Animism万物有灵

General Information一般资料

Animism is the belief that a spirit or divinity resides within every object, controlling its existence and influencing human life and events in the natural world. 万物有灵是相信神的精神或驻留在每一个对象,控制它的存在和影响人类生活和自然世界的事件。Animistic religious beliefs are widespread among primitive societies, particularly among those in which many different spiritual beings are believed to control different aspects of the natural and social environment.万物有灵的宗教信仰是原始社会中普遍存在,尤其是那些在许多不同的精神存在,相信控制自然和社会环境的不同方面。

The British anthropologist Sir Edward B. Tylor developed the concept of animism in the late 19th century.英国人类学家爱德华泰勒B.发展于19世纪后期的万物有灵的观念。Tylor regarded animism as the most primitive stage in the evolution of religion.泰勒认为,在宗教的演变最原始的阶段万物有灵。He suggested that the contemplation of dreams and trances and the observation of death led primitive peoples to conceive of the Soul and of human spirits, and that these spiritual conceptions were then projected onto the natural world.他建议说,梦想和恍惚和死亡的观察沉思导致受孕的原始民族的灵魂和人的精神,这些精神和观念是那么预计到自然界。Although he developed no fixed evolutionary sequence, Tylor postulated that a belief in animism led to the definition of more generalized deities and, eventually, to the worship of a single god.虽然他没有固定的发展进化的序列,泰勒推测,在万物有灵的信仰导致了更广义的神的定义,并最终以一个单一的神的崇拜。 This evolutionary view of religion has been rejected by many 20th-century anthropologists, who tend to stress the collective, social aspects of Primitive Religion.这种宗教的进化观点已经拒绝了许多20世纪的人类学家,谁往往强调集体,原始宗教的社会问题。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Frazer, JG, The Golden Bough, 3d ed.弗雷泽,JG,金枝,3D版。(1935; repr. 1966); Lowie, RH, Primitive Religion (1948; repr. 1970); Tylor, EB, Primitive Culture (1871; repr. 1970).(1935年,再版1966年); Lowie,RH,原始宗教(1948年;再版1970年);泰勒,EB,原始文化(1871年;再版1970年)。

Related ideas: Shaman; Totem.相关的想法:萨满,图腾。


Animism万物有灵

Catholic Information天主教信息

(Latin, Anima, Soul)(拉丁语,阿尼玛,灵魂)

Animism is the doctrine or theory of the soul.万物有灵的学说或理论的灵魂。In current language the term has a twofold signification:在当前的语言术语具有双重意义:

I. PHILOSOPHICAL--the doctrine that the soul is the principle of life in man and in other living things.一的哲学 - 灵魂的学说,是生命的原则,人与其他生物。As applied to man it embodies the essence of spiritualistic as opposed to Materialistic philosophy.适用于男子它体现了唯灵的本质,而不是唯物主义哲学。

II. II。ETHNOLOGICAL--a theory proposed in recent years to account for the origin and development of religion.人种学 - 近年来提出要占的起源和宗教发展的理论。As such it is known as the Soul or Ghost-theory of religion.因此,它被称为灵魂或鬼魂的宗教理论。

I. PHILOSOPHICAL一的哲学

For the application of the theory of animism to living things in general, see LIFE.为万物有灵论理论应用到生活中一般的东西,看生活。So far as it is specially concerned with man, animism aims at a true knowledge of man's nature and dignity by establishing the existence and nature of the soul, its union with the body, its origin and duration.到目前为止,因为它是专门与人有关的,旨在通过建立万物有灵的存在和灵魂,它与身体,它的起源和持续时间工会的性质在人的本性和尊严的真正的知识。 These problems are at the basis of our conscious existence and underlie all our studies in mental and moral life.这些问题在我们的意识存在的基础和精神基础和​​道德生活的所有我们的研究。The importance of animism today is shown because;今天的万物有灵的重要性显示,因为;

its validity as a theory has been questioned;它作为一种理论的有效性受到了质疑;

a school has risen which treats psychology without reference to the soul;学校已上升它把未经灵魂心理;

hence the attempt at "psychology without a soul", eg Sully, James, Murray, Davis, Kœlpe, Höffding.因此,在“没有灵魂的心理学”的尝试,如玷污,詹姆斯,穆雷,戴维斯,Kœlpe,Höffding。

In establishing the doctrine of animism the general line of reasoning is from effect to cause, from phenomena to their subject or agent.在建立了万物有灵论学说的推理总路线是从效果的原因,从现象到他们的主体或代理。From the acts of mind and of will manifested in individual conscious life, we are forced to admit the existence of their source and principle, which is the human soul; from the nature of the activity is inferred the nature of the agent.从个人的思想和意识的生活中会表现的行为,我们不得不承认其来源和原则,这是人类灵魂的存在,从活动的性质推断代理的性质。 Scholastic philosophy, with Aristotle and the Christian Fathers, vindicates the true dignity of man by proclaiming the soul to be a substantial and spiritual principle endowed with immortality.经院哲学与亚里士多德和基督教神父,不仅维护了宣布的灵魂是一个重大的原则和精神具有不朽赋予了人的真正尊严。 The soul is a substance because it has the elements of being, potency, stability, and is the subject of modifications--which elements make up the notion of substance.灵魂是一种物质,因为它被,效价,稳定的元素,并且是修改主题 - 哪些元素组成的物质概念。That the soul is a spiritual substance, ie immaterial and a spirit, is inferred from its acts of intelligence and of freewill, which are performed without the intrinsic cooperations of the bodily organs.这是一种灵魂的精神实质,即非物质和精神,是推断其智力和行为的自由意志,这是没有身体器官的内在的合作演出。By immortality is understood in general terms the future life of the soul after separation from the body.通过不朽据了解,在一般条款的灵魂从身体分离后,未来的生活。The chief errors are those which contend;这位负责人的错误是那些抗衡;

