Arabs阿拉伯人

General Information一般资料

The term Arabs refers to the peoples who speak Arabic as their native language.阿拉伯人一词指的是人民谁发言,因为他们的母语阿拉伯语。A Semitic people like the Jews (see Semites), Arabs form the bulk of the population of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.像犹太人A(见闪米特人),闪米特人,阿拉伯人构成了阿尔及利亚,巴林,埃及,伊拉克,约旦,科威特,黎巴嫩,利比亚,摩洛哥,阿曼,卡塔尔,沙特阿拉伯,苏丹,叙利亚,突尼斯人口的大部分,阿拉伯联合酋长国和也门。 In addition, there are about 1.7 million Palestinian Arabs living under Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, territories occupied by Israel during the 1967 Arab-Israeli War (see Arab-Israeli Wars), and more than 700,000 Arab citizens of Israel.此外,还有约170万下在约旦河西岸和加沙地带的以色列统治的巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人被以色列占领的领土在1967年阿以战争(见阿拉伯 - 以色列战争),以及超过70万的以色列阿拉伯公民。

Estimates of the total Arab population of the countries above range from 175 to 200 million.总上述范围内的国家从175到200万阿拉伯人口估计。The great majority of Arabs are Muslims, but there are significant numbers of Christian Arabs in Egypt (see Coptic Church), Lebanon, and Syria and among Palestinians.绝大多数的阿拉伯人是穆斯林,但也有大量的基督徒阿拉伯人在埃及(见科普特教堂),黎巴嫩,叙利亚和巴勒斯坦人之间。 In geographical terms the Arab world includes North Africa and most of the Middle East (excluding Turkey, Israel, and Iran), a region that has been a center of civilization and crossroads of trade since prehistoric times.在地理方面的阿拉伯世界包括北非和中东地区(不包括土耳其,以色列和伊朗)大多数情况下,已自史前时代的文明和贸易的十字路口中心区域。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件

Arab History阿拉伯历史

References to Arabs as nomads and camel herders of northern Arabia appear in Assyrian inscriptions of the 9th century BC.作为北方游牧民族和骆驼的阿拉伯人阿拉伯牧民引用出现在公元前9世纪亚述人题字。The name was subsequently applied to all inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula.这个名字后来应用到阿拉伯半岛的所有居民。 From time to time Arab kingdoms arose on the fringes of the desert, including the Nabataeans at Petra in southern Jordan in the 2d century BC and Palmyra in central Syria in the 3d century AD, but no great Arab empire emerged until Islam appeared in the 7th century AD.不时地阿拉伯王国出现在沙漠边缘地带,包括在约旦南部的佩特拉在2D世纪BC和中央叙利亚巴尔米拉在3D世纪公元纳巴泰,但没有出现伟大的阿拉伯帝国,直到伊斯兰教第七次出现在世纪AD。

Although a majority of Muslims today are not Arabs, the religion was born in the Arabian Peninsula and Arabic is its mother tongue.虽然今天的大多数穆斯林不是阿拉伯人,宗教出生在阿拉伯半岛和阿拉伯语是其母语。Mecca, a place of religious pilgrimage for tribes of western Arabia and a trading center on the route between southern Arabia and the urban civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean and Iraq, was the birthplace of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad Ibn Abdullah (c.570-632 AD); the Muslim calendar begins with his flight to Medina in 622 because it marked the founding of a separate Muslim community.麦加朝圣的宗教对西方对阿拉伯和阿拉伯之间的南部和东部地中海和伊拉克的城市文明航线交易中心部落的地方,是对伊斯兰教的先知穆罕默德伊本阿卜杜拉的发源地(c.570 -公元632),穆斯林的日历开始,因为它标志着一个独立的穆斯林团体的成立与他的飞行在622到麦地那。By the time of Muhammad's death, Mecca and nearly all the tribes of the peninsula had accepted Islam.由穆罕默德去世时,麦加和几乎所有半岛部落接受了伊斯兰教。A century later the lands of Islam, under Arab leadership, stretched from Spain in the west across North Africa and most of the modern Middle East into Central Asia and northern India.一个世纪后,伊斯兰教在阿拉伯土地的领导下,从西班牙延伸在整个北非西部和现代中东到中亚和最北部的印度。

