Anticlericalism 反教权

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The term "anticlerical" probably first appeared in the early 1850s in Catholic France.术语“圣职者”可能最早出现在19世纪50年代初法国天主教。It indicated opposition to Ultramontane revival with its reassertion of the sacral power of priests and of the primacy of the pope in the church.它表示反对Ultramontane其对教士和教皇的首要地位,在教会的复兴骶力量重新抬头。A staggering battle in Italy and Europe over the temporal power of the pope focused anticlerical attitudes in the 1850s and 1860s, especially in Italy, Belgium, Spain, and France.在意大利和欧洲的教皇在世俗力量惊人的战斗集中在19世纪50年代和19世纪60年代圣职者的态度,特别是在意大利,比利时,西班牙和法国。 Thereafter, to this day, anticlericalism as attitude and as movement has been a considerable political factor in every Roman Catholic area, notably in Europe, Latin America, and Quebec.此后,这一天,态度和运动anticlericalism已在每一个罗马天主教面积相当大的政治因素,特别是在欧洲,拉丁美洲,和魁北克省。 Anticlericalism has condemned priestly participation in national governments, municipalities, elections, education, and land and capital ownership. Anticlericalism谴责在国家政府,直辖市,选举,教育,土地和资本所有权祭司的参与。

Opposition to clerical authority, as well as fear and ridicule of priests, are age old within Catholic Christendom.反对文书的权威,以及恐惧和牧师嘲笑,是年龄在天主教基督教的历史。In Catholic tradition, both before and after the creation of Protestant churches, clergy have claimed to be the sole authority in church government and doctrine as well as the only exerciser of sacramental power.在天主教的传统,之前和之后的新教教堂的创建,神职人员都声称自己是在政府和教会的教义的唯一权威,以及圣功率只有练功。 They have put themselves forward as the leaders in faith and morals, and often as the guides of the laity in politics, economics, and intellectual and social life.他们把自己向前的信仰和道德的领导人,并经常作为在政治,经济,智力和社会生活的俗人的指南。In response there is a long tradition of popular satire in songs and tales against any clerical failings, irregular sexual behavior, religious hypocrisy, social pomp, intellectual stupidity, and arrogance.在回答有一种流行的讽刺歌曲,反对任何文书失误,不规则的性行为,宗教的虚伪,社会讲排场,智力愚蠢和傲慢故事的悠久传统。 Moreover, excessive use of clerical power or usurpation of political and economic power has again and again evoked vigorous resistance.此外,文职权力或政治和经济力量过度使用篡夺了一次又一次引起强烈抵制。Anticlericalism has assumed that priests are constitutionally unable to keep their own standards, and are by nature inclined to dominate the whole of life. Anticlericalism已假设牧师宪法不能保持自己的标准,并倾向于主宰整个生命性质。

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The anticlerical factor in the Protestant movement of the 1500s contributed to the break with Rome and has continued to be a crucial element in anti - Catholicism to this day.而在16世纪新教运动圣职者因素促成了与罗马突破,并继续成为一个关键因素反 - 天主教到今天。In the 1700s the French philosophes were merciless against priests, and one Catholic state after another expelled the Jesuits.在18世纪的法国哲学家反对牧师,一个无情的天主教国家相继驱逐耶稣会。The French revolutionary governments tried to control priests by making them state employees.法国革命政府试图通过使这些国家控制员工祭司。The revolutionaries in Catholic Europe in 1820, 1830, 1848, and 1870 explicitly regarded priestly power as an enemy.1820年,1830年,1848年和1870年在欧洲革命家明确天主教视为敌人的祭司的力量。The Papal States, as a "government of priests," epitomized to anticlericals all that was evil.罗马教皇国,作为“祭司政府”集中反映到anticlericals一切是邪恶的。

The liberal republics in Latin America were anticlerical.在拉丁美洲的自由共和国是圣职者。 After 1870, in France, Spain, Italy, and Quebec, as well as in much of Latin America, politics polarized as the church and most clergy sided with the right against liberals, republicans, and socialists who built anticlericalism into their programs.经过1870年,在法国,西班牙,意大利和魁北克省,以及在拉丁美洲,政治两极化的教会和反自由主义者,共和党人和社会主义者谁建纳入其方案anticlericalism权片面最神职人员了。 Anticlericalism has usually contributed to secularization in Catholic cultures: since clergy have been the main agents of Christian presence in public life, opposition to priests in politics has entailed opposition to Christianity in modern society. Anticlericalism通常导致了天主教文化的世俗化:因为神职人员已在公共生活中的基督教存在的主要代理商,反对在政治牧师已经引起反对基督教在现代社会。 Following Vatican II opposition to clerical domination within the church itself has contributed to a lay revival, but not yet to a termination of exclusively priestly authority in the church.继梵二反对文职统治在本身促成了教会的复兴奠定,但尚未完全祭司的权威在教会终止。

Anticlericalism has not been absent among Protestants.Anticlericalism新教徒之间并没有缺席。 Many a Baptist pastor, Reformed dominie, or Lutheran minister has evoked anticlerical responses.许多浸信会牧师,牧师归正,或路德部长引起了圣职者的反应。Charismatics, Brethren, and Quakers have found they can do without clergy entirely.灵恩,弟兄们,和贵格会发现,他们可以做完全没有神职人员。

CT McIntireCT麦金太尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
O Chadwick, "The Rise of Anticlericalism," in The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century; A Mellor, Histoire de l'anticlericalisme francais; R Remond, l'Anticlericalisme en France, de 1815 a nos jours; JM Diaz Mozaz, Apuntes para una sociologia del anticlericalismo. Ø查德威克“的Anticlericalism上升,”在欧洲心在19世纪的世俗化,一个梅勒,Histoire DE L' anticlericalisme的语言,R Remond,L' Anticlericalisme EN法国,去1815 a数乐之日; JM迪亚兹Mozaz ,Apuntes第UNA sociologia德尔anticlericalismo。



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