on Christian teaching that Israel was described as not requiring any representative with God, like the Gentiles.它可能已被作为一个基督教教学反思,以色列被视为不需要任何像外邦人与神的代表,介绍。For, as will soon appear, this was not the general view entertained.因为,作为即将出现,这不是一般的看法受理。

Besides these Gentiles Angel-Princes there were other chiefs, whose office will be explained in the sequel. Of these 5 are specially mentioned, of whom four surrounded the Throne of God: Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel.. 除了这些外邦人的天使-王子有其他首领,他的办公室将在续集中解释这5个专门提到,其中四名包围了上帝的宝座:迈克尔,加布里埃尔,拉斐尔,乌利尔。 But the greatest of all is Metatron, who is under the Throne, and before it. These Angels are privileged to be within the Pargod, or cloudy veil, while the others only hear the Divine commands or councils outside this curtain (Chag. 16 a, Pirque d. R. El. iv.). 但是,最伟大的是塔特隆,谁是下王座,和之前,这些天使有幸成为在Pargod,或多云的面纱,而其他人只听到外面帷幕神圣命令或议会(Chag. 16日,Pirque D. R.萨尔瓦多四)。It is a slight variation when the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Deut.这是一个轻微的变化时,Targum伪乔纳森在申。xxxiv.三十四。6 enumerates the following as the 6 principal Angels: Michael, Gabriel, Metatron, Yopheil, Uriel, and Yophyophyah.6列举了下列6个主要天使:迈克尔,加布里埃尔,塔特隆,Yopheil,乌利尔,以及Yophyophyah。 The Book of Enoch (ch. xx.) speaks also of 6 principal Angels, while Pirque d.以诺(章XX。)图书谈到6主要天使也,而Pirque D.R. Eliez. R. Eliez。iv.四。mentions seven.提到七。

In that very curious passage (Berakhoth 51 a) we read of three directions given by Suriel, Prince of the Face, to preserve the Rabbis from the Techaspith (company of Evil Angels), or according to others, form Istalganith (another company of Evik Angels. In Chag. 132 b we read of an Angel called Sandalpon, who stands upon the earth, while his head reaches 500 years' way beyond the living creatures. He is supposed to stand behind the Merkabah (the throne-chariot), and make crowns for the Creator, which rise of their own accord. We also read of Sagsagel, who taught Moses the sacred Name of God, and was present at his death. But, confining ourselves to the five principal Angel-chiefs, we have,在这种非常好奇通道(Berakhoth 51),我们读经Suriel,王子的脸给三个方向,以保持从Techaspith(邪恶天使的公司)的拉比,或根据其他人,形成Istalganith(另一种Evik公司天使在Chag。132 B我们读到所谓Sandalpon,谁在地上尽是天使,而他的头达到500年以后的生物方法,他应该是站在后面的Merkabah(王位,战车),并为创造者,这增加了他们自己的协议。我们也看过Sagsagel,谁教摩西的上帝神圣的名字,并在他的死亡目前克朗,但偏执的五个主要的天使 - 酋长,我们有,

a. Metatron, [1 On the controversy on the meaning of the name Metatron, whether it means under the throne, or behind the throne, or is the same as Meatator, divider, arranger, representative, we will not enter.] who appears most closely to correspond to the Angel of the Face, or the Logos.A. 塔特隆,[1在对名称塔特隆含义的争议,是否意味着下王位,或背后的王位,或者是作为Meatator一样,除法,编曲,代表,我们将无法进入。]谁出现最密切对应的天使的脸,或标识。 He is the representative of God.他是神的代表。In the Talmud (Sanh. 38 b) a Christian is introduced as clumsily starting a controversy on this point, that, according to the Jewish contention, Exod.在塔木德(Sanh. 38 b)一个基督徒引入笨拙地开始对这个问题的争论,即,根据犹太争,出埃及记。xxiv.二十四。1 should have read, 'Come up to Me.'1应该读,'来了我了。“

On this R. Idith explained that the expression referred to the Metatron (Exod. xxxiii. 21, but denied the inference that Metatron was either to be adored, or had power to forgive sins, or that he was to be regarded as a Mediator. In continuation of this controversy we are told (Chang. 15 a, b) that, when an apostate Rabbi had seen Metatron sitting in heaven, and would have interfered from it that there were two supreme powers, Metatron received from another Angel 60 fiery stripes so as to prove his inferiority! In Targ. Ps.-Jon. on Gen. v. 24 he is called the Great Scribe, and also the Prince of this world.在此R. Idith解释,表达提到塔特隆(出三十三21,但不可否认的推论塔特隆要么被崇拜,或有赦罪的权柄,或者说,他是作为一个调解员认为。在这场争论的延续,我们被告知(Chang. 15 A,B),当一个叛教者拉比看到塔特隆在天上坐,并且会从中干预有两种至高无上的权力,从另一个天使米达伦收到60火热的条纹这样才能证明自己的自卑心理在塔尔格!诗篇 - 乔恩上将军24节,他被称为伟大的抄写员,也是这个世界的王子。

He is also designated as 'the Youth,' and in the Kabbalah as 'the Little God,' who had 7 names like the Almighty, and shared His Majesty.他还指定为“青年”,并在为“小上帝,'谁喜欢全能的有7名卡巴拉和共享陛下。he is also called the 'Prince of the Face,' and described as the Angel who sits in the innermost chamber (Chang. 5 b), while the other Angels hear their commands outside the Veil (Chang. 16 a).他也被称为“王子的脸”,并作为天使谁在最里面的腔(Chang. 5 B)坐在描述,而其他天使听到外界的面纱的命令(Chang. 16日)。He is represented as showing the unseen to Moses (Siphre. p. 141 a), and as instructing infants to the Midrash on Lamentation there is a revolting story in which Metatron is represented as proposing to shed tears in order that God might not have to weep over the destruction of Jerusalem, to which, however, the Almighty is made to refuse His assent.他表示为显示看不见的摩西(Siphre.第141页A),并作为指导上哀悼婴儿的米德拉士有一个令人作呕的故事,其中塔特隆作为建议流下眼泪,以便代表上帝可能不必哭泣的耶路撒冷的破坏,其中,然而,全能作出拒绝他的同意。

We hesitate to quote further from the passage.我们毫不犹豫地引述通过进一步。In Siphre on Deut.在对申Siphre。(ed. freidm. p. 141 a) Metatron is said to have shown Moses the whole of Palestine. (编辑freidm,第141页一)塔特隆据说表明摩西整个巴勒斯坦。He is alos said to have gone before Israel in the Wilderness.他是阿洛斯说已在以色列走在荒野。

b. Michael ('who is like God?'), or the Great Prince (Chag. 12b).B. 迈克尔 (“谁像上帝呢?”),或大王子(Chag. 12B)。He stands at the right hand of the throne of God.他站立在神宝座的右边。According to Targ.据塔尔格。 Ps.-Jon.诗篇 - 乔恩。on Exod.在出埃及记。xxiv.二十四。1, he is the Prince of Wisdom. 1,他是智慧的王子。According to the Targum on Ps.根据对PS Targum。cxxxvii.cxxxvii。7, 8, the Prince of Jerusalem, the representative of Israel.7,8,耶路撒冷王子,以色列代表。According to Sebach.据Sebach。62 a he offers upon the heavenly Altar; according to some, the soul of the pious; according to others, lambs of fire.他提供62天的祭坛后,据一些人来说,是虔诚的灵魂,根据其他人,消防羔羊。But, although Michael is the Prince of Israel, he is not to be invoked by them (Jer. Ber. ix. 13 a).但是,尽管迈克尔是以色列的王子,他是不是被他们(耶误码率。九,13日)调用。In Yoma 77 a we have an instance of his ineffectual advocacy for Israel before the destruction of Jerusalem.在山脉77,我们以前在耶路撒冷毁灭了他对以色列的无效宣传的一个实例。The origin of his name as connected with the Song of Moses at the Red Sea is explained in Bemidb.他的名字的由来与摩西的歌连接在红海解释Bemidb。R. 2.R. 2。Many instance of his activity are related.他的活动的许多实例是相关的。

Thus, he delivered Abraham from the fiery oven of Nimrod, and afterwards, also, the Three Children out of the fiery furnace.因此,他宣读了火热的尼姆罗德烤箱亚伯拉罕,事后也,三个孩子出了火热的熔炉。He was the principal or middle Angel of the three who come to announce to Abraham the birth of Isaac, Gabriel being at his right, and Raphael at his left.他是谁的三来宣布亚伯拉罕在他离开了以撒,加布里埃尔在他的右边幸福,拉斐尔出生本金或中间天使。Michael also saved Lot.迈克尔还保存地段。Michael and Gabriel wrote down that the primogeniture belonged to Jacob, and God confirmed it.迈克尔和加布里埃尔写下的长子属于雅各,上帝证实。Michael and Gabriel acted as 'friends of the bridegroom' in the nuptials of Adam.迈克尔和加布里埃尔担任“的新郎的朋友”中亚当的婚礼。Yet they could not bear to look upon the glory of Moses.然而,他们不忍看后,摩西的荣耀。Michael is also supposed to have been the Angel in the bush (according to others, Gabriel).迈克尔也应该已经在丛林天使(根据给他人,加布里埃尔)。At the death of Moses, Michael prepared his bier, Gabriel spread a cloth over the head of Moses, and Sagsagel over his feet.在摩西死后,迈克尔准备他的棺材,加布里埃尔蔓延比摩西头布,并在他的脚Sagsagel。

In the world to come Michael would pronounce the blessing over the fruits of Eden, then hand them to Gabriel, who would give them to the patriarchs, and so on to David.在未来世界迈克尔会发音了伊甸园的果实的祝福,然后用手他们加布里埃尔,谁给他们的始祖,等等大卫。The superiority of Michael over Gabriel is asserted in Ber.迈克尔超过加布里埃尔的优势是断言在误码率。4 b, where, by an ingenious combination with Dan.4 b,其中,通过与丹的巧妙结合。x.X.13, it is shown that Is. 13,它证明了的。vi.六。6 applies to him (both having the word, one).6适用于他(双方有一句话,一个)。It is added that Michael flies in one fight, Gabriel in two, Elijah in four, and the Angel of Death in eight flights (no doubt to give time for repentance).迈克尔说,这是一个战斗,加布里埃尔在二,四利亚和死亡八个航班(无疑给悔改时间)天使苍蝇。

c. Gabriel ('the Hero of God') represents rather judgment, while Michael represents mercy.C. 加布里埃尔 ('神英雄“)代表,而判断,而迈克尔表示怜悯。Thus he destroyed Skodom (Bab. Mex. 86 b, and other places).因此,他摧毁了Skodom(Bab.墨西哥86 b,和其他地方)。He restored to Tamar the pledges of Judah, which Sammael had taken away (Sot. 10 b).他恢复到添马舰的犹大承诺,这使萨麦尔已带走(Sot. 10 B)。He struck the servants of the Egyptian princess, who would have kept their mistress from taking Moses out of the water (Sot. 12 b); also Moses, that he might cry and so awaken pity.他袭击的埃及公主,谁还会不断采取的水(Sot. 12 B)摩西他们的女主人的仆人,也摩西,他可能哭,所以唤醒可惜。 According to some, it was he who delivered the Three Children; but all are agreed that he killed the men that were standing outside the furnace.据一些,这是谁发表了他的三个孩子,但大家都同意,他杀害的男子是站在炉外。He also smote the army of Sennacherib.他还击打的森纳赫里布的军队。

The passage in Ezek.在以西结书通过。x.X.2, 7 was applied to Gabriel, who had received from the Chureb two coals, which, however, he retained for six years, in the hope that Israel might repent.2,7应用于加布里埃尔,谁从Chureb two煤,其中,然而,他保留了六年,希望以色列可能悔改,获得好评。[a Gabriel was also designated Itmon, because he stops up the sing of Israel (Sanh. 45 b).] He is supposed to be referred to in Ezek.[一个加布里埃尔还指定Itmon,因为他停止了对以色列唱(Sanh. 45 B)。]他应该是指在以西结书的。ix.九。4 as affixing the mark on the forehead which is a drawn, in the wicked, in blood (Shabb. 55 a). 4作为贴在额头这是一个画,在邪恶的血,(Shabb. 55)的标志。We are also told that he had instructed Moses about making the Candlestick, on which occasion he had put on an apron, like a goldsmith; and that he had disputed with Michael about the meeting of a word.我们也告诉记者,他已指示有关摩西使烛台,上一次他穿上围裙如金,以及他与迈克尔有争议的关于一个字的会议。To his activity the brining of fruits to maturity is ascribed, perhaps because he was regarded as made of fire, while Michael was made of snow (Deb. R. 5).为了他的活动,以成熟的果实盐渍是冲高,也许是因为他被视为是火,而迈克尔是雪(Deb. R. 5)条作出。

These Angels are supposed to stand beside each other, without the fire of the one injuring the snow of the other.这些天使都应该站在对方身边没有了受伤的其他雪一把火。The curious legend is connected with him (Shabb. 56 b, Sanh. 21 b), that, when Solomon married the daughter of Pharaoh, Gabriel descended into the sea, and fixed a reed in it, around which a mudbank gathered, on which a forest sprang up.好奇的传说是与他(Shabb. 56 B,Sanh 21 B)连接,即,当所罗门娶了法老的女儿,加布里埃尔后裔入海,并固定在其中一苇,围绕其mudbank聚集,其上森林兴起。On this site imperial Rome was built.在这个网站上罗马帝国建成。The meaning of the legend, or perhaps rather allegory, seems (as explained in other parts of this book) that, when Israel began to decline from God, the punishment through its enemies was prepared, which culminated in the dominion of Rome.图例的含义,或者而是寓言,似乎(在这本书的其他部分介绍),当以色列开始下降,从上帝,通过它的敌人准备的惩罚,这在罗马统治达到了高潮。 In the future age Gabriel would hunt and slay Leviathan.在未来的年龄加布里埃尔将追捕和杀死利维坦。This also may be a parabolic representation of the destruction of Israel's enemies.这也可能是以色列的敌人破坏抛物线的代表性。

d. D.Of Uriel ('God is my light') and Raphael ('God heals') it need only be said, that the one stands at the left side of the Throne of glory, the other behind it.乌列 (“上帝是我的光”)和拉斐尔 ('上帝医治')它需要只能说,这是一个在的荣耀,它背后的其他王座左侧立场。[1 The names of the four Angel-Princess, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael, are explained in Bemid.[1四个天使,公主,迈克尔,加布里埃尔,乌利尔,以及拉斐尔,名称解释Bemid。R. 2.]R. 2。]

3. 3。The Ministering Angels and their Ministry.天使和他们的服事部。

The ministry of the Angels may be divided into two parts, that of praising God, and that of executing His behests.该部的天使可分为两部分,赞美上帝,并执行他的遗志,这种。In regard to the former, there are 684,000 myriads who daily praise the Name of God.关于前者,​​有684000无数谁每天赞美神的名。From sunrise to sundown they say: Holy, holy, holy, and from sundown to sunrise: Blessed bore the Glory of God from its place.从日出到日落,他们说:神圣,圣洁,圣洁的,从日落到日出:有福孔从地方神的荣耀。In connection with this we may mention the beautiful allegory (Shem. R. 21) that the Angel of prayer waves crowns for God out of the prayer of Israel.在这方面,我们可能会提到美丽的寓言(Shem. R. 21)宣布,神的以色列祷告了天使的祈祷波冠。As to the execution of the Divine commands by the Angels, it is suggested (Aboth d. R. Nathan 8, that their general designation as ministering Angels might have led to jealousy among them.至于由天使的神圣命令的执行,因此建议(Aboth D. R.弥敦道8日,他们一般指定为服事天使可能导致它们之间的嫉妒。

Accordingly, their names were always a composition of that of God with the special commission entrusted to them (Shem. r. 29), so that the name of each Angel depended in Yalkut (vol. ii. Par. 797), where we are told that each Angel has a tablet on his heart, in which the Name of God and that of the Angel is combined.因此,他们的名字永远是上帝,与特别委员会委托给他们(Shem.河29)组成,使每一个天使的名字在Yalkut(第二卷。相提并论。797)而定,我们在哪里告诉每一个天使对他的心片剂,其中神的名称和天使的结合。 This change of names explained the answer of the Angel to Manoah (Bemidb. R. 10).这种名称的变化解释了对玛挪亚(Bemidb. R. 10)天使的答案。It is impossible to enumerate all the instance of Angelic activity recorded in Talmudic writings.这是不可能列举所有在talmudic著作记载天使活动实例。Angels had performed the music at the first sacrifice of Adam; they had announced the consequences of his punishment; they had cut off the hands and feet of the serpent; they had appeared to Abraham in the form of a baker, a sailor, and an Arab.天使已经完成的亚当的第一个牺牲的音乐,他们已经宣布了他的惩罚的后果,他们切断了手和脚的蛇,它们已经出现在一个面包师,一个水手的形式对亚伯拉罕,和阿拉伯人。

120,000 of them had danced before Jacob when he left Laban; 4,000 myriads of them were ready to fight for him against Esau; 22,000 of them descended on Sinai and stood beside Israel when, in their terror at the Voice of God, they fled for twelve miles.其中12万有跳舞的时候,他离开之前,雅各拉班; 4000他们无数准备为他反对以扫,其中22000后裔的西奈半岛和以色列站在旁边的时候,在他们在上帝的声音恐怖,他们的十二个逃离英里。Angels were directed to close the gates of heaven when the prayer of Moses with the All-powerful, Ineffable Name in it, which he had learn from Sagsagel, would have prevented his death.天使向天堂之门关闭时,摩西与全能的,无法形容的名称在里面,这是他学习Sagsagel祈祷,会阻止他的死亡。Finally, as they were pledged to help Israel, so would they also punish every apostate Israelite.最后,他们表示将帮助以色列,所以他们也将惩罚每叛教以色列人。Especially would they execute that most terrible punishment of throwing souls to each other from one word to another.特别是他们会执行该抛从一个字的灵魂给对方另一个最可怕的惩罚。

By the side of these debasing superstitions we come upon beautiful allegories, such sa that a good and an evil Angel always accompanied man, but especially on the eve of the Sabbath when he returned from the Synagogue, and that for every precept he observed God sent him a protecting Angel.通过这些迷信的一面贬低我们临到美丽的寓言,如SA,一个总是伴随着良好的和邪恶天使的人,特别是对安息日前夕,当他从犹太教堂回来了,对于每个戒律上帝派他观察他一个保护天使。 This is realistically developed in Pirke d.这是现实发展Pirke D.R. El.R.萨尔瓦多。15, where the various modes and time which the god Angels keep man from destruction are set forth. 15,这里的各种方式和时间,神天使防止破坏男子载。