There were two great Islamic dynasties of Arab origin, the Umayyads (661-750), centered in Damascus, and the Abbasids(750-1258), whose capital was Baghdad.有两个伟大的伊斯兰王朝的阿拉伯血统,伍玛亚德(661-750),在大马士革为中心,和阿巴斯王朝(750-1258),其资本巴格达。 Most Umayyad rulers insisted on Arab primacy over non-Arab converts to Islam, while the Abbasid caliphs accepted the principle of Arab and non-Arab equality as Muslims.大多数倭马亚统治者坚持对非阿拉伯皈依伊斯兰教阿拉伯的首要地位,而阿巴斯哈里发接受了阿拉伯和非阿拉伯穆斯林作为平等的原则。 At its height in the 8th and 9th centuries, the Abbasid caliphate was extraordinarily wealthy, dominating trade routes between Asia and Europe.在其第8和第9个世纪的高度,阿巴斯哈里发是非常富有的,主导亚洲和欧洲之间的贸易路线。Islamic civilization flourished during the Abbasid period even though the political unity of the caliphate often shattered into rival dynasties.伊斯兰文明在阿巴斯王朝兴盛时期,即使是政治统一的哈里发王朝破灭往往成为对手。Greek philosophy was translated into Arabic and contributed to the expansion of Arab-Persian Islamic scholarship.希腊哲学被翻译成阿拉伯文和促进了阿拉伯 - 波斯伊斯兰奖学金扩张。Islamic treatises on medicine, philosophy, and science, including Arabic translations of Plato and Aristotle, greatly influenced Christian thinkers in Europe in the 12th century by way of Muslim Spain.伊斯兰论文在医学,哲学和科学,包括阿拉伯文翻译的柏拉图和亚里士多德,极大地影响了12世纪欧洲的基督教思想家在西班牙的穆斯林的方式。

The power of the Arab Abbasid family declined from the 10th century onward due to internal political and religious rivalries and victories by Christian European Crusaders seeking to recapture territory lost to Islam.阿拉伯阿巴斯王朝家族力量下降,从10世纪起,由于国内政治和宗教的对立和基督教的欧洲十字军试图夺回失去的胜利,以伊斯兰的领土。 The Mongol invasion of the 13th century led to the destruction of the Abbasid caliphate in 1258 and opened the way for the eventual rise of a great Turkish Muslim empire known as the Ottoman Empire.在13世纪蒙古人入侵导致的阿巴斯王朝哈里发破坏1258年,打开了一个伟大的土耳其奥斯曼帝国的穆斯林称为帝国崛起的最终途径。 The Ottomans took Constantinople (Istanbul) from the Byzantines in 1453 and had taken control of the Arab Middle East and most of North Africa by the end of the 16th century.在奥斯曼帝国在1453年采取了从拜占庭君士坦丁堡(伊斯坦布尔),并已采取控制阿拉伯中东和北非大部分由16世纪的结束。 Arabs remained subjects of the Ottoman Turks for over 300 years--into the 20th century.阿拉伯人仍然是300多年的奥斯曼土耳其人科目 - 进入20世纪。