that the soul is not a substance.,灵魂是不是一种物质。Thus因此

some writers, eg Kant, hold that the soul is not a real, but only a logical, subject;一些作家,如康德,认为灵魂是不是真实的,但只有一个逻辑,主题;

modern Pantheism, seem especially in New England Transcendentalism (eg Emerson, Royce) and the Neo-Hegelian school which unifies human and divine consciousness (eg Prof. TH Green);现代泛神论,显得尤其是在新英格兰超验(如艾默生,劳斯莱斯)和新黑格尔的学校,统一的人力和神圣的意识(如教授TH绿色);

the school of Associationists (eg Hume, Davis, Höffding, Sully), who contend that the soul is only a bundle or group of sensations; those who teach that the soul is only activity, nothing more (Wundt), or "a wave of consciousness" (Morgan);在Associationists学校(如休谟,戴维斯,Höffding,苏利),谁主张,灵魂只是一个包或感觉的群体;那些谁教的灵魂,是唯一的活动,仅此而已(冯特),或“波意识“(摩根);

the Agnostic and Positivistic school (eg Locke, Spencer, James, Prof. Bowne, Comte), who affirm that the soul is unknown and unknowable, although some among them postulate it as the subject of our conscious states; the materialistic school which denies its existence altogether (eg Tyndall, Huxley)不可知论者和实证的学校(如洛克,斯宾塞,詹姆斯教授鲍恩,孔德),谁确认,未知和不可知的灵魂,虽然其中一些假设作为我们自觉的状态受到它,而功利学校否认其存在共(例如廷德尔,赫胥黎)

That the soul is neither spiritual, nor immortal.这既不是精神的灵魂,也没有神仙。Modern Materialism, Positivism, and Agnosticism have tried in every way to establish this thesis.现代唯物主义,实证主义和不可知论试图以各种方式建立这一论断。Various theories of knowledge have been proposed, and the discoveries of modern science have been cited in its behalf.知识的各种理论被提出,与现代科学的发现已在其代表引用。Appeal has been taken to psychophysics and to such facts as the localization of function, the correlation of thought to the structure of the brain, and the results of cerebral lesion.上诉已采取心理物理学,并作为功能定位,思想的大脑结构相关,脑损伤的结果等事实。Theories of Monism (eg the double-aspect theory) and of Parallelism have been advanced to account for the acts of mind and of will.一元论的理论(如双方面的理论)的平行度,并已发展到占的心态和意志的行为。 Yet animism as a doctrine of the spiritual soul remains unshattered, and the spiritualistic philosophy is only more strongly entrenched.然而,作为一种精神的灵魂学说万物有灵仍然unshattered和唯灵哲学只是更加根深蒂固。(Cf. SUBSTANCE, AGNOSTICISM POSITIVISM, MATERIALISM, SOUL, IMMORTALITY, PSYCHOLOGY). (参见物质,不可知论实证主义,唯物主义,灵魂不死,心理学)。

II. II。ETHNOLOGICAL民族学

In this sense animism is the theory proposed by some evolutionists to account for the origin of religion.在这个意义上说是由一些进化论者万物有灵建议占了宗教起源的理论。Evolution assumes that the higher civilized races are the outcome and development from a ruder state.进化假设更高文明的比赛是从一个粗鲁的成果和国家的发展。This early stage resembles that of the lowest savages existing today.这种早期阶段类似于今天野人现有最低的。Their religious belief is known as animism, ie belief in spiritual beings, and represents the minimum or rudimentary definition of religion.他们的宗教信仰被称为万物有灵,众生即在精神信仰,代表宗教最低或基本定义。With this postulate as the groundwork for the philosophy of religion, the development of religious thought can be traced from existing data and therefore admits of scientific treatment.有了这个假设作为基础的宗教哲学,宗教思想的发展可以追溯到从现有的数据和科学的治疗,因此承认。The principle of continuity, which is the basal principle in other departments of knowledge, was thus applied to religion.连续性的原则,这是在其他部门的知识基础的原则,因此适用于宗教。Comte had given a general outline of this theory in his law of the three states.孔德已经给了这个在他的三个州法的理论轮廓。 According to him the conception of the primary mental condition of mankind is a state of "pure fetishism, constantly characterized by the free and direct exercise of our primitive tendency to conceive all external bodies soever, natural or artificial, as animated by a life essentially analogous to our own, with mere difference of intensity".据他的主要人类精神状态的概念是一种“纯粹的拜物教的状态,不断通过我们的原始倾向设想一个类似生命本质的所有外部机构以及接受,自然或人为的,如动画直接行使自由和特点我们自己与强度仅仅相差“。 Proposed at a time when evolution was in the ascendency, this opinion fell at once under the dominion of the current conviction.在进化的时候,提出的优越,这一次下跌的意见下,当前信念统治。The hope was entertained that by a wider and more complete induction religion might be considered as a purely natural phenomenon and thus at last be placed on a scientific basis.人们希望,受理,由一个更广泛和更完整的归纳宗教可能被视为一个纯粹的自然现象,从而在最后被放置在科学基础上。The foundation of animism as a theory of religion is the twofold principle of evolution:而作为一种宗教理论万物有灵论的基础是进化的双重原则:

the anthropological assumption that the savage races give a correct idea of religion in its primitive state;人类学的假设,即给人一种野蛮的种族在其原始状态的宗教正确的观念;

the philosophical assumption that the savage state was the childhood of the race and that the savage mind should be likened to a child (eg Lubbock, Tylor, Comte, Tiele, Reville, and Spencer).哲学假设野蛮状态是在比赛的童年,而野蛮的头脑应该比喻为一个孩子(如拉伯克,泰勒,孔德,铁勒,Reville,和Spencer)。

