Annihilationism Annihilationism

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The word is from the Latin nihil, "nothing," and expresses the position of those who hold that some, if not all, human souls will cease to exist after death.这个词是从拉丁nihil,“没事”,并表达了那些谁认为一些,如果不是全部,人的灵魂将不复存在死后的地位。As observed by Warfield, this point of view may take three main forms: (1) that all human beings inevitably cease to exist altogether at death (materialist) ; (2) that, while human beings are naturally mortal, God imparts to the redeemed the gift of immorality and allows the rest of humanity to sink into nothingness (conditional immortality) ; (3) that man, being created immortal, fulfills his destiny in salvation, while the reprobates fall into nonexistence either through a direct act of God or through the corrosive effect of evil (annihilationism proper) .正如沃菲尔德观察,这个观点可能采取三种主要形式:(1)所有人类不可避免地停止存在死亡(唯物主义)共(2),而人类是自然凡人,上帝赋予的赎回不道德的礼物,让人类休息陷入虚无(有条件的不朽)(3)的男人,正在创建的不朽,履行在拯救自己的命运,而reprobates陷入虚无缥缈的上帝通过直接或者通过行为或邪恶的腐蚀作用(annihilationism适当)。

The distinction between conditionalism and annihilationism, as indicated above, is frequently not observed, and these two terms are commonly used as practical synonyms.之间conditionalism和annihilationism区别,如上所述,经常不遵守,这两个名词通常作为同义词使用的实际。 A fourth form of advocacy of the ultimate extinction of evil is the view that God will finally redeem all rational beings (universalism) .一对邪恶的最终灭绝宣传第四种形式是认为上帝将最终赎回全部(普遍),理性的人。Over against all the above positions, historic orthodoxy has always maintained both that human souls will eternally endure and that their destiny is irrevocably sealed at death.在对所有上述职位,历史悠久的正统一直都保持着人类的灵魂将永远忍受,他们的命运是不可逆转的死亡密封。

The question whether or not man is naturally immortal pertains to the subject of immortality.现在的问题是否属于男人自然是不朽的不朽的主题。The present article will be limited to stating and appraising briefly the main evidence advanced in support of the cessation of the wicked.本文章将被限制在简要说明和评估的主要证据的恶人停止支持先进。

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God alone, it is urged, has immortality (1 Tim. 6:16; 1:17).只有上帝,这是要求,有不死(提前6点16分; 1:17)。This argument, if it proves anything, proves too much.这种说法,如果它证明什么,证明太多。In fact, God who alone has immortality in himself may and does communicate it to some of his creatures.事实上,上帝谁就有可能在自己的不朽和不传达给他的一些动物。

Immortality, it is urged, is represented as a special gift connected with redemption in Jesus Christ (Rom. 2:7; 1 Cor. 15:53 - 54; 2 Tim. 1:10).仙道,它是呼吁,是在耶稣基督救赎连接一份特殊的礼物代表(。罗马书2:7;林前15点53 - 54; 2添1:10。) The same may be said of life, or eternal life (John 10:28; Rom. 6:22 - 23; Gal. 6:8; etc.).同样可以说是生活,还是永恒的生命(约翰10时28分;罗马书6时22分 - 23;。加拉太六点08,等等)。It is freely granted that in all such passages life and immortality are represented as the privileged possession of the redeemed, but it is claimed that in these connections these terms do not represent merely continued existence, but rather connote existence in joyful fulfillment of man's high destiny in true fellowship with God (John 17:3).它是自由理所当然地认为,在所有这类通道生命和不朽的作为赎回特权占有为代表,但它声称,在这些连接这些条款并不代表只是继续存在,而是意味着在愉悦人的高命运的履行存在在与神真正相交(约17:3)。

Cessation of existence, it is urged, is implied in various scriptural terms applied to the destiny of the wicked, such as death (Rom. 6:23; James 5:20; Rev. 20:14; etc.), destruction (Matt. 7:13; 10:28; 1 Thess. 1:9, etc.), perishing (John 3:16, etc.).停止存在,它是要求,是隐含在应用到如死亡恶人,(罗马书6时23分,詹姆斯5时20分,20时14牧师,等等)的命运不同的圣经上,破坏(马特,7时13分,10时28分;帖前1:9等),灭亡(约3:16等)。 But these expressions do not so much imply annihilation as complete deprivation of some element essential to normal existence.但是,这些表达式不那么多暗示,作为某些元素必须完成正常的存在剥夺湮没。Physical death does not mean that body or soul vanishes, but rather that an abnormal separation takes place which severs their natural relationship until God's appointed time.肉体的死亡并不意味着身体或灵魂消失​​,而是一种不正常的分离发生的切断他们直到上帝的约定时间自然的关系。