It is quite in accordance with what we know of the system of Rabbinism, that the heavenly host should be represented as forming a sort of consultative Sanhedrin.这是很符合我们的Rabbinism系统知道的规定,即天上的主机应该被视为形成了协商公会代表进行排序。Since God never did anything without first taking counsel with the family above (Sanh. 38 b,) [2 According to Jer.因为上帝从来没有不先采取上述律师与家人什么(Sanh. 38 B)[2根据哲。Ber.误码率。ix.九。7 (p. 14 b), God only takes counsel with His Sanhedrin when He takes away, not when He giveth (Job i. 21), and it is argued that, wherever the expression 'and Jehovah' occurs, as in the last clause of 1 Kings xxii. 7(第14页B),神只需要与他的律师公会时,他带走了,不是当他赐(作业一21),有人认为,无论是表达“和耶和华”出现,在上第1国王二十二。 23m ut n eabs God His Sanhedrin.] it had been so when He resolved to create man.23米UT ñ EABS上帝他公会。]它已如此,当他决心创造男子。Afterward the Angels had interceded for Adam, and, when God pointed to his disobedience, they had urged that thus death would also come upon Moses and Aron, who were sinless, since one fate must come to the just and the unjust.后来,天使交涉为亚当,而且,当上帝指着自己的不服从,他们敦促于是死也临到摩西和阿隆,谁是无罪的,因为一个命运一定要来的公正和不公正的。 Similarly, they had intercede for Isaac, when Abraham was about to offer him and finally dropped there tears on the sacrificial knife, by which its edge became blunted.同样,他们说情的以撒,亚伯拉罕正要给他,最后下跌有眼泪就牺牲刀,其中的优势成为减弱。And so through the rest of Israel's history, where on all critical occasion Jewish legend introduces the Angels on the scene.因此通过对以色列的历史,在这里对所有关键时刻犹太传说介绍在场的天使休息。

4. 4。Limitation of the power of the Angels.限制了天使的力量。

According to Jewish ideas, the faculties, the powers, and even the knowledge of Angels were limited.根据犹太人的想法,院系的权力,甚至是天使的知识是有限的。They are, indeed, pure spiritual beings (Vayyikra R. 24), without sensuous requirements (Yoma 75 b), without hatred, envy, or jealousy (Clhag. 14), and without sin (Pirqe d. R. El. 46).他们的确,纯精神存在(Vayyikra R. 24)无感性的要求,(山脉75 b)项,没有仇恨,嫉妒,或嫉妒(Clhag. 14),没有罪(Pirqe D. R.萨尔瓦多46) 。They know much, notably the future (Ab. d. R. Nath. 37), and have in the Divine Light.他们知道的不多,尤其是未来(Ab. D. R.纳特37),并在圣光的。They live on the beams of the Divine Glory (Bem. R. 21), are not subject t our limitatious as to movement, see but are not seen (A bd R. Nath. us), can turn their face to any side (Ab. d. R. Nath. 37), and only appear to share in our ways, such as in eating (Bar. R. 48).他们对神的荣耀(Bem. R. 21)梁活,不是我们limitatious以运动,看到,但都不见(A BD R.纳特。我们)主题吨,可以把他们的脸任何一方(抗体。D. R.纳特37),以及只出现在我们的共享方式,如饮食(Bar. R. 48)。

Still, in many respects they are inferior to Israel, and had been employed in ministry (Ber. R. 75).然而,在许多方面处于劣势,他们到以色列,并已在部(Ber.河75)就业。They were unable to give names to the animals, which Adam did (Priqe d. R. El. 13).他们无法给名字的动物,它没有亚当(Priqe D. R.萨尔瓦多13)。Jocob had wrestled with the Angel and prevailed over him when the Angel wept (Chull. 95 a).Jocob曾与天使搏斗并战胜过他当天使哭泣(Chull. 95)。Thus it was rather their nature than their powers or dignity which distinguished them from man.因此,相当他们比他们的权力和尊严的人他们的本质区别。No angel could do two messages at the same time (Ber. R. 50).没有天使可以做在同一时间(Ber.河50)两个消息。In general they are merely instruments blindly to do a certain work, not even beholding the Throne of Glory (Bemidb. R. 14), but needed mutual assistance (Vayyikia R. 31).一般情况下,他们只是文书盲目做了一定工作,甚至没有仰望的荣耀的宝座(Bemidb.第14条规则),但需要相互协助(Vayyikia R. 31)。

They are also liable to punishments (Chag. 16 a).他们也可被处罚(Chag. 16日)。Thus, they were banished from their station for 138 years, because they had told Lot that God would destroy Sodom, while the Angel-Princes of the Gentiles were kept in chains till the days of Jeremiah.因此,他们被赶出他们的138年站,因为他们曾告诉地段,上帝将毁灭所多玛,而外邦人的天使,王子是在耶利米的日子,直到链不断。 As regards their limited knowledge, with the exception of Gabriel, they do not understand Chaldee or Syriac (Sot. 33 a).至于同加布里埃尔异常的知识有限,他们不明白沙尔代或叙利亚(Sot. 33)。The realistic application of their supposed ignorance on this score need not here be repeated (see Shabb. 12 b).他们应该在这一点上的无知实际应用不需要在这里重复(见Shabb 12 B)。As the Angels are inferior to the righteous, it follows that they are so to Israel.由于天使逊色于义,因此可以认为它们是如此以色列。God had informed the Angels that the creation of man was superior to theirs, and it had excited their envy.上帝告诉天使,人的创造优于他们,并激发他们的羡慕了。Adam attained a place much nearer to God than they, and God loved Israel more than the Angels.亚当达到了一个地方比他们更接近神,神爱以色列超过天使。And God had left all the ministering Angels in order to come to Moses, and when He communicated with him it was directly, and the Angels standing between them did not hear what passed.神已经离开所有服事天使为了来摩西,当他与他沟通是直接和天使站在他们之间并没有听到什么通过。

In connection with this ministry of the Angels on behalf of Biblical heroes a curious legend may here find its place.与此连接的天使部的代表圣经英雄好奇传说可以在这里找到自己的位置。From a combination of Ex.从防爆组合。xviii.十八。4 with Ex.与前4。ii.II。15 the strange inference was made that Moses had actually been seized by Pharaoh. 15奇怪的推论有人提出,摩西实际上是由法老王此案。Two different accounts of how he escaped from his power are given.二是如何从他的权力,他逃脱给出不同的帐户。According to the one, the sword with which he was to be executed rebounded from the neck of Moses, and was broken, to which Cant.根据之一,与他的剑是要执行从摩西颈部反弹,被打破了,哪个公会。vii.七。5 was supposed to refer, it being added that the rebound killed the would-be executioner. 5本来是指,它被添加的反弹打死想成为刽子手。According to another account, an Angel took the place of Moses, and thus enabled him to fly, his flight being facilitated by the circumstances that all the attendants of the king were miraculously rendered either dumb, deaf, or blind, so that they could not execute the behest of their master.另据帐户,天使采取了摩西的地方,从而使他能飞,他的飞行的情况下被推动,所有的服务员都奇迹般地呈现国王或哑,聋,或盲,使他们无法执行其主遗志。

Of this miraculous interposition Moses is supposed to have been reminded in Ex.这个神奇的干预摩西应该已经在Ex提醒。iv.四。11, for hid encouragement in undertaking his mission ot Pharaoh.11,开展OT法老躲在鼓励他的使命。In the exaggeration of Jewish boastfulness in the Law, it was said that the Angels had wished to receive the Law, but that they had not been granted this privilege (Job xxviii. 21).在该法中的犹太风气夸张,有人说,天使有希望得到的法律,但他们没有被授予这个权限(伯二十八21)。And sixty myriads of Angels had crowned with two crowns every Israelite who at Mount Sinai had taken upon himself the Law (Shabb. 88 a).六十无数的天使了两冠加冕每谁在西奈山采取了在他自己的法律(Shabb. 88)以色列人。 In view of all VOL.在所有VOL的看法。ii.II。this we need scarcely mention the Rabbinic prohibition to address to the Angels prayers, even although they bore them to heaven (Jer. Ber. ix. 1), or to make pictorial representations of them (Targ. Ps-Jon. on Ex. xx. 23; Mechilta on the passage, ed. Weiss, p. 80 a).为此,我们需要很少提及拉比禁止处理的天使祈祷,甚至尽管他们承担他们天堂(耶利米书的误码率。九,1),或使他们图案交涉(Targ. PS -乔恩上惠。XX 23; Mechilta的推移,魏斯版,第80)。

5. 5。The Angels are not absolutely good.天使没有绝对好的。

Strange as it may seem, this is really the view expressed by the Rabbis.奇怪的,因为它看起来可能,这是真的由拉比的看法。Thus it is said that, when God consulted the Angels, they opposed the creation of man, and that, for this reason, God had concealed from them that man would sin.因此,它是说,当上帝的天使咨询,他们反对人类的创造,而且,由于这个原因,神就用那​​人将他们隐瞒罪。but more than this, the Angels had actually conspired for the fall of man (the whole of this is also related in Pirqe d. R. El. 13).但比这更,天使实际上合谋的人(这也是在整个Pirqe D. R.萨尔瓦多13相关)下降。 Nor had their jealous and envy been confined to that occasion.他们也没有嫉妒和羡慕局限于那次。They had accused Abraham, that, when he gave a great feast at the weaning of Isaac, he did not even offer to God a bullock or a goat.他们指责亚伯拉罕,当他给一个在以撒断奶大摆筵席,他甚至没有提供给神的公牛或山羊。Similarly, they had laid charges against Ishmael, in the hope that he might be left to perish of thirst.同样,他们落案起诉伊斯梅尔收费,认为他可能会留给亡的渴求的希望。

They had expostulated with Jacob, because he went to sleep at Bethel.他们expostulated与雅各,因为他去睡觉伯特利。But especially had they, from envy, opposed Moses' ascension into heaven; they had objected to his being allowed to write down the Law, falsely urging that Moses would claim the glory of it for himself, and they are represented, in a strangely blasphemous manner, as having been with difficulty appeared by God.但是,尤其是如果他们从羡慕,反对摩西升天进入天堂,他们曾反对他被允许写下来的法律,虚假敦促摩西会要求它为自己的荣耀,他们代表了奇怪的亵渎,方式,表现为具有难以被上帝。 In Shabb.在Shabb。88 b we have an account of how Mosses pacified the Angels, by showing that the Law was not suitable for them, since they were not subject to sinful desires, upon which they became the friends of Moses, and each taught him some secret, among others the Angel of death how to arrest the pestilence.88 B我们有一个如何安抚藓类植物的天使帐户,通过展示,该法不适合他们,因为他们没有受到罪孽深重的欲望,当他们成为摩西的朋友,每个教他一些秘密,除别人的死亡天使如何逮捕瘟疫。 Again, it is said, that the Angels were wont to bring charges against Israel, and that, when Manasseh wished to repent, the Angels shut the entrance to heaven , so that his prayer might not penetrate into the presence of God.再次,这是说,那是天使们习惯把对以色列的指控,并说,当玛希望悔改,天使们关上了天堂的入口,让他的祈祷可能不会渗透到神的存在。

Equally profane, though in another direction, is the notion that Angels might be employed for magical purposes.同样亵渎,但在另一个方向,是,天使可能是神奇用途就业观念。This had happened at the siege of Jerusalem under Nebuchadnezzar, when, after the death of that mighty hero Abika, the son of Gaphteri, Chananeel, the uncle of Jeremiah, had conjured up ministering Angels, who affrighted the Chaldees into flight.这已经发生在耶路撒冷的尼布甲尼撒围困下的时候,之后的强大英雄Abika,对Gaphteri,Chananeel,叔叔的儿子耶利米,死亡已经唤出了服事天使,谁affrighted进入飞行迦勒底。 On this God had changed their names, when Chananeel, unable any longer to command their services, had summoned up the Prince of the World by using the Ineffable Name, and lifted Jerusalem into the air, but God had trodden it down again, to all which Lam.在此神改变了自己的名字,所有当Chananeel,无法再指挥他们的服务,已经召见了使用无法形容的名称世界王子,解除进入空气耶路撒冷,但上帝已经走过下来了,其中林。 ii.II。1 referred (Yalk. vol. ii. p. 166 c and d, Par. 1001).1简称(Yalk.第二卷。C和D第166,第1001)。

The same story is repeated in another place (p. 167, last line of col. c, and col. d), with the addition that the leading inhabitants of Jerusalem had proposed to defend the city by conjuring up the Angels of Water and Fire, and surrounding their city with walls of water, of fire, or of iron; but their hopes were disappointed when God assigned to the Angel names different from those which they had previously possessed, so that when called upon they were unable to do what was expected of them.重复同样的故事在另一个地方(第167页,中国网络。c最后一行,山口D),与领先的耶路撒冷居民曾提出辩护,变戏法了水与火的天使城市除了,和周围的水墙自己的城市,火灾,或铁,但他们的希望落空了,当上帝分配给那些天使的名字从他们以前拥有不同的,因此当要求他们不能做什么预计他们。

6. 6。The Names of the Angels.在天使的名字。

Besides those already enumerated, we may here mention, [1 Akhtariel , perhaps 'the crown of God,' seems to be the name given to the Deity (Ber. 7 a).] the Sar ha-Olam , or 'Prince of the World' (Yeb. 16 b); the Prince of the Sea, whose name is supposed to have been Rahab , and whom God destroyed because he had refused to receive the waters which had covered the world, and the small of whose dead body would kill every one if it were not covered by water. Dumah is the Angel of the realm of the dead (Ber. 18 b).除了 ​​已经列举的,我们可以在这里提及,[1 Akhtariel,也许是“神冠”,似乎是给予神(Ber. 7 a)姓名。] 特区公顷,奥兰 ,或“王子世界“(Yeb. 16 B)的海,他的名字应该被拉哈伯 ,并摧毁了他们的神,因为他拒绝接受它已覆盖全球水域,而他们的尸体将小王子杀死每一个如果不是被水覆盖。 度玛是对死者的境界天使(Ber. 18 B)。When the soul of the righteous leaves the body, the ministering Angels announce it before God, Who deputes them to meet it.当正义的灵魂离开了身体,服事天使宣布上帝面前,谁deputes他们配合。

Three hosts of Angels then proceed on this errand, each quoting successively one clause of Is.三天使的主机,然后进行这个差事,每个引用先后是第一个。lvii.LVII。2.2。On the other hand, when the wicked leave the body, they are met by three hosts of destroying Angels, one of which repeats Is.另一方面,当邪恶不离身,他们会见了由三台主机破坏天使,其中一个重复的。xlviii.48。22, another Is.22,另一个是。 1.1。11, and the third Ezek. 11,第三以西结书。xxxii.三十二。19 (Keth. 104 a).19(Keth. 104 A)。Then the souls of all the dead, good or bad, are handed over to Dumah. Yorqemi is the Prince of hail.然后,所有的死,是好是坏,交给度玛。Yorqemi的灵魂,是冰雹王子。He had proposed to cool the fiery furnace into which the Three Children were cast, but Gabriel had objected that this might seem a deliverance by natural means, and being himself the Prince of the fire, had proposed, instead of this, to make the furnace cold within and hot without, in order both to deliver the Three Children and to destroy those who watched outside (Pes. 118 a and b) [1 It is said that Gabriel had proposed in this manner of deliver Abraham when in similar danger at the hands of Nimrod.他提出要冷静的火热熔炉到其中的三个孩子都投,但加布里埃尔了反对,认为这似乎自然意味着解脱,并成为自己的火王子,曾提议,而这一点,使炉无内冷和热,从而既实现了三个孩子,并摧毁那些谁看了以外(Pes. 118 A和B)[1有人说,加布里埃尔曾在此提供的亚伯拉罕时地提出类似的危险手中尼姆罗德。

And, although God had by His own Hand delivered the patriarch, yet Gabriel had obtained this as the reward of his proposal, that he was allowed to deliver the Three Children from the fiery furnace.] Ridya , or Rayda is the Angel of rain.而且,虽然上帝交付他自己的手的族长,但加布里埃尔已取得了他的建议作为奖励这一点,他被允许提供从火热的熔炉的三个孩子。] Ridya,Rayda是雨天使。One of the Rabbis professed to describe him from actual vision as like a calf whose lips were open, standing between the Upper and the Lower, Let you waters springs up.一个自称的拉比从实际眼光来描述像小牛的嘴唇被打开之间,上和下站在了他,让您水域温泉了。The representation of this Angel as a calf may be due to the connection between rain and ploughing, and in connection with this may it be notices that Rayda means both a plough and ploughing (TAan. 25 b).此为小牛天使表示可能是由于雨水和耕作之间的连接,并在这方面可能与它被通知说Rayda意味着既犁和犁(TAan. 25 B)。

Of other Angels we will only name the Ruach Pisqonith , or Spirit of decision, who is supposed to have made most daring objection to what God had said, Ezek.其他天使我们只会名称Ruach Pisqonith,或精神的决定,谁应该作出最大胆的反对神所说的,以西结书。 xvi.十六。3, in which he is defended by the Rabbis, since his activity had been on behalf of Israel (Sanh. 44 b); Naqid , the Angel of Food; Nabhel , the Angel of Poverty; the two Angels of Healing; the Angel of Dreams, Lailah ; and even the Angel of Lust.3,在他所捍卫的拉比,因为他的活动已经对以色列(Sanh. 44 B)代表被; Naqid,食物天使; Nabhel,贫穷的天使;治疗之两个天使;的天使梦,Lailah;甚至色戒天使。[a See also the names of the five angels of destruction of whom Moses was afraid on his descent from the mount.[a另五个天使的破坏,其中摩西在他的坐骑血统害怕的名字。Against three of them the thrice Patriarchs were to fight, God Himself being asked , or else proposing, to combat along with Moses against the other two (Sanh. R. 41; 44)对他们三人的始祖三次被打,上帝被要求,否则建议,以打击与摩西一起对其他两个(Sanh. R. 41; 44)

It is, of course, not asserted that all these grossly materialistic superstitious and profane views were entertained in Palestine, or at the time of our Lord, still less that they are shared by educated Jews in the West.这是,当然,不是说,所有这些非常功利和世俗迷信意见受理在巴勒斯坦,或在我们的主时,更是他们在西方受过教育的犹太人共享。 But they certainly date from Talmudic times; they embody the only teaching of Rabbinic writings about the Angels which possess, and hence, whencesoever introduce, or however developed, their roots must be traced back to far earlier times than those when they were propounded in Rabbinic Academies.但他们肯定日期从塔木德时代,他们体现了对天使的拥有,因此拉比的著作只有教学,whencesoever介绍,不过还是发达国家,其根源必须追溯到更早的时间比当他们在拉比propounded学院。 All the more that modern Judaism would indignantly repudiate them, do they bear testimony against Rabbinic teaching.更现代犹太教会愤怒地驳斥他们,他们承担对拉比教学的证词。And one thing at least must be evident, for the sake of which we have undertaken the task of recording at such length views and statements repugnant to all reverent feeling.而有一点至少必须明显,对于我们所进行了这么长的意见和陈述令人厌恶的所有虔诚的感觉记录任务的缘故。

The contention of certain modern writers that the teaching about Angels in the New Testament is derived from, and represents Jewish notions must be perceived to be absolutely groundless and contrary to fact.现代作家的某些论点,即关于在新约中的天使教学是来自,代表犹太人的观念必须被认为是毫无根据的,违反事实。In truth, the teaching of the New Testament on the subject of Angels represents, as compared with that of the Rabbis, not only a return to the purity of Old Testament teaching, but, we might almost say, a new revelation.事实上,对上天使subject新约全书教学表示,相比与拉比说,不仅要在旧约教学纯度回报,但是,我们几乎可以说,一个新的启示。