Hence the evolution of religious thought can be traced from existing data, viz, the beliefs of the lowest savages, and though deeply modified as mankind rises in culture, yet it always preserves an unbroken continuity into the midst of modern civilization.因此,宗教思想的演变可追溯到从现有的数据,即,最低野人的信念,尽管深深在人类文化上升修改,但它始终保留到现代文明之中一个完整的连续性。 This continuum, or common element, in all religions is animism.这个连续,或常见的元素,是在所有宗教万物有灵。The importance of animism in the science of religion is due to Tylor, who represents it as a primitive philosophy supplying at the same time the foundation of all religion.在万物有灵的宗教科学的重要性,是因为泰勒,谁代表作为一种原始的,同时提供所有宗教哲学基础的。His work entitled "Primitive Culture", first published in 1863, is justly called the "Gospel of Animism".他的作品题为“原始文化”,于1863年首次出版,公正地称为“泛灵论的福音”。Animism comprehends the doctrine of souls and spirits, but has its starting point in the former.万物有灵领会的灵魂和精神的学说,但在前者的出发点。Dreams and visions, apparitions in sleep and at death, are supposed to have revealed to primitive man his soul as distinct from his body.梦想和愿景,在睡眠和死亡的幻影,都应该有发现,从他的身体明显的原始人到他的灵魂。 This belief was then transferred to other objects.这种信念是然后转移到其他对象。As the human body was believed to live and act by virtue of its own inhabiting spirit-soul, so the operations of the world seemed to be carried on by other spirits.由于人体被认为生活和行为通过自己居住的精神灵魂的美德,所以世界的行动似乎是由其他精神的。To the savage mind, animals, plants, and all inanimate things have souls.到了野蛮的头脑,动物,植物和无生命的事物都具有灵魂。 From this doctrine of souls arises the belief in spirits.从这个灵魂的学说产生了精神信仰。Spirits are of the same nature as souls, only separated from bodies--eg genii, fairies, demons--and acting in different ways as tutelary guardians, lingering near the tomb or roaming about (Spiritism), or incorporated in certain objects (Fetishism, Totemism).精神是灵魂,作为同一性质只能从机构分开, - 例如天才,仙女,恶魔 - 和行动作为守护神监护人不同的方式,缠绵墓附近约(招魂)漫游,或在某些对象公司(拜物教,图腾崇拜)。They appear to man in a more subtle material form as vapour, or as an image retaining a likeness to the bodily shape; and they are feared by him, so that he tries to control their influence by propitiation and magic (Shamanism).他们似乎在一个更加微妙的人的物质形态为蒸汽或作为保留到身体形状相似的图像,而他们是害怕他,让他试图挽回祭控制和魔法(萨满教)的影响力。 Thus unconsciousness, sickness, derangement, trance were explained by the departure of the soul.因此失去知觉,疾病,错乱,恍惚被解释为灵魂离开。Among savages and Buddhist Tatars the bringing back of lost souls was a regular part of the sorcerer's profession.在野蛮人和佛教鞑靼人失去的灵魂带回是一个魔法界的一部分。The belief prevails among the American Indians that if one wakes a sleeper suddenly he will die, as his vagrant soul may not get back in time.相信,如果一个普遍存在的卧铺突然醒来,他会死,因为他的流浪的灵魂可能无法取回的时间之间的美洲印第安人。For the savage, as the lowest of men, is supposed to be actuated by the lowest of passions.对于野蛮,作为男人中最低的,应该是由激情最低启动。Hence the fear-theory of religion is essential to animism.因此,宗教的恐惧理论是必不可少的万物有灵。Animism therefore discovers human life in all moving things.万物有灵因此发现在所有移动的东西人的生命。To the savage and to primitive man there is no distinction between the animate and the inanimate.到了野蛮和原始人之间不存在的动画和无生命的区别。Nature is all alive.大自然是所有活着。Every object is controlled by its own independent spirit.每个对象是由自己独立的精神。Spirits are seen in the rivers, the lakes, the fountains, the woods, the mountains, the trees, the animals, the flowers, the grass, the birds.精神是在河流看出,湖泊,喷泉,树林,山脉,树木,动物,花,草,鸟。 Spiritual existences--eg elves, gnomes, ghosts, manes, demons, deities--inhabit almost everything, and consequently almost everything is an object of worship.如精灵,侏儒,鬼,鬃毛,魔,神 - - 几乎所有的精神存在物栖息,因此几乎所有东西都是崇拜的对象。The Milky Way is "the path of the souls leading to the spirit-land"; and the Northern Lights are the dances of the dead warriors and seers in the realms above.银河系是“通往精神,土地灵魂的道路”,以及北极光在上述领域的死战士和先知舞蹈。The Australians say that the sounds of the wind in the trees are the voices of the ghosts of the dead communing with one another or warning the living of what is to come.澳大利亚人说,在树风的声音是在与另一个或警告的是什么来活死人communing鬼的声音。The conception of the human soul formed from dreams and visions served as a type on which primitive man framed his ideas of other souls and of spiritual beings from the lowest elf up to the highest god.从梦想和愿景形成了人的灵魂观念担任类型的原始人的灵魂和陷害其他的小精灵,从最低到最高神鬼神他的想法。Thus the gods of the higher religions have been evolved out of the spirits, whether ghosts or not, of the lower religions; and the belief in ghosts and spirits was produced by the savage's experience of dreams and trances.因此较高宗教的神灵已经进化出了精神,是否鬼与否,较低的宗教,以及在鬼神的信仰是由野蛮的梦想和恍惚的经验产生。 Here, it is claimed, we have the germ of all religions, although Tylor confesses that it is impossible to trace the process by which the doctrine of souls gave rise to the belief in the great gods.在这里,它被要求,我们对所有宗教胚芽,虽然泰勒交代,这是不可能的跟踪过程,其中的灵魂学说引起了在伟大的神的信仰。 Originally, spirits were the application of human souls to non-human beings; they were not supernatural, but only became so in the course of time.本来,精神是对非人类的人类灵魂的申请;他们不是超自然的,但只有在成为日久如此。Now, as modern science shows the belief in ghosts or spirits to be a hallucination, the highest and purest religion--being only the elaboration of savage beliefs, to the savage mind reasonable enough--cannot be accepted by the modern mind for the reason that it is not supernatural nor even true.现在,随着现代科学表明,在鬼灵信仰是一种幻觉,最高和最纯粹的宗教 - 只有被信仰的野蛮的阐述,对野蛮心态不够合理 - 不能被接受的现代思想的原因它不是超自然甚至也不真实。Such in brief is the outline of the theory by which Tylor attempts to explain not only the phenomenon but the whole history and development of religion.在简短的就是这样的理论,其中泰勒试图解释这种现象不仅而是整个历史和宗教的发展纲要。

