Apollinarianism 亚波里拿留派

General Information一般资料

Apollinarianism was a 4th-century explanation of the nature of Jesus Christ that was rejected by the Christian church.Apollinarianism是一个耶稣基督的性质,是由基督教教会拒绝了第四世纪的解释。 Its author, Apollinaris of Laodicea (310-90), trying to arrive at a formula that would explain how Jesus could be both human and divine, taught that human beings were composed of body, soul, and spirit, and that in Jesus the human spirit was replaced by the Logos, or the second person of the Trinity.它的作者,老底嘉Apollinaris(310-90),试图得出一个公式,将解释如何耶稣可能是人类和神,教导人类是身体,灵魂和精神组成的,而且在耶稣的人精神被替换图标,或三位一体的第二人。 This teaching was opposed by Athanasius, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa because they thought it implied that Christ was not fully human.这样的教学是反对亚他那修,罗勒大,格雷戈里的nazianzus和格雷戈里的nyssa因为他们认为这暗示基督不是完全的人。 Apollinarianism was declared a heresy by the First Council of Constantinople in 381. Apollinarianism宣布由第一届理事会君士坦丁堡在381异端邪说。

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Apollinarianism Apollinarianism

General Information一般资料

Apollinarianism was a heretical doctrine taught by Apollinaris the Younger, bishop of Laodicea in Syria during the 4th century. Apollinarianism是异端学说Apollinaris雅戈尔,主教在叙利亚在第四世纪老底嘉任教。A controversial theologian, he maintained that the Logos, or divine nature in Christ, took the place of the rational human soul or mind of Christ and that the body of Christ was a spiritualized and glorified form of humanity.一个有争议的神学家, 他认为,标识,或在基督的神性,采取了理性的人类灵魂或基督的心的地方 ,而基督的身体是人类的精神化,相映生辉的形式。 This doctrine was condemned as a heresy by Roman councils in 377 and in 381 and also by the Council of Constantinople in 381.这种学说被谴责为异端在377和381,也由理事会君士坦丁堡在381罗马议会。In spite of its repeated condemnation, Apollinarianism persisted into the 5th century.在其一再谴责尽管如此,Apollinarianism一直持续到5世纪。At that time its remaining adherents merged with the Monophysites, who held that Christ had a divine nature but no human nature.当时剩余的追随者合并该monophysites,谁认为基督有一个神圣的性质,但没有人性。


Apollinarianism Apollinarianism

Advanced Information先进的信息

Apollinarianism was a heresy of the fourth century bearing the name of its originator, Apollinaris (or Apollinarius) the Younger. Apollinarianism是第四轴承,其发端,Apollinaris(或Apollinarius)雅戈尔名称世纪异端​​。Apollinaris was born sometime between 300 and 315 and died shortly before 392. Apollinaris诞生300和315之间的某个时候和前死亡392很快。He apparently lived out his entire lifetime in Laodicea, which is southwest of Antioch.他显然在老底嘉住了他的整个一生,这是安提阿西南。He was a man of such unusual ability and gracious saintliness that even his staunchest opponents paid tribute to his sterling character.他是这样不寻常的能力和亲切的圣洁,即使他的最坚定的对手赞扬他英镑骨气。As a young man he became a reader in the church of Laodicea under Bishop Theodotus and ca.作为一个年轻人,他成为了老底嘉教会的主教西奥多托斯下和CA读卡器。332 was briefly excommunicated for attending a pagan function.332简要地被逐出教会出席一个异教徒的功能。In 346 he was excommunicated a second time by the Arian Bishop George.在346他被逐出教会的主教乔治阿里安第二次。However, the Nicene congregation of Laodicea selected him bishop sometime around 361.然而,他选择了老底嘉尼西亚众主教有时周围361。

Evidence would suggest that Apollinaris put more time into teaching and writing in nearby Antioch than in ecclesiastical administration.有证据表明,Apollinaris将投入教学和写作比附近的安提阿教会的管理更多的时间。As a revered teacher he was the friend of Athanasius, consultant by correspondence to Basil the Great, and numbered among his pupils Jerome in 373 or 374.作为尊敬的老师,他是亚他那修的朋友,通过书信顾问罗勒大,在他的学生和编号在373或374杰罗姆。

