Ark of the Covenant约柜

General Information一般资料

In the Bible, the ark of the covenant was a portable wooden chest surmounted by two golden cherubim.在圣经中,约柜是一个便携式木箱由两个黄金基路伯克服的。According to Exod.根据出埃及记。 25: 10-22 it was fashioned by the Israelites at God's command to contain the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.25:10-22是老式在上帝的命令,包含两个十诫石碑的以色列人。They carried it before their army into battle as a symbol of the divine presence and as a military rallying point.这些飞机投入战斗它作为神的存在的象征,作为一个军事的着力点在他们的军队。During the period of the Judges it was kept at Shiloh; later King David brought it to Jerusalem, where it eventually resided in the inner sanctuary of the temple.期间,它被保存在希洛法官期间,后来大卫王带到了耶路撒冷,在那里它最终在寺庙内居住的圣所。In Jewish synagogues the Ark (aron), placed in the wall facing Jerusalem, is the receptacle that contains the Torah scrolls.在犹太会堂的方舟(阿隆),在墙上面临的耶路撒冷置于容器是包含托拉卷轴。

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Ark of the Covenant约柜

General Information一般资料

The Ark of the Covenant, in Judaism, is a sacred repository.该约柜,在犹太教,是一个神圣的仓库。 Mentioned frequently in the Bible, the ark is described in Exodus 25 as a chest of acacia wood.在圣经中经常提到,方舟的描述出埃及记25的洋槐木胸部。It was known also as the Ark of the Law, the Ark of the Testimony, or the Ark of God.据了解还作为法律方舟,方舟的证词,或上帝的方舟。The chest was 2.5 cubits (3 ft 9 in) in length and 1.5 cubits (2 ft 3 in) in breadth and height; it could be carried by poles at the long sides.胸部为2.5肘(3英尺9英寸)的长度和1.5肘在广度和高度(2英尺3英寸),它可以通过在极长边进行。The ark lay in the Holy of Holies, the sacrosanct enclosure of the tabernacle and of the Temple in Jerusalem.方舟卧在至圣,会幕和圣殿在耶路撒冷神圣的外壳。

The chest contained, according to various sources, Aaron's rod, a pot of manna, and the stone tablets of the Decalogue (see Ten Commandments).胸部中,根据不同的来源,亚伦的杖,是吗哪壶,以及十诫的石碑(见十戒)。In the synagogues today, the term ark designates the repository for the scrolls of the Law used in the sacred service.在犹太教堂的今天,任期方舟指定为在神圣的法律服务所使用的滚动库。


Ark of the Covenant约柜

Advanced Information先进的信息

The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, 'aron', which is the common name for a chest or coffer used for any purpose (Gen. 50:26; 2 Kings 12:9, 10).神圣的方舟是指定一个不同的希伯来文,“阿隆”,这是胸部或为任何目的(创50:26;王下12:9,10)用于保险箱的通用名称。 It is distinguished from all others by such titles as the "ark of God" (1 Sam. 3:3), "ark of the covenant" (Josh. 3:6; Heb. 9:4), "ark of the testimony" (Ex. 25: 22).它是由所有其他区别在于为“神的约柜”(1萨姆3点03分),“的约柜”(约书亚记三时06。希伯来书9:4)这样的标题,“方舟的证词“(出埃及记25:22)。 It was made of acacia or shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high and two cubits long, and covered all over with the purest gold.它是由皂荚木或什亭,一肘半宽和高,长二肘,并用最纯净的黄金全部结束。Its upper surface or lid, the mercy-seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two sides were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles by which the ark could be carried (Num. 7:9; 10:21; 4:5, 19, 20; 1 Kings 8:3, 6).它的上表面或盖子,施恩座,被包围了金边,并就双方各两个金戒指,其中分别置于两金覆盖其中方舟可以进行(民数记极点7点09,10时21分,4:5,19,20; 1国王8时03,6)。Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two cherubim, with their faces turned toward each other (Lev. 16:2; Num. 7:89).在方舟,在这两个四肢,两个基路伯,用他们的脸向着对方打开(利未记16点02分,编号7:89)。Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed the throne of God, while the ark itself was his footstool (Ex. 25:10-22; 37:1-9).在他们的方舟上方延伸两翼形成了上帝的宝座,而方舟本身是他的脚凳(出25:10-22; 37:1-9)。

The ark was deposited in the "holy of holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by which it was carried touched the veil which separated the two apartments of the tabernacle (1 Kings 8:8).方舟沉积在“至圣”,是这样,一个放置在其中进行到底触动了极点面纱的分隔幕(1国王8时08分)两公寓。The two tables of stone which constituted the "testimony" or evidence of God's covenant with the people (Deut. 31:26), the "pot of manna" (Ex. 16: 33), and "Aaron's rod that budded" (Num. 17:10), were laid up in the ark (Heb. 9:4).这两个表的石头构成的“证言”或神与人立约(申命记31:26)的证据,有“甘露锅”(出埃及记16:33),以及“亚伦的杖是芽生”(招,17:10),奠定了在方舟(希伯来书9:4)。 The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" (Lam. 2:1).方舟和庇护是“以色列的美”(Lam. 2:1)。

During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the host (Num. 4:5, 6; 10:33-36; Ps. 68:1; 132:8).在旅途的以色列人方舟是由祭司在主机(民数记4:5,6; 10:33-36;诗68:1; 132:8)提前。It was borne by the priests into the bed of the Jordan, which separated, opening a pathway for the whole of the host to pass over (Josh. 3:15, 16; 4:7, 10, 11, 17, 18).这是承担进入约旦,其中分离床的祭司,揭开了主机的整个通道传递过来(约书亚记3:15,16; 4点07,10,11,17,18)。It was borne in the procession round Jericho (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8, 11, 12).这是传染的游行一轮杰里科(约书亚记6:4,6,8,11,12)。 When carried it was always wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and carefully concealed even from the eyes of the Levites who carried it.当执行它总是裹着面纱,獾'皮,蓝印花布,精心甚至从利谁进行它的眼睛掩盖。After the settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300 and 400 years (Jer. 7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and was taken by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4:3-11), who sent it back after retaining it seven months (1 Sam. 5:7, 8).之后,以色列在巴勒斯坦定居方舟留在帐幕在吉甲的一个赛季,然后被删除,以示罗礼的时间,直到300至400年(耶7:12),当它进入进行,战场,以安全,因为他们假定,胜利的希伯来人,和由非利士人(1山姆。4:3-11),谁送后保留它七个月(1山姆回来取。5时07分,8)。

It remained then at Kirjath-jearim (7:1,2) till the time of David (twenty years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed - edom in Gath - rimmon for three months (2 Sam. 6:1-11), at the end of which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (12-19).它依然然后在Kirjath -基列耶琳(7:1,2),直到大卫(20年),谁愿意将其删除,以耶路撒冷时,但它已被删除忽视正确的模式,乌撒被击打死亡的投入“他的手来回在神的约柜”,并在此结果是在俄别家左 - 在迦特以东 - 三个月临门(2山姆6:1-11),在其中结束时间大卫取消了盛大游行到耶路撒冷,在那里被关到一个地方是它(12-19)做好准备。 It was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (1 Kings 8:6-9).这是事后沉积在所罗门圣殿(王上8:6-9)。When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found.当巴比伦人摧毁耶路撒冷和掠夺庙,方舟可能带走尼布甲尼撒和销毁,因为没有它的踪影,是事后被发现。The absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points in which it was inferior to the first temple.而从第二圣殿方舟点的情况下是在它不如第一寺庙之一。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Ark of the Covenant约柜