Tylor's theory expresses two sides of animism, viz., souls and spirits.泰勒的理论表示双方的万物有灵论,即,灵魂和精神。Spencer attempts to synthesize them into one, viz., souls or ancestor-worship.斯宾塞试图合成为一个,即他们。,灵魂或祖先崇拜。 He agrees with Tylor in the animistic explanation of dreams, diseases, death, madness, idiocy, ie as due to spiritual influences; but differs in presenting one solution only; viz., cult of souls or worship of the dead.他同意与梦想的,疾病,死亡,疯狂,白痴万物有灵泰勒的解释,即作为因精神的影响,但在提出一个解决方案只不同;即,灵魂或死亡崇拜的邪教组织。 "The rudimentary form of all religion", he writes, "is the propitiation of dead ancestors", or "ghost propitiation".他说:“所有宗教基本形式”,他写道,“是死的祖先挽回祭”,或“鬼挽回祭”。Hence Spencer denies that the ascription of life to the whole of nature is a primitive thought, or that men ever ascribed to animals, plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena souls of their own.因此,斯宾塞否认了生命的整个自然界归属是一种原始的想法,或者说,男人曾经冲高到动物,植物,无生命的物体,自然现象和自己的灵魂。 Spencer's theory is known as the "Ghost-theory of Religion" and at the present time is generally discredited even by evolutionists.斯宾塞的理论被称为“宗教鬼论”,并在目前的时间一般甚至进化论者扫地。With Tylor the worship of the dead is an important subdivision of animism; with Spencer it is the one and all of religion.随着泰勒的死亡崇拜是一个万物有灵的重要细分;与斯宾塞它是一个和所有的宗教。Lippert consistently carries out the theory of Spencer and, instead of animism, uses the word Seelenkult. Lippert一贯执行的斯宾塞理论,而不是万物有灵,使用单词Seelenkult。De la Saussaye says that Lippert pushes his view to an extreme and supports it with rich, but not over-trustworthy, material.德拉Saussaye说,他认为Lipp​​ert推到了极致,并支持丰富,但不能过度守信,材料。Schultze considers fetishism and animism as equally primitive.舒尔茨认为,作为同样原始拜物教和万物有灵论。FB Jevons rejects the theory that all gods of earlier races were spirits of dead men deified. FB杰文斯拒绝理论,早期的比赛所有的神都是神化死人的灵魂。

The animism of Tylor is vague and indefinite.泰勒的万物有灵论是模糊和不确定。It means the doctrine of spirits in general, and is best expressed by "Animated Nature".它指的是一般的精神教义,是最好的“动画自然”表示。Fetishism is a subordinate department of animism, viz, the doctrine of spirits embodied in, or attached to, or conveying influence through, certain animals or material objects.拜物教是一种万物有灵下属部门,即,对鬼神学说体现在,或连接,或通过输送,某些动物或实物的影响。The animism of Tylor differs little from the naturalism of Reville or the fetishism of De Ia Rialle.泰勒的万物有灵论不同于Reville自然或小德IA Rialle拜物教。It accounts for the belief in immortality and metempsychosis.它占了不朽和轮回的信仰。It thus explains the belief in the passage of souls from men to beasts, and to sticks and stones.因此,它解释了从向野兽男人的灵魂通道的信念,并以棍棒和石头。It includes tree-worship and plant-worship--eg the classic hamadrya, the tree-worship of the South African natives, the rice-feasts held by the Dyaks of Borneo to keep the rice-souls in the plants lest by their departure the crop decay.它包括树崇拜和植物崇拜 - 例如,以免他们离开的经典hamadrya,在南非当地人树崇拜,由婆罗洲Dyaks举行水稻宴保持在植物水稻的灵魂作物腐烂。It is the solution proposed for Manes-worship, for the Lares and the Penates among the Greeks and Romans, where the dead ancestors, passing into deities, go on protecting the family as the dead chief watches over the tribe.这是提出Manes认为崇拜的拉雷斯和希腊人和罗马人之间,其中死者的祖先,到神传球,继续为保护族人死在家庭中的主要手表Penates,解决的办法。 In animism Tylor finds an explanation for funeral rites and customs--feasts of the dead, the human sacrifices of widows in India, of slaves in Borneo; sending messages to dead chiefs of Dahomey by killing captives taken in war, the slaughtering of the Pawnee's horse and of the Arab's camel at the graves of their masters, placing food and weapons in, or on, the tomb--customs which survive in the practice of burning paper messengers and placing stone, clay, or wooden substitutes on graves in China and Japan.在万物有灵泰勒发现一个葬礼和习俗的解释 - 死者的节日,寡妇的人牺牲在印度,在婆罗洲的奴隶,在战争中所采取的发送杀害俘虏消息达荷美死酋长,屠宰的波尼的马和阿拉伯的骆驼在主人的坟墓,摆放,或在食物和武器,墓 - 海关这在烧纸的使者,并把在中国的坟墓石,粘土,或木制的替代品的做法生存和日本。