The difference between the Satanology of the Rabbis and of the New Testament is , if possible, even more marked than that in their Angelology.之间的拉比Satanology和新约不同的是,如果可能的话,甚至比他们的天使的标记。In general we note that, with the exception of the word Satan, none of the names given to the great enemy in the New Testament occurs in Rabbinic writing.一般来说,我们注意到,随着这个词撒旦例外,鉴于在新约的伟大敌人的名字没有出现在拉比的写作。More important still, the latter contain no mention of a Kingdom of Satan.更重要的是,后者包含没有提到的撒旦王国。 In other words, the power of the evil is not contrasted with that of good, nor Satan with God.换言之,对邪恶的力量对比是不符合良好,也不撒旦与上帝的。The devil is presented rather as the enemy of man, than of God and of good.魔鬼提出,而作为人的敌人,不是神和好。

This marks a fundamental difference.这标志着一个根本区别。The New Testament sets before us two opposing kingdoms, or principles, which exercise absolute sway over man.新约圣经套摆在我们面前两个对立的王国,或原则,行使对人的绝对支配。Christ is 'the Stronger one' who overcometh 'the strong man armed,' and taken from him not only his spoils, but his armour (St. Luke xi. 21, 22).基督是“强有力的一个”谁得胜的“强人武装”,并从他采取不只是他的战利品,但他的盔甲(圣卢克十一,21,22)。It is a moral contest in which Satan is vanquished, and the liberation of his subjects is the consequence of his own subdual.这是一种道义的较量中,撒旦是战败国,而他的臣民解放是他自己征服的结果。This implies the deliverance of man from the power of the enemy, not only externally but internally, and substitution of a new principle of spiritual life for the old one.这意味着,从敌人的力量的人解脱,不仅对外,但内部和精神生活的一个新的原则取代了旧的。It introduces a moral element, both as the ground and as the result of the contest.它引入了道德因素,它既是地面和作为比赛的结果。

From this point of view the difference between the New Testament and Rabbinism cannot be too much emphasized, and it is no exaggeration to say that this alone, the question here being one of principle not of details, would mark the doctrine of Christ as fundamentally divergent from, and incomparably superior to, that of Rabbinism.从这个角度之间的新约和Rabbinism差距不能太大强调,这是毫不夸张地说,就凭这一点,这里的问题是一个原则的细节没有,将标志着基督为从根本上不同的学说从和无比优越,是Rabbinism的。 'Whence hath this Man this wisdom?'“这人从哪里祂所这种智慧?”Assuredly, it may be answered, not from His contemporaries.无疑,它可以回答,而不是从他的同时代人。

Since Rabbinism viewed the 'great enemy' only as the envious and malicious opponent of man, the spiritual element was entirely eliminated.自Rabbinism认为只有作为人羡慕和恶意对手的“大敌”,精神因素是完全消除。[1 An analogous remark would apply to Jewish teaching about the good angels, who are rather Jewish elves than the high spiritual beings of the Bible.] Instead of the personified principle of Evil, to which there is response in us, and of which all have some experience, we have only a clumsy and, to speak plainly, often a stupid hater. [1一个类似的说法也适用于对好天使,谁是比圣经大精神生命的精灵,而犹太人的犹太教学。]取而代之的是罪恶的化身原则,其中有在我们的反应,所有这些都有一定的经验,我们只有一个笨拙,说话说白了,往往是一个愚蠢的仇敌。 This holds equally true in regard to the threefold aspect under which Rabbinism presents the devil: as Satan (also called Sammael); as the Yester haRa, or evil impulse personified; and as the Angel of Death, in other words, as the Accuser, Tempter, and Punisher.这个拥有同样如此考虑到三倍方面下Rabbinism介绍了魔鬼:作为撒旦(也称为使萨麦尔)作为Yester剖腹,或邪恶的冲动人格化,并作为死亡天使,换言之,作为原告,诱惑和处罚。 Before explaining the Rabbinic views on each of these points, it is necessary to indicate them in regard to:在解释这些点上的每个拉比的意见,有必要向他们表明方面:

1. 1。The Fall of Satan and of his Angels.而撒旦和他的天使秋季。

This took place, not antecedently, but subsequently to the creation of man.这发生了,不antecedently,但后来的人创造。 As related in Pirqe de R. Eliezer, ch 13, the primary cause of it was jealously and envy on the part of the Angels.正如Pirqe德河埃利泽相关,CH 13,它的首要原因是嫉妒和羡慕的对天使的一部分。[2 As a curious illustration how extremes meet, we subjoin the following from Jonathan Edwards. [2作为一个好奇的插图如何物极必反,我们添从乔纳森爱德华兹以下。After describing how 'Satan, before his fall, was the chief of all the angels.在描述如何“撒旦在他倒台之前,是所有的天使长 nay, 不,the Messiah or Christ (!), as he was the Anointed, so that in the respect, Jesus Christ is exalted unto his place in heaven'; and that 'Lucifer or Satan, while a holy angel 弥赛亚或基督,因为他的受膏者,以便在尊重,耶稣基督是崇高的对他在天堂的地方(!)“,并认为”路西法或撒旦,而圣洁的天使 was a type of Christ,' the great American divine explains his fall as follows: 'But when it was revealed to him, high and glorious as he was, that he must be a ministering spirit ot the race of mankind which he had seen newly created, which appeared so feeble, mean, and despicable, of vastly inferior not only to him, the prince of the angels, and head of the created universe, but also to the inferior angels, and that he must be subject to one of that race which should hereafter be born, he could not bear it, This occasioned his fall' (Tractate on 'The Fall of the Angels,' Works, vol. ii. pp. 608, 609, 610).是基督的类型,“伟大的美国神解释他的秋天如下:”但是,当它显露了他,高光荣,因为他,他必须是一个OT人类的种族,他看到了新服事精神创建,从而出现这样软弱,意思是,和卑鄙的远比不上不仅他,王子的天使,和所创建的宇宙头,也给劣质的天使,而且他必须服从之一的,此后的比赛应该是出生时,他实在忍不住了,这所引致他的秋天“(在短文”的天使秋季,“作品,第二卷,第608,609,610)。

Could Jonathan Edwards have heard of the Rabbinic legends, or is this only a strange coincidence?难道乔纳森爱德华兹也听到了拉比的传说,还是这只是一个奇怪的巧合?The curious reader will find much quaint information, though, I fear, little help, in Prof. W. Scott's vol.好奇的读者会发现许多古朴的信息,不过,我担心,在教授的帮助不大W.斯科特的第一卷。'The Existence of Evil Spirits,' London, 1843.] Their opposition to man's creation is also described in Ber.'的煞气存在,“伦敦,1843。]他们的反对人的创造是还介绍了误码率。R. 8, although there the fall of man is not traced to Satanic agency.第8条规则,虽然有下降的人是不追查到撒旦机构。But we have (as before stated) a somewhat blasphemous account of the discussions in the heavenly Sanhedrin, whether or not man should be created.但是,我们必须(如前所说)一个在天上公会的讨论有点亵渎帐户,不论是否应该创建人。While the dispute was still proceeding God actually created man, and addressed the ministering Angels: 'Why dispute any longer?尽管争议仍在进行中上帝居然创造了人,并发表讲话服事天使:“为什么不再争端?Man is already created.'人是已经建立。“In the Pirqe de R. Eliezer, we are only told that the Angels had in vain attempted to oppose the creation of man.在Pirqe德河埃利泽,我们只告诉记者,天使在徒劳企图,反对人类的创造。The circumstance that his superiority was evidenced by his ability to give names to all creatures, induced them to 'lay a plot against Adam,' so that by his fall they might obtain supremacy.而他的优势是由他的能力,让所有的动物名称来证明,情况诱导他们“奠定了对亚当的情节,”使他的秋天,他们可能会获得优势。

Now of all Angel-Princes in heaven Sammael was the first, distinguished above Taking the company of Angels subject to him, he came down upon earth, and selected as the only fit instrument for his designs the serpent, which at that time had not only speech, but hands and feet, and was in stature and appearance like the camel.现在是在天上使萨麦尔所有天使,王子先,上面的天使到他的公司受到尊敬,他来到地球上下来,作为他的设计只适合仪器的蛇,这在当时不仅选择讲话,但手和脚,并在身材和外貌像骆驼了。 In the language of the Pirqe de R. Eliezer, Sammael took complete possession of the serpent, even as demoniacs act under the absolute control of evil spirits.在Pirqe德河埃利泽的语言,使萨麦尔注意到蛇完全占有,即使demoniacs行为下的煞气绝对控制权。Then Sammael, in the serpent, first deceived the woman, and next imposed on her by touching the tree of life (although the tree cried out), saying, that he had actually 'touched' the tree, of which he pretended the touch had been forbidden on pain of death (Gen. iii. 3) [1 The Rabbis point out, how Eve had added to the words of God.然后使萨麦尔,在蛇,首先欺骗了女人,她的下强加给通过触摸生命之树(虽然树哭了出来),他说,他实际上已“感动”的树,他假装触摸了被禁止对疼痛的死亡(创三,3)[1拉比指出,如何夏娃加入到神的话。

He had only commanded them not to eat of the tree, while Eve added to it, that they were not to touch it.他只吩咐他们不要吃树,而夏娃添加进去,他们是不会去碰它。Thus adding to the words of God had led to the first sin with all the terrible consequences connected with it.], and yet he had not died!从而增加上帝的话导致了与它有关的一切可怕的后果第一宗罪],但他并没有死!Upon this Eve followed hi example, and touched the tree when she immediately saw the Angel of Death coming against her.当此前夕跟着喜例如,碰到树的时候,她立刻看到了对她未来的死亡天使。Afraid that she would die and God give another wife to Adam, she led her husband into sin of disobedience.怕她会死,上帝给亚当一个妻子,她领进了她的丈夫不服从罪。The story of the Fall is somewhat differently related in Ber.而秋季的故事是有所不同的误码率有关。R. 18, 19.R. 18,19。 No mention is there earlier of Sammael or of his agency, and the serpent is represented as beguiling Eve from a wish to marry her, and for that purpose to compass the death of Adam.没有提到有较早使萨麦尔或他的机构,而蛇是从一个愿娶她逗趣夏娃代表,并为实现这一目标罗盘的亚当死亡的目的。

Critical ingenuity may attempt to find a symbolic meaning in many of the details of the Jewish legend of the Fall, although, to use moderate language, .关键的聪明才智可能试图找到对的秋季犹太传说的许多细节象征意义,虽然,使用温和的语言。they seem equally profane and repulsive.他们似乎同样亵渎和排斥。But this will surely be admitted by all, that the Rabbinic account of the fall of the Angels, as connected with fall of man, equally contrasts with the reverent reticence of the Old testament narrative and the sublime teaching of the New Testament about sin and evil.但是,这一定会被接纳所有,即在秋天的天使拉比帐户,与人类堕落相连,同样与旧约的叙事虔诚沉默和有关罪恶和邪恶的新约崇高的教学对比。

2. 2。Satan, of Sammael, as the accuser of man.撒旦,使萨麦尔,作为原告的男子。

And clumsy, indeed, are his accusations.而笨拙,实际上,是他的指控。Thus the statement (Gen. xxii. 1) that 'God tempted Abraham' is, in Jewish legend, transformed (Sanh. 89 b) into a scene, where, in the great upper Sanhedrin (Ber. R. 56), Satan brings accusation against the Patriarch.因此,声明(创二十二1)“上帝动心亚伯拉罕是在犹太人的传说,变成了一个场景,在这里,在伟大的上层公会(Ber.河56),撒旦带(Sanh. 89 B)陷害族长。[2 In BerR.[在BERR 2。56 the accusation is stated to have been brought by the ministering angels] All his previous piety had been merely interested; and now when, at the age of one hundred, God had given him a son, he had made a great feast and not offered aught to the Almighty. 56的指责是说已带来的服事天使]所有他以前的孝道已经不仅仅是兴趣,而现在时,在百年龄,上帝给了他一个儿子,他作出了一个伟大的节日,而不是提供任何事物的全能。 On this God is represented as answering, that Abraham was ready to sacrifice not only an animal but his own son; and this had been the occasion of the temptation of Abraham.在此神为代表的回答是,亚伯拉罕准备牺牲不仅是动物,但他自己的儿子,这一直是亚伯拉罕的诱惑之际。

That this legend is very ancient, indeed pre-Christian (a circumstance of considerable importance to the student of this history) appears from its occurrence, though in more general form, in the Book of Jubilees, ch.这个传说是非常古老的,确实前基督教(一种相当重视这一历史系学生情况)似乎从它的发生,但在更一般的形式,在年节,CH书。 xvii.十七。In Ber.R.在Ber.R.55 and in Tacchuma (ed. Warsh p. 29 a and b), the legend is connected with a dispute between Isaac and Ishmeal as to their respective merits, when former declares himself ready to offer up his life unto God.55和Tacchuma(编辑沃什第29 A和B),传说是与一间Isaac和Ishmeal争端各自的优点,当前宣布自己愿意提供了他对神的生命。In Tanchuma (us) we are told that this was one of the great merits of man, to which the Almighty and pointed when the Angels made objection to his creation.在Tanchuma(我们)告诉我们,这是人类伟大的优点之一,它的全能,并指出当天使了反对他的创作。

3. 3。Satan, or Sammael, as the seducer of man.撒旦,或使萨麦尔,作为男人诱惑。

This statement in Baba B. 16 a which identifies Satan with the Tester haRa, or evil impulse in man, must be regarded are a rationalistic attempt to gloss over the older teaching about Sammael, by representing him as a personification of the evil inclination within us.这巴巴B. 16语句标识与测试剖腹,或在人的邪恶撒旦的冲动,必须被视为是一种理性的企图粉饰有关使萨麦尔旧教学由代表作为邪恶的倾向在我们的人格化他, 。 For, the Talmud not only distinguishes between a personal Satan without, and evil inclination within man, but expressly ascribes to God the creation of the Yester haRa in man as he was before the Fall, the occurrence of two in the word ('and He formed,' Gen. ii. 7) being supposed to indicate the existence of two impulses in us, the Yester Tobh and the Yester haRa (Ber. 61 a).因为,犹太法典不仅区分个人撒旦没有,和邪恶的倾向在人,但明确归咎到上帝在人的Yester剖腹创作为他之前的秋季,是两个词的出现(是“和他形成了“创世纪II 7)应该指出的是两个在我们来说,Yester Tobh和Yester剖腹(Ber. 61)冲动的存在。And it is stated that this existence of evil in man's original nature was infinite comfort in the fear which would otherwise beset us in trouble (Ber. R. 14).它是说,这种在人的原始性罪恶的存在是在它原本困扰我们的麻烦(Ber.河14)恐惧无限的舒适感。More than this (as will presently be shown), the existence of this evil principle within us was declared to be absolutely necessary for the continuance of the world (Yoma 69 b, Sanh. 64 a)比这(如将目前显示)更多,这个邪恶的原则在我们的存在被宣布为绝对的世界继续必要的(山脉69 B,Sanh 64一)

Satan, or Sammael, is introduced as the seducer of man in all the great events of Israel's history.撒旦,或使萨麦尔,是引入在所有以色列的伟大历史事件的人诱惑。With varying legendary additions the story of Satan's attempts to prevent the obedience of Abraham and the sacrifice of Isaac is told in Sanh.随着不同的传奇增添了撒旦的企图,防止服从亚伯拉罕和以撒的牺牲的故事告诉Sanh。 89 b, Ber.89 B,误码率。 R. 56, and Tanchuma, p.R. 56,Tanchuma,第30 a and b.30 A和B。Yet there is nothing even astute, only a coarse realism, about the description of the clumsy attempts of Satan to turn Abraham from, or to hinder him in, his purpose; to influence Isaac; or to frighten Sarah.然而,没有什么更精明,只有粗糙的现实主义,对撒旦的笨拙尝试​​打开亚伯拉罕从,或妨碍他在说明,他的目的;影响艾萨克;或吓唬萨拉。 Nor are the other personages in the legend more successfully sketched.也不是在更成功地勾勒传说的其他人士。

There is a want of all higher conception in the references to the Almighty, a painful amount of downright untruthfulness about Abraham.有一个在所有的全能,一个彻头彻尾的不真实金额约亚伯拉罕痛苦的观念要提到更高。Lamentable boastfulness and petty spite about Isaac, while the Sarah of the Jewish legend is rather a weak old Eastern woman that the mother in Israel, To hold perversions of the Old Testament by the side of the New Testament conception of the motives of lives of the heroes of old, or the doctrinal inferences and teaching of the Rabbis by those of Christ and His Apostles, were to compare darkness with light.可悲的风气,约以撒虽然小,而犹太人的传说,而莎拉是一个弱老东方女子,在以色列的母亲,握住了新的对生活的动机约观侧旧约变态老英雄,还是理论推断和由基督使徒的拉比和他的教学,是比较轻的黑暗。

The same remarks apply to the other legends in which Satan is introduced as seducer.同样的话适用于在其中撒旦作为诱惑者介绍其他的传说。Anything more childish could scarcely be invented than this, that, when Sammael could not otherwise persuade Israel that Moses would not return from Mount Sinai, he at last made his bier appear before them in the clouds (Shab. 89a), unless it be this story, that when Satan David he assumed the form of a bird, and that, when David shot at it, Bath-Sheba suddenly looked up, thus gaining the king by her beauty (Sanh. 107 a).再说了幼稚几乎可以发明比这个,那个,当使萨麦尔,否则无法说服以色列,摩西将无法返回西奈山,他终于做了他的棺材出现在他们面前的云彩(Shab. 89A),除非它是这故事,当撒旦大卫他承担了鸟的形式,而且,当大卫开枪吧,拔示巴突然抬起头来,从而赢得了她的美丽王(Sanh. 107 A)。 In both these instances the obvious purpose is to palliate the guilt whether of Israel or of David, which, indeed, is in other places entirely explained away as not due to disobedience or to lust (Comp. Ab. Zar. 4 b, 5 a).在这两种情况下,明显的目的是为了缓和以色列是否有罪或大卫,这的确,在其他地方是完全解释为不是因为不服从或情欲(Comp.抗体。ZAR 4 B,5 )。

4. 4。As the Enemy of man, Satan seeks to hurt and destroy由于人的敌人,撒旦力求伤害和破坏
him; and he is the Angel of Death.他和他是死亡天使。

Thus, when Satan had failed in shaking the constancy of Abraham and Isaac, he attacked Sarah (Yalkut, i. Par. last lines p. 28 b).因此,当撒旦曾在晃动亚伯拉罕和以撒坚贞失败后,他攻击莎拉(Yalkut岛相提并论。去年第28 B线)。 To his suggestions, or rather false reports, her death had been due, either from fright at being told that Isaac had been offered (Pirqe de R. El. 32, and Targum Ps.- Jon.), or else from the shock, when after all she learned that Isaac was not dead (Ber. R. 58).他的建议,或者说虚假的报告,她的死亡是因为,无论是从惊吓时被告知,已经提供的艾萨克(Pirqe德河萨尔瓦多32,乔恩和Targum诗.-),否则从震惊,毕竟,当她得知以撒没有死(Ber.河58)。 Similarly, Satan had sought to take from Tamar the pledges which Judah had given her.同样地,撒旦曾试图从添马舰采取哪些犹大给她的承诺。He appeared as an old man to show Nimrod how to have Abraham cast into the fiery oven, at the same time persuading Abraham not to resist it, &c.他作为一个老人出现,显示尼姆罗德如何有亚伯拉罕到火热炉铸造,同时说服亚伯拉罕不抵制它的时候,(下略)Equally puerile are the representations of Satan as the Angel of Death.同样是薄利多销为死亡天使撒旦的陈述。

