Anthropomorphism拟人论

General Information一般资料

Anthropomorphism (Greek anthropos,"human being"; morphe,"shape") is the attribution of human form or qualities to that which is not human.拟人(希腊anthropos,“人”; morphe,“形”)是人类的形式,或那不是人的素质的归属。In the history of religion, anthropomorphism refers to the depiction of God in a human image, with human bodily form and emotions, such as jealousy, wrath, or love.在宗教史,拟人化指的是神在人的形象描述,与人类的体形,如嫉妒,愤怒,还是爱的情感。Whereas mythology is exclusively concerned with anthropomorphic gods, other religious thought holds that it is inappropriate to regard an omnipotent, omnipresent God as human.而神话完全是拟人化的神与关心,其他宗教思想认为,它是不恰当的人视为全能,无所不在的上帝。In order to speak of God, however, metaphorical language must be employed.为了讲神,然而,隐喻的语言必须雇用。In philosophy and theology, seemingly anthropomorphic concepts and language are used because it is impossible to think of God without attributing to him some human traits.在哲学和神学,看似拟人化的概念和语言的使用,因为它是不可能没有上帝的归于他认为一些人的特征。In the Bible, for example, God is endowed with physical characteristics and human emotions, but at the same time he is understood to be transcendent.在圣经中,例如,神赋予了物理特性与人的情绪,但在同一时间,他被理解为超越。In art and literature, anthropomorphism is the depiction of natural objects, such as animals or plants, as talking, reasoning, sentient, humanlike beings.在艺术和文学,是拟人化的自然物体,如动物或植物,如说话,以理服人,有情,类似人类的生命,描绘。

The earliest critique of anthropomorphism in the West was made by Xenophanes, a Greek philosopher of the 5th century BC.最早的拟人在西方的批判是由诺芬尼,一个公元前5世纪的希腊哲学家。 Xenophanes observed that whereas the Ethiopians represented the gods as dark-skinned, the northerners in Thrace depicted the gods with red hair and blue eyes.诺芬尼指出,而埃塞俄比亚人表示为黑皮肤的神明,北方人在色雷斯描述与红头发,蓝眼睛的神。He concluded that anthropomorphic representations of the gods invariably reveal more about the human beings who make them than they reveal about the divine.他的结论是,神拟人化的表述无不揭示了谁使他们比他们对神的揭示人类更多。The Greek philosopher Plato likewise objected to a human representation of the gods; in the dialogue The Republic, he particularly opposed the attribution of human failings to divine beings.希腊哲学家柏拉图同样反对一个神人表示,在对话的共和国,他尤其反对以天人人类的失败归因。Both Xenophanes and Plato wished to purify religion by eliminating elements that they considered primitive and crude.诺芬尼和柏拉图都希望通过消除净化元素,他们认为原始宗教和原油。

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Nineteenth-century German philosopher GWF Hegel held that Greek anthropomorphic religion represented an improvement over the worship of gods in the shape of animals, a practice called theriomorphism (Greek therion,"animal"; morphe,"shape").十九世纪德国哲学家黑格尔认为,希腊拟人化的宗教代表了在动物形状的改善对神的崇拜,称为theriomorphism做法(希腊therion,“动物”; morphe,“形”)。Hegel also maintained that Christianity brought the notion of anthropomorphism to maturity by insisting not only that God assumed a human form, but also that Jesus Christ was both a fully human person as well as fully divine.黑格尔也认为,基督教带来了拟人化的概念走向成熟的坚持不仅承担了人形的神,也是耶稣基督既是一个完整的人的人,以及完全的神。 Because Christianity incorporates humanity into the very nature of divinity, it has been accused of anthropomorphism by both Jewish and Islamic thinkers.由于基督教的神性融入到人类的本性,它已被拟人都指责犹太和伊斯兰思想家。