The Arab world of today is the product of Ottoman decline, European colonialism, and Arab demands for freedom from European occupation.今天的阿拉伯世界是奥斯曼帝国衰落,欧洲殖民主义,以及来自欧洲的占领阿拉伯自由需求的产品。At the beginning of World War I all of North Africa was under French (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco), Italian (Libya), or British (Egypt) domination.在第一次世界大战开始,我的一切都在北非法语(阿尔及利亚,突尼斯,摩洛哥),意大利(利比亚),或英国(埃及)的支配。 After World War I the League of Nations divided the Arab lands that had remained Ottoman during the war between Britain and France, with the understanding that each power would encourage the development of the peoples of the region toward self-rule.第一次世界大战后国际联盟的划分一直保持在奥斯曼帝国英国和法国之间的战争的理解,每个功率将鼓励的走向自治地区人民的发展,阿拉伯土地。 Iraq and Palestine (including part of what is now Jordan) went to Britain, and Syria and Lebanon to France.伊拉克和巴勒斯坦(包括什么现在是约旦的一部分)去英国,叙利亚和黎巴嫩的法国。Britain had suggested to Arab leaders during the war that Palestine would be included in areas to be given Arab self-determination, but British officials then promised the region to the Zionist movement, which called for a Jewish state there.英国曾建议在阿拉伯国家领导人,巴勒斯坦将在被给定的领域包括阿拉伯自决,但英国官员则承诺该地区的犹太复国主义运动,这对于一个犹太国家的所谓有战争。 The Arab lands gained their independence in stages after World War II, sometimes, as in Algeria, after long and bitter struggles.阿拉伯土地上获得了第二次世界大战后的分阶段独立,有时,如在阿尔及利亚,经过长期艰苦卓绝的斗争。Much of Palestine became the state of Israel in May 1948, setting the stage for the Arab-Israeli conflict, in which five wars have occurred (1948-49, 1956, 1967, 1973, and 1982), and contributing to the rise of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which gained prominence after the humiliating Arab losses in the 1967 war.巴勒斯坦的大部分成为了以色列国一九四八年五月,设定为阿拉伯 - 以色列冲突的阶段,其中5场战争发生(1948-49,1956,1967,1973和1982),并促进了上升巴勒斯坦解放组织(巴解组织)的上涨后,在1967年战争羞辱阿拉伯损失突出。

People and Economy人民和经济

Arabs have traditionally been considered nomads, epitomized by the Bedouin of Arabia.阿拉伯人传统上被认为是游牧民族,由沙特阿拉伯贝都因人的缩影。Stereotypical portrayals of Arabs today use the image of the nomad or tribal sheikh, usually with prejudicial intent.阿拉伯人丑化今天使用的游牧或部落酋长的形象,通常与偏见的意图。In fact, it is difficult to generalize about Arabs in terms of appearance or way of life.事实上,很难一概而论约阿拉伯人在外观或生活方式上。Bedouin are less than 10 percent of the total Arab population.贝都因人不到总数的10%的阿拉伯居民。Most Arab societies are heavily urbanized, particularly the oil-rich states of the Arabian Peninsula.大多数阿拉伯社会的高度城市化,特别是石油资源丰富的阿拉伯半岛国家。

This reversal of the stereotype of the desert Arab owes much to the fact that there is little if any agriculture in such societies.这是阿拉伯的沙漠的刻板印象逆转很大程度上归功于这样的事实,没有什么,如果任何这样的社会农业。Major peasant populations are found in countries such as Egypt, Syria, Algeria, and Iraq, where there is water for irrigation, but even there generalizations are difficult.农民发现的主要人群,如埃及,叙利亚,阿尔及利亚,伊拉克,那里有水灌溉的国家,但即使在那里的概括是困难的。 All these nations have heavy urban concentrations; Cairo, for example, has a population of 14 million and is still expanding.所有这些国家都大城市人口集中,开罗,例如,拥有14万人口,目前仍在扩大。As a whole, then, Arab society today is more heavily urban than rural, as a result of major political, economic, and social changes that have occurred in the last century.作为一个整体,那么,今天的阿拉伯社会更多地是城市高于农村,作为一个重大的政治,经济和社会已经在上个世纪发生的变化的结果。 In addition, there are important variations in political and religious outlooks among Arabs.此外,也有阿拉伯人之间的政治和宗教观念的重要变化。