According to Abod.据Abod。Zar.扎尔。20 b, the dying sees his enemy with a drawn sword, on the point of which a drop of gall trembles.20 B,奄奄一息的看到了他的画剑的敌人,其中就点了胆颤抖下降。In his fright he opens his mouth and swallows this drop, which accounts for the pallor of the face and the corruption that follows.在他的恐惧,他打开他的嘴和燕子此下拉,这对于苍白的脸和腐败如下帐户。According to another Rabbi, the Angel of Death really uses his sword, although, on account of the dignity of humanity, the wound which he inflicts is not allowed to be visible.另据拉比,死亡天使真正使用他的剑,虽然对人类,对敌人造成的伤口,他的尊严帐户不允许可见。It is difficult to imagine a narrative more repulsive than that of the death of Moses according to Deb.这是很难想象,一个以上的叙述,摩西根据德布死亡的排斥。R. 11.第11条规则。

Beginning with the triumph of Sammael over Michael at the expected event, it tells how Moses had entered rather to be changed into a beast or a bird than to die; how Gabriel and Michael had successively refused to bring the soul of Moses; how Moses, knowing that Sammael was coming for the purpose, had armed himself with the Ineffable Name; how Moses had in boastfulness recounted to Sammael all his achievements, real legendary; and how at last Moses had pursued the Enemy with the Ineffable Name, and in his anger taken off one of his horns of glory and blinded Satan in one eye.首先是对迈克尔的胜利使萨麦尔在预期的事件,它讲述了摩西,而要进入到一个兽或鸟,而不是死改变;如何加布里埃尔和迈克尔曾先后拒绝把摩西的灵魂,如何摩西,明知使萨麦尔是未来为宗旨,曾与无法形容的名称武装自己,如何摩西风气,以使萨麦尔讲述了他所有的成就,真正的传奇,以及如何在最后的摩西一直奉行与无法形容的名称敌人,并在他的愤怒起飞的荣耀之一,他的角一只眼睛失明撒旦。 We must be excused from following this story through its revolting details.我们必须从以下免除其令人作呕的细节,通过这个故事。

But, whether as the Angel of Death or as the seducer of man, Sammael has not absolute power.但是,不论是死亡天使或作为人诱惑,使萨麦尔没有绝对的权力。When Israel took upon themselves at Mount Sinai, they became entirely free from hie sway, and would have remained so, but for the sin of the Golden Calf.当以色列在自己发生在西奈山,他们成为完全自由挥洒HIE,并会一直保持这样,但对于金牛犊的罪。Similarly, in the time of Ezra, the object of Israel's prayer (Neh. vii.) was to have Satan delivered to them.同样,在以斯拉的时候,以色列的祷告对象(尼七)是有撒旦交付给他们。After a three day's fast it was granted, and the Yetser haRa of idolatry, in the shape of a young lion, was delivered up to them.经过为期三天的快速这是理所当然的,对偶像崇拜Yetser剖腹在一个年轻的狮子造型,被送到了他们。It would serve no good purpose to repeat the story of what was done with the bound enemy, or now his cries were rendered inaudible in heaven.这将有助于良好的目的没有重复的东西是与约束的敌人,还是现在他的哭声被呈现在天上做无声的故事。Suffice it that, in view of the requirements of the present world, Israel liberated him from the ephah covered with lead (Zech. v. 8), under which, by advice of the prophet Zechariah, they had confined him, although for precaution they first put out his eye (Yoam, 69 b).这就够了,在当今世界的要求看,解放以色列从包括铅(撒迦利亚诉8),在其中,由先知撒迦利亚的意见,他们限制了他的量器他,尽管他们的防范先放了他的眼睛(Yoam,69 B)。And yet, in view, or probably, rather, in ignorance, of such teaching, modern criticism would deprive the Satanology of the New Testament an the history of the Temptation from Jewish sources!然而,鉴于,甚至可能相反,在无知,这样的教学,现代批评会剥夺了新约的诱惑犹太来源从历史Satanology!

Over these six persons, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, with whom some apparently rank Benjamin, the Angel of Death, had no power (Baba. B. 17 a).在这6人,亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各,摩西,亚伦,和米利暗,与其中一些人显然排名本杰明,死亡天使,没有权力(Baba. B. 17)。Benjamin, Amram, Jesse, and Chileb (the son of David) are said to have died (only through 'the sin of the serpent.' In other cases, also, Sammael may not be able to exercise his sway till, for example, he has by some ruse diverted a theologian from his sacred study. Thus he interrupted the pious meditations of David by going up into a tree and shaking it, when, as David went to examine it, a rung of the ladder, on which he stood, broke, and so interrupted David's holy thoughts.本杰明,阿姆拉姆,杰西和Chileb(大卫的儿子),据说已经死亡(只有通过“蛇的罪过。”在其他情况下,也使萨麦尔未必能够行使他的挥洒到,例如,他的改行从他神圣的神学研究一些诡计了。因此,他打断涨成树,摇它大卫的虔诚冥想的时候,因为大卫去研究它,在梯级上,他站在,断了,所以中断大卫的神圣思想。

Similarly, Rabbi Chasda, by occupation with sacred study, warded off the Angel of Death till the crackling of a beam diverted his attention.同样,拉比Chasda,通过学习与神圣的职业,抵御了死亡,直到他的注意力被转移梁噼里啪啦天使。Instances of the awkwardness of the Enemy are related (Kethub. 77 b), and one Rabbi, Joshua, actually took away his sword, only returning it by direct command of God.对敌人的尴尬的实例相关(Kethub. 77 B),一个拉比,约书亚,实际上拿走了他的剑,只返回由神直接命令。Where such views of Satan could even find temporary expression, superstitious fears may have been excited; but the thought of moral evil and of a moral combat with it could never have found lodgement.凡撒旦这些意见甚至可以找到暂时的表达,迷信的恐惧可能被激发,但在道德上的邪恶和与它作战思想道德永远无法发现报关服务。

III. III。Evil Spirits (Shedim, Ruchin, Rucoth, Lilin).(Shedim,吕尚,Rucoth,李林)煞气。

Here also, as throughout, we mark the presence of Parsee elements of superstition.这里还作为整个,我们纪念迷信帕西元素的存在。In general, these spirits resemble the gnomes, hobgoblins, elves, and spirits of our fairy tales.一般来说,这些精神类似于侏儒,妖怪,精灵,和我们的童话故事的精神。They are cunning and malicious, and contact with them is dangerous; but they can scarcely be described as absolutely evil.他们是狡猾的,恶意的,并与他们联系是危险的,但他们几乎可以被描述为绝对邪恶。Indeed, they often prove kind and useful; and may at all times be rendered innocuous, and even made serviceable.事实上,他们往往证明实物和有益的,并可以在任何时候都可以使之无害,甚至做维修。

1. 1。Their origin, nature, and numbers.他们的起源,性质和数量。

Opinions differ as to their origin, in fact, they variously originated.见仁见智其来源,事实上,他们不同地起源。According to Ab.根据抗体。 12 b, Ber.12 B,误码率。 R. 7, they were created on the eve of the first Sabbath.第7条规则,他们创建的第一个安息日前夕。But since that time their numbers have greatly increased.但自那时以来,他们的人数也大大增加。For, according of Erub.因为,根据对Erub。18 b.18 B。Ber.误码率。R. 20 (ed Warsh. p. 40 b), multitudes of them were the offspring of Eve and of male spirits, and of Adam with female spirits, or with Lilith (the queen of the female spirits), during the 130 years that Adam had been under the ban, and before Seth was born (Gen. v. 3): [1 From the expression 'a son in his own likeness,' &c., it is inferred that his previous offspring during the 138 years was not in his likeness.] comp. R. 20(ED沃什,第40页B),其中许许多多是夏娃和男性的精神后代,亚当与女性的精神,或与莉莉丝(对女性的精神王后),在130年中亚当曾下禁令,前塞特出生(创五3):[1从表达“儿子在他自己的肖像,”&C,它是推断,他在138年前的后代不在他的肖像。]比赛。 Erub.Erub。18 b.18 B。

Again, their number can scarcely be limited, since they propagate themselves (Chag. 16 a), resembling men in this as well as in their taking of nourishment and dying.再次,其数量几乎可以是有限的,因为他们宣传自己(Chag. 16日),在此以及在其采取类似男性的营养和死亡。On the other hand, like the Angels they have wings, pass unhindered through space, and know the future.另一方面,他们像天使的翅膀,穿越空间不受阻碍,并且知道未来。Still further, they are produced by a process of transformation from vipers, which, in the course of four times seven years, successively pass through the forms of vampires, thistles and thorns, into Shedim (Bab. K 16 a), perhaps a parabolic form of indicating the origination of Shedim through the fall of man.进一步,他们是由从毒蛇的转化过程,其中,在四次七年中,先后通过了吸血鬼,荆棘的形式,到Shedim(Bab. ​​K 16 A),也许是抛物线形式表明了Shedim通过人类堕落的起源。Another parabolic idea may be implied in the saying that Shedim spring from the backbone of those who have not bent in worship (us).另一个抛物线的想法可能是在暗示说,从这些谁没有在崇拜(我们)弯曲骨干Shedim春天。

Although Shedim bear, when they appear, the form of human beings, they may assume any other form.虽然Shedim承担,当他们出现,人类的形式,他们可能承担的任何其他形式。Those of their number who are identified with dirty places are represented as themselves black (Kidd. 72 a).他们当中谁是用肮脏的地方发现这些都是以自己为代表的黑(Kidd. 72)。But the reflection of their likeness is not the same as that of man.但他们的肖像反映是不一样的人相同。When conjured up, their position (whether with the head or the feet uppermost) depends on the mode of conjuring.当唤出了,他们的位置(是否有头部或脚至上)取决于魔术模式。Some of the Shedim have defects.在Shedim一些缺陷。Thus, those of them who lodge in the caper bushes are blind, and an instance is related when one of their number, in pursuit of a Rabbi, fell over the root of a tree and perished (Pes. 111 b).因此,他们中的谁在戏弄灌木丛向盲人,和一个实例是有关时,他们的一把手,在一个拉比的追求,在树和灭亡(Pes. 111 B)根下跌。

Trees, gardens, vineyards, and also ruined and desolate houses, but especially dirty places, were their favourite habitation, and the night-time, or before cock-crowing, their special time of appearance.树,花园,葡萄园,也破坏和荒凉的房子,但特别脏的地方,是他们最喜爱的居住和夜间,或之前公鸡打鸣,其外观特殊时期。 [2 The following Haggadah will illustrate both the power of the evil spirits at night and how amenable they are to reasoning.[2以下哈加达将说明这两个晚上的辟邪的权力和服从他们是如何推理。A Rabbi was distributing his gifts to the poor at night when he was confronted by the Prince of the Ruchin with the quotation Deut.一名犹太拉比是在夜间散发他的礼物给穷人时,他是由与报价申吕尚王子面对。xix.十九。34 ('Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark'), which seemed to give the 'spirit' a warrant for attacking him.34(“你不可删除你的邻居的地标”),这似乎给了“精神”对他的攻击令。But when the Rabbi replied by quoting Prov.但是,当拉比引述省答道。xxi.XXI。14 ('a gift in secret appeaseth wrath'), the 'spirit' fled in confusion (Jer. Peah viii. 9, p. 21 b).] Hence the danger of going alone into such places (Ber. 3 a, b; 62 a). 14(“一个秘密appeaseth愤怒的礼物”),“精神”逃离混乱(耶Peah八,九,第21页B)。]因此,想要进入这些地方单独危险(Ber. 3 A,B ; 62)。

A company of two escaped the danger, while before three the Shed did not even appear (Ber. 43 b).两家公司的躲过了危险,而前三个大棚甚至没有出现(Ber. 43 B)。For the same reason it was dangerous to sleep alone in a house (Shabb. 151 b), while the man who went out before cock-crow, without at least carrying for protection a burning torch (though moonlight was far safer) had his blood on his own head.出于同样的原因,它是危险的睡在一所房子(Shabb. 151 B)单,而该名男子谁去之前公鸡打鸣没有起码的保护携带燃烧的火炬(虽然月光远远安全),有他的血在他自己的头上。If you greeted anyone in the dark you might unawares bid Godspeed to a Shed (Sanh. 44 a).如果你在黑暗中有人招呼你可能会措手不及出价一帆风顺到一个大棚(Sanh. 44)。Nor was the danger of this inconsiderable, since one of the worst of these Shedim, especially hurtful to Rabbis, was like a dragon with seven heads, each of which dropped off with every successive lowly bending during Rabbi Acha's devotions (Kidd. 29 b).也不是这个不可小视的危险,因为对这些Shedim最差的之一,特别是伤害了拉比,就像一个七头龙,每一个连续下跌的每弯曲弱旅期间关闭拉比阿查的奉献(Kidd. 29 b)项。Specially dangerous times were the eyes of Wednesday and of the Sabbath.特别危险的时间分别为周三和安息日的眼睛。But it was a comfort to know that the Shedim could not create or produce anything; nor had they power over that which had been counted, measured, tied up and sealed (Chull, 105 b); they could be conquered by the 'Ineffable Name;' and they might be banished by the use of certain formulas, which, when written and worn, served as amulets.但它是一种安慰知道,Shedim无法创建或生产任何东西,他们也没有权力在这里面已经算,测量,捆绑​​和密封(Chull,105 B),它们可以由“无法形容的名称征服;',他们可能被放逐由某些公式,其中,当书面和磨损,作为护身符服务的使用。

The number of these spirits was like the earth that is thrown up around a bed that is sown.这些精神的人数是一样的是拦腰抱住一个播种床上地球。Indeed, no one would survive it, if he saw their number.事实上,没有人能够生存下去,如果他看到了其数量。A thousand at your right hand and ten thousand at your left, such crowding in the Academy or by the side of a bride; such weariness and faintness through their malignant touch, which rent the very dress of the wearers !千在你的右手和十年在你的左边,这种拥挤在学院或由新娘一边万元;如厌学,并通过他们的恶性触摸,其中租金时,佩戴者很礼服头晕! (Ber. 6 a) The queen of the female spirits had no less a following than 180,000 (Pres. 112 b).(Ber. 6一)女王的女性精神没有少了超过18万(Pres. 112 B)以下。Little as we imagine it, these spirits lurk everywhere around us: in the crumbs on the floor, in the oil in the vessels, in the water which we would drink, in the diseases which attack us, in the even-numbered cups of our drinking, in the air in the room, by day and by night.小如我们想象的那样,这些精神潜伏在我们身边无处不在:在地板上的面包屑,在血管中的油,水,我们就喝,在疾病的攻击我们,在我们的偶数杯饮酒,在室内空气中,白天和晚上。

2. 2。Their arrangement.他们的安排。

Generally, they may be arranged into male and female spirits, the former under their king Ashmedai, the latter under their queen Lilispirits, the former under their king Ashmedai, the latter under their queen Lilith, probably the same as Agrath bath Machlath, only that the latter may nore fully present hurtful aspect of the demoness.一般来说,他们可能会安排到男性和女性的精神,根据他们的国王Ashmedai前者,后者根据其女王Lilispirits,前者在其国王Ashmedai,根据其女王莉莉丝后者,可能是因为Agrath浴Machlath相同,只是后者可能会充分诺雷目前的demoness伤害方面。 The hurtful spirits are specially designated as Ruchin, Mazziqin (harmers), Malakhey Chabbalath (angels of damage), &c.精神的伤害是专门指定为吕尚,Mazziqin(harmers),Malakhey Chabbalath(损害天使),&CFrom another aspect they are arranged into four classes (Targ. Pseudo-Jon. Numb. vi. 24): the Tsaphrire, or morning spirits (Targ. on Ps. cxxi. 6; Targ. Cant. iv. 6); the tihare, or midday spirits (Targ. Pesudo-Jon. Deut. xxxii 24; Targ. Cant. iv. 6); the Telane, or evening spirits (Targ. Pseuod-Jon. on Deut. xxxii. 34; Targ. Is. xxxiv. 14).从另一个方面看,他们被安排为四个类别(Targ.伪乔恩麻木六24。)的Tsaphrire,或早上精神(。。。Targ.在PS cxxi 6;塔尔格Cannot四6),tihare或中午灵(Targ. Pesudo -乔恩申三十二24;。塔尔格Cannot四6。);的Telane,或晚上精神(Targ.上申Pseuod,乔恩三十二34;。。塔尔格是三十四14)。 (According to 2 Targ. Esther ii. 1, 3, Solomon had such power over them, that at his biding they executed dances before him.)(据2塔尔格。以斯帖二,1,3,所罗门对他们这种权力,他的招投标,在他面前,他们执行的舞蹈。)

a. A.Ashmedai Ashmedai
Ashmedai (perhaps a Parsee name), Ashmodi, Ashmedon, or Shamdon, the king of the demons (Gitt. 68 a, b; Pes. 110 a). Ashmedai(可能是帕西名称),Ashmodi,Ashmedon,或Shamdon,对恶魔之王(Gitt. 68 A,B,PES 110)。 It deserves notice, that this name does not occur in the Jerusalem Talmud nor in older Palestinian sources.它是值得的通知,这个名字不会出现在耶路撒冷犹太法典,也不老年人巴勒斯坦方面的消息。[1 Hamburger ascribes this to the anxiety of the Palestinians to guard Judaism from Gnostic elements. [1汉堡包归咎这是巴勒斯坦人的焦虑从诺斯底元素看守犹太教。We are, however, willing to recognise in it an indirect influence of Christianity.] He is represented as of immense size and strength, as cunning, malignant, and dissolute.但是我们,愿意在它承认了基督教间接的影响。]他是作为巨大的规模和实力,为狡猾,恶性,荒淫代表。At times, however, he is known also to do works of kindness, such as lead the blind, or to show the road to a drunken man.有时,然而,他也知道做善良的作品,如导致失明,或显示一个醉汉道路。

Of course, he foreknows the future, can do magic, but may be rendered serviceable by the use of the 'Ineffable Name,' and especially by the signet of King Solomon, on which it was graven.当然,他foreknows未来,可以做魔术,但可能会呈现由使用维修“无法形容的名称,”尤其是由所罗门王,在它被刻私章。 The story of Solomon's power over him is well known and can here only be referred to in briefest outline.在所罗门的力量在他身上的故事是众所周知的,可以在这里只能提到在最短的轮廓。It is said, that as no iron was to be used in the construction of the Temple, Solomon was anxious to secure the services of the worm Shamir, which possessed the power of cutting stones (see abou him Ab. z. 12 a; Sot. 48 b; Gitt. 68 a, b).有人说,那是因为没有铁在施工中使用的圣殿,所罗门急于安全的蠕虫沙米尔,它拥有的权力切割石块(见阿布他的抗体z的12个服务;。索48 B; Gitt 68 A,B)。By advice of the Sanhedrin, Solomon conjured up for this purpose a male and a female Shed, who directed him to Ashmedai.通过公会的意见,为此所罗门唤出了男性和女性大棚,谁指示他Ashmedai。 The latter lived at the bottom of a deep cistern on a high mountain.后者住在一个深池底部一座高山。