Advanced Information先进的信息

The Ark of the Covenant was a rectangular boxlike structure of acacia wood, about 4' by 2' by 2', with a lining and an external sheathing of pure beaten gold.该约柜是一个长方形的金合欢木,约4“2”2“,用衬和纯殴打金的外部护套盒式结构。It was covered by a lid of solid gold to which was affixed a carved golden cherub at each end.它是覆盖了坚实的黄金这是贴在每个月底雕金色天使盖子。These celestial beings looked down upon the lid, and their wings covered the ark (Exod. 25:10-40).这些天体众生看不起的盖子,它们的翅膀覆盖的方舟(出25:10-40)。The gold lid to which the cherubim were fastened was called the "mercy seat" (Heb. kapporet, "cover"), and it was from between the cherubim that God communed with his people (Exod. 25:22).金盖子的基路伯被固定被称为“施恩座”(希伯来书kapporet,“盖”),它从基路伯之间是上帝与他的人(出25:22)communed。 The ark was the only item of furniture in the most holy place of the tabernacle, and contained duplicate tablets of the law (Exod. 25:16; II Kings 11:12), a pot of manna (Exod. 16:33-34), and Aaron's rod (Num. 17:10).方舟是家具中的帐幕最神圣的地方唯一的项目,并载有重复粒法(出25:16;二世国王11:12),锅的甘露(出16:33-34 ),和亚伦的杖(民数记17:10)。When the ark was moved, it was carried by priests using poles (Num. 4:5), and anyone who touched the ark was liable to die (cf. II Sam. 6:6-7).当方舟很感动,这是由使用极点(民数记4:5)神父,和任何人谁碰了方舟被判死(参二山姆。6:6-7)。The ark survived until the Exile, when it was probably taken to Babylon (cf. II Kings 24:13).方舟生存,直到流亡,当它很可能是采取巴比伦(见二国王24:13)。

RK HarrisonRK哈里森
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)


Noah's Ark诺亚方舟

General Information一般资料

Noah's ark was a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high (Gen. 6:14-16); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door in the side and a window in the roof.诺亚方舟是一个Gopher的木建筑,并与沥青,长300肘,宽50肘,高三十肘(创6:14-16)覆盖;一个长方形的三个故事漂浮的房子,一个在门边和一个窗口,在屋顶。 It was 100 years in building (Gen. 5:32; 7:6).这是100年的建设(创5:32; 7:6)。It was intended to preserve certain persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring over the earth.它的目的是保护从洪水上帝即将带来超过地球的某些人与动物。It contained eight persons (Gen. 7:13; 2 Pet. 2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean" one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort (Gen. 7:2, 3).它载有八人(创7时13分,2宠物2:5。),和所有“干净”的动物七对,和“不干净”的一对,和鸟类的七对每个排序(创7: 2,3)。It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and sloping roof.它是在一个椭圆形广场的形式,与平底和坡屋顶。Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man was swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found existing among all nations.传统的洪水,其中人的种族从地球上被横扫,和对已发现诺亚方舟所有国家之间现有的。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Noah's Ark诺亚方舟

From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经研究评论詹姆斯M灰色

Genesis Chapters 6-9创世纪6-9章

The Ark and Its Contents方舟及其内容

6:9 to 7:10 Notice the phrase "the generations of," and recall the instruction about it in lesson 2. 6点09至7时10分请注意这句话“的一代”,并召回了关于它在第2课教学。When Noah is spoken of as "just and perfect," that relative sense is used in which any man is just and perfect before God who believes His testimony and conforms his life to it.当诺亚说成是“公正和完善,”这是用在相对意义上,任何人是完美的公正和上帝面前谁相信他的证词,符合他的生命给它。It is in this sense that every true believer on Jesus Christ is just and perfect.正是在这个意义上说,每一个真正的信徒在耶稣基督是公正和完善。What two charges does God make against the earth (vv. 12 and 13)?是什么使这两项费用上帝对地球(vv. 12和13)?What is Noah commanded (v. 14)?什么是诺亚指挥(14节)?

The measurement of the cubit is uncertain, the ordinary length being 18 inches, the sacred cubit twice that length, and the geometric, which some think may be meant, six times the common cubit.该肘测量是不确定的,一般长度为18英寸,神圣肘的两倍长度,几何,其中一些人认为可能意味着,6倍于普通腕尺。At the lowest calculation the ark was as large as some of our ocean liners.在最低计算方舟作为远洋客轮作为我们的一些大。Notice "covenant" (v. 18), and connect it with the original promise of 3:15.通知“公约”(第18),并与原有的三时一刻的承诺了。 Why was Noah to take two of every living thing into the ark (vv. 19, 20)?为什么诺亚采取的每一个生命的东西进入方舟(vv. 19,20)两个?What else was he to take (v. 21)?还有什么是他采取(21节)?Mention is made of the sevens of clean beast (7:2), doubtless for the purpose of sacrifice in the ark and after departing from it.提到了干净的兽(7:2)的球赛,无疑为在方舟牺牲后,从它的目的和出发。If inquiry be raised as to how so many animals could be accommodated in such a space, it is to be remembered (1) that the ark in all its three stories contained probably 100,000 square feet of space; (2) perhaps the animals were not the totality of all the animals known in all the world, but those known to Noah; (3) that the distinct species of beasts and birds even in our own day have been calculated as not more than 300.如果查询是,如何让许多动物可以在这样的空间容纳提高后,要记住(1),在所有的三个故事中方舟可能10万平方英尺(2)也许是动物不所有在世界上所有已知的动物全部,但已知的诺亚(3)的野兽,甚至在我们自己的一天鸟类不同的物种已被计算为不超过300元。


Moses' Ark摩西的方舟

General Information一般资料

The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid (Ex. 2:3) is called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the Egyptian teb, meaning "a chest."而在其中婴儿摩西奠定了(出埃及记2:3)bulrushes方舟被称为在希伯来文teebah,从埃及TEB派生词,意思是“胸部”。 It was daubed with slime and with pitch.这是涂上与煤泥和沥青。The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus reed.对其中作出bulrushes是纸莎草芦苇。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿说明字典)


Ark of the Covenant约柜

Advanced Catholic Information高级天主教信息

The Hebrew aron, by which the Ark of the Covenant is expressed, does not call to the mind, as that used for Noah's Ark, a large construction, but rather a chest.希伯来文的阿隆,其中的约柜表示,不打电话给心,因为这对诺亚方舟,大型建筑,而是胸部使用。This word is generally determined in the sacred text; so we read of the Ark of the Testimony (Exodus 25:16, 22; 26:33, etc.), the Ark of the Testament (Exodus 30:26), the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord (Numbers 10:33; Deuteronomy 10:8, etc.), the Ark of the Covenant (Joshua 3:6, etc.), the Ark of God (1 Samuel 3:3, etc.), the Ark of the Lord (1 Samuel 4:6, etc.).这个词一般是在神圣的文本确定,所以我们读的方舟的证词(出埃及记25:16,22; 26:33等),方舟的约(出埃及记30:26),在方舟中,约柜(约书亚3时06分,等),将神的约柜(撒上3:3,等);主的(申命记10:8,等数字10:33)公约耶和华(撒上4:6等),方舟。 Of these, the expression "Ark of the Covenant" has become most familiar in English.其中,表达“约柜”已成为最熟悉的英文。