The general principles of animism are:万物有灵论的一般原则是:

in the last analysis it is a biological theory, and attempts to explain all phenomena through analogy with biological phenomena.在最后的分析是生物学理论,并试图通过与解释生物现象比喻一切现象。To the savage, and to primitive man, all moving things lived, and the fancy which created ghosts or souls to account for human life soon extended this explanation to all other external objects.到了野蛮,并原始人,所有移动的东西生活,而看中它创造了人类生命的鬼或灵魂的帐户很快扩展这个解释所有其他外部对象。

The greater value it attaches to unwritten sources, viz., folk-lore, customs, rites, tales, and superstitions, in comparison with literary sources.它的更大的价值的重视,不成文的来源,即,民间传说,风俗,礼仪,故事,和迷信,与文学的来源比较。That spiritual beings are modelled by man on the primary conception of his own human soul.这种精神存在,是参照由他自己的人类灵魂的主要概念的人。

Their purpose is to explain nature on the primitive, childlike theory that it is thoroughly and throughout animated nature.其目的是解释原始,稚气的理论,它是彻底,整个动画的性质的本质。

The conception of the human soul is the source and origin of the conceptions of spirit and deity, from the lowest demon up to Plato's ideas and the highest God of Monotheism.人类灵魂的概念是源泉和精神和神的观念的起源,从最低的恶魔到柏拉图的思想和一神教的最高神。

Yet it gives no unified concept of the world, for the spirits which possess, pervade, and crowd nature are individual and independent.然而,它没有给世界统一的概念,它具有的精神,渗透,和人群自然是个别和独立的。

It is without ethical thoughts and motives.这是没有道德的想法和动机。Thus Tylor holds as proved that religion and morality stand on independent grounds; that, while lower races have a code of morals, yet their religion--animism--is unmoral, and thus the popular idea that the moral government of the universe is an essential tenet of natural religion simply falls to the ground.因此,泰勒认为作为证明,宗教和道德上的独立理由的立场,认为,虽然较低的赛事有一个道德的代码,但他们的宗教 - 万物有灵论 - 是违背社会公德,因而流行的观点认为,宇宙是一个道德政府自然宗教的基本宗旨只是跌倒在地。