Every morning on leaving it to go into heaven and hear the decrees of the Upper Sanhedrin, he covered the cistern with a stone, and sealed it.每次离开它进入天堂,听到上层公会法令上午,他用石头盖的蓄水池,密封它。On this Benayah, armed with a chain, and Solomon's signet with the Ineffable Name, went and filled the cistern with wine, which Ashmedai, as all other spirits, hated.在此Benayah,武装带链,和所罗门的私章与无法形容的名称,又填补了用酒池,这Ashmedai,因为所有其他烈酒,讨厌。 But as he could not otherwise quench his thirst, Ashmedai became drunk, when it was easy, by means of the magical signet, to secure the chain around him.但由于他不能解渴否则他口渴,Ashmedai成为喝醉了,当它很容易,由神奇的私章的手段,以确保他周围的链。

Without entering on the story of his exploits, or how he indicated the custody of Shamir, and how ultimately the worm (which was in the custody of the moor-cock [2 The Tarnegol Bera, a mythical animal reaching from earth to heaven (Targ. on Ps. 1, 11), also called Naggar Tura (Gitt. 68 b) from his activity in cleaving mountains.]) was secured, it appears that, by his cunning, Ashmedai finally got released, when he immediately hurled Solomon to a great distance, assumed his form, and reigned in his stead; till at last, after a series of adventures, Solomon recovered his signet, which Ashmedai had flung away, and a fish swallowed.如果没有对他的功绩的故事,他表示或如何保管的沙米尔,以及如何最终蠕虫(即在荒原公鸡[2 Tarnegol贝拉,一个神话般的动物从地球到达天堂的监护权(塔尔格进入上诗1,11),也叫他在裂解山活动Naggar图拉(Gitt. 68 B)。])是安全的,看来,他的狡猾,Ashmedai终于得到了释放,当时他立即投掷所罗门很大的距离,假设他的形式,并在他作王,直到最后,经过一系列的冒险,所罗门恢复了他的图章,这Ashmedai甩到了距离,和鱼吞食。 Solomon was recognised by the Sanhedrin and Ashmedai fled at sight of the signet.所罗门是公认的公会和Ashmedai在逃离视线的私章。(Possibly the whole of this is only a parabolic form for the story of Solomon's spiritual declension, and final repentance.)(可能是这个整体只是一个为所罗门的精神变格的故事,最后悔改抛物线形式。)

b. B.Lilith莉莉丝
Lilith, the queen of female spirits, to be distinguished from the Lilin or night-spirits, and from Lela or Laila, an Angel who accompanied Abraham on his expedition against Chedorlaomer (Sanh. 96 a).莉莉丝,女王的女性精神,以区别于李林或夜间的精神,从勒拉或莱拉,天使谁陪同他对基大老玛远征亚伯拉罕(Sanh. 96)。 Here we recognise still more distinctly the Parsee elements.在这里,我们更加清楚地认识到了帕西元素。Lilith is 'the queen of Zemargad' (Targ. on Jobi. 15), 'Zemargad' representing all green crystals, malachite, and emerald, and the land of Zemargad being 'Sheba.'莉莉丝是(Targ.上苡15)“的Zemargad女王”,“Zemargad”代表所有的绿色晶体,孔雀石,和祖母绿,而Zemargad土地被“示巴”。 Lilith is described as the mother of Hormiz or Hormuz [2 the superstition 'There's luck in odd numbers' has passed to all nations.] (Baba !. 73 a).莉莉丝是作为Hormiz或霍尔木兹海峡的母亲描述[2迷信“有运气在奇数”已通过所有国家](巴巴!73)。

Sometimes she is represented as a very fair woman, but mostly with long, wild-flowing hair, and winged (Nidd. 24 b; Erub. 100 b).有时,她表示作为一个非常公平的女人,但大多是用长,野生飘逸的长发,和翼(Nidd. 24 B; Erub 100 B)。 In Pes.在PES。111 a we have a formula for exorcising Lillith.111一个我们有一个驱除Lillith公式。In Pes 112b towards the end) we are told how Agrath bath Machlath (probably the Zend word Agra, 'smiting, very wicked' bath Machlath 'the dancer') threatened Rabbi Chanina with serious mischief, had it not been that his greatness had been proclaimed in inhabited places, but finally gave her liberty on the eve of the fourth day and of the Sabbath, which nights accordingly are the most dangerous seasons.在接近年底的PE 112B)告诉我们如何Agrath浴Machlath(可能是Zend字阿格拉,“smiting,非常邪恶的”浴Machlath“舞者”)威胁拉比Chanina严重伤害,如果不是他的伟大之处了宣布在有人居住的地方,但最终放弃在第四天和安息日,因此这晚是最危险的季节前夕,她的自由。

3. 3。Character and habits of the Shedim.性格和Shedim习惯。

As many of the Angels, so many of the Shedim, are only personifications.由于很多的天使,所以在Shedim很多,只是人格化。Thus, as diseases were often ascribed to their agency, there were Shedim of certain diseases, as of asthma, croup, canine rabies, madness, stomachic diseases, &c.因此,随着疾病的人往往归因于他们的机构,有某些疾病,如哮喘,哮吼,狂犬病,疯狂,健胃疾病,&C Shedim Again, there were local Shedim, as of Samaria, Tiberias, &c.同样,有地方Shedim,截至撒马利亚,太巴列,下略On the other hand, Shedim might be employed in the magic cure of diseases (Shabb. 67 a).另一方面,Shedim可能受雇于疾病(Shabb. 67)神奇治愈。In fact, to conjure up and make use of demons was considered lawful although dangerous (Sanh. 101 a), while a little knowledge of of the subject would enable a person to avoid any danger from them.其实,变出和利用恶魔使用被认为是合法的,虽然危险(Sanh. 101 A),而一个小的学科知识将使任何一个人,以避免他们的危险。Thus, although Chamath, the demon of oil, brings eruptions on the face, yet the danger is avoided if the oil is used out of the hollow of the hand, and not out of a vessel.因此,虽然Chamath,石油妖,使在脸上爆发,但危险是可以避免的,如果油是采用了镂空的手,而不是走出了一条船。 Shed Joseph (Pes. 110 a) and the Shed Jonathan (Yeb. 122 a).大棚约瑟夫(Pes. 110)和大棚乔纳森(Yeb. 122)。Rabbis Papa had a young Shed to wait upon him (Vhull. 105 b).拉比爸爸有一个年轻棚后,他等待(Vhull. 105 B)。

There can, however, be no difficulty in making sure of their real existence.可以有,不过,没有使他们的真实存在一定的难度。As Shedim have cock's feet, nothing more is required than to strew ashes by the side of one's bed, when in the morning their marks will be perceived (Ber. 6 a; Gitt. 68 b).作为Shedim有公鸡的脚,没有什么更多的是比播骨灰需要由一个人的床边,当其商标在早上将被视为(Ber. 6 A; Gitt 68 B)。It was by the shape of his feet that the Sanhedrin hoped to recognise, whether Ashmedia as really Solomon, or not, but it was found that he never appeared with his feet uncovered.这是由他的脚形状公会希望承认,是否真的Ashmedia作为所罗门,还是不行,但人们发现,他从来没有发现他的脚出现。 The Talmud(Ber. 6 a) describes the following as an infallible means for actually seeing these spirits: Take the afterbirth of a black cat which is the daughter of a black cat, both mother and daughter being firstborn, burn it in the fire, and put some of the ashes in your eyes.塔木德(Ber. 6一)介绍了以下作为一个犯错的真正看到这些精神是指:以一个黑色的猫胞衣这是一个黑色的猫女儿,母亲和女儿被长子,在火中燃烧,并把你的眼睛的骨灰一些。 Before using them, the ashes must be put into an iron tube, and sealed with an iron signet.使用前,必须将骨灰放入一个铁管,并用铁印密封。

It is added, that Rabbi Bibi successfully tried this experiment, but was hurt by the demons, on which he was restored to health by the prayers of the Rabbis.这是补充说,拉比比比成功尝试这样做实验,但被恶魔,对他恢复由拉比的祈祷健康受到伤害。[1 Dr. Kohut's comparison of Rabbinic Angelology and Demonology with Parseeism (Ueber d. jud. Angelol u. Damonol. in ihrer Abhang. vom Parsismus) is extremely interesting, although not complete and its conclusions sometimes strained.[1博士胡特的拉比天使和恶魔的比较与Parseeism(Ueber D.达瓦慈善会。Angelol美国Damonol中ihrer Abhang。VOM Parsismus)是非常有趣的,虽然没有完成,其结论有时紧张。The negative arguments derived from Jewish Angelology and Satanology by the author of 'Supernatural Religion' are based on inaccurate and uncritical information, and do not require detailed discussion.从犹太天使和由“超自然的宗教”作者Satanology产生负面的论点是基于不准确和不加批判的信息,并且不需要详细的讨论。

Other and kindred questions, such as those of amulets, &c., will be treated under demoniac possessions.其他及亲属的问题,如对那些护身符,&C,将被视为下邪恶的财产。But may we not here once more and confidently appeal to impartial students whether, in view of this sketch of Jewish Angelology and Satanology, the contention can be sustained that the teaching of Christ on this subject has been derived from Jewish sources?但可能我们不是在这里再次呼吁,满怀信心地是否在这种犹太天使和Satanology草图来看,可以持续争说,基督在这个学科教学已经从犹太学生来源的公正?

Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者爱德生提到许多参考来源,他的作品。As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list.作为一个书目资源,我们创建了一个单独的爱德生参考清单。 All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.他表示在括号内的所有引用引用作品的页码。


Catholic Information天主教信息

(Latin angelus; Greek aggelos; from the Hebrew for "one going" or "one sent"; messenger). (拉丁奉告祈祷;希腊aggelos,从对“一会”或“一送”希伯来;信使)。The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger.这个词用在希伯来语表示漠然无论是神或人类的使者。The Septuagint renders it by aggelos which also has both significations.七十呈现由aggelos其中也有两个意指它。The Latin version, however, distinguishes the divine or spirit-messenger from the human, rendering the original in the one case by angelus and in the other by legatus or more generally by nuntius.拉丁版,但是,区分从人类神圣的或精神信使,呈现在一种情况下由三钟经,并在其他的legatus或更普遍的nuntius原始。 In a few passages the Latin version is misleading, the word angelus being used where nuntius would have better expressed the meaning, eg Isaiah 18:2; 33:3, 6.在一些段落的拉丁版本是误导,所使用的奉告祈祷词里nuntius将有更好的表达的意思,如以赛亚书18时02分,33:3,6。 It is with the spirit-messenger alone that we are here concerned.它与精神信使单,我们在这里关注。We have to discuss我们要讨论

the meaning of the term in the Bible,在圣经中所指的期限,

the offices of the angels,办公室的天使,

the names assigned to the angels,分配给天使的名字,

the distinction between good and evil spirits,之间的区分善恶的精神,

the divisions of the angelic choirs,天使般的合唱团的分裂,

the question of angelic appearances, and天使般的外表的问题,

the development of the scriptural idea of angels.在天使的圣经思想的发展。

The angels are represented throughout the Bible as a body of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him (man) a little less than the angels" (Psalm 8:6).天使是代表整个圣经作为神和人之间的中间鬼神身上:“你让他(男人)一点比天使少”(诗篇8:6)。They, equally with man, are created beings; "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts . . . for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and they were created" (Psalm 148:2, 5; Colossians 1:16-17).他们,同样的人,是创造生命,“你们赞美他,他所有的天使:你们赞美他,他所有的主机对他讲,他们提出了他指挥和他们创建的。 ”(诗篇148:2, 5,歌罗西书1:16-17)。That the angels were created was laid down in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).这天使被创造放下了在第四次拉特兰会议(1215年)。The decree "Firmiter" against the Albigenses declared both the fact that they were created and that men were created after them.该法令“Firmiter”对Albigenses同时宣布,他们创建和男人之后他们创造的事实。 This decree was repeated by the Vatican Council, "Dei Filius".这项法令是由梵蒂冈会重复,“业会Filius”。We mention it here because the words: "He that liveth for ever created all things together" (Ecclesiasticus 18:1) have been held to prove a simultaneous creation of all things; but it is generally conceded that "together" (simul) may here mean "equally", in the sense that all things were "alike" created.我们提到它这里,因为话:“他是永远创造万物一起活着”(Ecclesiasticus 18:1)已举行了证明的同时创造万物,但人们普遍承认,“在一起”(SIMUL)可能这里的意思是“平等”,在某种意义上说,所有事情“都”创造。 They are spirits; the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews says: "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister to them who shall receive the inheritance of salvation?"他们的精神,在向希伯来书信作者说:“他们是不是所有的服事精神,向他们发送到部长谁应获得救恩的继承?” (Hebrews 1:14). (希伯来书1:14)。

Attendants at God's throne服务员在上帝的宝座

It is as messengers that they most often figure in the Bible, but, as St. Augustine, and after him St. Gregory, expresses it: angelus est nomen officii ("angel is the name of the office") and expresses neither their essential nature nor their essential function, viz.: that of attendants upon God's throne in that court of heaven of which Daniel has left us a vivid picture:它是作为信使,他们最经常的数字在圣经中,但是,正如圣奥古斯丁,并且,在他圣格雷戈里表示它:三钟经EST nomen officii(“天使的职位名称”),并表示没有他们的基本其基本功能自然也没有,即:一经神的宝座服务员在这天,其中丹尼尔给我们留下了生动的画面法院审理认为:

I behold till thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days sat: His garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like clean wool: His throne like flames of fire: the wheels of it like a burning fire.我看哪,直到宝座被放置,并坐在古代的天:他的服装是洁白如雪,而他的脑袋像毛洗净毛:他的王位像火焰:它的车轮像燃烧的火。 A swift stream of fire issued forth from before Him: thousands of thousands ministered to Him, and ten thousand times a hundred thousand stood before Him: the judgment sat and the books were opened.甲流迅速发出火灾提出从他面前:他的事奉成千上万,和1万次,十万站在他面前:坐着的判断和书籍被打开。(Daniel 7:9-10; cf. also Psalm 96:7; Psalm 102:20; Isaiah 6, etc.) (但以理书7:9-10;比照也诗篇96:7;诗篇102:20;以赛亚书6等)

This function of the angelic host is expressed by the word "assistance" (Job 1:6; 2:1), and our Lord refers to it as their perpetual occupation (Matthew 18:10).这是天使般的主机功能是表达的单词“援助”(约伯记1:6; 2:1),和我们的主是指它作为自己永久的占领(马太18:10)。More than once we are told of seven angels whose special function it is thus to "stand before God's throne" (Tobit 12:15; Revelation 8:2-5).不止一次告诉我们,七天使的特殊功能是这样的“站在神的宝座”(Tobit回归12时15分;启示录8:2-5)。 The same thought may be intended by "the angel of His presence" (Isaiah 63:9) an expression which also occurs in the pseudo-epigraphical "Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs".同样的想法可能是打算以“天使他的存在”(以赛亚书63:9)的表达式也伪epigraphical“的十二始祖圣经”的发生。

God's messengers to mankind上帝的使者给人类

But these glimpses of life beyond the veil are only occasional.但是,超出了面纱这些生活一瞥只是偶尔。The angels of the Bible generally appear in the role of God's messengers to mankind.圣经的天使一般出现在上帝的使者对人类的作用。They are His instruments by whom He communicates His will to men, and in Jacob's vision they are depicted as ascending and descending the ladder which stretches from earth to heaven while the Eternal Father gazes upon the wanderer below.他们是谁,他传达他的意志的男人,在雅各的视野,他们为上升和下降的阶梯而从地球延伸到天上描绘他的工具,而在下面的游子永恒之父凝视。 It was an angel who found Agar in the wilderness (Genesis 16); angels drew Lot out of Sodom; an angel announces to Gideon that he is to save his people; an angel foretells the birth of Samson (Judges 13), and the angel Gabriel instructs Daniel (Daniel 8:16), though he is not called an angel in either of these passages, but "the man Gabriel" (9:21).这是一个天使谁发现琼脂在旷野(创16);天使吸引了所多玛地段进行;天使宣布对基甸说,他是为了救他的人;天使预言了参孙(法官13)的诞生,与天使加布里埃尔指示丹尼尔(丹尼尔8:16),虽然他不叫在这些通道不是天使,但“人加布里埃尔”(9:21)。 The same heavenly spirit announced the birth of St. John the Baptist and the Incarnation of the Redeemer, while tradition ascribes to him both the message to the shepherds (Luke 2:9), and the most glorious mission of all, that of strengthening the King of Angels in His Agony (Luke 22:43).同天上的精神宣布,圣施洗约翰和救世主化身的诞生,而传统归咎到他,加强双方的信息,牧羊人(路加福音2:9),而最重要的光荣使命,在他的痛苦天使王(路加福音22时43分)。 The spiritual nature of the angels is manifested very clearly in the account which Zacharias gives of the revelations bestowed upon him by the ministry of an angel.天使的精神本质,表现非常清楚的帐户,这撒迦利亚向他赠送了由一个天使部提供的启示。The prophet depicts the angel as speaking "in him".先知说描述为“在他为”天使。He seems to imply that he was conscious of an interior voice which was not that of God but of His messenger.他似乎暗示,他是一个内部的声音这是不是上帝的使者,但他的意识。The Massoretic text, the Septuagint, and the Vulgate all agree in thus describing the communications made by the angel to the prophet.该massoretic文本,译本和武加大都同意这样描述由天使向先知所作的通讯。It is a pity that the "Revised Version" should, in apparent defiance of the above-named texts, obscure this trait by persistently giving the rendering: "the angel that talked with me: instead of "within me" (cf. Zechariah 1:9, 13, 14; 2:3; 4:5; 5:10).很可惜的“修订版”应在上述命名的文本明显蔑视,晦涩的坚持让渲染这个特点:“天使与我说话:而不是”在我“(见撒迦利亚1 :9,13,14; 2:3; 4:5; 5:10)。