Apollinarianism seemed to have emerged gradually as an independent strand of Christianity as its opponents succeeded in getting it condemned. Apollinarianism似乎已成为一个独立的基督教链逐渐为对手,成功地得到它谴责。A synod at Alexandria in 362 condemned the teaching but not the teacher.在亚历山大在362主教谴责了教学,但不是老师。Basil the Great moved Pope Damasus I to censure it ca.罗勒大移动教皇达玛斯我谴责它CA。376, and in 377 Apollinaris and Apollinarianism both were condemned by a Roman synod.376,在377 Apollinaris和Apollinarianism都被谴责由罗马主教。The general Council of Constantinople in 381 anathematized Apollinaris and his doctrine.总理事会的君士坦丁堡在381诅咒Apollinaris和他的学说。Emperor Theodosius I then issued a series of decrees against Apollinarianism in 383, 384, and 388.皇帝狄奥多西然后我发出了反对Apollinarianism一系列法令,383,384和388。But the elderly heretic apparently continued serenely writing and teaching in Antioch and laodicea, pursuing his scholar's passion for truth with a saint's serene confidence in his own rightness.但老人安详邪教显然继续写作和安提阿和老底嘉教学,追求他的学者与圣人在他自己的正确性安详的信心真理的激情。

Apollinarianism had become a definite schism by 373, for when the Emperor Valens deported certain Egyptian bishops to Diocaesarea, Apollinaris approached them with greetings and an invitation to enter into communion. Apollinarianism已经成为一个明确的分裂由373为当皇帝瓦伦斯驱逐某些埃及主教Diocaesarea,Apollinaris走近问候和邀请他们进入共融。 They in turn rejected his overtures.他们拒绝了把他的序曲。By 375 Vitalis, a disciple of Apollinaris, had founded a congregation in Antioch.通过375 VITALIS,一个Apollinaris弟子,已建,在安提阿教会。Vitalis was consecrated bishop by Apolinaris, who also engineered his friend Timothy's election to the bishopric of Berytus.VITALIS被奉献主教由Apolinaris,谁也设计他的朋友提摩太的当选Berytus主教。Apollinarians held at least one synod in 378, and there is evidence that there may have been a second Apollinarian synod subsequently. Apollinarians举行的378至少有一个主教,且有证据表明,有可能是第二个Apollinarian主教其后。After Apollinaris's death his followers split into two parties, the Vitalians and the Polemeans or Sinusiati.经过Apollinaris的死亡他的追随者分裂成两个当事人,Vitalians和Polemeans或Sinusiati。 By 420 the Vitalians had been reunited with the Greek Church.由420的Vitalians已经回归希腊教会。Somewhat later the Sinusiati merged into the monophysite schism.有些后来Sinusiati合并到基督一性的分裂。

Apollinarianism was the harbinger of the great Christological battles which pitted Antioch against Alexandria, with Rome as referee, and finally issued in Christendom's permanent monophysite schism after the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Apollinarianism是伟大的亚历山大安提阿的对立与罗马,担任裁判的预兆基督战斗,终于在基督教的后Chalcedon委员会永久基督一性在451分裂发行。

Diodore of Tarsus, leader of the Antiochene school from ca. Diodore的大数,从CA安提阿学派学校的领导者。378 to his death ca. 378到他的死亡CA。392, typified the Christology of that literalist school of Bible interpretation. 392,典型的是学校的字面解释圣经的基督。To defend the immutability and eternity of the Logos he spoke of Christ as Son of God and Son of Mary by nature and grace respectively.为了捍卫不变性和基督的标志,他的讲话作为神的儿子和儿子的性质,分别永恒优雅的玛丽。Their union was a moral one.他们的结合是道德的。If this was not Christological dualism, it was perilously close.如果这不是基督二元论,这是危险地接近。

In contrast the Alexandrian school approached Christology in a word-flesh manner.相比之下亚历山大学校接触,一句话,基督肉身的方式。The Word or Logos assumed human flesh at the incarnation, and Alexandrians were apt to deny or ignore Christ's possession of a human soul or mind. Word或标识假定在化身人肉,和Alexandrians容易被忽视或否认基督的人的灵魂或心灵占有。