DESCRIPTION AND USE描述和使用

The Ark of the Covenant was a kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height.该约柜是一个样的胸部,测量二肘和一个长度的一半,一肘和广度一半,一肘,并在高度的一半。Made of setim wood (an incorruptible acacia), it was overlaid within and without with the purest gold, and a golden crown or rim ran around it.对setim木(廉洁相思树)制成,它是覆盖范围内,没有用最纯净的黄金,黄金冠或边缘周围跑了。At the four corners, very likely towards the upper part, four golden rings had been cast; through them passed two bars of setim wood overlaid with gold, to carry the Ark. These two bars were to remain always in the rings, even when the Ark had been placed in the temple of Solomon.在四个角,很可能对上半部分,四金戒指已投,通过他们传递两个setim木金覆盖酒吧,携带阿肯色州这两个酒吧都留在戒指始终,即使方舟已被放置在所罗门圣殿。 The cover of the Ark, termed the "propitiatory" (the corresponding Hebrew means both "cover" and "that which makes propitious"), was likewise of the purest gold.方舟的封面,被称为“和解的”(希伯来文指相应的两个“覆盖”和“说这使得吉祥”),是最纯净的黄金亦同。

Upon it had been place two cherubim of beaten gold, looking towards each other, and spreading their wings so that both sides of the propitiatory were covered.当它被放置两个基路伯的殴打金,望向对方,以便传播他们的和解的双方都覆盖的翅膀。What exactly these cherubim were, is impossible to determine; however, from the analogy with Egyptian religious art, it may well be supposed that they were images, kneeling or standing, of winged persons.究竟这些基路伯人,是无法确定,但是,从与埃及的宗教艺术比喻,它可能是假定他们的图像,跪或站立的翼人。It is worth noticing that this is the only exception to the law forbidding the Israelites to make carved images, an exception so much the more harmless to the faith of the Israelites in a spiritual God because the Ark was regularly to be kept behind the veil of the sanctuary.这是因为方舟是定期将背后的面纱保持值得注意的是,这是唯一的例外是法律禁止以色列人使刻图像,异常与其说是无害的更多的以色列人在神的精神信仰圣域。

The form of the Ark of the Covenant was probably inspired by some article of the furniture of the Egyptian temples.该形式的约柜可能是灵感来自一些家具的埃及寺庙的文章。But it should not be represented as one of those sacred bari, or barks, in which the gods of Egypt were solemnly carried in procession; it had, very likely, been framed after the pattern of the naos of gold, silver, or precious wood, containing the images of the gods and the sacred emblems.但它不应该被表示为其中的一个神圣的巴里,或树皮,其中埃及诸神被庄严地在游行进行;有,很可能,被诬陷后,金,银,或珍贵木材的古​​寺格局,载有神灵的神圣标志的图像。 According to some modern historians of Israel, the Ark, in every way analogous to the bari used upon the banks of the Nile, contained the sacred objects worshipped by the Hebrews, perhaps some sacred stone, meteoric or otherwise.据以色列一些现代历史学家,方舟,在各方面都类似于后尼罗河银行使用的巴里,载有圣物崇拜的希伯来人,也许有些神圣的石头,流星或以其他方式。 Such a statement proceeds from the opinion that the Israelites during their early national life were given not only to idolatry, but to its grossest form, fetishism; that first they adored Yahweh in inanimate things, then they worshipped him in the bull, as in Dan and Bethel, and that only about the seventh century did they rise to the conception of an invisible and spiritual God.这种观点从声明中指出,在国家生活中的早期以色列人不仅给偶像崇拜,但其粗暴所得的形式,拜物教;,首先他们崇拜耶和华在无生命的东西,那么他们崇拜他在公牛,如丹和伯特利,只有约七世纪他们才上升到了一个无形的神的观念和精神。 But this description of Israel's religious history does not tally with the most certain conclusions derived from the texts.但是,这对以色列的宗教历史的描述不符合的文本所得出的某些结论吻合最。The idolatry of the Hebrews is not proven any more than their polytheism; hence the Ark, far from being viewed as in the opinion above referred to, should rather be regarded as a token of the choice that Yahweh had made of Israel for his people, and a visible sign of his invisible presence in the midst of his beloved nation.希伯来人的偶像崇拜是没有证明任何比他们多神教以上;因此远未如上面提到的意见看方舟,而应被作为是耶和华以色列提出了他的人民的选择令牌认为,和他在他心爱的民族无形之中存在明显的迹象。

The Ark was first destined to contain the testimony, that is to say the tables of the Law (Exodus 40:18; Deuteronomy 10:5).方舟是第一个注定要包含的证词,这就是说该法(出埃及记40:18;申命记十点05)的表。Later, Moses was commanded to put into the tabernacle, near the Ark, a golden vessel holding a gomor of manna (Exodus 16:34), and the rod of Aaron which had blossomed (Numbers 17:10).后来,摩西吩咐投入幕,近方舟,一个千载难逢的船只拿着甘露(出埃及记16点34分)gomor,和亚伦的杖已经开花(民数记17:10)。 According to the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews (ix, 4), and the Jewish traditions, they had been put into the Ark itself.根据对希伯来人(九,4),和犹太传统书信的作者,他们已投入方舟本身。Some commentators, with Calmet, hold that the book of the Law written by Moses had likewise been enclosed in the Ark; but the text says only that the book in question was placed "in the side of the Ark" (Deuteronomy 31:26); moreover, what should be understood by this book, whether it was the whole Pentateuch, or Deuteronomy, or part of it, is not clear, though the context seems to favour the latter interpretations.一些评论家认为,与卡尔梅特,认为由摩西所写的书有法也被封闭在方舟,但文字只说有问题的书被放在“中的方舟方”(申命记31:26) ,而且,究竟应该由这本书了解,无论是整个五经,或申命记,或它的一部分,不明确,虽然中似乎有利于后者的解释。However this may be, we learn from 1 Kings 8:9, that when the Ark was placed in Solomon's temple, it contained only the tables of the Law.但是这可能是,我们从列王纪上八时09分,当方舟是在所罗门圣殿的放置,它仅包含了法表。 The holiest part of the Ark seems to have been the oracle, that is to say the place whence Yahweh made his prescriptions to Israel.最神圣的方舟部分似乎一直是甲骨文,也就是说地方何处耶和华使他的处方到以色列。 "Thence", the Lord had said to Moses,“那里”,耶和华对摩西说,

will I give orders, and will speak to thee over the propitiatory, and from the midst of these two cherubims, which shall be upon the Ark of the testimony, all things which I will command the children of Israel by thee" (Exodus 25:22). And indeed we read in Num., vii, 89, that when Moses "entered into the tabernacle of the covenant, to consult the oracle, he heard the voice of one speaking to him from the propitiatory, that was over the ark between the two cherubims".将我发号施令,和你说话会在和解的,并从这两基路伯,这须待方舟的证词,所有的事情,我会通过你的命令,以色列的孩子“(出埃及记25中间: 22),而事实上,我们读序号。,七,89,当摩西“进入该公约的帐幕,进入咨询神谕,他听到一个声音说话从和解的他,那是在方舟两者之间的基路伯“。

Yahweh used to speak to his servant in a cloud over the oracle (Leviticus 16:2).耶和华用他的发言中对甲骨文(利未记16:2)云的仆人。This was, very likely, also the way in which he communicated with Josue after the death of the first leader of Israel (cf. Joshua 7:6-1).这是非常可能的,也是这样,他与若苏埃沟通后,以色列的第一位领导人(见约书亚7:6-1)死亡。 The oracle was, so to say, the very heart of the sanctuary, the dwelling place of God; hence we read in scores of passages of the Old Testament that Yahweh "sitteth on [or rather, by] the cherubim".在甲骨文,如此说来,对保护区的核心,是神居住的地方,因此我们在读的段落分数旧约的耶和华“sitteth上[或更确切地说,由]基路伯”。