Such appearances of angels generally last only so long as the delivery of their message requires, but frequently their mission is prolonged, and they are represented as the constituted guardians of the nations at some particular crisis, eg during the Exodus (Exodus 14:19; Baruch 6:6).天使一般最后出场只有这样,只要他们的消息传递要求,但往往他们的任务是长期的,他们作为国家的构成监护人在某些特定的危机在出埃及记(出埃及记14时19分如代表;巴鲁克6:6)。 Similarly it is the common view of the Fathers that by "the prince of the Kingdom of the Persians" (Dan., x, 13; x, 21) we are to understand the angel to whom was entrusted the spiritual care of that kingdom, and we may perhaps see in the "man of Macedonia" who appeared to St. Paul at Troas, the guardian angel of that country (Acts 16:9).同样是常见的父亲认为,由“王子的波斯王国”(但,X,13,X,21)我们要了解天使向谁委托该王国的精神关怀,我们也许可以看到,在“马其顿人”谁出现在特罗亚,该国的守护天使(徒16:9)到圣保罗。 The Septuagint (Deuteronomy 32:8), has preserved for us a fragment of information on this head, though it is difficult to gauge its exact meaning: "When the Most High divided the nations, when He scattered the children of Adam, He established the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God".该译本(申命记​​32:8),已为我们保存了关于这个头信息的片段,虽然很难判断其确切含义:“当至高划分的国家,当他分散亚当的孩子,他成立该国的边界根据神天使“号。 How large a part the ministry of angels played, not merely in Hebrew theology, but in the religious ideas of other nations as well, appears from the expression "like to an angel of God".如何大的一部分部天使发挥,不仅在希伯来神学,但在其他国家的以及宗教观念,似乎从表达“喜欢神的使者”。It is three times used of David (2 Samuel 14:17, 20; 14:27) and once by Achis of Geth (1 Samuel 29:9).这是大卫(撒母耳记下14点17分,20; 14:27)使用三次,一次通过Geth的Achis(撒母耳记上29:9)。 It is even applied by Esther to Assuerus (Esther 15:16), and St. Stephen's face is said to have looked "like the face of an angel" as he stood before the Sanhedrin (Acts 6:15).它甚至被应用到Assuerus以斯帖(埃斯特15:16),和圣斯蒂芬的脸,据说看过“像一个天使的脸”,因为他之前的公会(徒6:15)站。

Personal guardians个人监护人

Throughout the Bible we find it repeatedly implied that each individual soul has its tutelary angel.在整个圣经我们发现它一再暗示,每个人的灵魂都有其守护神的天使。Thus Abraham, when sending his steward to seek a wife for Isaac, says: "He will send His angel before thee" (Genesis 24:7).因此亚伯拉罕,当送他的管家,寻​​求为伊萨克的妻子,说:“他将派遣他的使者在你面前”(创24:7)。The words of the ninetieth Psalm which the devil quoted to our Lord (Matthew 4:6) are well known, and Judith accounts for her heroic deed by saying: "As the Lord liveth, His angel hath been my keeper" (xiii, 20). “作为主活着,他的天使祂所是我的老板”(十三,20:九十诗篇的魔鬼引述说我们的主(太4:6)是众所周知的,和她的英雄事迹朱迪思帐户的话)。 These passages and many like them (Genesis 16:6-32; Hosea 12:4; 1 Kings 19:5; Acts 12:7; Psalm 33:8), though they will not of themselves demonstrate the doctrine that every individual has his appointed guardian angel, receive their complement in our Saviour's words: "See that you despise not on of these little ones; for I say to you that their angels in Heaven always see the face of My Father Who is in Heaven" (Matthew 18:10), words which illustrate the remark of St. Augustine: "What lies hidden in the Old Testament, is made manifest in the New".这些通道和许多像他们(创世记16:6-32;何西阿书12点04分,1国王19点05分,12时07分行为;诗篇33:8),但他们不会表现出自己的学说,每个人都有自己的任命的守护天使,接受我们的救主的话他们补充:“看你鄙视对这些小的不,因为我告诉你们,在天堂的天使总能看到我的父亲在天上的脸”(马太18: 10),也就是说这说明了圣奥古斯丁的话:“什么谎言隐藏在旧约,是在新的体现”。Indeed, the book of Tobias seems intended to teach this truth more than any other, and St. Jerome in his commentary on the above words of our Lord says: "The dignity of a soul is so great, that each has a guardian angel from its birth."事实上,托比亚斯书似乎打算教这个道理比任何其他,和圣他对我们的主上面的字评论杰罗姆说:“一个灵魂的尊严是如此之大,是每个人都有一个守护天使从它的诞生。“ The general doctrine that the angels are our appointed guardians is considered to be a point of faith, but that each individual member of the human race has his own individual guardian angel is not of faith (de fide); the view has, however, such strong support from the Doctors of the Church that it would be rash to deny it (cf. St. Jerome, supra).一般学说认为天使是我们的委任监护人被认为是一个信仰问题,而是每一个人类个体成员都有他自己的个人信仰的守护天使是不(DE真诚);认为有,但是,这样的大力支持教会的医生,这将是轻率否认它(参见圣杰罗姆段)。 Peter the Lombard (Sentences, lib. II, dist. xi) was inclined to think that one angel had charge of several individual human beings.彼得大帝隆巴德(句子,库二,区十一)倾向于认为,一个天使的几个个别人负责。St. Bernard's beautiful homilies (11-14) on the ninetieth Psalm breathe the spirit of the Church without however deciding the question.圣伯纳德美丽的颂歌在九十诗篇(11-14)呼吸没有问题,但决定了教会的精神。The Bible represents the angels not only as our guardians, but also as actually interceding for us.圣经不仅代表作为我们的监护人,但实际上也为我们祈求的天使。"The angel Raphael (Tob., xii, 12) says: "I offered thy prayer to the Lord" (cf. Job, v, 1 (Septuagint), and 33:23 (Vulgate); Apocalypse 8:4). The Catholic cult of the angels is thus thoroughly scriptural. Perhaps the earliest explicit declaration of it is to be found in St. Ambrose's words: "We should pray to the angels who are given to us as guardians" (De Viduis, ix); (cf. St. Aug., Contra Faustum, xx, 21). An undue cult of angels was reprobated by St. Paul (Colossians 2:18), and that such a tendency long remained in the same district is evidenced by Canon 35 of the Synod of Laodicea. “天使拉斐尔(Tob.,十二,12)说:”我提供你祈祷,向上帝祷告“(参作业,V,1(七十)和33:23(武加大);启示录8:4)的。天主教崇拜的天使从而彻底圣经也许是最早明确宣布它要在圣刘汉铨的话发现:“我们应该向谁祈祷作为监护人给予我们的天使”(德Viduis,九);(。比照圣八月,魂斗罗Faustum,XX,21)。一个天使不当邪​​教reprobated由圣保罗(歌罗西书2:18),而且这种趋势​​长期在同一地区仍是佳能35的证明在老底嘉主教。

As Divine Agents Governing The World作为管理世界神圣代理

The foregoing passages, especially those relating to the angels who have charge of various districts, enable us to understand the practically unanimous view of the Fathers that it is the angels who put into execution God's law regarding the physical world.上述段落,尤其是那些与天使谁拥有各区负责,使我们能够理解父亲几乎一致认为,这是谁的天使将执行上帝的法律提出关于物理世界。 The Semitic belief in genii and in spirits which cause good or evil is well known, and traces of it are to be found in the Bible.在天才和精神造成好或邪恶的犹太人的信念是众所周知的,它的踪迹是在圣经中找到。Thus the pestilence which devastated Israel for David's sin in numbering the people is attributed to an angel whom David is said to have actually seen (2 Samuel 24:15-17), and more explicitly, I Par., xxi, 14-18).因此,瘟疫的破坏为大卫的罪的人在以色列的编号是由于天使人大卫说有真正看到(撒母耳记下24:15-17),以及更明确,我看齐。,二十一世纪,14-18) 。Even the wind rustling in the tree-tops was regarded as an angel (2 Samuel 5:23, 24; 1 Chronicles 14:14, 15).即使是在树梢的风沙沙被视为天使(撒母耳记下23分,24人;历代14点14分,15岁)。 This is more explicitly stated with regard to the pool of Probatica (John 5:1-4), though these is some doubt about the text; in that passage the disturbance of the water is said to be due to the periodic visits of an angel.这是更明确地说,关于对Probatica(约翰福音5:1-4)池,虽然这些是一些关于文本疑问,在这种通过水的扰动,据说是由于天使的定期互访。 The Semites clearly felt that all the orderly harmony of the universe, as well as interruptions of that harmony, were due to God as their originator, but were carried out by His ministers.闪米特人明显感到所有的宇宙秩序的和谐,以及这种和谐的中断,是由于他们的鼻祖神,但由他的部长了。This view is strongly marked in the "Book of Jubilees" where the heavenly host of good and evil angels is every interfering in the material universe.这种观点是非常明显的“书Jubilees”里的善恶天使是天上的主机中的每一个物质宇宙的干扰。Maimonides (Directorium Perplexorum, iv and vi) is quoted by St. Thomas Aquinas (Summa Theol., I:1:3) as holding that the Bible frequently terms the powers of nature angels, since they manifest the omnipotence of God (cf. St. Jerome, In Mich., vi, 1, 2; PL, iv, col. 1206).迈蒙尼德(Directorium Perplexorum,第四和第六)是引述了圣托马斯阿奎那(大全Theol,I:1:3)作为持有圣经经常条款的性质天使的权力,因为它们体现了上帝的全能(参圣杰罗姆,在密歇根州,六,1,2,PL,四,COL 1206)。Hierarchical organization分层组织

Though the angels who appear in the earlier works of the Old Testament are strangely impersonal and are overshadowed by the importance of the message they bring or the work they do, there are not wanting hints regarding the existence of certain ranks in the heavenly army.虽然天使谁在旧约的早期作品中出现的奇怪的人格,是由他们带来的消息或他们所做的工作的重要性黯然失色,也有不想要的提示关于在天上的军队某些职级的存在。

After Adam's fall Paradise is guarded against our First Parents by cherubim who are clearly God's ministers, though nothing is said of their nature.经过亚当的堕落天堂是防范我们的第一个父母的基路伯谁显然是上帝的部长,但其性质没有什么表示。Only once again do the cherubim figure in the Bible, viz., in Ezechiel's marvellous vision, where they are described at great length (Ezekiel 1), and are actually called cherub in Ezechiel 10.只有再次做基路伯在圣经中的人物,即在Ezechiel的奇妙的眼光,他们介绍了很长时间(以西结书1),实际上是叫Ezechiel 10小天使。The Ark was guarded by two cherubim, but we are left to conjecture what they were like.方舟是由两个基路伯把守,但我们留给猜想他们喜欢什么。It has been suggested with great probability that we have their counterpart in the winged bulls and lions guarding the Assyrian palaces, and also in the strange winged men with hawks' heads who are depicted on the walls of some of their buildings.有人曾建议以极大的概率,我们有自己的翅膀公牛和狮子守卫亚述宫殿的对应,以及在陌生的翅膀与鹰派元首谁是对他们的一些建筑物的墙壁描绘的男子。 The seraphim appear only in the vision of Isaias 6:6.六翼天使只会出现在视野的伊萨亚斯六点06分。

Mention has already been made of the mystic seven who stand before God, and we seem to have in them an indication of an inner cordon that surrounds the throne.提到已经取得了神秘seven谁站在上帝面前,我们似乎对他们有一个内在的警戒线周围的宝座的迹象。The term archangel occurs only in St. Jude and 1 Thessalonians 4:15; but St. Paul has furnished us with two other lists of names of the heavenly cohorts.术语天使只发生在圣裘德和帖撒罗尼迦前书4:15;但圣保罗已配有两个名字的天上同伙其他名单我们。He tells us (Ephesians 1:21) that Christ is raised up "above all principality, and power, and virtue, and dominion"; and, writing to the Colossians (1:16), he says: "In Him were all things created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominations, or principalities or powers."他告诉我们(以弗所书1:21)基督是提出了“上面所有公,电力,和美德,和统治”,并以书面形式向歌罗西书(1:16),他说:“在他被所有的东西在天上,地下,有形和无形的创建,无论是王位或称霸,或公国或权力。“ It is to be noted that he uses two of these names of the powers of darkness when (2:15) he talks of Christ as "despoiling the principalities and powers . . . triumphing over them in Himself".这是值得注意的是,他使用的黑暗力量时,这两个名字(2:15)他会谈基督为“掠夺的公国和权力。战胜过他们在自己”。 And it is not a little remarkable that only two verses later he warns his readers not to be seduced into any "religion of angels".它是不是有点显着,只有两个诗句后,他告诫他的读者不要到任何“宗教的天使”诱惑。He seems to put his seal upon a certain lawful angelology, and at the same time to warn them against indulging superstition on the subject.他似乎把在一定合法天使,并在同一时间他的印章,提醒沉迷于迷信它们的主题。 We have a hint of such excesses in the Book of Enoch, wherein, as already stated, the angels play a quite disproportionate part.我们有一个在以诺,其中,图书等过激行为暗示,如前所述,天使发挥相当不成比例的一部分。 Similarly Josephus tells us (Bel. Jud., II, viii, 7) that the Essenes had to take a vow to preserve the names of the angels.同样约瑟夫告诉我们(Bel.达瓦慈善会,,二,八,七)认为,爱色尼不得不采取誓言维护的天使的名字。

We have already seen how (Daniel 10:12-21) various districts are allotted to various angels who are termed their princes, and the same feature reappears still more markedly in the Apocalyptic "angels of the seven churches", though it is impossible to decide what is the precise signification of the term.我们已经看到了(丹尼尔10:12-21)各区都分配给谁被称为他们的王子各种天使,再次出现相同的功能仍处于启示“的七个教会的天使”更加明显,尽管它是不可能的决定什么是该词的确切意义。 These seven Angels of the Churches are generally regarded as being the Bishops occupying these sees.这七个教会的天使一般视为该主教占领这些看到。St. Gregory Nazianzen in his address to the Bishops at Constantinople twice terms them "Angels", in the language of the Apocalypse.圣格雷戈里Nazianzen在他的地址,在君士坦丁堡的主教他们两次条款“天使”的启示语言。The treatise "De Coelesti Hierarchia", which is ascribed to St. Denis the Areopagite, and which exercised so strong an influence upon the Scholastics, treats at great length of the hierarchies and orders of the angels.该论文“德Coelesti Hierarchia”,这是归因于圣丹尼斯的Areopagite,并经院哲学家行使如此强大影响力,在处理的层次结构和命令的天使连篇累牍。 It is generally conceded that this work was not due to St. Denis, but must date some centuries later.人们普遍承认,这项工作是不是因为圣丹尼斯,但必须日期有些世纪后。Though the doctrine it contains regarding the choirs of angels has been received in the Church with extraordinary unanimity, no proposition touching the angelic hierarchies is binding on our faith.虽然学说它包含关于天使合唱团已经在教会接受了非凡的一致,没有命题触摸天使的层次结构,是对我们的信心具有约束力。 The following passages from St. Gregory the Great (Hom. 34, In Evang.) will give us a clear idea of the view of the Church's doctors on the point:从圣格雷戈里以下通道大(。Hom. 34在Evang)会给我们一个点上,教会的医生认为清晰的思路:

We know on the authority of Scripture that there are nine orders of angels, viz., Angels, Archangels, Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Dominations, Throne, Cherubim and Seraphim.我们知道,圣经的权威,有9项命令的天使,即,天使,天使长,德,国,公国,称霸,王座,基路伯和塞拉芬。That there are Angels and Archangels nearly every page of the Bible tell us, and the books of the Prophets talk of Cherubim and Seraphim.有天使和天使长几乎每个页的圣经告诉我们,和先知书的基路伯和塞拉芬谈话。St. Paul, too, writing to the Ephesians enumerates four orders when he says: 'above all Principality, and Power, and Virtue, and Domination'; and again, writing to the Colossians he says: 'whether Thrones, or Dominations, or Principalities, or Powers'.圣保罗,也写信给以弗所书列举的四项命令时,他说:“上面所有公,电力,和美德,和统治”,并再次以书面形式向歌罗西书,他说:“无论是王位,或称霸,或公国,或权力“。 If we now join these two lists together we have five Orders, and adding Angels and Archangels, Cherubim and Seraphim, we find nine Orders of Angels.如果我们现在加入这两个名单我们一起5项命令,并添加天使和天使长,基路伯和塞拉芬,我们发现九个天使订单。

St. Thomas (Summa Theologica I:108), following St. Denis (De Coelesti Hierarchia, vi, vii), divides the angels into three hierarchies each of which contains three orders.圣托马斯(神学大全I:108),继圣丹尼斯(德Coelesti Hierarchia,六,七),分为三个层次,其中包含三个每个订单的天使。Their proximity to the Supreme Being serves as the basis of this division.他们靠近最高法院作为担任这个部门的基础。In the first hierarchy he places the Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones; in the second, the Dominations, Virtues, and Powers; in the third, the Principalities, Archangels, and Angels.他在第一层次地塞拉芬,基路伯,和王座;在第二,称霸,德,和权力,在第三,公国,天使长,和天使。The only Scriptural names furnished of individual angels are Raphael, Michael, and Gabriel, names which signify their respective attributes.唯一的圣经个别天使拉斐尔装饰名称,迈克尔和加布里埃尔,名称这意味着它们各自的属性。 Apocryphal Jewish books, such as the Book of Enoch, supply those of Uriel and Jeremiel, while many are found in other apocryphal sources, like those Milton names in "Paradise Lost".未经证实的犹太书籍,如以诺书,供应乌利尔和Jeremiel的,而在其他许多未经证实的来源发现,像“失乐园”的弥尔顿的名字。 (On superstitious use of such names, see above).(在使用这些名称迷信,见上文)。

The number of angels天使的数量

The number of the angels is frequently stated as prodigious (Daniel 7:10; Apocalypse 5:11; Psalm 67:18; Matthew 26:53).天使的数量是巨大的经常表述为(但以理书7:10,启示录5时11分;诗篇67:18;马太福音26:53)。From the use of the word host (sabaoth) as a synonym for the heavenly army it is hard to resist the impression that the term "Lord of Hosts" refers to God's Supreme command of the angelic multitude (cf. Deuteronomy 33:2; 32:43; Septuagint).从这个词的主机(千万军马)作为同义词使用天上的军队是难以抗拒的印象是术语“万军之耶和华”是指上帝的天使众多最高法院命令(参见申命记33:2; 32 :43;译本)。The Fathers see a reference to the relative numbers of men and angels in the parable of the hundred sheep (Luke 15:1-3), though this may seem fanciful.而父亲看到一个男人和在百羊(路加福音15:1-3)比喻天使的相对数参考,虽然这可能似乎幻想。The Scholastics, again, following the treatise "De Coelesti Hierarchia" of St. Denis, regard the preponderance of numbers as a necessary perfection of the angelic host (cf. St. Thomas, Summa Theologica I:1:3).的scholastics,再次,继论文“德Coelesti Hierarchia”圣但尼,认为这是天使般的主机(参见圣托马斯,神学大全一:1:3)需要完善的数字优势。

The evil angels邪恶的天使

The distinction of good and bad angels constantly appears in the Bible, but it is instructive to note that there is no sign of any dualism or conflict between two equal principles, one good and the other evil.对好的和坏的天使区分经常出现在圣经,但它是有益的注意,没有任何的二元论或两个平等的原则,一个很好的和其他邪恶的冲突的迹象。 The conflict depicted is rather that waged on earth between the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of the Evil One, but the latter's inferiority is always supposed.冲突描绘不如说是在之间的上帝和魔鬼王国地球发动,但后者的自卑感总是假定。The existence, then, of this inferior, and therefore created, spirit, has to be explained.的存在,那么,这种劣势,因此创建精神,必须加以解释。