In the midst of such diversity the two basic elements uniting most Arabs are the Arabic language and Islam.在这种多样性之中的两个基本要素团结大多数阿拉伯人是阿拉伯语和伊斯兰教。Though spoken Arabic differs from country to country, the written language forms a cultural basis for all Arabs.虽然讲阿拉伯语的国家而有所不同,书面语言形式为所有阿拉伯人的文化基础。Islam does the same for many, with Arabic being the language of the Koran, the revealed word of God delivered through the prophet Muhammad.伊斯兰会为许多相同与阿拉伯语的古兰经被语言,揭示了上帝交付字通过先知穆罕默德。Most Arabs are Sunni Muslims (see Sunnites).大多数阿拉伯人是逊尼派穆斯林(见逊尼派)。A minority are Shiites.少数人是什叶派穆斯林。The division of Islam into two main branches is the result of a dispute over succession to the caliphate that goes back to the 7th century and has led to certain doctrinal differences between the two branches.伊斯兰的划分为两个主要分支是一个多继承哈里发可以追溯到公元7世纪,并导致某些理论两个分支之间的分歧争端的结果。 The major Shiite country is non-Arab Iran, but there are large numbers of Shiites in Iraq (where they form a majority) and in Lebanon (where Shiites are now the biggest single religious group).主要的什叶派国家非阿拉伯伊朗,但也有大量的什叶派在伊拉克(在那里形成多数)和黎巴嫩(其中什叶派是现在最大的单一宗教团体)。 Shiite tensions are due partly to Iranian efforts to promote Shiite Islam in the aftermath of the 1979 revolution that brought Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to power and partly to the fact that Shiites, who form the economic underclass in many Arab nations, feel that they have been discriminated against by the Sunnite majority.什叶派紧张,部分原因是伊朗努力促进在1979年革命带来的霍梅尼上台后,以什叶派伊斯兰教和部分什叶派的事实,谁的形式在许多阿拉伯国家的经济下层,觉得自己受到歧视反对由逊尼派占多数。

Although traditional tribal life has nearly disappeared, tribal values and identity retain some importance, especially when linked to Islam.虽然传统的部落生活已经接近消失,部落的传统价值和身份保留一些重要的,尤其是当与伊斯兰教。Descent from the clan of the prophet Muhammad or from one of the first Arab tribes to accept Islam still carries great prestige.从先知穆罕默德氏族或部落的第一个阿拉伯国家接受伊斯兰教one后裔仍带有很大的威信。Many villages and towns contain prominent families with common links to tribal ancestors.许多村庄和城镇含有部族的祖先共同的联系望族。Blood ties contribute to the formation of political factions.血缘关系有助于政治派别的形成。These types of relationships are less prevalent in cities; even there, however, leading families may seek to intermarry their children to preserve traditional bonds, and many urban families retain ties to their villages.这些类型的关系在城市普遍较少,即使有,然而,导​​致家庭可能寻求通婚子女保存传统债券,许多城市家庭保留自己的村庄关系。

Nevertheless, the importance of kinship has been weakened by the rapid expansion of urban society, by modern educational systems, and by the creation of centralized governments whose bureaucracies are often the major source of employment for university graduates.然而,亲属关系的重要性已经削弱了城市社会的快速扩张的现代教育体系,并经其官僚机构往往是大学毕业生就业的主要来源集中政府的创建。 Many educated young people choose spouses from among fellow classmates, a development that reflects especially the expansion of educational and professional opportunities for women.许多受过教育的年轻人选择的同学当中,开发反映特别是对妇女的教育和职业机会的扩张配偶。It is not uncommon for young people to become engaged and then wait a year or two to marry because they cannot find or afford suitable housing immediately.这不是寻常的年轻人订婚,然后等待一两年结婚,因为他们无法找到合适的住房或负担不起立即In the past the bride would have become part of the husband's family's household, a custom still followed in many villages.在过去的新娘会成为丈夫的家庭的家庭的一部分,自定义仍然遵循在许多村庄。