It was undoubtedly as a representative of Alexandrian thinking countering the trend in Antioch that Apollinaris began to teach and write Christology and to move toward his own extreme.这无疑是一个打击的亚历山大在安提阿趋势Apollinaris开始教写基督和走向自己的极端思想的代表。

The central deviation of Apollinarianism from the later Chalcedonian orthodoxy began in a Platonic trichtomy.该Apollinarianism从后来的Chalcedonian正统中央偏差开始在柏拉图trichtomy。 Man was seen to be body, sensitive soul, and rational soul.男子被看作是身体,敏感的心灵和理性的灵魂。Apollinaris felt that if one failed to diminish the human nature of Jesus in some way, a dualism had to result. Apollinaris认为,如果未能在某种程度上削弱了耶稣的人性,是二元对立不得不的结果。Furthermore, if one taught that Christ was a complete man, then Jesus had a human rational soul in which free will resided; and wherever there was free will, there was sin.此外,如果告诉我们,基督是一个完整的人,那么耶稣人类理性的灵魂居住在其中的自由意志,何地,有自由意志,有罪过。Therefore it followed that the Logos assumed only a body and its closely connected sensitive soul.因此它遵循的标志假定只有一个机构,其敏感的心灵紧密相连。The Logos or Word himself took the place of the rational soul (or spirit or nous) in the manhood of Jesus.该徽标或Word自己拿了的理性灵魂的地方(或精神或臭氧)在耶稣的男子气概。Thus one can speak of "the one sole nature incarnate of the Word of God."因此,可以说是“一个对神的话语的唯一性的化身。” This doctrine was developed by Apollinaris in his Demonstration of the Divine Incarnation, which was written in 376 in response to the initial papal condemnation.这一理论是由在他的神的化身,这是在376写在回应初始教皇谴责示范Apollinaris。

Apollinaris was a prolific writer, but following his anathematization in 381 his works were assiduously sought out and burned. Apollinaris是一位多产作家,但他在381以下anathematization他的作品认真寻找出来烧掉。Thus Apollinarianism leaves little literature except as cited in the works of its critics.因此Apollinarianism叶除非在它的批评文学作品很少提到。The general principle on which Apollinarianism was condemned was the Eastern perception that "that which is not assumed is not healed."总的原则上Apollinarianism的谴责,是东方的看法说:“那不是假设是没有愈合。”If the Logos did not assume the rational soul of the man Jesus, then the death of Christ could not heal or redeem the rational souls of men.如果标识不承担该名男子的耶稣理性的灵魂,那么,基督的死不能治愈或赎回人的理性灵魂。And as the church wrestled with this perception it rejected Apollinarianism and moved toward the Chalcedonian Definition, which rebuked and corrected both Antioch and Alexandria in their extremes: "This selfsame one is perfect both in deity and also in humanness; this selfsame one is also actually God and actually man, with a rational soul and a body."而与这种看法是拒绝Apollinarianism并走向了Chalcedonian定义,谴责和纠正他们的极端搏斗了两个安提阿和亚历山大教会:“这正当那人是完美的,也无论是在神在人性化,这实际上也是正当那一个是神和人其实是一个理性的灵魂和身体。“

VL Walter VL沃尔特
Elwell Evangelical DictionaryElwell宣布了福音字典

Bibliography 参考书目
CE Raven, Apollinarianism; GL Prestige, Fathers and Heretics; B. Altaner, Patrology; PA Norris, Manhood and Christ; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines. CE乌鸦,Apollinarianism; GL珍贵,父亲和异教徒; B. Altaner,Patrology; PA诺里斯,男子气概和基督; JND凯利,早期基督教的教义。


Apollinarianism Apollinarianism

Catholic Information天主教信息

A Christological theory, according to which Christ had a human body and a human sensitive soul, but no human rational mind, the Divine 1Logos taking the place of this last.一个基督论,根据基督了人体和人类敏感的心灵,但没有人理性的头脑,神州1Logos走这最后的地方。