The gradual development of Hebrew consciousness on this point is very clearly marked in the inspired writings.而在这一点上希伯来语意识的逐步发展,是非常明确标示在著作的启发。The account of the fall of our First Parents (Genesis 3) is couched in such terms that it is impossible to see in it anything more than the acknowledgment of the existence of a principle of evil who was jealous of the human race.而我们的第一个父母秋天(创3)帐户中的条款措辞,它是不可能在它看到什么比一个邪恶谁是人类生存的确认原则更加嫉妒。 The statement (Genesis 6:1) that the "sons of God" married the daughters of men is explained of the fall of the angels, in Enoch, vi-xi, and codices, D, EF, and A of the Septuagint read frequently, for "sons of God", oi aggeloi tou theou.声明(创6:1)认为,“神的儿子”嫁男人的女儿是解释了秋天的天使,在以诺,六喜,和抄本,D,EF,及七十一个经常读,为“神的儿子”,爱aggeloi头theou。 Unfortunately, codices B and C are defective in Genesis 6, but it is probably that they, too, read oi aggeloi in this passage, for they constantly so render the expression "sons of God"; cf.不幸的是,抄本B和C在创世记6有缺陷,但它可能是,他们也读这段话爱aggeloi,因为他们经常这样渲染的表达“神的儿子”;比照。 Job, i, 6; ii, 1; xxxviii, 7; but on the other hand, see Ps., ii, 1; lxxxviii, & (Septuagint).工作,我,6;二,1,三十八,7,但另一方面,看到诗,二,1; lxxxviii,及(七十)。Philo, in commenting on the passage in his treatise "Quod Deus sit immutabilis", i, follows the Septuagint.斐洛,在通道上的评论在他的论文“狴杀出坐immutabilis”,我遵循译本。For Philo's doctrine of Angels, cf.对于斐洛的学说的天使,比照。"De Vita Mosis", iii, 2, "De Somniis", VI: "De Incorrupta Manna", i; "De Sacrificis", ii; "De Lege Allegorica", I, 12; III, 73; and for the view of Gen., vi, 1, cf. “德维塔MOSIS”,三,二,“德Somniis”,VI:“德Incorrupta曼纳”,我,“德Sacrificis”,第二章,“德勒格Allegorica”,我,12;三,73;和视图的将军,六,1,比照。 St. Justin, Apol., ii 5.圣贾斯汀,APOL。,II 5。It should moreover be noted that the Hebrew word nephilim rendered gigantes, in 6:4, may mean "fallen ones".它应该而且值得注意的是,希伯来文菲利姆呈现gigantes,在6:4,可能意味着“堕落的”。The Fathers generally refer it to the sons of Seth, the chosen stock.在父亲一般是指它的塞思,所选择的股票的儿子。In 1 Samuel 19:9, an evil spirit is said to possess Saul, though this is probably a metaphorical expression; more explicit is 1 Kings 22:19-23, where a spirit is depicted as appearing in the midst of the heavenly army and offering, at the Lord's invitation, to be a lying spirit in the mouth of Achab's false prophets.在撒母耳记上19点09分,一个邪恶的精神,是拥有扫罗说,虽然这可能是一个隐喻的表达,更明确的是王上22:19-23,凡精神是在天上的军队当中出现的描述和提供,在主的邀请,将在Achab的假先知口中说谎的精神。 We might, with Scholastics, explain this is malum poenae, which is actually caused by God owing to man's fault.我们可能与经院哲学家,说明这是malum poenae,这实际上是由上帝由于人的过错造成的。A truer exegesis would, however, dwell on the purely imaginative tone of the whole episode; it is not so much the mould in which the message is cast as the actual tenor of that message which is meant to occupy our attention.一个更真实训诂学会,然而,停留在对整个事件纯粹想象力的基调,它与其说是在其中的信息是作为该是为了占领我们的注意消息的实际男高音铸造模具。

The picture afforded us in Job 1 and 2 is equally imaginative; but Satan, perhaps the earliest individualization of the fallen Angel, is presented as an intruder who is jealous of Job.图片给予我们在工作1和2同样是富有想象力的,但撒旦,也许最早的个性化的堕落天使,是作为一个入侵者谁是嫉妒的工作提出。 He is clearly an inferior being to the Deity and can only touch Job with God's permission.他显然是一个劣势正在向神,只能触摸上帝的许可工作。How theologic thought advanced as the sum of revelation grew appears from a comparison of 2 Samuel 24:1, with 1 Chronicles 21:1.如何theologic认为,作为先进的启示总和增长出现从撒母耳记下24:1,与历代21点01分进行比较。Whereas in the former passage David's sin was said to be due to "the wrath of the Lord" which "stirred up David", in the latter we read that "Satan moved David to number Israel".而在前一段大卫的罪被说成是由于“愤怒的上帝”,它“激起了国宝”在后者我们读到,“撒旦感动大卫数目以色列”。 In Job.在作业。iv, 18, we seem to find a definite declaration of the fall: "In His angels He found wickedness."四,18,我们似乎找到了秋天明确声明:“在他的天使他发现邪恶。”The Septuagint of Job contains some instructive passages regarding avenging angels in whom we are perhaps to see fallen spirits, thus xxxiii, 23: "If a thousand death-dealing angels should be (against him) not one of them shall wound him"; and xxxvi, 14: "If their souls should perish in their youth (through rashness) yet their life shall be wounded by the angels"; and xxi, 15: "The riches unjustly accumulated shall be vomited up, an angel shall drag him out of his house;" cf.有关职位七十包含了一些关于复仇天使在其中,我们或许看到下降的精神,从而三十三,23启发的段落:“如果一千死亡天使处理应(对他)不是其中之一应伤口他”;和三十六,14:“如果他们的灵魂应该灭亡在自己的青春(通过盲动),但他们的生活应受伤的天使”,以及二十一,15:“不公正积累的财富,应呕吐起来,天使将他拖出来的他的房子,“比照。 Prov., xvii, 11; Ps., xxxiv, 5, 6; lxxvii, 49, and especially, Ecclesiasticus, xxxix, 33, a text which, as far as can be gathered from the present state of the manuscript, was in the Hebrew original. 。省,十七,11,PS,三十四,五,六;第七十七号,49,特别是,Ecclesiasticus,三十九,33,一项,就可以从目前的状态稿件聚集文本中,在被希伯来语原始。 In some of these passages, it is true, the angels may be regarded as avengers of God's justice without therefore being evil spirits.在这些经文一些,这是真的,天使可能被视为上帝的公义复仇者没有因此被邪灵。In Zach., iii, 1-3, Satan is called the adversary who pleads before the Lord against Jesus the High Priest.在扎克。,三,1-3,撒旦被称为谁的对手之前对主耶稣的大祭司恳求。Isaias, xiv, and Ezech., xxviii, are for the Fathers the loci classici regarding the fall of Satan (cf. Tertull., adv. Marc., II, x); and Our Lord Himself has given colour to this view by using the imagery of the latter passage when saying to His Apostles: "I saw Satan like lightning falling from heaven" (Luke 10:18). 。伊萨亚斯,十四,和Ezech,二十八,是为父亲的轨迹classici关于撒旦(参Tertull,高级马克,二,X。)下降,而我们的主自己给使用颜色这一观点后者通过图像时说,以他的门徒:“我看到闪电一样从天上坠落撒旦”(路加福音10:18)。 In New Testament times the idea of the two spiritual kingdoms is clearly established.在新约时代的两个精神王国的想法是清楚确立。The devil is a fallen angel who in his fall has drawn multitudes of the heavenly host in his train.魔鬼是堕落天使在他的秋天谁引起了他的火车在天上的主机众人。Our Lord terms him "the Prince of this world" (John xiv, 30); he is the tempter of the human race and tries to involve them in his fall (Matthew 25:41; 2 Peter 2:4; Ephesians 6:12; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 12:7).我们的主而言他“这世界的王”(约十四30),他是人类的诱惑,并试图参与他的秋天他们(马太25:41;彼后2:4;以弗所书6:12 ;哥林多后书11时14分,12时07分)。Christian imagery of the devil as the dragon is mainly derived from the Apocalypse (ix, 11-15; xii, 7-9), where he is termed "the angel of the bottomless pit", "the dragon", "the old serpent", etc., and is represented as having actually been in combat with Archangel Michael.基督教的魔鬼形象的龙主要是从启示录(九,11-15;十二7-9)派生,在那里他被称为“天使的无底洞”,“龙”,“老蛇“等等,其实是有天使在战斗中被迈克尔表示。 The similarity between scenes such as these and the early Babylonian accounts of the struggle between Merodach and the dragon Tiamat is very striking.之间,如这些场景和早期巴比伦之间米罗达巴拉和龙魔龙斗争帐户相似性是十分惊人的。Whether we are to trace its origin to vague reminiscences of the mighty saurians which once people the earth is a moot question, but the curious reader may consult Bousett, "The Anti-Christ Legend" (tr. by Keane, London, 1896).无论我们要追踪其原产地为人民的地球曾经是一个没有定论的问题浩浩荡荡saurians模糊的回忆,但好奇的读者可以查阅Bousett,“反基督的传说”(由基恩,伦敦,1896年编辑部)。 The translator has prefixed to it an interesting discussion on the origin of the Babylonian Dragon-Myth.译者已前缀给它上的巴比伦龙的神话起源有趣的讨论。

The Term "Angel" In The Septuagint术语“天使”的译本

We have had occasion to mention the Septuagint version more than once, and it may not be amiss to indicate a few passages where it is our only source of information regarding the angels.我们有机会提的七十版本超过一次,而且也未必不妥,表示几个段落它是我们关于天使信息的唯一来源。The best known passage is Is., ix, 6, where the Septuagint gives the name of the Messias, as "the Angel of great Counsel".最有名的通过是的。,九,六,其中七十使作为“大律师天使”的messias名字。We have already drawn attention to Job, xx, 15, where the Septuagint reads "Angel" instead of "God", and to xxxvi, 14, where there seems to be question of evil angels.我们已经提请注意工作,XX,15,其中译本读“天使”的“神”来代替,并以三十六,14日,那里似乎是邪恶天使的问题。 In ix 7, Septuagint (B) adds: "He is the Hebrew (v, 19) say of "Behemoth": "He is the beginning of the ways of God, he that made him shall make his sword to approach him:, the Septuagint reads: "He is the beginning of God's creation, made for His Angels to mock at", and exactly the same remark is made about "Leviathan", xli, 24.在九7,七十(B)补充说:“他是希伯来文(V,19)说”巨兽“:”他是上帝的方式开始,他使他应他的剑接近他:,七十曰:“他是上帝的创立之初,为他的天使在向模拟”,并具有完全相同的说法是对“利维坦”,四十一,24条作出。 We have already seen that the Septuagint generally renders the term "sons of God" by "angels", but in Deut., xxxii, 43, the Septuagint has an addition in which both terms appear: "Rejoice in Him all ye heavens, and adore Him all ye angels of God; rejoice ye nations with His people, and magnify Him all ye Sons of God."我们已经看到,七十一般呈现由“天使”一词,“神的儿子”,但在申,三十二,43,七十有另外两个词出现在其中:“在他飘柔所有你们天成,崇拜他所有的神,你们的天使,他的喜乐与你们国家的人,并放大他所有的神,你们的儿子“。 Nor does the Septuagint merely give us these additional references to angels; it sometimes enables us to correct difficult passages concerning them in the Vulgate and Massoretic text.也没有译本只是给我们这些额外的引用天使,它有时使我们能够正确困难的段落就在武加大和massoretic文本他们。 Thus the difficult Elim of MT in Job, xli, 17, which the Vulgate renders by "angels", becomes "wild beasts" in the Septuagint version.因此,在就业难的MT以琳,XLI,17,其中武加大以“天使”呈现,成为在septuagint版的“猛兽”。

The early ideas as to the personality of the various angelic appearances are, as we have seen, remarkably vague.至于各种天使般的外表个性早期的想法是,我们所看到的,非常模糊。At first the angels are regarded in quite an impersonal way (Genesis 16:7).起初,天使被视为在一个相当客观的方式(创16:7)。 They are God's vice-regents and are often identified with the Author of their message (Genesis 48:15-16).他们是神的副摄政,经常与他们邮件的作者(创48:15-16)标识。But while we read of "the Angels of God" meeting Jacob (Genesis 32:1) we at other times read of one who is termed "the Angel of God" par excellence, eg Gen., xxxi, 11.但是,尽管我们的“上帝的天使”会议读雅各(创32:1),我们在一个谁被称为“上帝的天使”卓越,如将军,三十一,11读其他时间。 It is true that, owing to the Hebrew idiom, this may mean no more than "an angel of God", and the Septuagint renders it with or without the article at will; yet the three visitors at Mambre seem to have been of different ranks, though St. Paul (Hebrews 13:2) regarded them all as equally angels; as the story in Ge., xiii, develops, the speaker is always "the Lord".诚然,由于希伯来成语,这可能意味着没有比“神的使者”多,并呈现七十有无随意文章它,然而在芒布雷三个游客似乎有不同的行列虽然圣保罗(希伯来书13:2)认为他们都具有同等的天使;作为戈,十三,发展的故事,扬声器始终是“上帝”。 Thus in the account of the Angel of the Lord who visited Gideon (Judges 6), the visitor is alternately spoken of as "the Angel of the Lord" and as "the Lord".因此,在主谁访问了基甸(士6)天使帐户,访问者是交替谈到为“天使的上帝”,是“上帝”。Similarly, in Judges 13, xiii, the Angel of the Lord appears, and both Manue and his wife exclaim: "We shall certainly die because we have seen God."同样,在法官13,十三,主的天使出现,既Manue和他的妻子惊呼:“我们一定会死亡,因为我们所看到的神。”

This want of clearness is particularly apparent in the various accounts of the Angel of Exodus.这种清晰想要的是尤为明显的是出埃及记天使的各种账目。In Judges 6, just now referred to, the Septuagint is very careful to render the Hebrew "Lord" by "the Angel of the Lord"; but in the story of the Exodus it is the Lord who goes before them in the pillar of a cloud (Exodus 13:21), and the Septuagint makes no change (cf. also Num., xiv, 14, and Neh., ix, 7-20. Yet in Exod., xiv, 19, their guide is termed "the Angel of God". When we turn to Exod., xxxiii, where God is angry with His people for worshipping the golden calf, it is hard not to feel that it is God Himself who has hitherto been their guide, but who now refuses to accompany them any longer. God offers an angel instead, but at Moses's petition He says (14) "My face shall go before thee", which the Septuagint reads by autos though the following verse shows that this rendering is clearly impossible, for Moses objects: "If Thou Thyself dost not go before us, bring us not out of this place." But what does God mean by "my face"? Is it possible that some angel of specially high rank is intended, as in Is., lxiii, 9 (cf. Tobias, xii, 15)? May not this be what is meant by "the angel of God" (cf. Numbers 20:16)?在法官6,刚才提到,七十是非常小心地呈现希伯来文“地王”由“天使的上帝”,但在出埃及记的故事是主谁去在他们面前的一个支柱云(出埃及记13时21),和七十不作任何改变(参见也序号。,十四,十四,和尼。,九,7-20,但在exod。,十四,十九,他们的指导是称之为“上帝的天使“,当我们转向出埃及记。,三十三,在神与崇拜他的人愤怒的金牛犊,它是很难不觉得这是上帝谁迄今是他们的指导,但谁现在拒绝陪他们下去了。神提供了一个天使,而不是,但摩西的请愿书,他说(14)“我的脸应走在你面前”,其中译本由汽车读取虽然下列诗句表明,这种渲染显然是不可能的,因为摩西对象:“你若你自己多斯特不去摆在我们面前,带给我们不要走出这个地方”但什么是上帝的意思是“我的脸”是有可能的一些特别高的排名天使的目的,是在,LXIII。 ,9(参见托比亚斯,十二,15)?这是什么,可能不被“天使的上帝”(参号20:16)是什么意思?

That a process of evolution in theological thought accompanied the gradual unfolding of God's revelation need hardly be said, but it is especially marked in the various views entertained regarding the person of the Giver of the Law.这是进化过程中的神学思想伴随着神的启示很难说需要逐步展开,但它特别是在受理有关的法律赐予人的各种意见标记。The Massoretic text as well as the Vulgate of Exod., iii and xix-xx clearly represent the Supreme Being as appearing to Moses in the bush and on Mount Sinai; but the Septuagint version, while agreeing that it was God Himself who gave the Law, yet makes it "the angel of the Lord" who appeared in the bush.该massoretic文本以及在出埃及记,三和XIX - XX武加大明确表示最高的出​​现在布什和在西奈山的摩西作为,但译本的版本,虽然同意,这是上帝是谁给了法,但谁使得它在丛林中出现了“主的使者”。 By New Testament times the Septuagint view has prevailed, and it is now not merely in the bush that the angel of the Lord, and not God Himself appears, but the angel is also the Giver of the Law (cf. Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2; Acts 7:30).由新约时代的译本观点占了上风,现在是不是在布什只是说,耶和华的使者,而不是上帝出现,但天使也赐予的法律(参见加拉太书3:19;希伯来书2:2;徒7:30)。 The person of "the angel of the Lord" finds a counterpart in the personification of Wisdom in the Sapiential books and in at least one passage (Zechariah 3:1) it seems to stand for that "Son of Man" whom Daniel (vii, 13) saw brought before "the Ancient of Days".而“主的使者”的人找到了在中的智斗书籍和至少一个通道(撒迦利亚书3:1)智慧的化身对口似乎代表说,“人子”人丹尼尔(七, 13)看到,在“古代的天”带来的。Zacharias says: "And the Lord showed me Jesus the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan stood on His right hand to be His adversary".撒迦利亚说:“耶和华向我展示耶稣的大祭司前的主,撒旦的天使站在他的右手要站在他的对手”。

Tertullian regards many of these passages as preludes to the Incarnation; as the Word of God adumbrating the sublime character in which He is one day to reveal Himself to men (cf. adv, Prax., xvi; adv. Marc., II, 27; III, 9: I, 10, 21, 22).良视为前奏的化身,这些通道多;作为神的话语adumbrating崇高性格中,他是一天透露自己对男人(参见高级,普凯,十六;。高级马克,II,27 ;三,9:我,10,21,22)。It is possible, then, that in these confused views we can trace vague gropings after certain dogmatic truths regarding the Trinity, reminiscences perhaps of the early revelation of which the Protevangelium in Genesis 3 is but a relic.这是可能的,那么,在这些混乱的意见后,我们就可以跟踪某些教条式的三位一体的真理模糊gropings,回忆也许早期的启示,其中在创世记3 Protevangelium只是一个遗迹。The earlier Fathers, going by the letter of the text, maintained that it was actually God Himself who appeared.早先的父亲,由文信去,认为它实际上是上帝谁出现了。he who appeared was called God and acted as God.他谁出现了被称为上帝和神行事。It was not unnatural then for Tertullian, as we have already seen, to regard such manifestations in the light of preludes to the Incarnation, and most of the Eastern Fathers followed the same line of thought.这不是自然然后良,正如我们已经看到,在视光这样的前奏曲表现的化身,父亲和东部大​​部分遵循同样的思路。It was held as recently as 1851 by Vandenbroeck, "Dissertatio Theologica de Theophaniis sub Veteri Testamento" (Louvain).这是最近在1851年举行,由Vandenbroeck,“Dissertatio神学DE Theophaniis分Veteri Testamento”(鲁汶)。