The followers of Tylor have pushed these principles to an extreme and applied them with more clearness and precision.对泰勒的追随者推动这些原则发挥到了极致和应用更清晰和精确的。The present tendency of the anthropological school is to begin with a prereligious stage, from which religious ideas slowly emerged and elaborated themselves.该学校目前的趋势是人类学开始与prereligious阶段,从它的宗教观念慢慢地出现,并阐述了自己。 Hence religious life was preceded by a period characterized by an utter absence of religious conceptions.因此宗教生活之前,由一个完全没有宗教观念为特征的时期。Thus Tiele holds that animism is not a religion, but a sort of primitive philosophy, which not only controls religion, but rules the whole life of man in the childhood of the world.因此铁勒认为万物有灵不是宗教,而是一种原始的哲学,它不仅控制宗教,排序规则,但在世界上的人的整个童年生活。It is a belief that every living thing--ie moving thing--is for primitive man animated by a thinking, feeling, willing spirit, differing from the human in degree and power only.它是一种信念,每一个生命的东西 - 即动的东西 - 对于由原始人思维的动画,感觉,愿意的精神,从程度和权力的唯一不同是人类。Religion did not spring from animism, but its first manifestations are dominated by animism, that being the form of thought natural to primitive man.宗教没有从万物有灵的春天,但其第一个表现是占主导地位的万物有灵,在这样的形式自然地想到原始人。Pfleiderer teaches that belief in God was formed out of the prehistoric belief in spirits, that these spirits are ancestor-spirits and nature-spirits found everywhere in the primeval period of peoples side by side with one another and passing into each other in various forms of combination without the one being able to be referred to the other, that the prehistoric belief in spirits cannot yet be properly called religion--it only contained the germs of religion.弗莱德尔教导,在上帝的信仰是形成出了史前的精神信念,这些精神是祖先的精神,发现到处都在人民一边由原始时期与另一个侧面和互相传递各种形式的自然精神组合没有一个能够被转介到其他,在史前信仰鬼神尚不能得到妥善称为宗教 - 它仅包含了宗教的病菌。Caspari teaches a pre-animistic period in the family circle and holds that the worship of elders and chieftains was the first religion. Caspari教在家庭圈子预期,认为万物有灵的长老和头目是第一个宗教崇拜。Brinton says "the present probability is that in the infancy of the race there was at least no objective expression of religious feeling", and that "there must have been a time in the progress of organic forms from some lower to that highest mammal, man, when he did not have a religious consciousness; for it is doubtful if even the slightest traces of it can be discerned in the inferior animals".布林顿说:“目前的可能性是,在比赛初期至少有没有客观表达宗教感情”,而且“必须是从低些,在时间进度的有机形式,以最高的哺乳动物,人当他没有宗教意识,它是值得怀疑的,如果连它的半点痕迹都可以在“劣质动物看出端倪。 The French school of anthropology is distinguished by its outspoken atheism and materialism.人类学的法国学校的特色就是它的无神论和唯物论直言不讳。Darwin, Spencer, and Lubbock hold that primitive man had no idea of God.达尔文,斯宾塞,和拉伯克认为,原始人没有上帝的想法。Linguistic analysis, as Baynes clearly proves, shows this to be false.语言分析,贝恩斯清楚地证明,说明这是假的。The theory of animism has exerted great influence on the study of religions during the last twenty years.该理论已对万物有灵的宗教研究在过去二十年有很大影响。This is shown in the animistic trend of Prof. Maspero's study of the Egyptian religion; in the contention of the late Prof. W. Robertson Smith that the religion and social institutions of the Semites are founded on Totemism; in the emphasis laid on the animism of the ancient Israelites by Dr. Stade; in the worship of the dead and of ancestors among the Vedic Indians and the Persians; in the study of soul-worship among the Greeks, by E. Rhode.这是显示在教授马斯伯乐的埃及宗教研究万物有灵的趋势,在已故教授W.罗伯逊史密斯认为闪米特人的宗教和社会机构在图腾崇拜成立争,在重视对下岗万物有灵博士体育场的古以色列人;在各吠陀印度人和波斯人的死者和祖先崇拜,在灵魂崇拜中,希腊人的研究,由E.罗得。 That this influence was not for good is the opinion of Prof. Brinton, who says that the acceptance of animism as a sufficient explanation of early cults has led to the neglect, in English-speaking lands, of their profounder analysis and scientific study.这种影响是好的不就是布林顿教授,谁的万物有灵说,作为早期邪教接受足够的解释,导致了在英语为母语的土地忽视,他们profounder分析和科学的研究,见解。 Tylor published the third edition of "Primitive Culture" in 1891, confident of having proved the evolution theory as to the origin of our civilization from a savage condition, the savage belief in souls and spirits as the germs of religion, and the continuity of this belief in its progressive forms of development up to Monotheism.泰勒在1891年出版的“原始文化”第三版,有证明的,以从野蛮状态的起源我们的文明,在灵魂和宗教的细菌精神野蛮信仰进化论信心,而这种连续性相信在发展到一神教的逐步形成。 Yet the hope was short-lived.然而,希望是短暂的。More scientific research and severer criticism have deprived this theory of its former wide influence.更多的科学研究和严厉的批评已经失去了往日的广泛影响这一理论。

(1) The assumption that the lowest savages of today give approximately a faithful picture of primitive times is not true. (1)假设今天的最低野蛮人给约了原始时代的忠实图片是不正确的。Savages have a past and a long one, even though not recorded.野蛮人有一个过去和长,即使没有记录。"Nothing in the natural history of man", writes the Duke of Argyll, "can be more certain than that morally and intellectually and physically he can and often does sink from a higher to a lower level". “在人的自然发展史”,写的阿盖尔公爵,“可以比某些道德上和智力上和体力,他可以而且经常从一个更高的下沉到较低的水平。”Max Müller assures us that "if there is one thing which a comparative study of religions places in the clearest light, it is the inevitable decay to which every religion is exposed. . . . Whenever we can trace back a religion to its first beginnings, we find it free from many blemishes that affected it in its later states".马克斯缪勒向我们保证,“如果有一件事是清楚的光线在宗教场所的比较研究,这是必然的衰变来的每一种宗教暴露。。每当我们可以追溯到宗教来首次开始,我们会发现它和受影响的在其“后的状态是许多瑕疵免费。 Even Tylor admits that animism is everywhere found with the worship of a great God.泰勒也承认,即使是万物有灵处处与一个伟大的神的崇拜发现。Brinton holds that the resemblance of the savage mind to that of the child is superficial and likens the savage to the uncultivated and ignorant adult among ourselves.布林顿认为,对野蛮心态相似的孩子,是表面的,比喻为我们之间的未开垦的野蛮和无知的成年人。