Anthropomorphism拟人论

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term (not found in the Bible, derived from Greek anthropos, man, and morphe, form) designates the view which conceives of God as having human form (Exod. 15:3; Num. 12:8) with feet (Gen. 3:8; Exod. 24:10), hands (Exod. 24:11; Josh. 4:24), mouth (Num. 12:8; Jer. 7:13), and heart (Hos. 11:8), but in a wider sense the term also includes human attributes and emotions (Gen. 2:2; 6:6; Exod. 20:5; Hos. 11:8).一词(而不是在圣经中,从希腊anthropos,人,morphe,派生形式)指定的的观点,神的设想为具有人形(出十五点○三;数12:8)与英尺(创3:8;。出埃及记24:10),手(出埃及记24:11;乔希4:24),口(民数记12时08分;耶7:13),和心(Hos. 11:8) ,但在更广泛意义上的术语还包括人文属性和情感(创2:2; 6:6;出埃及记20:5;居屋11:8)。

This tendency toward anthropomorphism, common to all religions, found such full expression in Greek polytheism that the common man thought of the gods as mortal men.这对拟人化的倾向,是所有宗教,发现这种充分体现在希腊多神教,共同男子作为凡人​​的神仙思想。Xenophanes (ca. 570-480 BC) reacted strongly, accusing man of making the gods in his own image.诺芬尼(约公元570-480年)反应强烈,指责使得自己的形象神的人。Later developments in Greek thought considered men as mortal gods (an early form of humanism) or viewed God in the metaphysical sense of pure, absolute Being.后来在希腊的发展看作是凡人的神(一种人文主义的早期形式)或查看在纯,绝对意义上的形而上学作为上帝认为人。The transcendentalism of the latter influenced the hellenistic Jews of Egypt so that the translators of the Greek OT, the LXX, made during the third and second centuries BC, felt compelled to alter some of the anthropomorphisms.而影响了埃及的希腊化的犹太人,使希腊OT的LXX,译者在第三和第二公元前数百年了后者的先验论,感到必须改变的anthropomorphisms一些。 eg, where the Hebrew reads "they saw the God of Israel" (Exod. 24:10) the LXX has "they saw the place where the God of Israel stood"; and for "I will speak with him mouth to mouth" (Num. 12:8) the LXX translates "I will speak to him mouth to mouth apparently."例如,在希伯来文写着“他们看见以色列的神”(出24:10)在LXX有“他们看到的地方站在以色列的神”,和“我会跟他嘴对嘴”(序号。12:8)的LXX翻译“我会和他说话嘴对嘴明显。”

However, the OT, if read with empathy and understanding, reveals a spiritual development which is a corrective for either a crude, literalistic view of anthropomorphism or the equally false abhorrence of any anthropomorphic expressions. The "image of God" created in man (Gen. 1:27) was in the realm of personality, of spirit, not of human form. Because the Israelites "saw no form" (Deut. 4:12) at Sinai, they were prohibited images in any form; male or female, beast, bird, creeping thing, or fish (Deut. 4:15-19).然而,OT,如果与同情和理解阅读,透着精神发展是一个纠正为任何一个原油,对拟人或任何拟人化的表现同样虚假深恶痛绝literalistic的看法。“上帝形象”创造的男子(创。1:27)在人格境界,精神,而不是人类的形式,因为以色列人“看到没有形成”在西奈(申命记4:12),他们被禁止在任何形式的图像;男性还是女性,兽,鸟,爬行的东西,或鱼(申命记4:15-19)。 The NT declaration of Jesus, "God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth" (John 4:24), is anticipated by Job 9:32; Ps.耶稣的NT声明,“上帝是精神,和那些谁崇拜他必须用心灵和诚实拜”(约4:24),预计通过招聘9:32;诗篇。50:21; and Hos. 50:21;和居屋。11:9. 11:9。