This rapid pace of urbanization and social change has been encouraged by economic constraints found in many Arab societies.这种快速的城市化和社会变革的步伐一直鼓励在许多阿拉伯社会中找到经济上的限制。Except for oil, there are few natural resources to be exploited for industrial development.除了石油,几乎没有转作工业开发利用自然资源。Agricultural productivity is generally high in Arab countries, but productive land is scarce in some regions because of the lack of water, and droughts and rising demand have increased the possibility of conflicts over water resources shared by neighboring countries.农业生产率一般在阿拉伯国家的高,但生产性土地是稀缺由于一些缺水地区,干旱和不断增长的需求,加大了对邻国分享水资源冲突的可能性。 Fewer opportunities in agriculture, coupled with social modernization, have caused young people to flock to major cities seeking education and employment.在农业的机会较少,与社会现代化相结合,已造成年轻人涌向寻求教育和就业的主要城市。This has placed serious strains on governmental abilities to respond to social needs.这已列入政府的能力受到严重的压力,以回应社会的需要。

This process has been exacerbated by another factor--the rapid rate of population growth in many Arab countries.这个过程一直加剧的另一个因素 - 人口在许多阿拉伯国家的增长速度很快。Most have a rate of increase near 3 percent annually, as compared to rates of growth in Western Europe of under 1 percent.大多有近3%的增长速度每年比在西方的欧洲低于1%的增长率。These growth rates reflect the impact of modern medicine and social services that have lessened infant mortality.这些增长率反映了现代医学和婴儿死亡率已减少社会服务的影响。The tendency to smaller families found in Western urban societies has not occurred because of the prevalence of traditional attitudes favoring large families, particularly among the poor and in areas where tribal values prevail.而在西方社会中发现小城镇家庭的趋势并没有发生因偏袒大家庭的传统观念盛行,特别是穷人和地区的部落值为准。Oman has a growth rate approaching 5 percent, and even a rate of 2.3 percent for Egypt means that nearly 1.4 million Egyptians are born every year in a country where agricultural land comprises only 12 percent of the total land area, forcing further urban congestion and the need to import more food to maintain subsistence levels.阿曼的增长率接近5%,甚至有2.3%的速度意味着埃及近140万埃及人是出生在一个国家里农业用地仅占总量的12%的土地面积每年,迫使更多城市拥堵和需要进口更多的粮食来维持生计的水平。 This inability to feed the population from indigenous resources leads to increased indebtedness and a diversion of funds from development.这种无法从当地资源养活的人口导致债务增加以及来自发展资金的转移。

One final element in this equation is the large number of young people in these expanding populations.在这个等式的最后一个因素是,这些年轻人在人口大量增加。For example, 48 percent of all Syrians are under 15 years of age, a not unrepresentative statistic suggesting that future problems of unemployment and food shortages will be greater than they are now.例如,48%的所有叙利亚人未满15岁,一个不具代表性的统计数据表明,失业和粮食短缺问题将有更大的未来将比现在年。These population indices suggest great potential for social unrest, and the failure of many secular Arab regimes to fulfill their promises of economic prosperity and national strength have contributed to the increasing adherence to Islam by young people in some Arab societies.这些人口指数表明社会动荡的巨大潜力,以及许多世俗的阿拉伯政权未能履行经济繁荣,国力的承诺,带动了越来越多坚持在一些阿拉伯社会青年伊斯兰教。 Among the young, in particular, Arab inability to regain the territories lost in the 1967 war with Israel led to questioning of the secular ideologies that had dominated regional politics during the post-World War II era, while a growing gap between rich and poor and the spread of education increased demands for greater participation in largely undemocratic political systems.其中年轻的,特别是阿拉伯国家无法恢复与以色列在1967年战争中失去的领土导致了占主导地位的是在后二战时代的地区政治世俗意识形态的质疑,而贫富差距越来越大,并对教育的普及在很大程度上增加了更大的不民主的政治制度参与的要求。