The author of this theory, Apollinaris (Apolinarios) the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea, flourished in the latter half of the fourth century and was at first highly esteemed by men like St. Athanasius, St. Basil, and St. Jerome for his classical culture, his Biblical learning, his defence of Christianity and his loyalty to the Nicene faith.这一理论的作者,Apollinaris(Apolinarios)雅戈尔,老底嘉主教,在蓬勃发展的第四个世纪后半期,并在第一个高度由像圣亚他那修,圣罗勒,和圣杰罗姆男人对他推崇古典文化,他的圣经学习,他对基督教和他忠诚的尼西亚信仰辩护。 He assisted his father, Apollinaris the Elder, in reconstructing the scriptures on classical models in order to compensate the Christians for the loss of Greek literature of which the edict of Julian had deprived them.他协助他的父亲,Apollinaris的长老,在重建的经典车型的经文,以弥补其中的希腊文学的朱利安诏书剥夺他们损失的基督徒。 St. Jerome credits him with innumerable volumes on the Scriptures; two apologies of Christianity, one against Porphyry, and the other against Julian; a refutation of Eunomius, a radical Arian, etc.; but all these works are lost.圣杰罗姆归功于无数卷圣经上他,两个道歉基督教,1人反对斑岩,和对朱利安的除外;的Eunomius反驳,一个激进的阿里安等,但所有这些作品都将丢失。 With regard to Apollinaris's writings which bear on the present theory, we are more fortunate.关于Apollinaris的著作于目前的理论熊,我们幸运多了。A contemporary anonymous book: Adversus fraudes Apollinaristarum, informs us that the Apollinarists, in order to win credence for their error, circulated a number of tracts under the approved names of such men as Gregory Thaumaturgus (He kata meros pistis, Exposition of Faith), Athanasius (Peri sarkoseos, On the Incarnation), Pope Julius (Peri tes en Christo enotetos, On Unity in Christ), etc. Following that clue, Lequien (1740), Caspari (1879) and Dräseke (1892), have shown that in all probability these are Apollinaris's writings.一个现代的匿名书:Adversus fraudes Apollinaristarum,通知我们,Apollinarists,为了赢得他们的错误凭证,分发作为格雷戈里Thaumaturgus(他卡塔MEROS pistis,博览会的信仰)等人的批准名称的大片数量,亚他那修(PERI sarkoseos,在道成肉身),教皇朱利叶斯(工商业污水附加费恩围克里斯托enotetos团结,在基督)等随后的线索,Lequien(1740),Caspari(1879)和Dräseke(1892),表明在所有这些都是Apollinaris概率的著作。 Moreover, the Fathers of the Church who wrote in defence of orthodoxy, eg, Athanasius, in two books against Apollinaris; Gregory Nazianzen, in several letters; Gregory of Nyssa in his Antirretikos; Theodoret, in his Haereticae Fabulae and Dialogues, etc., incidentally give us ample information on the real system of the Laodicean.此外,教会谁在保卫正统,如亚他那修,写了两书的父亲对A​​pollinaris;格雷戈里Nazianzen,在几个字母;的nyssa格雷戈里在他Antirretikos; Theodoret,在他的Haereticae Fabulae和对话等,顺带让我们对老底嘉真实系统充足的资料。