The anthropomorphism of the Israelites was an attempt to express the nonrational aspects of religious experience (the mysterium tremendum, "aweful majesty," discussed by Rudolf Otto) in terms of the rational, and the early expressions of it were not as "crude" as so-called enlightened man would have one think.拟人化的以色列人是为了表达宗教经验的非理性方面的合理条款(mysterium tremendum,“aweful威严”,由鲁道夫奥托讨论),和它的早期表达不作为“粗”的所谓开明的人将有一个想法。The human characteristics of Israel's God were always exalted, while the gods of their Near Eastern neighbors shared the vices of men.以色列的神人的特点总是崇高的,而他们的邻居近东神共享男人的恶习。Whereas the representation of God in Israel never went beyond anthropomorphism, the gods of the other religions assumed forms of animals, trees, stars, or even a mixture of elements.鉴于神在以色列表示从未超出了拟人,其他宗教的神灵承担动物,树木,星星,甚至是元素的混合形式。Anthropomorphic concepts were "absolutely necessary if the God of Israel was to remain a God of the individual Israelite as well as of the people as a whole. For the average worshipper it is very essential that his god be a divinity who can sympathize with his human feelings and emotions, a being whom he can love and fear alternately, and to whom he can transfer the holiest emotions connected with memories of father and mother and friend" (WF Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity, 2nd ed., p. 202).拟人化的概念是“绝对必要的,如果以色列的神是仍然是个人的以色列人的神,以及作为一个整体的人对于一般的崇拜者 这是十分必要的,他的神是神谁可以同情他的人的情感和情绪,一种被人,他可以爱和恐惧的交替,并可以转让的人,他的父亲和最神圣的母亲和朋友的回忆“(WF奥尔布赖特,连情绪从石器时代到基督教,第2版​​,第202页)。

It is precisely in the area of the personal that theism, as expressed in Christianity, must ever think in anthropomorphic terms.正是在个人的有神论的基督教表示,面积,必须永远想在拟人化的条件。 To regard God solely as Absolute Being or the Great Unknown is to refer to him or it, but to think of God as literally personal, one with whom we can fellowship, is to say Thou.视仅作为绝对存在或大未知的神,是指他或它,但想到上帝字面上个人,其中一人,我们可以奖学金,就是说祢。Some object to this view, to explain how the creatures of an impersonal force became personal human beings conscious of their personality.有人反对这种观点,来解释如何的客观力量的动物成为人类个人的人格意识。

"To say that God is completely different from us is as absurd as to say that he is completely like us" (DE Trueblood, Philosophy of Religion, p. 270). “如果说,上帝是完全从我们不同的是荒谬地说,他完全是和我们一样”(DE Trueblood,宗教哲学,第270页)。Paradoxical as it may seem, there is a mediating position which finds the answer in the incarnation of Jesus the Christ, who said, "He who has seen me has seen the Father" (John 14:9).自相矛盾,因为它似乎有一个调解的立场是认为在耶稣是基督,谁说过,“谁看见了我已经看见了父”(约翰福音14:9)化身的答案。 Finite man will ever cling to the anthropomorphism of the incarnation and the concept of God as Father (Matt. 7:11), but at the same time he will realize the impossibility of absolute, complete comprehension of God, for "my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, says the Lord" (Isa. 55:8).有限的人将永远坚持的化身和父(太7:11)上帝的概念拟人化,但在同一时间,他将实现绝对的,神不可能完全理解,因为“我的想法是不您的想法,也不是你的方法我的方法,说,耶和华“(赛55:8)。

DM Beegle DM Beegle
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
W. Eichrodt, Theology of the OT, I; J. Hempel, "Die Grenzen des Anthropormorphismus Jahwes im Alten Testament: ein Vortrag," ZAW 57: 75ff.; GD Hicks, The Philosophical Bases of Theism; R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy; HH Rowley, The Faith of Israel; HB Swete, An Introduction to the OT in Greek. W.,在OT,我神学艾希罗特的J.亨普尔,“模具Grenzen DES Anthropormorphismus Jahwes IM Alten约:EIN Vortrag,”ZAW 57:75ff; GD希克斯,对有神论的哲学基础; R.奥托的设想圣; HH,以色列信仰罗利; HB Swete,对在希腊OT简介。


Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites拟人化,Anthropomorphites

Catholic Information天主教信息

(anthropos, man, and morphe, form).(anthropos,人,morphe,形式)。

A term used in its widest sense to signify the tendency of man to conceive the activities of the external world as the counterpart of his own.在其最广泛的意义上使用,以显示人的倾向,设想作为自己的对口外部世界的活动的术语。A philosophic system which borrows its method from this tendency is termed Philosophic Anthropomorphism.一个哲学体系,借用这种倾向的方法被称为哲学拟人。The word, however, has been more generally employed to designate the play of that impulse in religious thought.这个词,但已较普遍采用指定的宗教思想的那种冲动的发挥。In this sense, Anthropomorphism is the ascription to the Supreme Being of the form, organs, operations, and general characteristics of human nature.在这个意义上,是拟人的形式,器官,操作和人性的一般特点最高法院作为归属。This tendency is strongly manifested in primitive heathen religions, in all forms of polytheism, especially in the classic paganism of Greece and Rome.这种倾向是强烈的表现在原始宗教的异教徒,在各种形式的多神教,特别是在希腊和罗马古典异教。The charge of Anthropomorphism was urged against the Greeks by their own philosopher, Xenophanes of Colophon.负责对拟人敦促对希腊人由自己哲学家,后记诺芬尼。The first Christian apologists upbraided the pagans for having represented God, who is spiritual, as a mere magnified man, subject to human vices and passions.第一基督教辩护士责备因代表上帝,谁是精神的异教徒,作为一个单纯的放大了的人,受人的罪恶和激情。The Bible, especially the Old Testament, abounds in anthropomorphic expressions.圣经,尤其是旧约,盛产拟人化的表现形式。Almost all the activities of organic life are ascribed to the Almighty.几乎所有的有机生命活动都归因于全能。He speaks, breathes, sees, hears; He walks in the garden; He sits in the heavens, and the earth is His footstool.他说话,呼吸,看到,听到,他在花园里散步,他坐在天空,大地是他的脚凳。It must, however, be noticed that in the Bible locutions of this kind ascribe human characteristics to God only in a vague, indefinite way.它必须,但是,要注意到,在这种圣经locutions归因于只在一个模糊的,不确定的方式向神人的特点。He is never positively declared to have a body or a nature the same as man's; and human defects and vices are never even figuratively attributed to Him.他从来没有积极申报有一个机构或一个自然与人的相同;和人类缺陷和恶习是从来没有拗归因于他。The metaphorical, symbolical character of this language is usually obvious.隐喻,这种语言的象征性人物通常是显而易见的。The all-seeing Eye signifies God's omniscience; the everlasting Arms His omnipotence; His Sword the chastisement of sinners; when He is said to have repented of having made man, we have an extremely forcible expression conveying His abhorrence of sin.全盲,标志着神的无所不知,无所不能,他的永恒的武器,他的剑责罚的罪人,当他说已经有造人的忏悔,我们有一个非常强行表达传达他的罪恶深恶痛绝。 The justification of this language is found in the fact that truth can be conveyed to men only through the medium of human ideas and thoughts, and is to be expressed only in language suited to their comprehension.这种语言的理由是发现真理能传送只有通过人的观念和思想中对男人的事实,是只有在适合自己理解的语言表达。 The limitations of our conceptual capacity oblige us to represent God to ourselves in ideas that have been originally drawn from our knowledge of self and the objective world.我们的概念能力的限制,迫使我们代表已经从最初的自我和客观世界的知识得出神对自己的想法。The Scriptures themselves amply warn us against the mistake of interpreting their figurative language in too literal a sense.圣经本身充分警惕的诠释太字面从某种意义上说我们的形象化的语言错误。They teach that God is spiritual, omniscient, invisible, omnipresent, ineffable.他们教导说,上帝是精神的,无所不知的,无形的,无所不在的,不可言喻。Insistence upon the literal interpretation of the metaphorical led to the error of the Anthropomorphites.而在该隐喻的字面解释坚持导致的Anthropomorphites错误。Throughout the writings of the Fathers the spirituality of the Divine Nature, as well as the inadequacy of human thought to comprehend the greatness, goodness, and infinite perfection of God, is continually emphasized.在整个著作的父亲的神性精神,以及人类思维理解不足的伟大,善良,和神的无限完美,不断强调。At the same time, Catholic philosophy and theology set forth the idea of God by means of concepts derived chiefly from the knowledge of our own faculties, and our mental and moral characteristics.与此同时,天主教哲学和神学提出由来自我们自己院系的知识,我们的精神和道德观念的特点主要是指神的想法。 We reach our philosophic knowledge of God by inference from the nature of various forms of existence, our own included, that we perceive in the Universe.我们达到推论从存在的各种形式的性质我们的神哲学知识,包括我们自己,我们在宇宙的感觉。All created excellence, however, falls infinitely short of the Divine perfections, consequently our idea of God can never truly represent Him as He is, and, because He is infinite while our minds are finite, the resemblance between our thought and its infinite object must always be faint.所有创造卓越,但是,属于无限神圣的完善短,因此我们对神的想法永远不能真正代表他,因为他是,而且,由于他是无限的,而我们的头脑是有限的,我们之间的思想和它的无限相似对象必须总是淡淡的。 Clearly, however, if we would do all that is in our power to make our idea, not perfect, but as worthy as it may be, we must form it by means of our conceptions of what is highest and best in the scale of existence that we know.但是很显然,如果我们将竭尽我们的力量是让我们的想法,并非十全十美,但值得,因为它可能是,我们必须形成以对什么是最高,最好的生存规模的概念是指它我们知道。 Hence, as mind and personality are the noblest forms of reality, we think most worthily of God when we conceive Him under the attributes of mind, will, intelligence, personality.因此,作为思想和人格是现实的最高贵的形式,我们认为最抱负的上帝,当我们设想在他的头脑的属性,意志,智慧,个性。 At the same time, when the theologian or philosopher employs these and similar terms with reference to God, he understands them to be predicated not in exactly the same sense that they bear when applied to man, but in a sense controlled and qualified by the principles laid down in the doctrine of analogy.与此同时,当神学家或哲学家雇用这些和参考神类似的条款,他不明白他们是在完全一样的感觉,他们承担时,适用于男子为前提,但在一定意义上控制和合格的原则规定了类推原则。