Spiritual death, or the "second death" (Rev. 20:14; 21:8), does not mean that the soul or personality lapses into nonbeing, but rather that it is ultimately and finally deprived of that presence of God and fellowship with him which is the chief end of man and the essential condition of worthwhile existence.精神死亡,或“第二次的死”(启示录20时14; 21:8),并不意味着灵魂或人格失误成非存在,而是说这是最终和最后的那在场的上帝和奖学金剥夺他这是人与生存的必要条件有价值的首席结束。To be bereft of it is to perish, to be reduced to utter insignificance, to sink into abysmal futility.要剥夺它的灭亡,要减少到完全的渺小,陷入深不可测的徒劳。An automobile is said to be wrecked, ruined, destroyed, not only when its constituent parts have been melted or scattered away, but also when they have been so damaged and distorted that the car has become completely unserviceable.汽车被认为是破坏,破坏,损毁,不仅在它的组成部分已经融化或四散而去,而且当他们如此破坏和扭曲,该车已经成为完全无法使用。

It is inconsistent with God's love, it is urged, to allow any of his creatures to endure forever in torment.这是与神的爱不一致,这是敦促,让他的任何生物永远承受煎熬。Furthermore, the continuance of evil would spell some area of permanent defeat for the divine sovereignty, a dark corner marring perpetually the glory of his universe.此外,继续将邪恶咒语的神圣主权,一个黑暗的角落玷污了他的宇宙永远荣耀的一些永久性失败的区域。

These considerations are not without weight, and a complete answer may not be possible in the present state of our knowledge.这些考虑是不是没有重量,以及一个完整的答案可能不会在我们现有的知识状态的可能。They are not adjudged by traditional orthodoxy as sufficient to overthrow the substantial weight of scriptural evidence to the effect that the wicked will be consigned to endless conscious sorrow.他们不是通过传统的正统判定为足以推翻圣经的大量证据表明体重的效果,恶人将被交付给无尽的自觉的悲哀。This is apparent from the expressions "fire unquenchable" (Isa. 66:24; Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17), or "that never shall be quenched" (Mark 9:43, 45), the worm that "dieth not" (Isa. 66:24; Mark 9:44, 46, 48), "the wrath of God abideth on him" (John 3:36), as well as from the use of "everlasting" or "forever," applying to chains, contempt, destruction, fire or burning, punishment, torment (Isa. 33:14; Jer. 17:4; Dan. 12:2; Matt. 18:8; 25:41, 46; 2 Thess. 1:9; Jude 6 - 7; Rev. 14:11; 19:3; 20:10).这是明显的表现形式“火不灭”(以赛亚书66:24;马特3时12,路加福音3:17),或“从未应淬火”(马克9时43分,45),该蠕虫病毒“怎样死不是“(以赛亚书66:24;马克9点44分,46,48),”关于他愤怒的上帝abideth“(约3:36),以及因使用”永久“或”永远, “适用于连锁店,蔑视,破坏,火灾或燃烧,惩罚,折磨(以赛亚书33:14;耶十七时04分;丹12点02分,马特18点08,25:41,46; 2帖。 1:9;裘德6 - 7;牧师14时11分,19时03; 20:10)。

It is worthy of note that, in the biblical record, those who spoke most about future punishment in its irrevocable finality are Jesus and the apostle John, the very ones who also represented most glowingly the supreme glory of God's love and the unshakable certainty of his ultimate triumph.这是值得注意的是,在圣经记载,那些谁谈到未来的处罚最其不可撤销的终局是耶稣和使徒约翰,非常的谁也代表最盛赞神的爱至高无上的荣耀和他不可动摇的肯定值得最终的胜利。

R Nicole ř妮可
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
BB Warfield, SHERK, I, 183 - 86; GC Joyce in HER E. In support of annihilationism: H Constable, The Duration and Nature of Future Punishmen; CH Hewitt, A classbook in Eschatology; E Lewis, Life and Immortality; FL Piper, Conditionalism. BB沃菲尔德,SHERK,我,183 - 86,GC在她的annihilationism支持E.乔伊斯:,时间长短和未来Punishmen自然H警员; CH休伊特,一个在末世classbook,E刘易斯,生命和不朽; FL派珀,Conditionalism。In opposition to annihilationism: H Buis, The Doctrine of Eternal Punishment; R Garrigou - Lagrange, Life Everlasting; WGT Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, II.在反对annihilationism:H,永恒的处罚学说Buis,R Garrigou - 拉格朗日,生命永恒; WGT谢德,教条式的神学,二。



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