In the last years of Israel's history, the Jewish rabbis, from a motive of reverence to God's holiness, avoided pronouncing any of the names expressing the Divinity in the Hebrew language, such as El, Elohim, etc., and still less Yahweh, the ineffable name, ie a name unutterable to any human tongue; instead of these, they used metaphors or expressions having reference to the Divine attributes.在以色列的历史,犹太拉比,从敬畏的动机,以神的圣洁的最后几年,避免宣判的表达在希伯来文语言的神的名字,如萨尔瓦多,罗欣等,任何,更耶和华的无法形容的名称,即名称难言任何人舌;而不是这些,他们用隐喻或词句有参考神圣的属性。 Among the latter, the word shekinah became very popular; it meant the Divine Presence (from shakhan, to dwell), hence the Divine Glory, and had been suggested by the belief in God's presence in a cloud over the propitiatory.其中后者,字舍吉拿变得非常流行,它指的是神的存在(从shakhan,纠缠),因此神的荣耀,已经由上帝在比和解的云的存在信念建议。 Not only did the Ark signify God's presence in the midst of his people, but it also betokened the warlike undertakings of Israel; no greater evil accordingly could befall the nation than the capture of the Ark by the enemies, as, we shall see, happened towards the close of the period of the Judges and perhaps also at the taking of Jerusalem by the Babylonian army, in 587 BC不仅方舟意味着上帝在他的人中间存在,但它也betokened以色列的好战事业,没有大恶相应可能降临比方舟由敌人占领的国家,因为,我们将会看到,发生朝对法官期结束,或许也到了巴比伦军队参加在耶路撒冷公元前587,

HISTORY历史

According to the sacred narrative recorded in Exodus, xxv, 10-22, God Himself had given the description of the Ark of the Covenant, as well as that of the tabernacle and all its appurtenances.根据神圣的叙事在出埃及记,二十五,10-22记载,上帝已经考虑到了约柜的描述,以及幕及其所有附属物的。 God's command was fulfilled to the letter by Beseleel, one of the skilful men appointed "to devise and to work in gold, and silver, and brass, and in engraving stones and in carpenters' work (Exodus 37:1-9). On that day God showed His pleasure by filling the tabernacle of the testimony with His Glory, and covering it with the cloud that henceforward would be to His people a guiding sign in their journeys. All the Levites were not entitled to the guardianship of the sanctuary and of the Ark; but this office was entrusted to the kindred of Caath (Numbers 3:28).上帝的命令是履行由Beseleel,任命“的制定工作,并在黄金娴熟的人之一,银信,黄铜和石头雕刻和木匠的工作(出埃及记37:1-9),在当天神呈填充他荣耀的见证幕,覆盖的云从今以后将是他的人在他们的行程指导签署他的乐趣,所有的利未人不享有监护权的庇护和的方舟,但这个办公室是委托给Caath(民数记3:28)亲属。

Whenever, during the desert life, the camp was to set forward, Aaron and his sons went into the tabernacle of the covenant and the Holy of Holies, took down the veil that hung before the door, wrapped up the Ark of the Testimony in it, covered it in dugong skins, then with a violet cloth, and put in the bars (Numbers 4:5, 6).无论何时,在沙漠生活,前进营地设置,亚伦和他的儿子走进了该公约和至圣所的帐幕,记下了面纱,以前在门口挂着,结束了在它见证方舟,包括在儒艮皮肤,然后用紫色布,并在入狱(民数记4:5,6)。 When the people pitched their tents to sojourn for some time in a place, everything was set again in its customary order.当一些人投在一个地方逗留时间的帐篷,一切都被重新设置在其习惯的顺序。During the journeys the Ark went before the people; and when it was lifted up they said: "Arise, O Lord, and let Thy enemies be scattered, and let them that hate Thee flee from before Thy face!"在行程的方舟去摆在人们面前,而当它被解除时,他们说:“起来,主啊,让你的敌人分散,让他们恨祢逃离前你的脸!”And when it was set down, they said: "Return, O Lord, to the multitude of the host of Israel!"而当它被定了下来,他们说:“回归,主啊,给以色列的主机许多!”Num., x, 33-36).序号。,X,33-36)。Thus did the Ark preside over all the journeys and stations of Israel during all their wandering life in the wilderness.因此做了方舟主持所有的行程和以色列电视台在其所有徘徊在旷野的生活。

As has been said above, the sacred chest was the visible sign of God's presence and protection.正如上面已经说了,神圣的胸部是上帝的存在和保护的视觉标志。This appeared in the most striking manner in different circumstances.这出现在不同情况下最引人注目的方式。When the spies who had been sent to view the Promised Land returned and gave their report, murmurs arose in the camp, which neither threatenings nor even the death of the authors of the sedition could quell.当谁已送往查看乐土间谍回来,给了他们的报告,杂音出现在营地,既不threatenings甚至也不是作者的死亡可能煽动叛乱平息。 Against the will of God, many of the Israelites went up to the mountain to meet the Amalecites and Chanaanites: "but the ark of the testament of the Lord and Moses departed not from the camp".违背神的旨意,在许多以色列人上升到山,以满足Amalecites和Chanaanites:“但耶和华的约柜和摩西证明不离开营地”。 And the enemies came down, smote, and slew the presumptuous Hebrews whom God did not help.而敌人下来,重击,并摆在放肆希伯来人,上帝没有帮助。The next two manifestations of Yahweh's power through the Ark occurred under Josue's leadership.接下来的两个耶和华的权力表现形式,通过方舟发生在若苏埃的领导。When the people were about to cross the Jordan,当人们即将穿越约旦,

the priests that carried the ark of the covenant went on before them; and as soon as they came into the Jordan, and their feet were dipped in part of the water, the waters that came down from above stood in one place, and swelling up like a mountain, were seen afar off .祭司是进行了约柜接着在他们面前,并尽快为他们进入了乔丹,他们的脚在水中浸泡的一部分,该水域,从上往下来在一个地方站着,和肿胀起来像一座山,被视为远远地看。 ..but those that were beneath ran down into the sea of the wilderness, until they wholly failed.但那些被下跑下来到海的旷野,直到他们完全失败。And the people marched over against Jericho; and the priests that carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, stood girded upon the dry ground, in the midst of the Jordan, and all the people passed over through the channel that was dried up.而人们在游行反对杰里科,和祭司的进行了主的约柜,站在干燥的地面束腰后,在约旦中间,和所有的人穿过那是干涸的渠道了。(Joshua 3:14-17) (书3:14-17)

A few days later, Israel was besieging Jericho.几天后,以色列围攻杰里科。At God's command, the Ark was carried in procession around the city for seven days, until the walls crumbled at the sound of the trumpets and the shouts of the people, thus giving the assailing army a free opening into the place (Joshua 6:6-21).在上帝的命令,方舟在游行进行了七天左右的城市,直到墙在喇叭和人民群众的呼喊声崩溃,从而给调戏军队进入的场所免费开放(书六时06分-21)。 Later again, after the taking and burning of Hai, we see the Ark occupy a most prominent place in the solemn assize of the nation held between Mount Garizim and Mount Hebal (Joshua 8:33).再后来,后服用和海燃烧,我们看到了方舟占据了之间的摩Garizim及摩Hebal(约书亚8点33)举行的国家的庄严巡回最显眼的地方。

The Israelites having settled in the Promised Land, it became necessary to choose a place where to erect the tabernacle and keep the Ark of the Covenant.有在乐土定居的以色列人,有必要选择一个地方竖立帐幕,并保持了约柜。Silo, in the territory of Ephraim, about the centre of the conquered country, was selected (Joshua 18:1).筒仓,在以法莲领土,对被征服的国家的中心,被选为(约书亚记18:1)。There, indeed, during the obscure period which preceded the establishment of the Kingdom of Israel, do we find the "house of the Lord" (Judges 18:31; 20:18), with its High-Priest, to whose care the Ark had been entrusted.在那里,事实上,在这之前的模糊时期的以色列王国的建立,我们找到了(法官18时31分,20:18)“主家”,以其高神父,谁的护理方舟已委托。 Did the precious palladium of Israel remain permanently at Silo, or was it carried about, whenever the emergency required, as, for instance, during warlike expeditions?难道以色列珍贵钯永久保持在筒仓,抑或是载客约,每当紧急需要,因为,例如,在好战的探险?