A few decades ago thinkers and writers of the Spencerian and other kindred schools seldom touched upon the doctrine of a personal God without designating it Anthropomorphism, and thereby, in their judgment, excluding it definitively from the world of philosophic thought.前思想家和斯宾塞和其他亲属的学校作家几十很少触及个人的神的教义没有指定它拟人化,从而在他们的判断,但不包括从哲学思想的世界里明确。 Though on the wane, the fashion has not yet entirely disappeared.虽然在减弱,时尚还没有完全消失。The charge of Anthropomorphism can be urged against our way of thinking and speaking of God by those only who, despite the protestations of theologians and philosophers, persist in assuming that terms are used univocally of God and of creatures.负责对拟人可以要求对我们的思维方式和那些只有谁,尽管神学家和哲学家的抗议,坚持在假设条件均采用生物univocally上帝和神说话的方式。 When arguments are offered to sustain the imputation, they usually exhibit an incorrect view regarding the essential element of personality.当参数提供持续的归集,他们通常表现出一种不正确的看法关于人格的基本要素。The gist of the proof is that the Infinite is unlimited, while personality essentially involves limitation; therefore, to speak of an Infinite Person is to fall into an absurdity.该证明的要点是,无限是无限的,而人格本质上涉及的限制,因此,说话的人是一个无限陷入荒谬。What is truly essential in the concept of personality is, first, individual existence as opposed to indefiniteness and to identity with other beings; and next, possession, or intelligent control of self.什么是真正重要的人格是,第一,个人的存在而不是不确定性,并与其他众生身份的概念;和明年,占有,或自我的智能控制。 To say that God is personal is to say that He is distinct from the Universe, and that He possesses Himself and His infinite activity, undetermined by any necessity from within or from without.如果说,上帝是个人,是说他是从宇宙不同,他自己和他拥有无限的活动,任何来自内部或没有必要确定。This conception is perfectly compatible with that of infinity.这种观念是完全符合无穷的兼容。When the agnostic would forbid us to think of God as personal, and would have us speak of Him as energy, force, etc., he merely substitutes lower and more imperfect conceptions for a higher one, without escaping from what he terms Anthropomorphism, since these concepts too are derived from experience.当不可知会禁止我们的上帝看作个人,并希望我们对他说,能源,力等,他只是替代品低,有较高的多不完美的观念,没有从他所说的拟人逃脱,因为这些概念也源于经验。 Besides, he offers violence to human nature when, as sometimes happens, he asks us to entertain for an impersonal Being, conceived under the mechanical types of force or energy, sentiments of reverence, obedience, and trust.此外,他提供了人性暴力的时候,因为有时会发生,他要求我们招待作为一个客观的,根据力或能量的机械类型的设想,崇敬,服从和信任情绪。 These sentiments come into play only in the world of persons, and cannot be exercised towards a Being to whom we deny the attributes of personality.这些感情投入的人只有在世界上发挥,不能对一个被我们向他否认人格属性行使。