The precise time at which Apollinaris came forward with his heresy is uncertain.在精确的时间在这Apollinaris带着他的异端前进是不确定的。There are clearly two periods in the Apollinarist controversy.有明确两个Apollinarist争议期。Up to 376, either because of his covert attitude or of the respect in which he was held, Apollinaris's name was never mentioned by his opponents, ie by individuals like Athanasius and Pope Damasus, or by councils like the Alexandrian (362), and the Roman (376).高达376,可能是因为他的隐蔽态度或在其中他被关押的尊重,Apollinaris的名字从来没有提到他的对手,即由像亚他那修和教皇达玛斯,个人或像亚历山大(362)议会和罗马(376)。 From this latter date it is open war.从这个后者日期是公开的战争。Two more Roman councils, 377 and 381, and a number of Fathers, plainly denounce and condemn as heretical the views of Apollinaris.两名罗马议会,377和381,和父亲多少,明明白白声讨和谴责为异端邪说的Apollinaris的意见。 He failed to submit even to the more solemn condemnation of the council of Constantinople, 381, whose first canon entered Apollinarianism on the list of heresies, and he died in his error, about 392.他甚至没有提交到君士坦丁堡,381局,其第一个佳能进入名单上的异端邪说Apollinarianism更庄严的谴责,他死在他的错误大约392。 His following, at one time considerable in Constantinople, Syria, and Phoenicia, hardly survived him.他的下一次在君士坦丁堡,叙利亚和腓尼基相当大,难以生存了他。Some few disciples, like Vitalis, Valentinus, Polemon, and Timothy, tried to perpetuate the error of the master and probably are responsible for the forgeries noticed above.有的几个弟子,像VITALIS,Valentinus,Polemon,和提摩太,试图延续的主错误,可能是伪造的发现为上述负责。 The sect itself soon became extinct.该教派本身很快就灭绝了​​。Towards 416, many returned to the mother-Church, while the rest drifted away into Monophysitism.迈向416,许多回到了母亲的教会,而其余的漂入基督一程。

THEORY理论

Apollinaris based his theory on two principles or suppositions, one ontological or objective, and one psychological or subjective. Apollinaris基于两个原则或推测,一个本体论或客观的,一个心理或主观他的理论。Ontologically, it appeared to him that the union of complete God with complete man could not be more than a juxtaposition or collocation.本体论,它出现在他面前的是,完整的人的完全神联盟不能比并列或搭配更多。 Two perfect beings with all their attributes, he argued, cannot be one.二,一切属性的完美人生,他认为,不可能是。They are at most an incongruous compound, not unlike the monsters of mythology.他们在最an不协调化合物,没有什么不同的神话怪物。Inasmuch as the Nicene faith forbade him to belittle the Logos, as Arius had done, he forthwith proceeded to maim the humanity of Christ, and divest it of its noblest attribute, and this, he claimed, for the sake of true Unity and veritable Incarnation.生死时刻为尼西亚信仰禁止他贬低标识,作为阿里乌斯做了,他立即着手残害基督的人性,剥离其最崇高的属性了,而这一点,他声称对真正的团结和真正的化身的缘故, 。Psychologically, Apollinaris, considering the rational soul or spirit as essentially liable to sin and capable, at its best, of only precarious efforts, saw no way of saving Christ's impeccability and the infinite value of Redemption, except by the elimination of the human spirit from Jesus' humanity, and the substitution of the Divine Logos in its stead.在心理上,Apollinaris,考虑到只有不稳定的努力理性的灵魂或精神实质上被判罪,有能力在其最好的,没有看到拯救基督的无罪和赎回无限价值的方式,除由人的精神消除从耶稣的人性,以及在其代替神的标志替代。 For the constructive part of his theory, Apollinaris appealed to the well-known Platonic division of human nature: body (sarx, soma), soul (psyche halogos), spirit (nous, pneuma, psyche logike).对于他的理论的建设性的作用,Apollinaris呼吁著名的柏拉图分工人性:身体(sarx,SOMA),灵魂(精神halogos),精神(臭氧,精气,心理logike)。 Christ, he said, assumed the human body and the human soul or principle of animal life, but not the human spirit.基督,他说,承担了人体和动物或人的灵魂生活的原则,而不是人类的精神。The Logos Himself is, or takes the place of, the human spirit, thus becoming the rational and spiritual centre, the seat of self-consciousness and self-determination.该标识是自己,还是需要的,人的精神进行的,从而成为理性和精神中心,自我意识和自决的席位。 By this simple device the Laodicean thought that Christ was safe, His substantial unity secure, His moral immutability guaranteed, and the infinite value of Redemption made self-evident.通过这种简单的装置老底嘉认为基督是安全的,他的大幅统一安全,他的道德不变性保证,而赎回了无限的价值不言而喻。 And in confirmation of it all, he quoted from St. John i, 14 "and the Word was made flesh"; St. Paul, Phil., ii, 7, Being made in the likeness of men and in habit found as a man, and I Cor., xv, 47 The second man, from heaven, heavenly.而在这一切的确认,他引用了圣约翰一,14“和道成了肉身”;圣保罗,菲尔,二,七,作为在人的肖像和习惯了作为一个男人发现和我肺心病。,十五,47第二人,从天上,天上​​。

DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH教义的教会

It is to be found in the seventh anathema of Pope Damasus in the Council of Rome, 381.它是在教皇达玛斯在罗马,381理事会第七届诅咒发现。"We pronounce anathema against them who say that the Word of God is in the human flesh in lieu and place of the human rational and intellective soul. For, the Word of God is the Son Himself. Neither did He come in the flesh to replace, but rather to assume and preserve from sin and save the rational and intellective soul of man." “我们对他们的发音谁说,神的话语在代替和人类理性和智力的灵魂的地方人肉是诅咒​​。因为,神的话语是自己的儿子,也没有他的肉来代替,而是要承担起维护从罪和保存人类理性和智力的灵魂。“ In answer to Apollinaris's basic principles, the Fathers simply denied the second as Manichaean.在回答Apollinaris的基本原则,根本否定了父亲作为摩尼教第二。As to the first, it should be remembered that the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon had not yet formulated the doctrine of Hypostatical Union.至于第一,应该记住,以弗所和迦克墩议会尚未制定了Hypostatical联盟学说。It will then appear why the Fathers contented themselves with offering arguments in rebuttal, eg:然后它会出现,为什么父亲只满足于提供反驳,例如自己的论点:

Scripture holds that the Logos assumed all that is human -- therefore the pneuma also -- sin alone excepted; that Jesus experienced joy and sadness, both being properties of the rational soul.圣经认为,假定所有的标志是人 -​​ 因此,元气也 - 罪单独除外;耶稣经历了欢乐和悲伤,对理性的灵魂都被属性。

Christ without a rational soul is not a man; such an incongruous compound, as that imagined by Apollinaris, can neither be called God-man nor stand as the model of Christian life.没有理性的灵魂基督是不是一个人,这种不协调的化合物,因为这所Apollinaris想象,既不能被称为神人也没有站出来对基督徒的生活模式。

What Christ has not assumed He has not healed; thus the noblest portion of man is excluded from Redemption.基督没有什么假设,他还没有痊愈,因此对人最高贵的部分是从赎回排除在外。

They also pointed out the correct meaning of the Scriptural passages alleged by Apollinaris, remarking that the word sarx in St. John, as in other parts of Holy Writ, was used by synecdoche for the whole human nature, and that the true meaning of St. Paul (Philippians and I Corinthians) was determined by the clear teaching of the Pastoral Epistles.他们还指出,由Apollinaris指控的圣经经文的正确意思,陈述,在圣约翰字sarx在其他令状的神圣部分,是由提喻用于整个人性,是真正意义的圣保罗(腓和哥林多前书)测定的教牧书信明确的教学。 Some of them, however, incautiously insisted upon the limitations of Jesus' knowledge as proof positive that His mind was truly human.其中一些,但是,一不小心坚持的耶稣“为积极的,证明他的心是真正的人类知识的局限性。 But when the heresiarch would have taken them farther afield into the very mystery of the Unity of Christ, they feared not to acknowledge their ignorance and gently derided Apollinaris's mathematical spirit and implicit reliance upon mere speculation and human reasoning.但是,当heresiarch将采取入基督的统一非常神秘他们更远的地方,他们担心不承认自己的无知,轻轻地嘲笑Apollinaris的数学的精神,在单纯的投机和人类的推理隐含的依赖。 The Apollinarist controversy, which nowadays appears somewhat childish, had its importance in the history of Christian dogma; it transferred the discussion from the Trinity into the Christological field; moreover, it opened that long line of Christological debates which resulted in the Chalcedonian symbol.该Apollinarist争论,如今显得有些孩子气,有它在基督教教条的历史重要性,它转移到三位一体的讨论进入基督领域,而且,它开的,其中在Chalcedonian符号,导致基督辩论长行。

Publication information Written by JF Sollier.出版信息JF Sollier写。Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler.转录由迈克尔Tinkler。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



See also:也请看:
Council of Chalcedon理事会迦克墩


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