Modern Politics and Social Issues现代政治与社会问题

The men who led the Arab independence movements after World War I were usually secularists.这些人谁领导第一次世界大战后通常是世俗主义的阿拉伯独立运动。Although many of them, such as Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, were Pan-Arab nationalists who advocated the creation of a single Arab nation, they believed it essential that their countries adopt many aspects of Western civilization, such as secular laws, parliamentary government, and the like.虽然其中不乏如埃及的纳赛尔,是泛阿拉伯谁主张一个阿拉伯民族创造的民族主义者,他们认为有必要,他们的国家采取了西方文明,如世俗的法律,议会政府许多方面,之类的。 These views challenged the primacy of Islam in everyday life.这些观点在日常生活中的挑战伊斯兰教的首要地位。Islamic law (Sharia) makes no distinction between religious and temporal power.伊斯兰法(伊斯兰教)不作任何宗教和世俗权力之间的区别。Muslims believe that all law derives from the Koran, and that God's word must therefore apply to all aspects of life.穆斯林认为,所有法律的可兰经派生,而神的话语,因此必须适用于生活的各个方面。The gradual relegation of Islam to the realm of personal status, a process that began during the period of Western dominance, continued as Arab nations gained independence under nationalist leaders who believed that Islam lacked answers to the problems confronting modern society and national development.伊斯兰的逐步降级到个人身份,一个过程,在西方统治时期开始,领域继续作为阿拉伯国家获得了下谁相信伊斯兰教缺乏对现代社会所面临的问题和国家发展的答案民族主义领导人的独立性。

Many devout Arab Muslims disagreed.许多虔诚的阿拉伯穆斯林不同意。The Muslim Brotherhood, for example, was formed in Egypt as early as 1929 to meet the needs of Egyptians uprooted by modern economic and cultural inroads into traditional Egyptian life.穆斯林兄弟会,例如,成立如1929年初,以满足埃及的需要,现代经济和文化的大举逃难到埃及的传统生活在埃及。A central tenet of all such Muslim groups is the belief that Western economic and social values cannot restore past Arab greatness and that Muslim societies must be based on principles derived from their own roots.所有这些的一个穆斯林团体的中心原则是相信西方的经济和社会价值无法恢复过去的伟大与阿拉伯,穆斯林社会必须从自己的根派生原则。 Beyond this, such groups often differ on the type of society they envisage and how to achieve it.除此之外,这类群体往往在不同的社会,他们设想的类型以及如何实现它。Some organizations advocate the violent overthrow of existing regimes; others spread their views by peaceful means.有些团体主张用暴力推翻现有政权,其他和平手段传播他们的意见。The call to Islam has special appeal to those who are the victims rather than the beneficiaries of modernization.对伊斯兰教调用特别呼吁那些谁是现代化的,而不是受益人的受害者。Many others who have rejected membership in such groups have returned to the private religious duties of Islam, such as praying five times daily, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca.谁拒绝在这些团体的成员,许多人已经回到了伊斯兰私人宗教工作,如每天祈祷五次,在斋月禁食,并作出麦加朝圣。

Muslim organizations see the West as the real threat to Islamic stability.穆斯林组织看作是稳定的真正威胁伊斯兰西方。Most see Israel as an agent of the West in the Middle East.大多数看到作为西方在中东的代理人以色列。Even secular Arabs who admire the West and fear reintroduction of a Muslim theocracy nevertheless often feel angered at what they perceive as Western and especially American ignorance of and unconcern for Arab concerns.即使世俗的阿拉伯人谁欣赏西方的穆斯林神权政治的恐惧重新引入经常感到愤怒但在什么他们认为西方,尤其是美国的无知与漠不关心阿拉伯关注。 The Palestinian uprising (Intifada) launched in December 1987 created new awareness of the problem and contributed to the signing of the 1993 accord between Israel and the PLO.巴勒斯坦起义(起义)1987年12月发起创建了问题的新认识,并促成了以色列与巴解组织1993年签署协议。