This point can hardly be ascertained.这一点也难以确定。Be it as it may, the narrative which closes the Book of Judges supposes the presence of the Ark at Bethel.无论是因为它可能,叙事而关闭设法官的书在伯特利方舟的存在。True, some commentators, following St. Jerome, translate here the word Bethel as though it were a common noun (house of God); but their opinion seems hardly reconcilable with the other passages where the same name is found, for these passages undoubtedly refer to the city of Bethel.诚然,一些评论家认为,以下圣杰罗姆,翻译这里所说的圣地,就好像它是一个普通名词(神的家),但他们的意见似乎很难与同一个名字的地方被发现的其他段落调和,这些通道无疑是指到伯特利城市。 This is no place to discuss at length the divers explanations brought forward to meet the difficulty; suffice it to say that it does not entitle the reader to conclude, as many have done, that there probably existed several Arks throughout Israel.这是没有地方讨论长度的潜水员解释提出,以满足困难;我只想说,它并没有赋予读者结束,因为许多人一样,有可能在整个以色列存在的几个方舟。 The remark above made, that the Ark was possibly carried hither and thither according as the circumstances required, is substantiated by what we read in the narration of the events that brought about the death of Heli.在作出上述表示,这是可能的方舟进行hither和上去的情况下根据需要,是我们在该事件有关的死亡带来的合力旁白读属实。 The Philistines had waged war against Israel, whose army, at the first encounter, turned their backs to the enemy, were utterly defeated, and suffered very heavy losses.非利士人对以色列发动的,其军队,在第一次遇到,转身背对着敌人的战争,是完全失败,并受到了非常严重的损失。Thereupon the ancients of the people suggested that the Ark of the Covenant be fetched unto them, to save them from the hands of their enemies.于是人们的古人建议,约柜被提取对他们,挽救他们的敌人的手中。

So the Ark was brought from Silo, and such acclamations welcomed it into the camp of the Israelites, as to fill with fear the hearts of the Philistines.因此,方舟被带到从筒仓,这样的赞誉和欢迎入营的以色列人它,以填补与恐惧的非利士人的心。Trusting that Yahweh's presence in the midst of their army betokened a certain victory, the Hebrew army engaged the battle afresh, to meet an overthrow still more disastrous than the former; and, what made the catastrophe more complete, the Ark of God fell into the hands of the Philistines (1 Samuel 4).信任是耶和华在他们的军队当中存在betokened一定的胜利,希伯来语军队参与战斗重新出发,以满足an推翻仍比前灾难性的和,是什么让灾难更加完整,将神的约柜落入非利士人的手(1塞缪尔4)。

Then, according to the Biblical narrative, began for the sacred chest a series of eventful peregrinations through the cities of southern Palestine, until it was solemnly carried to Jerusalem.然后,根据圣经的叙述,开始了神圣的胸部的多事peregrinations通过巴勒斯坦南部城市系列,直到它被庄严地运到耶路撒冷。 And never was it returned to its former place in Silo.而决不是它返回其原在筒仓的地方。In the opinion of the Philistines, the taking of the Ark meant a victory of their gods over the God of Israel.在非利士人看来,方舟采取意味着他们的神对以色列的神胜利。They accordingly brought it to Azotus and set it as a trophy in the temple of Dagon.因此,他们把它带到Azotus并将其设置为在大衮庙的奖杯了。But the next morning they found Dagon fallen upon his face before the Ark; they raised him up and set him in his place again.但第二天早晨却发现在他倒下之前,方舟面对达贡,他们把他扶起来,并设置在他的地方他。The following morning Dagon again was lying on the ground, badly mutilated.第二天早上达贡再次躺在地上,血肉模糊。At the same time a cruel disease (perhaps the bubonic plague) smote the Azotites, while a terrible invasion of mice afflicted the whole surrounding country.同时,一个残酷的疾病(可能是腺鼠疫)的Azotites击杀,而老鼠的可怕入侵困扰整个周边国家。These scourges were soon attributed to the presence of the Ark within the walls of the city, and regarded as a direct judgment from Yahweh.这些灾祸很快归于内的城墙方舟的存在,并以此作为判断认为直接从耶和华。Hence was it decided by the assembly of the rulers of the Philistines that the Ark should be removed from Azotus and brought to some other place.因此,在决定由方舟认为应删除Azotus并带来了一些其他地方非利士人的统治者大会。Carried successively to Gath and to Accaron, the Ark brought with it the same scourges which had occasioned its removal from Azotus.先后进行迦特和Accaron,方舟带来了哪些已搬迁所引致其从Azotus相同祸害。 Finally, after seven months, on the suggestion of their priests and their diviners, the Philistines resolved to give up their dreadful trophy.最后,经过七个月,对他们的祭司和占卜者建议,非利士人决心放弃自己的可怕的奖杯​​。

The Biblical narrative acquires here a special interest for us, by the insight we get therefrom into the religious spirit among these ancient peoples.圣经的叙事,我们在这里获得一个特殊的利益,通过敏锐的洞察力,进入宗教精神由此在这些古老的民族。Having made a new cart, they took two kine that had sucking calves, yoked them to the cart, and shut up their calves at home.经作出了新的车,他们花了两个母牛的犊牛吸吮了,同负一轭他们的车,并关闭了家里的牛犊。And they laid the Ark of the God upon the cart, together with a little box containing golden mice and the images of their boils.他们下岗后,车中的神方舟,加上一点点金色的老鼠和含其归结图像框。Then the kine, left to themselves, took their course straight in the direction of the territory of Israel.然后,母牛,留给自己,把直在以色列领土方向的过程。As soon as the Bethsamites recognized the Ark upon the cart that was coming towards them, they went rejoicing to meet it.只要Bethsamites确认后,车这是对他们未来的方舟,他们就大喜,以满足它。When the cart arrived in the field of a certain Josue, it stood still there.当车在某一个领域的若苏埃赶到,站在它仍然存在。And as there was a great stone in that place, they split up the wood of the cart and offered the kine a holocaust to Yahweh.而作为有一个大石头在那个地方,他们分裂的车木材和提供的母牛大屠杀耶和华。With this sacrifice ended the exile of the Ark in the land of the Philistines.有了这种牺牲结束了方舟在非利士地流亡。The people of Bethsames, however, did not long enjoy its presence among them.对Bethsames人民,然而,没有长久享用,其中它的存在。Some of them inconsiderately cast a glance upon the Ark, whereupon they were severely punished by God; seventy men (the text usually received says seventy men and fifty thousand of the common people; but this is hardly credible as Bethsames was only a small country place) were thus smitten, as a punishment for their boldness.其中一些inconsiderately投后,方舟一眼,于是他们被神严厉的惩罚,但这是难以可信的Bethsames只是一个小国的地方;(文说,通常收到七十个人和五十老百姓千七十个人)遂击打,作为他们的勇气处罚。 Frightened by this mark of the Divine wrath, the Bethsamites sent messengers to the inhabitants of Cariathiarim, to tell them how the Philistines had brought back the Ark, and invite them to convey it to their own town.这个标志的神圣之怒害怕,在Bethsamites派人到Cariathiarim居民,告诉他们如何非利士人带回来的方舟,并邀请他们向它自己的城市。 So the men of Cariathiarim came and brought up the Ark and carried it into the house of Abinadab, whose son Eleazar they consecrated to its service (1 Samuel 7:1).所以Cariathiarim的男人来了,带来了方舟,并进行入亚比拿达,他的儿子埃莱亚萨他们奉献给它的服务(撒上7:1)的房子了。