(2) It is opposed by the Philological and Mythological schools.(2)它是反对的语言学和神话学校。 Thus Max Müller explains much in animism by superstition, a poetical conception of nature, and especially by personification.因此最大米勒解释多由迷信,是大自然的诗意观念,特别是人格化万物有灵。He says that inanimate objects were conceived as active powers and as such were described as agents by a necessity of language, without, however, predicating life or soul of them; for human language knows at first no agents except human agents.他说,无生命的物体被视为积极的权力,因此被称为代理由语言的必要性,但不,predicating生命或他们的灵魂,为人类的语言起初不知道,除了人类代理人代理。 Hence animism was a stage of thought reached slowly, and not by sudden impulses.因此,万物有灵是一个慢慢想达到的阶段,而不是突然的冲动。"What is classed as animism in ancient Aryan mythology", he writes, "is often no more than a poetical conception of nature which enables the poet to address sun, moon, rivers and trees as if they could hear and understand his words." “什么是古代雅利安人的神话万物有灵归类”,他写道,“往往只是一个诗意的自然观使诗人以解决太阳,月亮,河流和树木仿佛能听到和理解他的话了。” The same truth finds abundant illustration in the Psalms.同样的道理正处在诗篇丰富的例证。"Sometimes, however," he adds, "what is called animism is a superstition which, after having recognized agents in sun, moon, rivers and trees, postulates on the strength of analogy the existence of agents or spirits dwelling in other parts of nature also, haunting our houses, bringing misfortunes upon us, though sometimes conferring blessings. These ghosts are often mixed up with the ghosts of the departed and form a large chapter in the history of ancient superstition." “有时,但是,”他补充说,“所谓万物有灵是迷信的,确认后,太阳,月亮,河流和树木剂,对比喻实力的代理商或烈酒居住在其他地区的自然存在假设同时,困扰我们的房子,把我们的不幸后,虽然有时赋予祝福,这些鬼魂经常混在一起的离去了鬼,形成了古代迷信的历史大篇章。“ The ghost, or ancestor, theory received a fatal blow from Lang's "Making of a Religion", where it is shown that the belief of the most primitive savages is in a High God, Supreme God, and Moral God.鬼,或祖先,理论收到郎的“利用宗教”,它是表明,最原始的野蛮人在高神的信仰,最高的神,神与道德是一种致命的打击。Lang thus confutes Tylor's contentions:郎从而confutes泰勒的论点:

that man could not have possibly started with a belief in a Supreme Being; that religion and morality must have separate origins.那个男人也没有可能开始在一个至高无上的信仰,宗教和道德必须有独立的起源。

Even in China, where ancestor-worship prevails, we find it distinct from the worship of gods, and there is no trace of an ancestor having ever become a god.即使在中国,祖先崇拜盛行,我们发现它从不同的神灵崇拜,并没有一个有过成为神的祖先痕迹。Again, soul-worship and ancestor-worship are not identical, and with many tribes much attention is paid to conciliating the souls of the dead where ancestor-worship is unknown.同样,灵魂崇拜,祖先崇拜是不相同,并与许多部落的关注,是支付给调解死者在祖先崇拜是未知的灵魂。Brinton holds the former to be older and more general.布林顿认为前者是老年人和更普遍。The aim is to get rid of the soul, to put it to rest, or send it on its journey to a better land, lest it trouble the survivors.其目的是让灵魂摆脱,把它休息,或在其旅程发送到更好的土地,免得它麻烦的幸存者。Karl Mullenhöff maintains that folk-lore has no independent value and as a source of mythology is of only secondary importance.卡尔Mullenhöff认为,民间传说有没​​有独立的价值,作为一个神话的来源只有次要的。

(3) Animism is not the sole and chief source of religion.(3)泛灵论不是宗教唯一的主要来源。 De la Saussaye says that the belief of the early Teutons consisted only to a small extent of animistic ideas concerning souls and spirits.德拉Saussaye说,早期日尔曼人的信念只包括一个关于灵魂和精神万物有灵观念小的程度。 Prof. FB Gummere teaches that in Teutonic mythology animism has not succeeded in annexing nature-mythology.FB Gummere教授任教,在条顿神话万物有灵没有在兼并自然神话成功。FB Jevons holds that the religious idea is no part of animism pure and simple, and to make the personal agents of animism into supernatural agents or divine powers there must be added some idea which is not contained in animism, and that idea is a specifically religious idea, one which is apprehended directly or intuitively by the religious consciousness. FB杰文斯认为,宗教思想是没有万物有灵纯粹和简单的一部分,使之成为超自然的神圣权力,代理商或个人代理有万物有灵必须添加一些不包含在万物有灵的思想,这个想法是一个专门的宗教想法,一个是逮捕的宗教意识直接或直观。 E. Mogk, whose inclinations lean to Tylor, is yet constrained by a scientific mind to recognize nature-worship and the great gods as original; and he warns the student of Teutonic mythology that he must not allow himself to be seduced into disregarding the fact that the worship of the God of Heaven is one of the most original elements of the Teutonic belief.E. Mogk,瘦到泰勒的倾向,又是制约科学的思维来认识自然崇拜和原始大神和他的日耳曼神话警告学生,他不能让自己被引诱到不顾事实的是,天上的神的崇拜,是条顿人的信仰最原始的元素之一。 De la Saussaye and Pfleiderer hold that the supposition according to which every conception of an object--eg tree, sun, moon, clouds, thunder, earth, heaven--as a living being has an animistic character is undemonstrable and improbable.德拉Saussaye和弗莱德尔认为,根据其中每一个对象的概念假设 - 如树,太阳,月亮,云,雷,土,天上 - 作为一个活生生的具有万物有灵字符无法表明的和不可能的。They show from Teutonic mythology that the power and beneficent influence of these objects of nature and their symbolic conception belong to another sphere of ideas and sentiments than that of animism.他们从日耳曼神话中显示的力量和象征性的性质及其影响受孕这些对象属于另一个善行的思想和情感比万物有灵的领域。

(4) Prof. W. Robertson Smith and Prof. Frazer conclusively prove that the animistic religion of fear was neither universal nor primitive. (4)教授W.罗伯逊史密斯和弗雷泽教授确凿证明,恐惧万物有灵宗教既不普遍,也不简陋。According to Prof. Frazer, the primitive reason of sacrifice was communion with God.据弗雷泽教授,牺牲原始的原因是与神的共融。Even worship of the dead cannot be entirely explained animistically as the cult of souls.即使是死的崇拜不能完全解释animistically作为灵魂崇拜。Animistic conceptions may enter into the worship of ancestors and heroes; but other ideas are so essential that they cannot be regarded merely as modifications of soul-worship.万物有灵观念可能进入的祖先和英雄崇拜,但其他的想法是如此重要,他们不能被视为灵魂崇拜的修改只。