On the other hand, anti-Israeli pronouncements have often served to create a false impression of unity when real agreement was lacking.另一方面,反以色列的言论,往往有助于建立一个统一的协议时缺少真实的假象。The Arab League, formed in 1945, has been more a forum for Arab infighting than a framework for cooperation.阿拉伯国家联盟,于1945年成立,一直不是一个阿拉伯国家合作框架内斗多了一个论坛。Arabs genuinely feel common bonds based on language and a shared historical and cultural legacy, but they also identify themselves as Egyptians, Iraqis, and so on.阿拉伯人真正觉得在语言和共同的历史和文化传统的普通债券,但他们同样认为埃及人,伊拉克人自己,等等。Their ideological differences reflect the wide range of governing systems in the Arab world, from socialist regimes to oil-rich monarchies.他们在意识形态上的分歧反映了阿拉伯世界的管理系统种类繁多,从社会主义制度,以盛产石油的君主制。

Complicating factors for the region have been the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88), tensions between Iran and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, regional involvement in Lebanon, and the 1991 Persian Gulf War.该地区复杂的因素一直是两伊战争(1980至1988年),伊朗与波斯湾,黎巴嫩,阿拉伯国家参与的区域紧张局势,和1991年的波斯湾战争。 As of 1990, more than 60 percent of the proved oil reserves of the globe could be found in the Middle East, particularly in Saudi Arabia, which contains nearly half of the world's reserves.截至1990年,超过60的百分之全球已探明石油储量可以发现,在中东,特别是在沙特阿拉伯,其中包含几乎世界储量的一半。 Oil has been exported from the Arab world since the 1930s, but only with the creation of the Organization pf Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960 and the Libyan revolution of 1969 did these countries begin to determine oil prices themselves.石油已出口从20世纪30年代以来阿拉伯世界,但只有在本组织PF石油输出国组织(欧佩克)在1960年和1969年利比亚革命创造这些国家也开始确定自己的石油价格。 Although only eight Arab nations are substantial oil producers and OPEC has several non-Arab members, the organization is usually associated with Arab oil; the oil shortages of 1973-74 resulted from Saudi anger at US policy during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.虽然只有八个阿拉伯国家是巨大的石油生产国和欧佩克一些非阿拉伯成员国,该组织通常与阿拉伯国家的石油,石油短缺的1973-74来自于美国的政策在1973年沙特愤怒的阿拉伯 - 以色列战争的结果。Overproduction drove down prices in the 1980s and early 1990s, weakening OPEC's clout and the ability of the oil-producing Arab states to provide aid and jobs for the poorer Arab nations.生产过剩压低在20世纪80年代和90年代初的价格,削弱欧佩克的影响力和对产油的阿拉伯国家有能力提供较贫穷的阿拉伯国家援助和就业机会。 The Arab world is likely to long remain the center of world oil production, however, a fact that contributed to the international response to Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait and to the ongoing efforts to destroy Iraq's nuclear capability.阿拉伯世界是可能长期保持世界石油生产中心,然而,这一事实促成了国际上对伊拉克1990年入侵科威特,并正在努力摧毁伊拉克的核能力。