The actual Hebrew text, as well as the Vulgate and all translations dependent upon it, intimates that the Ark was with the army of Saul in the famous expedition against the Philistines, narrated in 1 Samuel 14.实际的希伯来文,以及武加大和所有的翻译依赖于它,内衣的方舟在打击与非利士人的著名远征军14扫罗在撒母耳记叙述,是。This is a mistake probably due to some late scribe who, for theological reasons, substituted the "ark of God" for the "ephod".这是一个错误可能是由于有些晚隶谁,对神学的原因,取代了“神的约柜”为“以弗得”。The Greek translation here gives the correct reading; nowhere else, indeed, in the history of Israel, do we hear of the Ark of the Covenant as an instrument of divination.希腊翻译这里给出正确的阅读;无处,事实上,在以色列历史上,我们听到的,作为一种占卜工具约柜。It may consequently be safely affirmed that the Ark remained in Cariathiarim up to the time of David.它可能因此被安全地肯定,方舟仍然Cariathiarim到大卫的时间。It was natural that after this prince had taken Jerusalem and made it the capital of his kingdom, he should desire to make it also a religious centre.这是自然的,经过此次王子采取了耶路撒冷,并使其成为他的王国的首都,他应该也希望使一个宗教中心。For this end, he thought of bringing thither the Ark of the Covenant.为了这个目的,他认为带来上去的约柜。In point of fact the Ark was undoubtedly in great veneration among the people; it was looked upon as the palladium with which heretofore Israel's life, both religious and political, had been associated.在事实,无疑点的方舟之中,在人民的伟大崇拜,它被看作是迄今为止与以色列的生活,宗教和政治,已在相关的钯。 Hence, nothing could have more suitably brought about the realization of David's purpose than such a transfer.因此,没有什么能够有更多的适当带来的大卫的目的而这种转移的实现。We read in the Bible two accounts of this solemn event; the first is found in the Second Book of Samuel (6); in the other, of a much later date, the chronicler has cast together most of the former account with some elements reflecting ideas and institutions of his own time (1 Chronicles 13).我们读到圣经中的两个帐户这个庄严的事件,第一是在萨穆埃尔(6)第二本书发现,在其他更晚的日期,已投的编年史与一些反映要素的最前帐户想法和他自己的时间机构(历代13)。 According to the narrative of 2 Samuel 6, which we shall follow, David went with great pomp to Baal-Juda, or Cariathiarim, to carry from there the Ark of God.根据撒母耳6,这是我们应当遵循的叙述,大卫就以极大的盛况到巴力犹大,或Cariathiarim,开展从那里上帝的方舟。 It was laid upon a new cart, and taken out of the house of Abinadab.它被放置在一个新的车,并采取对亚比拿达走出家门。Oza and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, guided the cart, the latter walking before it, the former at its side, while the King and the people that were with him, dancing, singing, and playing instruments, escorted the sacred chest. Oza和亚希约,对亚比拿达的儿子,引导车,摆在它后面走,在其一侧前者,而国王和人民,与他者,跳舞,唱歌,演奏乐器,护送神圣的胸部。This day, however, like that of the coming of the Ark to Bethsames, was to be saddened by death.这一天,但是,像极了的方舟来Bethsames说,是由死亡的悲痛。At a certain point in the procession the oxen slipped; Oza forthwith stretched out his hand to hold the Ark, but was struck dead on the spot.在游行中的一个特定点的牛下滑; Oza随即伸出手来握住方舟,但被击中当场死亡。 David, frightened by this accident, and now unwilling to remove the Ark to Jerusalem, he had it carried into the house of a Gethite, named Obededom, which was probably in the neighborhood of the city.大卫,通过这起事故,现在不愿意删除方舟耶路撒冷吓坏了,他有它带进了一个名为Obededom a Gethite,这是在城市附近可能房子。The presence of the Ark was a source of blessings for the house to which it had been brought.方舟的存在是对它所带来的房子已被祝福的来源。This news encouraged David to complete the work he had begun.这一消息鼓舞大卫来完成他的工作已经开始。Three months after the first transfer, accordingly, he came again with great solemnity and removed the Ark from the house of Obededom to the city, where it was set in its place in the midst of the tabernacle which David had pitched for it.三个月后的第一个转移,因此,他又来了非常严肃,并取消方舟从Obededom房子的城市,它在它的地方设置在大卫为它搭了帐幕之中。 Once more was the Ark brought out of Jerusalem, when David betook himself to flight before Absalom's rebellion.一旦更多的是带来了耶路撒冷,当大卫betook前押沙龙的叛乱自己飞行了方舟。Whilst the King stood in the Cedron valley, the people were passing before him towards the way that leads to the wilderness.虽然国王在Cedron谷站,路过的人都向他面前的方式,导致了荒野。Among them came also Sadoe and Abiathar, bearing the Ark. Whom when David saw, he commanded to carry back the Ark into the city: "If I shall find grace in the sight of the Lord", said he, "he will bring me again, and will shew me both it and his tabernacle".其中也来了Sadoe和亚比亚他,承载着阿肯色州谁当大卫看见了,他命令进行回城方舟:“如果我发现在主眼前蒙恩”,他说,“他会带给我再次,要指示我,它和他的帐幕“。 In compliance with this order, Sadoe and Abiathar carried back the Ark of the Lord into Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:24-29).在该命令得以遵从,Sadoe和亚比亚他进行回耶路撒冷(撒下15:24-29)主的方舟。

The tabernacle which David had pitched to receive the Ark was not, however, to be its last dwelling place.哪个大卫投接收方舟幕得不行,但是,是它的最后居住的地方。The King indeed had thought of a temple more worthy of the glory of Yahweh.国王确实曾想过寺庙更值得荣耀的耶和华。Although the building of this edifice was to be the work of his successor, David himself took to heart to gather and prepare the materials for its erection.虽然这个大厦的建设是为他的继任者的工作,大卫自己拿了心收集,并准备为它安装的材料。From the very beginning of Solomon's reign, this wince showed the greatest reverence to the Ark, especially when, after the mysterious dream in which God answered his request for wisdom by promising him wisdom, riches and honour, he offered up burnt-offerings and peace-offerings before the Ark of the Covenant of Yahweh (1 Kings 3:15).从所罗门统治时期开始,这WINCE显示到方舟最大的崇敬,尤其是当后,神秘的梦境中,上帝回答看好他的智慧,财富和荣誉他的智慧要求,他献上燔祭和和平前的耶和华(王上3:15)约柜祭。 When the temple and all its appurtenances were completed, Solomon, before the dedication, assembled the elders of Israel, that they might solemnly convey the Ark from the place where David had set it up to the Holy of Holies.当寺庙及其所有附属物已完成,所罗门,在奉献,组装以色列的长老,他们可能会郑重表达了大卫那里设置到至圣所发生的方舟。 Thence it was, most likely, now and then taken out, either to accompany military expeditions, or to enhance the splendour of religious celebrations, perhaps also to comply with the ungodly commands of wicked kings.那里是,最有可能的,现在再取出来,要么陪军事远征,或加强对宗教庆祝活动异彩,或许也遵守邪恶国王的罪人命令。However this may be, the chronicler tells us that Josias commanded the Levites to return it to its place in the temple, and forbade them to take it thence in the future (2 Chronicles 35:3).然而,这可能是,编年史家告诉我们,Josias吩咐利未人返回到其在寺庙的地方,并禁止他们参与未来(历代35:3),它从那里。 But the memory of its sacredness was soon to pass away.但其神圣的记忆很快就通了。In one of his prophecies referring to the Messianic times, Jeremias announced that it would be utterly forgotten: "They shall say no more: The ark of the covenant of Yahweh: neither shall it come upon the heart, neither shall they remember it, neither shall it be visited, neither shall that be done any more" (Jeremiah 3:16).在他指的是弥赛亚时代的预言之一,赫雷米亚斯宣布,将被彻底遗忘:“他们不再多说了:在耶和华的约柜:既不应是临到的心,他们也不再记得,既不应被访问,既不应是做任何更多的“(耶3:16)。

WHERE IS IT NOW?现在在哪儿呢?