(5) It is not primitive nor specific.(5)它不是原始的,也不具体。Prof. Brinton says, "There is no special form of religious thought which expresses itself as what has been called by Dr. Tylor Animism, ie the belief that inanimate objects are animated and possess souls or spirits."布林顿教授说,“没有宗教思想的特殊形式,表达了什么作为泰勒博士自称泛灵论,即认为无生命的对象是动画和拥有灵魂或精神。” This opinion, which in one guise or another is common to all religions and many philosophies, "is merely a secondary phenomenon of the religious sentiment, not a trait characteristic of primitive faiths".这种观点,这在一个幌子,却是共同所有的宗教和许多哲学,“只是一种宗教情绪,而不是一种原始宗教特征特性中学现象”。 De la Saussaye holds that animism is always and everywhere mixed up with religion; it is nowhere the whole of religion.德拉Saussaye认为万物有灵是时时处处与宗教混合起来,它是无处宗教的整体。Cf.比照。ANTHROPOLOGY, MYTHOLOGY, EVOLUTION, TOTEMISM, SHAMANISM, FETISHISM, RELIGION, SPIRITISM.人类学,神话,演化,图腾崇拜,萨满教,拜物教,宗教,招魂。

Publication information Written by JT Driscoll.出版信息写JT斯科尔。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯J.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

LADD, Is Psychology a Science?拉德,心理学是一门科学?in Amer.在阿米尔。Jour, of Psych., 1894; JAMES, Psychology (2 vols., New York, 1905); SULLY, Outlines of Psychology (New York, 1892); HÖFFDING, Outlines of Psychology tr.怨妇,对Psych,1894年,詹姆斯,心理学(2卷,纽约,1905年);玷污,心理学(纽约,1892年)纲要; HÖFFDING,勾勒出心理学入门。LOWNDES (London, 1893); DRISCOLL, The Soul (New York, 1900); LADD, Psychology; Descriptive and Explanatory (New York, 1895); BOWEN, Hamilton's Metaphysics (Boston, 1876); BOWNE, Metaphysics, A Study of First Principles (New York, 1882); RICKABY, On God and His Creatures (London, 1906); McCOSH Fundamental Philosophy; MAHER, Psychology (London, 1905); TYLOR, Primitive Culture, (2 ed., London, 1891); TIELE, Elements of the Science of Religion (New York, 1896), cf.朗兹(伦敦,1893年),斯科尔,灵魂(纽约,1900年);拉德,心理学,描述性和解释性(纽约,1895年);鲍文,汉密尔顿的形而上学(波士顿,1876年),保捷,形而上学,是第一研究原则(纽约,1882年); RICKABY,在上帝和他的动物(伦敦,1906年); McCOSH基本理念;马希尔,心理学(伦敦,1905年);泰勒,原始文化(2版,伦敦,1891年);铁勒,对宗教科学(纽约,1896年),比照元素。 also his article in Encyclopœdia Britannica; MÜLLER, Lectures on the Origin of Religion (London, 1878); PFLEIDERER Philosophy and Development of Religion (New York and Edinburgh, 1894); SPENCER, Principles of Sociology (London, 1876-97); DRISCOLL, Christian Philosophy; God (New York, 1903); DE LA SAUSSAYE, Manual of the Science of Religion, tr.他的文章中也Encyclopœdia大英百科全书,穆勒,讲座对宗教的起源(伦敦,1878年);弗莱德尔宗教哲学与发展(纽约和爱丁堡,1894年);斯宾塞社会学原理(伦敦,1876年至1897年);斯科尔,基督教哲学,神(纽约,1903年); DE LA SAUSSAYE,对宗教科学手册,TR。COLYER-FERGUSSON (London, 1891); LUBBOCK, Origin of Civilization (New York, 1895); DUKE OF ARGYLL, Primeval Man (New York, 1869); CUOQ, Lexique de la langue Algonquine (Montreal, 1886); STEINMETZ, Ethnologische Studien (Leyden, 1894); BRINTON, Religions of Primitive Peoples (New York, 1897) ; BAYNES, The idea of God and the Moral Sense in the Light of Language (London, 1895); LANG, The Making of a Religion (London and New York 1898); ROBERTSON SMITH, Religion of the Semites (London, 1894); ALGER, Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life (Philadelphia, 1864); JEVONS, Introd.COLYER - 弗格森(伦敦,1891年);,文明的起源(纽约,1895年)拉伯克,杜克大学,原生文(纽约,1869)的阿盖尔; CUOQ,Lexique德拉LANGUE Algonquine(蒙特利尔,1886年);斯坦梅茨,Ethnologische (研究)(莱顿,1894年),布林顿,原始民族(纽约,1897年)宗教;贝恩斯,神和在语言轻德育智(伦敦,1895年)的理念;郎,一个宗教制作(伦敦和纽约1898年);,在闪米特人(伦敦,1894年)宗教罗伯逊史密斯,阿尔及尔,对未来的生活主义批判的历史(费城,1864年),杰文斯,Introd。 to Hist.到历史。of Religion (London and New York, 1896); SCHNEIDER, Die Naturvölker (2 vols., 1885-86); FRAZER, The Golden Bough (London, and New York, 1900).宗教(伦敦和纽约,1896年); SCHNEIDER,模具Naturvölker(2卷,1885年至1886年);弗雷泽,金枝(伦敦,纽约,1900年)。



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