But the great Latins, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and St. Gregory the Great, held the opposite view, and the Scholastics as a body followed them.但是,伟大的拉丁人,圣杰罗姆,圣奥古斯丁,和圣高利大,持相反意见,并作为一个机构的scholastics跟着他们。 St. Augustine (Sermo vii, de Scripturis, PG V) when treating of the burning bush (Exodus 3) says: "That the same person who spoke to Moses should be deemed both the Lord and an angel of the Lord, is very hard to understand. It is a question which forbids any rash assertions but rather demands careful investigation . . . Some maintain that he is called both the Lord and the angel of the Lord because he was Christ, indeed the prophet (Isaiah 9:6, Septuagint Version) clearly styles Christ the 'Angel of great Counsel.'" The saint proceeds to show that such a view is tenable though we must be careful not to fall into Arianism in stating it.圣奥古斯丁(Sermo七,德Scripturis,PG V)时,燃烧的荆棘(出埃及记3)治说:“这是同一个人谁对摩西应被视为两个主,有主的使者,是很辛苦了解,这是一个问题,严禁任何轻率的断言,而是需要仔细调查。有的认为自己是所谓的两个主,主的使者,因为他是基督,的确是先知(以赛亚书9:6,七十版)明确风格基督的“大律师天使。”圣人收益,以证明这种观点是站不住脚尽管我们必须小心,不要进入阿里乌斯教下降,说明它。 He points out, however, that if we hold that it was an angel who appeared, we must explain how he came to be called "the Lord," and he proceeds to show how this might be: "Elsewhere in the Bible when a prophet speaks it is yet said to be the Lord who speaks, not of course because the prophet is the Lord but because the Lord is in the prophet; and so in the same way when the Lord condescends to speak through the mouth of a prophet or an angel, it is the same as when he speaks by a prophet or apostle, and the angel is correctly termed an angel if we consider him himself, but equally correctly is he termed 'the Lord' because God dwells in him."他指出,但是,如果我们认为这是一个天使谁出现,我们必须解释他是如何被称为“上帝”,他的收益,以展示这可能是:“圣经中的其他地方时,先知讲它尚未说是主谁说话,当然不是因为先知是上帝,但因为主在先知,等等以同样的方式,当主condescends发言通过口或先知天使,是因为当他由一个先知或使徒说话一样,天使是正确称为一个天使如果我们考虑他自己,但同样正确的是他被称为'上帝',因为上帝在他dwells。“ He concludes: "It is the name of the indweller, not of the temple."他总结说:“这是indweller名称,寺庙没有。”

And a little further on: "It seems to me that we shall most correctly say that our forefathers recognized the Lord in the angel," and he adduces the authority of the New Testament writers who clearly so understood it and yet sometimes allowed the same confusion of terms (cf. Hebrews 2:2, and Acts 7:31-33).而一个小进一步:“在我看来,我们将最correctly说,我们的祖先公认的天使主”,他举出了谁清晰,以便了解它,但有时会允许同样的困惑新约作家权威术语(见希伯来书2:2,和行为7:31-33)。 The saint discusses the same question even more elaborately, "In Heptateuchum," lib.圣人讨论了同样的问题更加精心,“在Heptateuchum,”库。vii, 54, PG III, 558.七,54,PG III,558。As an instance of how convinced some of the Fathers were in holding the opposite view, we may note Theodoret's words (In Exod.): "The whole passage (Exodus 3) shows that it was God who appeared to him. But (Moses) called Him an angel in order to let us know that it was not God the Father whom he saw -- for whose angel could the Father be? -- but the Only-begotten Son, the Angel of great Counsel" (cf. Eusebius, Hist. Eccles., I, ii, 7; St. Irenaeus, Haer., iii, 6).作为一个如何说服了父亲一些持相反的观点是实例,我们可以注意到Theodoret的话(在出埃及记):“整个通道(出埃及记3)表明,它是上帝谁出现在他面前,但(摩西)称他是天使,为了让我们知道这是不是神的人,他看到父亲 - 天使可以为其父亲是 - ?但独生子,大律师天使“(见尤西比乌斯, 。组织胺埃克尔斯,I,II,7;圣爱任纽,Haer,三,六)。But the view propounded by the Latin Fathers was destined to live in the Church, and the Scholastics reduced it to a system (cf. St. Thomas, Quaest., Disp., De Potentia, vi, 8, ad 3am); and for a very good exposition of both sides of the question, cf.但是到了拉丁美洲的父亲propounded认为是注定要生活在教会和经院哲学家减少到一个系统(参见圣托马斯,Quaest,DISP,德Potentia,六,八,广告凌晨3点。);和一个问题,比照双方很好的阐述。 "Revue biblique," 1894, 232-247. “歌剧biblique,”1894年,232-247。

Angels In Babylonian Literature天使在巴比伦文学

The Bible has shown us that a belief in angels, or spirits intermediate between God and man, is a characteristic of the Semitic people.圣经告诉我们,在天使的信念,或精神神与人之间的中间,是一个闪人的特点。It is therefore interesting to trace this belief in the Semites of Babylonia.因此,这个有趣的跟踪闪米特人的巴比伦信念。 According to Sayce (The Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, Gifford Lectures, 1901), the engrafting of Semitic beliefs on the earliest Sumerian religion of Babylonia is marked by the entrance of angels or sukallin in their theosophy.据塞斯(古埃及和巴比伦,吉福德讲座,1901年的宗教),在最早的苏美尔人的宗教的巴比伦犹太人的信仰嫁接的特点是天使还是sukallin在神智入口。 Thus we find an interesting parallel to "the angels of the Lord" in Nebo, "the minister of Merodach" (ibid., 355).因此,我们找到一个在尼波“的部长米罗达巴拉”(同上,355)“主的使者”有趣的平行。He is also termed the "angel" or interpreter of the will or Merodach (ibid., 456), and Sayce accepts Hommel's statement that it can be shown from the Minean inscriptions that primitive Semitic religion consisted of moon and star worship, the moon-god Athtar and an "angel" god standing at the head of the pantheon (ibid., 315).他也被称为“天使”的意愿或米罗达巴拉或解释器(同上,456)和塞斯接受HOMMEL的说法,这可以从Minean铭文表明,原始宗教的犹太人月球和明星崇拜,包括月球神Athtar和“天使”上帝站在万神殿头(同上,315)。 The Biblical conflict between the kingdoms of good and evil finds its parallel in the "spirits of heaven" or the Igigi--who constituted the "host" of which Ninip was the champion (and from who he received the title of "chief of the angels") and the "spirits of the earth", or Annuna-Ki, who dwelt in Hades (ibid. 355).之间的善恶冲突的王国圣经中找到了“天堂精神”或Igigi其并行 - 谁构成了“主机”,其中Ninip是冠军(和谁他收到了“行政头衔天使“)和”地球“,或Annuna棋,谁住在地狱的精神(同上355)。The Babylonian sukalli corresponded to the spirit-messengers of the Bible; they declared their Lord's will and executed his behests (ibid., 361).巴比伦sukalli相当于圣经的精神,使者,他们宣布他们的主的意志和执行他的遗志(同上,361)。Some of them appear to have been more than messengers; they were the interpreters and vicegerents of the supreme deity, thus Nebo is "the prophet of Borsippa".其中有些似乎已经超过使者,他们是翻译和最高神vicegerents,从而尼波是“Borsippa先知”。

These angels are even termed "the sons" of the deity whose vicegerents they are; thus Ninip, at one time the messenger of En-lil, is transformed into his son just as Merodach becomes the son of Ea (ibid., 496).这些天使甚至被称为是神的vicegerents它们是“儿子”,因此Ninip,在同一时间内恩LIL使者,转化成他的儿子一样米罗达巴拉成为EA的儿子(同上,496)。 The Babylonian accounts of the Creation and the Flood do not contrast very favourably with the Biblical accounts, and the same must be said of the chaotic hierarchies of gods and angels which modern research has revealed.创造和洪水的巴比伦帐户不对比十分有利的圣经帐户,同样必须是神,哪些现代研究发现天使的混乱层次说。perhaps we are justified in seeing all forms of religion vestiges of a primitive nature-worship which has at times succeeded in debasing the purer revelation, and which, where that primitive revelation has not received successive increments as among the Hebrews, results in an abundant crop of weeds.也许我们有理由看到一个原始的自然崇拜已有时成功地贬低了纯净的启示,其中,在原始的启示并没有收到连续递增之间的希伯来人,结果在一个丰富的作物一切形式的宗教遗迹杂草。

Thus the Bible certainly sanctions the idea of certain angels being in charge of special districts (cf. Dan., x, and above).因此,圣经肯定制裁的中(参见丹。,X及以上)掌管的某些特殊地区天使的想法。This belief persists in a debased form in the Arab notion of Genii, or Jinns, who haunt particular spots.这种信念坚持在阿拉伯概念的天才,或Jinns,谁困扰特别点贬值的形式。A reference to it is perhaps to be found in Genesis 32:1-2: "Jacob also went on the journey he had begun: and the angels of God met him: And when he saw then he said: These are the camps of God, and he called the name of that place Mahanaim, that is, 'Camps.'一提到它,也许要在创世纪32:1-2发现:“雅各布还去对他已经开始的旅程:与神的使者遇见他:当他看到那么他说:这是上帝的营地,他称那地方玛哈念名字,那就是“营”。 " Recent explorations in the Arab district about Petra have revealed certain precincts marked off with stones as the abiding-laces of angels, and the nomad tribes frequent them for prayer and sacrifice. “在关于阿拉伯佩特拉区最近的探索,发现标有作为天使守法,鞋带石头关闭某些专用区,以及游牧部族经常为他们祈祷和牺牲。These places bear a name which corresponds exactly with the "Mahanaim" of the above passage in Genesis (cf. Lagrange, Religions Semitques, 184, and Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, 445).这些地方承担的名称相对应恰与“玛哈念”创世纪(参见拉格朗日,宗教Semitques,184,和罗伯逊史密斯,闪米特人的宗教,445)以上通过。 Jacob's vision at Bethel (Genesis 28:12) may perhaps come under the same category.雅各在伯特利视觉(创世记28:12)也许归入同一类别。Suffice it to say that not everything in the Bible is revelation, and that the object of the inspired writings is not merely to tell us new truths but also to make clearer certain truths taught us by nature.我只想说,不是圣经中的一切都启示,并认为该著作的启发对象不只是告诉我们新的真理,但也更清楚某些真理教的本质。 The modern view, which tends to regard everything Babylonian as absolutely primitive and which seems to think that because critics affix a late date to the Biblical writings the religion therein contained must also be late, may be seen in Haag, "Theologie Biblique" (339).现代的观点,这往往视为绝对原始,这似乎觉得一切巴比伦,因为批评者贴上晚日至圣经的著作其中所包含的宗教也必须晚,可在海牙看出,“神学Biblique”(339 )。This writer sees in the Biblical angels only primitive deities debased into demi-gods by the triumphant progress of Monotheism.笔者看到的唯一原始神到半幅神贬低由一神教的胜利进展圣经天使。

Angels in the Zend-Avesta天使在Zend - 阿维斯塔

Attempts have also been made to trace a connection between the angels of the Bible and the "great archangels" or "Amesha-Spentas" of the Zend-Avesta.尝试也作了跟踪之间的圣经天使和“伟大的天使长”或“Amesha -圣神”的Zend - 阿维斯塔连接。 That the Persian domination and the Babylonian captivity exerted a large influence upon the Hebrew conception of the angels is acknowledged in the Talmud of Jerusalem, Rosch Haschanna, 56, where it is said that the names of the angels were introduced from Babylon.这波斯统治和巴比伦的俘虏施加后,天使希伯来观念影响较大的是承认在耶路撒冷犹太法典,Rosch Haschanna,56,它是说,天使的名字是从巴比伦引进。It is, however, by no means clear that the angelic beings who figure so largely in the pages of the Avesta are to be referred to the older Persian Neo-Zoroastrianism of the Sassanides.它是,但是,决不是谁的数字表明,在阿维斯塔的页面让天使般的生命在很大程度上是被称为旧波斯的Sassanides理学拜火教。 If this be the case, as Darmesteter holds, we should rather reverse the position and attribute the Zoroastrian angels to the influence of the Bible and of Philo.如果是这种情况,作为Darmesteter认为,倒不如反向的地位和属性的拜火教天使的圣经和斐洛的影响。Stress has been laid upon the similarity between the Biblical "seven who stand before God" and the seven Amesha-Spentas of the Zend-Avesta.根据应力已经奠定之间的圣经“七谁站在上帝面前”和七个Amesha -圣神的Zend - 阿维斯塔的相似性。But it must be noted that these latter are really six, the number seven is only obtained by counting "their father, Ahura-Mazda," among them as their chief.但必须指出,这些后者是真的六,第七位是由数只获得其中的“他们的父亲,阿胡拉马自达”为主要。Moreover, these Zoroastrian archangels are more abstract that concrete; they are not individuals charged with weighty missions as in the Bible.此外,这些拜火教大天使是比较抽象的混凝土,他们不与圣经中的份量任务收取个人。

Angels in the New Testament天使在新约

Hitherto we have dwelt almost exclusively on the angels of the Old Testament, whose visits and messages have been by no means rare; but when we come to the New Testament their name appears on every page and the number of references to them equals those in the Old Dispensation.迄今为止,我们已经几乎完全住在旧约,其访问并绝不少见被消息的天使,但是当我们来到新约的名字出现在每一页和引用数等于给他们的那些旧体制。 It is their privilege to announce to Zachary and Mary the dawn of Redemption, and to the shepherds its actual accomplishment.这是他们的荣幸地宣布,以扎卡里和玛丽的赎回曙光,并牧羊人其实际成就。Our Lord in His discourses talks of them as one who actually saw them, and who, whilst "conversing amongst men", was yet receiving the silent unseen adoration of the hosts of heaven.我们在他的话语,他们会谈的一个谁真正看见他们,谁的主,而“男人之间交谈”,仍未接到天上的主机沉默的看不见的崇拜。 He describes their life in heaven (Matthew 22:30; Luke 20:36); He tell us how they form a bodyguard round Him and at a word from Him would avenge Him on His enemies (Matthew 26:53); it is the privilege of one of them to assist Him in His Agony and sweat of Blood.他介绍了他们在天堂生活(马太福音22:30;路加福音20:36);他告诉我们,他们是如何形成一个保镖在他周围,并在从他的字会报复他的仇敌(太26:53)他,它是其中一人的特权,以协助他的痛苦和流血流汗他。 More than once He speaks of them as auxiliaries and witnesses at the final judgment (Matthew 16:27), which indeed they will prepare (ibid., xiii, 39-49); and lastly, they are the joyous witnesses of His triumphant Resurrection (ibid., xxviii, 2).他不止一次地对他们说,作为助剂,在最后判决(马太16:27),这的确他们将准备(同上,十三,39-49)证人;最后,他们是他的胜利复活的欢乐证人(同上,二十八,2)。

It is easy for skeptical minds to see in these angelic hosts the mere play of Hebrew fancy and the rank growth of superstition, but do not the records of the angels who figure in the Bible supply a most natural and harmonious progression?这是怀疑的头脑容易在这些天使般的主机看到希伯来花哨和迷信排名仅增长发挥,但不是天使谁在圣经供应数字是最自然,和谐发展的记录? In the opening page of the sacred story of the Jewish nation is chose out from amongst others as the depositary of God's promise; as the people from whose stock He would one day raise up a Redeemer.在犹太民族的神圣的故事打开的页面是选择从其中包括作为上帝的承诺保存;作为人民从他们的股票,他有一天会提出了一个救世主。 The angels appear in the course of this chosen people's history, now as God's messengers, now as that people's guides; at one time they are the bestowers of God's law, at another they actually prefigure the Redeemer Whose divine purpose they are helping to mature.天使出现在这个选择的人的历史过程,现在作为上帝的使者,现在人们的指南;一次他们是上帝的法律,共襄盛举,在另一他们实际上预示救世主是谁的神圣目的,他们正在帮助成熟。 They converse with His prophets, with David and Elias, with Daniel and Zacharias; they slay the hosts camped against Israel, they serve as guides to God's servants, and the last prophet, Malachi, bears a name of peculiar significance; "the Angel of Jehovah."他们交谈与他的先知,与大卫和埃利亚斯,与丹尼尔和撒迦利亚,他们杀死对以色列安营扎寨的主机,他们作为神的仆人导游服务,而最后的先知,玛拉基,蕴藏着独特的重要意义的名称;“的天使耶和华。“ He seems to sum up in his very name the previous "ministry by the hands of angels", as though God would thus recall the old-time glories of the Exodus and Sinai.他似乎在总结自己的这个名字前面的“由天使之手部”,就好像上帝会因此召回了出埃及和西奈半岛的旧时代的辉煌。The Septuagint, indeed, seems not to know his name as that of an individual prophet and its rendering of the opening verse of his prophecy is peculiarly solemn: "The burden of the Word of the Lord of Israel by the hand of His angel; lay it up in your hearts."七十,的确,似乎不知道,作为一个单独的先知和其对他的预言开放诗句渲染,他的名字是独有的庄严道:“对以色列的上帝的天使,他的手字的负担;奠定它在你的心中了。“ All this loving ministry on the part of the angels is solely for the sake of the Saviour, on Whose face they desire to look.这一切对爱的天使的一部分部专为救主着想,在谁的脸上,他们渴望的样子。Hence when the fullness of time was arrived it is they who bring the glad message, and sing "Gloria in excelsis Deo".因此,当丰满的时间乃是谁把他们高兴的消息,和唱“在excelsis迪奥格洛丽亚”。They guide the newborn King of Angels in His hurried flight into Egypt, and minister to Him in the desert.他们在他的引导进入埃及匆匆飞行天使新生国王和大臣向他在沙漠中。His second coming and the dire events that must precede that, are revealed to His chosen servant in the island of Patmos, It is a question of revelation again, and consequently its ministers and messengers of old appear once more in the sacred story and the record of God's revealing love ends fittingly almost as it had begun: "I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things in the churches" (Revelation 22:16).他第二次来和悲惨的事件,必须先说,是透露给他选择在岛上的帕特莫斯仆人,这是一个问题的启示再次,因而其部长和老使者再次出现在神圣的故事和记录神的揭示爱情结束恰当,因为它几乎已经开始:“我,耶稣,我的天使作证发送到您在教会这些事”(启示录22:16)。 It is easy for the student to trace the influence of surrounding nations and of other religions in the Biblical account of the angels.这容易使学生追查周边国家,以及在圣经的天使帐户的其他宗教的影响。Indeed it is needful and instructive to do so, but it would be wrong to shut our eyes to the higher line of development which we have shown and which brings out so strikingly the marvellous unity and harmony of the whole divine story of the Bible.事实上,这是needful和指导这样做,但它是错误的闭上眼到更高的发展路线,我们已经表明,并带出如此惊人的了不起的团结和整个神圣的圣经故事的和谐。 (See also ANGELS IN EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.)(另见早期基督教艺术天使。)

Publication information Written by Hugh T. Pope.出版信息写休T.教皇。Transcribed by Jim Holden.转录由吉姆霍顿。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


In addition to works mentioned above, see St. Thomas, Summa Theol., I, QQ.除了上面提到的作品,看到圣托马斯,大全Theol ,我,QQ。50-54 and 106-114; Suarez De Angelis, lib.50-54和106-114;苏亚雷斯安吉利斯,lib中。i-iv.I - IV。

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