Anthropomorphites (Audians)Anthropomorphites(Audians)

A sect of Christians that arose in the fourth century in Syria and extended into Scythia, sometimes called Audians, from their founder, Audius.一个基督徒出现在第四世纪在叙利亚和成Scythia,有时也被称为Audians,延长他们的创始人,Audius节。 Taking the text of Genesis, i, 27, literally, Audius held that God has a human form.以创世纪,我,27文,从字面上看,Audius认为上帝有一个人形。The error was so gross, and, to use St. Jerome's expression (Epist. vi, Ad Pammachium), so absolutely senseless, that it showed no vitality.如此严重的错误,并使用圣杰罗姆的表达(Epist.六,广告Pammachium),所以绝对毫无意义,认为它没有表现出活力。 Towards the end of the century it appeared among some bodies of African Christians.在接近本世纪末就出现非洲基督徒之间的一些机构。The Fathers who wrote against it dismiss it almost contemptuously.谁的父亲写了反对关闭它几乎轻蔑。In the time of Cyril of Alexandria, there were some anthropomorphites among the Egyptian monks.在亚历山大的西里尔时间,其中有一些埃及僧侣anthropomorphites。He composed a short refutation of their error, which he attributed to extreme ignorance.他谱写了自己的错误短驳,他归因于极端的无知。(Adv. Anthrop. in PG, LXXVI.) Concerning the charges of anthropomorphism preferred against Melito, Tertullian, Origen, and Lactantius, see the respective articles.(Adv. Anthrop中PG,LXXVI。)关于拟人控告美利托,良,奥利和拉克唐修的首选,看到各自的文章。The error was revived in northern Italy during the tenth century, but was effectually suppressed by the bishops, notably by the learned Ratherius, Bishop of Verona.错误是在意大利北部复兴在十世纪,但有效果的主教压制,特别是通过学习Ratherius主教维罗纳。

Publication information Written by James J. Fox.出版信息写由詹姆斯J.福克斯。Transcribed by Bob Elder.转录由Bob长老。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

ST. ST。THOMAS, C. Gent., I, x; III, xxxviii, xxxix; Summa Theol., QQ.托马斯,三根特,I,X,三,三十八,三十九;大全Theol,QQ。ii, iv, xiii; WILHELM AND SCANNELL, Manual of Catholic Theology (London, 1890), I, Bk.二,四,十三,威廉和斯坎内尔,天主教神学手册(伦敦,1890年),我,浅滩。II, Pt.二,PT。1; SHANAHAN, John Fiske's Idea of God in Cath.1,沙纳汉,约翰费斯克的神念在蛋白酶。Univ.大学。Bull., III; MARTINEAU, A Study of Religion (New York, 1888), I, Bk.牛,三;蒂诺,一个宗教研究(纽约,1888年),我,浅滩。 II, i; FLINT, Theism (New York, 1903), Lect.二,我;燧石,有神论(纽约,1903年),Lect。III; THEODORET, Hist.三; THEODORET,组织胺。Eccl., IV, ix; VIGOUROUX, in Dict.。传道书,四,九; VIGOUROUX,在快译通。de la Bible, sv; ST.德拉圣经,SV; ST。AUGUSTINE, De divers.奥古斯丁,德潜水员。quaest., Ad Simplicianum, Q. vii;De civ.quaest,广告Simplicianum,问七;德CIV。Dei, I, Q. ii.业会,我问二。



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