Future Prospects前景

The Arab world holds potential for both growth and conflict.阿拉伯世界举行的增长和潜在的冲突。Some Arab efforts to promote more unified approaches to common problems have been made in recent years, including the formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (1981) and the Arab Maghrib Union 1989), and the shaky union of the Yemens.一些阿拉伯国家努力促进共同问题更加统一的方法已经在最近几年,包括海湾合作委员会(1981年)和阿拉伯马格里布联盟1989年)的形成,以及也门摇摇欲坠的联盟。 Efforts to forge Arab unity are strained by competition among Iraq, Syria, and Egypt for leadership of the Arab world, and the varied Arab reactions to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait shattered the myth of such unity.努力开拓阿拉伯国家之间的团结,是紧张的伊拉克,叙利亚和埃及争夺阿拉伯世界的领导地位,以及对伊拉克入侵科威特阿拉伯不同的反应打破了这种团结的神话。 Prospects for regional stability improved somewhat with the ending of the cold war and the signing of the 1993 and 1994 accords between the PLO and Israel, the 1994 accord between Israel and Jordan, and other Arab moves toward peace with Israel.对区域稳定的前景有所改善随着冷战结束和巴解组织和以色列之间,以色列和约旦之间的1994年协议,和对其他阿拉伯与以色列和平运动1993年和1994年协定的签字仪式。 The impact of population growth on development is a crucial factor, as is the emergence in many Arab countries of radical, populist Muslim movements with mass support.人口增长对发展的影响是一个至关重要的因素,因为是在激进的,民粹主义与群众支持的穆斯林运动许多阿拉伯国家的出现。 Such movements have been kept under uneasy restraint in some nations, as in Jordan, or have been ruthlessly suppressed, as in Algeria.这样的动作一直保持克制下不安在一些国家,如约旦,或已被残酷镇压,在阿尔及利亚。 In one Arab nation, Sudan, they have won power.在一个阿拉伯国家,苏丹,他们已经赢得了权力。

Charles D. Smith查尔斯D.史密斯

Bibliography 参考书目
Anderson, L., et al., The Origins of Arab Nationalism (1991); Beck, L., and Keddie, N., eds., Women in the Muslim World (1978); Esposito, JL, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?安德森,L.等人,阿拉伯民族主义(1991年)的起源,贝克,L.,和Keddie,N.,EDS,在穆斯林世界(1978)妇女;埃斯波西托,JL,伊斯兰威胁:神话还是现实? (1993); Hamada, LB, Understanding the Arab World (1990); Hourani, A., A History of the Arab Peoples (1991; repr. 1992); Lamb, D., The Arabs (1987); Landau, Jacob M., The Politics of Pan-Islam: Ideology and Organization, rev.(1993年);滨田,LB,了解阿拉伯世界(1990); Hourani,A.,是阿拉伯民族的历史(1991年,再版1992年);羔羊,D.,阿拉伯人(1987);兰道,雅各M ,,泛伊斯兰政治:思想和组织,REV。ed.编辑。(1994); Lewis, B., The Arabs in History, 6th ed.(1994年);刘易斯,B.,而在历史上,第6版阿拉伯人。(1993) and Islam and the West (1993); Mackey, S., Passion and Politics: The Turbulent World of the Arabs (1993); Mansfield, P., The Arabs, rev. (1993年)和伊斯兰和西方(1993年);麦基,激情和政治S.:在动荡的世界的阿拉伯人(1993年);文辉,P.,阿拉伯人,REV。ed.编辑。(1992); Smith, CD, Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 2d ed.(1992年);史密斯,CD,巴勒斯坦和阿拉伯 - 以色列冲突,2版。 (1992); Sonn, T., Between Qur'an and Crown (1990); Viorst, M., Sandcastles: The Arabs in (1992年);荔枝,T.之间古兰经和皇冠(1990); Viorst,M.,沙堡:阿拉伯人在



Also, if you are studying Islamic subject, see:另外,如果您正在研究伊斯兰的主题,请参阅:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 石礼谦
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 圣训
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-圣训从预订一对A l-布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-圣训从图书2对A l-布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-圣训从图书3对A l-布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-圣训,从预订的1 0对A l-布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -圣训从图书2 0对A l-布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -圣训从预订2 6日对A l-布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的安拉(杰哈德) -圣训图书5 2对A l-布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,唯一的安拉tawheed ) -圣训图书9 3对A l-布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail以实玛利,伊斯梅尔
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stonekaaba ,黑色石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 梅迪纳
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏菲主义
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布伯克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)fatimids (什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 阿伊莎
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉丝
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html