Jeremias赫雷米亚斯

As to what became of the Ark at the fall of Jerusalem, in 587 BC, there exist several traditions, one of which has found admittance in the sacred books.至于什么样的在耶路撒冷成为秋季方舟,在587 BC,存在着一些传统,其中一个已经找到在神圣的书籍准入。In a letter of the Jews of Jerusalem to them that were in Egypt, the following details are given as copied from a writing of Jeremias:在耶路撒冷的犹太人写信给他们,在埃及,下面的细节给出从赫雷米亚斯写作复制:

The prophet, being warned by God, commanded that the tabernacle and the ark should accompany him, till he came forth to the mountain where Moses went up and saw the inheritance of God.先知,被神警告,吩咐幕和方舟要陪他,直到他站出来向山上摩西那里去,看见神的继承。And when Jeremias came thither he found a hollow cave and he carried in thither the tabernacle and the ark and the altar of incense, and so stopped the door.而当他发现到那里赫雷米亚斯来到一个中空的洞穴,他在上去幕和约柜和香坛进行,因此停止了门。Then some of them that followed him, came up to mark the place; but they could not find it.然后,其中一些是跟着他,走过来标记的地方,但他们无法找到它。And when Jeremias perceived it, he blamed them saying: the place shall be unknown, till God gather together the congregation of the people and receive them to mercy.当赫雷米亚斯感知它,他指责他们说:这个地方将是未知的,直到神凝聚起人民众和接受他们的摆布。And then the Lord will shew these things, and the majesty of the Lord shall appear, and there shall be a cloud as it was also shewed to Moses, and he shewed it when Solomon prayed that the place might be sanctified to the great God.然后主要指示这些东西,主的威严将出现,并须有云,因为它也shewed摩西,他shewed它当所罗门祈祷的地方可能是神圣的伟大的神。 (2 Maccabees 2:4-8) (2马加比2:4-8)

According to many commentators, the letter from which the above-cited lines are supposed to have been copied cannot be regarded as possessing Divine authority; for, as a rule, a citation remains in the Bible what it was outside of the inspired writing; the impossibility of dating the original document makes it very difficult to pass a judgment on its historical reliability.根据许多评论家认为,从中上述列举线应该有被复制信件不能被视为具有神圣的权力,因为,作为一个规则,引用圣经中保持它之外的灵感写了;的约会的原始文件不可能使得它非常难以通过其历史上的可靠性的判断。 At any rate the tradition which it embodies, going back at least as far as two centuries before the Christian era, cannot be discarded on mere a priori arguments.无论如何它体现的传统,可以追溯到至少就两个世纪的基督教时代之前,不能仅仅被丢弃在先验参数。

The Apocalypse of Esdras该埃斯德拉斯启示

Side by side with this tradition, we find another mentioned in the Apocalypse of Esdras; according to this latter, the Ark of the Covenant was taken by the victorious army that ransacked Jerusalem after having taken it (IV Esd., x, 22).通过与这一传统并列,我们找到另一个提到的埃斯德拉斯启示,根据这个后者,约柜被送到了胜利的军队洗劫一空后,采取它(四防静电,X,22。)耶路撒冷。 This is certainly most possible, so much the more that we learn from 2 Kings 25 that the Babylonian troops carried away from the temple whatever brass, silver, and gold they could lay their hands upon.这当然是最有可能的,这么多的更多,我们从2国王25获悉,巴比伦军队进行离庙任何黄铜,银,金,他们可以躺在他们的手时。

The Talmud犹太法典

At any rate, either of these traditions is certainly more reliable than that adopted by the redactors of the Talmud, who tell us that the Ark was hidden by King Josias in a most secret place prepared by Solomon in case the temple might be taken and set on fire.无论如何,这些传统的任何一个肯定比由犹太法典编纂,谁告诉我们,方舟是由国王Josias隐藏在由所罗门准​​备了最秘密的地方的情况下可能采取的寺庙,并设置所采用的可靠着火。 It was a common belief among the rabbis of old that it would be found at the coming of the Messias.这是一个古老的犹太教教士之间的共同信念,这将是在未来的messias发现。Be this as it may, this much is unquestionable; namely that the Ark is never mentioned among the appurtenances of the second temple.是这样的,因为它可能,有一点是不容置疑的,即方舟从未之间的第二圣殿的附属物提及。 Had it been preserved there, it would most likely have been now and then alluded to, at least on occasion of such ceremonies as the consecration of the new temple, or the re-establishment of the worship, both after the exile and during the Machabean times.假如它一直保存在那里,它最有可能被现在再提到至少在这样的仪式作为新的寺庙奉献,或者是崇拜重新建立后,双方并在Machabean流亡之际,倍。 True, the chronicler, who lived in the post-exilian epoch, says of the Ark (2 Chronicles 5:9) that "it was been there unto this day".诚然,编年史,谁在后exilian时代生活,说的方舟(历代志下5​​:9),“这是已所不欲,这一天有”。But it is commonly admitted on good grounds that the writer mentioned made use of, and wove together in his work, without as much as changing one single word of them, narratives belonging to former times.但人们普遍承认的,作者提到的利用了良好的理由,并在他的作品编织在一起,只要不改变其中一个字,叙述属于前者倍多。 If, as serious commentators admit, the above-recorded passage be one of these "implicit citations", it might be inferred thence that the chronicler probably did not intend to assert the existence of the Ark in the second temple.如果严重评论家承认,上述记录通过将这些“隐性引用”之一,它可能推断出那里的编年史大概不打算断言在第二圣殿的方舟的存在。

THE ARK IN CATHOLIC TRADITION在天主教的传统ARK

Catholic tradition, led by the Fathers of the Church, has considered the Ark of the Covenant as one of the purest and richest symbols of the realities of the New Law.天主教的传统,由教会神父的领导下,视为对新税法的现实最纯净,最富有的象征之一的约柜。It signifies, in the first place, the Incarnate Word of God.它标志,摆在首位,神的化身的话。"Christ himself", says St. Thomas Aquinas, "was signified by the Ark. For in the same manner as the Ark was made of setim wood, so also was the body of Christ composed of the most pure human substance. The Ark was entirely overlaid with gold, because Christ was filled with wisdom and charity, which gold symbolizes. In the Ark there was a golden vase: this represents Jesus' most holy soul containing the fulness of sanctity and the godhead, figured by the manna. There was also Aaron's rod, to indicate the sacerdotal of Jesus Christ priest forever. Finally the stone tables of the Law were likewise contained in the Ark, to mean that Jesus Christ is the author of the Law". “基督本人”说,圣托马斯阿奎那,“是标志着由阿肯色州对于同样的方式方舟是setim木材制成,所以也被基督的身体是最纯粹的人的物质组成。方舟完全覆盖黄金,因为基督是用智慧和慈善事业,其中黄金象征着填补了方舟有一个金色的花瓶:这代表耶稣的最圣洁的灵魂,其中包含的神圣丰满和神格,由甘露想通有也亚伦的杖,表明耶稣基督的牧师sacerdotal永远,最后该法的石表亦同样载于方舟,是指耶稣基督是作者的法律“。 To these point touched by the Angel of the Schools, it might be added that the Ascension of Christ to heaven after His victory over death and sin is figured by the coming up of the Ark to Sion.要由学校天使触及这些点,它可能是补充说,基督升天后,他战胜死亡和罪恶的胜利升天是由上来的方舟锡永想通。St. Bonaventure has also seen in the Ark a mystical representation of the Holy Eucharist.圣文德也看到了方舟的神秘圣体圣事的代表性。In like manner the Ark might be very well regarded as a mystical figure of the Blessed Virgin, called by the Church the "Ark of the Covenant" - Faederis Arca.在这样的方式方舟可能是很好视为神秘人物的圣母经堂的“约柜”之称 - Faederis方舟。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息查尔斯L Souvay书面。Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔T巴雷特。Dedicated to Sean Mazza The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.致力于肖恩马扎天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

KITTO, The Tabernacle and Its Furniture (London, 1849); LAMY, De tabernaculo, de sancta civitate et templo (Paris, 1720); LIGHTFOOT, Works, Vol. KITTO,会幕和其家具(伦敦,1849);拉米德tabernaculo,去sancta civitate等templo(巴黎,1720);娜莱,毛泽东选集。I, Descriptio templi hiersol.; POELS, Examen critique de l'histoire du sanctuaire de l'arche (Louvain and Leyden, 1897); VIGOUROUX, La Bible et les decouveries modernes (Paris, 1889), II and III.我Descriptio templi hiersol; POELS,Examen批判DE L' histoire杜sanctuaire DE L'雅倩(鲁汶和莱顿,1897年); VIGOUROUX,香格里拉圣经ET LES decouveries modernes(巴黎,1889年),第二和第三。


Noah's Ark诺亚方舟

Catholic Information天主教信息

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' childhood, suggests the idea of a box of large proportions, though the author of Wisdom terms it a vessel (Wisdom 14:6).希伯来文的名字指定的诺亚方舟,一个是再次出现在摩西“童年的历史,表明了一个大比例框的想法,虽然智慧来说船只(智慧14:6)的作者。 The same conclusion is reached from the dimensions attributed to it by the Bible narrative: three hundred cubits in length, fifty in breadth, and thirty in height.同样的结论是达到从圣经叙事归咎于它的尺寸:300肘长,五十在广度和高度三十。The form, very likely foursquare, was certainly not very convenient for navigation, but, as has been proven by the experiments of Peter Jansen and M. Vogt, it made the Ark a very suitable device for shipping heavy cargoes and floating upon the waves without rolling or pitching.的形式,很可能四角,肯定不是很方便的导航,但是,正如已经由彼得扬森和M.沃格特的实验证明,它使得方舟运送重型货物,并呼吁波浮动没有非常合适的设备滚动或投球。 The Ark was constructed of gofer wood, or cypress, smeared without and within with pitch, or bitumen, to render it water-tight.方舟建造gof​​er木材,或桧木,无内涂有沥青,或沥青,以使其不漏水。The interior contained a certain number of rooms distributed among three stories.车内载有三个故事之间分布一定数量的客房。 The text mentions only one window, and this measuring a cubit in height, but there existed possibly some others to give to the inmates of the Ark air and light.文中提到的只有一个窗口,这在高度测量肘,但可能存在着一些别人给的方舟空气和光的囚犯。A door had also been set in the side of the Ark; God shut it from the outside when Noah and his family had gone in. Apart from Noah's family, the Ark was intended to receive and keep animals that were to fill the earth again (Genesis 6:19-20; 7:2-3) and all the food which was necessary for them.阿门也被设置在方舟的一面;上帝关闭时从诺亚和他的家人走后英寸除了诺亚的家人在外面,方舟的目的​​是要获得并保持动物,是填补地球再次(创世记6:19-20; 7:2-3)和所有的食物,是他们必要的。After the Flood, the Ark rested upon the mountains of Armenia (Genesis 8:4 -- according to Vulgate and Douay, the mountains of Ararat, according to Authorized Version).洪水过后,方舟休息后,亚美尼亚山上(创8时04分 - 根据武加大和Douay,在亚拉腊山上,根据授权版)。 Tradition is divided as to the exact place where the Ark rested.传统是划分的确切地方,方舟休息。Josephus (Ant., I, iii, 6), Berosus (Eus., Praep. Ev., IX, ii, PG, XXI, 697), Onkelos, Pseudo-Jonathan, St. Ephrem, locate it in Kurdistan.约瑟夫(Ant.,Ⅰ,Ⅲ,6),Berosus(Eus.,Praep。EV。,九,二,PG,XXI,697),昂克罗斯,伪乔纳森,圣Ephrem,在库尔德斯坦找到它。 Berosus relates that a part of Xisuthrus's ship still remained there, and that pilgrims used to scrape off the bitumen from the wreck and make charms of it against witchcraft. Berosus关系,一个Xisuthrus的船舶部分仍然存在,并且用来刮去朝圣者从沉船的沥青,并反对巫术它的魅力。Jewish and Armenian tradition admitted Mount Ararat as the resting place of the Ark. In the first century BC the Armenians affirmed that remnants of it could yet be seen.犹太人和亚美尼亚传统承认作为阿肯色州在公元前一世纪的亚美尼亚人的安息之地亚拉腊山肯定了它的残余还可以看到。The first Christians of Apamea, in Phrygia, erected in this place a convent called the monastery of the Ark, where a feast was yearly celebrated to commemorate Noah's coming out of the Ark after the Flood.第一个基督徒的麦穗,在弗里吉亚,在这个地方竖立一个修道院称为方舟寺院,其中一个节日是每年庆祝纪念诺亚方舟即将到来的大洪水后。

Suffice it to remark that the text of Genesis 8:4 mentioning Mount Ararat is somewhat lacking in clearness, and that nothing is said in the Scripture concerning what became of the Ark after the Flood.这足以说法,创世纪8时04分文本提的亚拉腊山是有点缺乏清晰,且无任何有关在什么样的方舟在洪水后成为圣经说。Many difficulties have been raised, especially in our epoch, against the pages of the Bible in which the history of the Flood and of the Ark is narrated.已经提出了许多困难,特别是在我们的时代,对在其中的洪水和方舟的历史叙述圣经中的页面。This is not the place to dwell upon these difficulties, however considerable some may appear.这是不适合居住在这些困难,但相当部分可能会出现。They all converge towards the question whether these pages should be considered as strictly historical throughout, or only in their outward form.他们都收敛对这些网页是否应严格贯穿始终,或只在其向外形成的历史考虑的问题。 The opinion that these chapters are mere legendary tales, Eastern folklore, is held by some non-Catholic scholars; according to others, with whom several Catholics side, they preserve, under the embroidery of poetical parlance, the memory of a fact handed down by a very old tradition.认为这些章节都只是传说故事,民间传说东部,是持有一些非天主教学者,根据其他人,与他们边几个天主教徒,他们保留下,诗意的说法刺绣,一个事实记忆流传下来的一个非常古老的传统。 This view, were it supported by good arguments, could be readily accepted by a Catholic; it has, over the age-long opinion that every detail of the narration should be literally interpreted and trusted in by the historian, the advantage of suppressing as meaningless some difficulties once deemed unanswerable.这种观点,是它支持有力的论据,可以很容易地由一个天主教所接受;它,在年龄长认为,每一个细节的叙述应该是从字面上理解和信赖的历史学家,压制的毫无意义的优势曾经被认为无法回答的一些困难。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息查尔斯L Souvay书面。Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔T巴雷特。Dedicated to Sean Mazza The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.致力于肖恩马扎天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约



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